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Sample records for sas abm software

  1. Strategic Directions in Software at Scale (SaS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Goodenough , Fellow, Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Engineering Processes that Engineer Scalable Systems Lee Osterweil...Minimal investment required: mainly theoretical investigation, a few good minds. Best Case Significant brain power. Plus test tools...computing hours, and lab space. Middle Case Major research infrastructure: specialized hardware and software, specialized test ware Worst Case

  2. POWERLIB: SAS/IML Software for Computing Power in Multivariate Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L. Johnson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The POWERLIB SAS/IML software provides convenient power calculations for a widerange of multivariate linear models with Gaussian errors. The software includes the Box,Geisser-Greenhouse, Huynh-Feldt, and uncorrected tests in the univariate" approach torepeated measures (UNIREP, the Hotelling Lawley Trace, Pillai-Bartlett Trace, andWilks Lambda tests in multivariate" approach (MULTIREP, as well as a limited butuseful range of mixed models. The familiar univariate linear model with Gaussian errorsis an important special case. For estimated covariance, the software provides condencelimits for the resulting estimated power. All power and condence limits values canbe output to a SAS dataset, which can be used to easily produce plots and tables formanuscripts.

  3. Smoothing point data into maps using SAS/GRAPH (trade name) software. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacky, D.C.; Rubey, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Point of plot data are commonly available for mapping forest landscapes. Because such data are sampled, mapping a complete coverage usually requires some type of interpolation between plots. SAS/GRAPH software includes the G3GRID procedure for interpolating or smoothing this type of data to map with G3D or GCONTOUR procedures. However, the smoothing process in G3GRID is not easily controlled, nor can it be used to display missing data within rectangular grid maps. These shortcomings motivated development of SAS code that prepares point data for display in mapping units. This code links well with the rest of the SAS system to allow for powerful, easily controlled data analysis within mapping units. Examples are given for mapping forest vegetation with the GMAP procedure.

  4. Sustaining an Effective ABC-ABM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the Activity- Based Costing (ABC and Activity-Based Management (ABM system and techniques to sustain them as a permanent and repeatable production reporting system, not just for one-off analysis. A comparison is made between ABC/ABM modeling software that extracts source data and business systems that include ABC/ABM modeling features. There are presented the stages of updating, running and rerunning the ABC/ABM system. The resulting information calculated and provided by the ABC/ABM system are analyzed and interpreted in terms of a multidimensional data analysis. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the benefits of continued operation of sustaining the ABC/ABM system.

  5. GLUMIP 2.0: SAS/IML Software for Planning Internal Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Kairalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal pilot designs involve conducting interim power analysis (without interim data analysis to modify the final sample size. Recently developed techniques have been described to avoid the type~I error rate inflation inherent to unadjusted hypothesis tests, while still providing the advantages of an internal pilot design. We present GLUMIP 2.0, the latest version of our free SAS/IML software for planning internal pilot studies in the general linear univariate model (GLUM framework. The new analytic forms incorporated into the updated software solve many problems inherent to current internal pilot techniques for linear models with Gaussian errors. Hence, the GLUMIP 2.0 software makes it easy to perform exact power analysis for internal pilots under the GLUM framework with independent Gaussian errors and fixed predictors.

  6. Integrating SAS and GIS software to improve habitat-use estimates from radiotelemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Wright, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Rasmussen, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Radiotelemetry has been used commonly to remotely determine habitat use by a variety of wildlife species. However, habitat misclassification can occur because the true location of a radiomarked animal can only be estimated. Analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use from radiotelemetry location data using a subsampling approach have been proposed previously. We developed software, based on these methods, to conduct improved habitat-use analyses. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS)-executable file generates a random subsample of points from the error distribution of an estimated animal location and formats the output into ARC/INFO-compatible coordinate and attribute files. An associated ARC/INFO Arc Macro Language (AML) creates a coverage of the random points, determines the habitat type at each random point from an existing habitat coverage, sums the number of subsample points by habitat type for each location, and outputs tile results in ASCII format. The proportion and precision of habitat types used is calculated from the subsample of points generated for each radiotelemetry location. We illustrate the method and software by analysis of radiotelemetry data for a female wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

  7. ABM-traktatens vogter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Simon Valentin

    2006-01-01

    President including Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton did everything within their power to prevent deployment of nationwide ABM-defense. And the voting patterns of the party reveals that it consistently constituted the core of the opposition in Congress. The article concludes that the fate...... of the ABM Treaty was closely tied to the Democratic Party's strength, and that it is no coincidence that the Treaty was dissolved soon after the Democratic Party's political power declined to a forty-year low in 2001....

  8. ABM news and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S

    2013-01-01

    We report on progress in the determination of the unpolarised nucleon PDFs within the ABM global fit framework. The data used in the ABM analysis are updated including the charm-production and the high-Q2 neutral-current samples obtained at the HERA collider, as well as the LHC data on the differential Drell-Yan cross-sections. An updated set of the PDFs with improved experimental and theoretical accuracy at small x is presented. We find minimal impact of the t-quark production cross section measured at the Tevatron and the LHC on the gluon distribution and the value of the strong coupling constant \\alpha_s determined from the ABM fit in the case of the t-quark running-mass definition. In particular, the value of \\alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1133(8) is obtained from the variant of the ABM12 fit with the Tevatron and CMS t-quark production cross-section data included and the MSbar value of m_t(m_t)=162 GeV.

  9. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Kashmar, Richard J; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E; Deol, Jasbir K; Wilson, Alora

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques. In this revised curriculum, students begin with a traditional set of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics major core-requirements, a geographic information systems (GIS) course, a choice of an instrumental analysis course or a statistical analysis systems (SAS) programming course, and then, students can add major-electives that further add depth and value to their future post-graduate specialty areas. Open-sourced georeferenced census, health and health disparity data were coupled with GIS and SAS tools, in a public health surveillance system project, based on US county zip-codes, to develop use-cases for chronic adult obesity where income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, education, and age were categorical variables. Across the 48 contiguous states, obesity rates are found to be directly proportional to high poverty and inversely proportional to median income and educational achievement. For the State of Delaware, age and educational attainment were found to be limiting obesity risk-factors in its adult population. Furthermore, the 2004-2010 obesity trends showed that for two of the less densely populated Delaware counties; Sussex and Kent, the rates of adult obesity were found to be progressing at much higher proportions when compared to the national average.

  10. 75 FR 11937 - ABM Janitorial Services, Subsidiary of ABM Industries, Inc., Janitorial Division, Formerly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration ABM Janitorial Services, Subsidiary of ABM Industries, Inc..., 2009 on behalf of workers of ABM Janitorial Services, subsidiary of ABM Industries, Inc., Janitorial...

  11. SAS for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The fun and easy way to learn to use this leading business intelligence tool Written by an author team who is directly involved with SAS, this easy-to-follow guide is fully updated for the latest release of SAS and covers just what you need to put this popular software to work in your business. SAS allows any business or enterprise to improve data delivery, analysis, reporting, movement across a company, data mining, forecasting, statistical analysis, and more. SAS For Dummies, 2nd Edition  gives you the necessary background on what SAS can do for you and explains how to use the Enterprise Gui

  12. The Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries from the XMM-Newton Space Craft Data using SAS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, P.; Mito, C. O.

    2009-10-01

    A spectral data analysis on a luminous object of sky-coordinates 12h52m24.28s-29d115'02.3'12.6arcsec using Science Analysis Software (SAS) is presented. The analysis, based on data acquired by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) camera aboard the XMM-Newton Space satellite, shows that the primary constituents of the X-ray source are Fe (Iron) and O (oxygen). This suggests that the source may be a magnetized plasma in a binary system and as this magnetic field accelerates the cooling of a star, one may speculate that this may be a compact star in its last stages of a thermonuclear fusion process. Nous présentons une analyse du spectre d'une source a rayons X située -- en coordonnées sidérales - à 12h52m24.28s - 29d115'02.312.6 arcsec. Science Analysis Software (SAS) est le programme informatique utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Cette analyse est basée sur les données provenant du spectromètre à haute résolution (RGS) à bord du satellite spatiale XMM-Newton. Nous montrons que ladite source est principalement constituée de Fer (Fe) et d'oxygene (O). Ce résultat suggère que la source pourrait être un plasma magnétisé au sein d'un système binaire. Et du fait que ce champ magnétique accélère le refroidissement de l'étoile, nous supposons que cette étoile pourrait ètre un objet compact en phase terminale d'un processus de fusion thermonucléaire.

  13. SAS essentials mastering SAS for data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step introduction to using SAS® statistical software as a foundational approach to data analysis and interpretation Presenting a straightforward introduction from the ground up, SAS® Essentials: Mastering SAS for Data Analytics, Second Edition illustrates SAS using hands-on learning techniques and numerous real-world examples. Keeping different experience levels in mind, the highly-qualified author team has developed the book over 20 years of teaching introductory SAS courses. Divided into two sections, the first part of the book provides an introduction to data manipulation, st

  14. Data analysis using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2008-01-01

    "Peng provides an excellent overview of data analysis using the powerful statistical software package SAS. This book is quite appropriate as a self-placed tutorial for researchers, as well as a textbook or supplemental workbook for data analysis courses such as statistics or research methods. Peng provides detailed coverage of SAS capabilities using step-by-step procedures and includes numerous comprehensive graphics and figures, as well as SAS printouts. Readers do not need a background in computer science or programming. Includes numerous examples in education, health sciences, and business.

  15. SAS for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The fun and easy way to learn to use this leading business intelligence tool Written by an author team who is directly involved with SAS, this easy-to-follow guide is fully updated for the latest release of SAS and covers just what you need to put this popular software to work in your business. SAS allows any business or enterprise to improve data delivery, analysis, reporting, movement across a company, data mining, forecasting, statistical analysis, and more. SAS For Dummies, 2nd Edition  gives you the necessary background on what SAS can do for you and explains how to use the Enterprise Guide. SAS provides statistical and data analysis tools to help you deal with all kinds of data: operational, financial, performance, and more Places special emphasis on Enterprise Guide and other analytical tools, covering all commonly used features Covers all commonly used features and shows you the practical applications you can put to work in your business Explores how to get various types of data into the software and...

  16. The Artful Use of SAS/OR Software for Solving Integer Linear Programming with Many Solutions%巧用SAS/OR软件求解多解整数线性规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹祥福

    2004-01-01

    通过实例讲解如何巧用SAS/OR软件求解多解整数线性规划问题的多个解,弥补了用SAS/OR软件仅能得出多解整数线性规划一个解的缺点,使SAS/OR软件有了更广阔的应用.

  17. Data Ellipses, HE Plots and Reduced-Rank Displays for Multivariate Linear Models: SAS Software and Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Friendly

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes graphical methods for multiple-response data within the framework of the multivariate linear model (MLM, aimed at understanding what is being tested in a multivariate test, and how factor/predictor effects are expressed across multiple response measures. In particular, we describe and illustrate a collection of SAS macro programs for: (a Data ellipses and low-rank biplots for multivariate data, (b HE plots, showing the hypothesis and error covariance matrices for a given pair of responses, and a given effect, (c HE plot matrices, showing all pairwise HE plots, and (d low-rank analogs of HE plots, showing all observations, group means, and their relations to the response variables.

  18. ABM Drag_Pass Report Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    dragREPORT software was developed in parallel with abmREPORT, which is described in the preceding article. Both programs were built on the capabilities created during that process. This tool generates a drag_pass report that summarizes vital information from the MRO aerobreaking drag_pass build process to facilitate both sequence reviews and provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management. The script extracts information from the ENV, SSF, FRF, SCMFmax, and OPTG files, presenting them in a single, easy-to-check report providing the majority of parameters needed for cross check and verification as part of the sequence review process. Prior to dragReport, all the needed information was spread across a number of different files, each in a different format. This software is a Perl script that extracts vital summarization information and build-process details from a number of source files into a single, concise report format used to aid the MPST sequence review process and to provide a high-level summarization of the sequence for mission management reference. This software could be adapted for future aerobraking missions to provide similar reports, review and summarization information.

  19. Nyheder i SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2016-01-01

    I sommeren 2015 blev Analytical Produts opgraderet version 14.1, men stadig til Base SAS, version 9.4 sendt på markedet. Denne opdatering til nu Analytical Products 14.1 indeholder opdateringer af de analytiske programpakker indenfor statistik, økonometri, operationsanalyse etc. Disse opdateringer...... er nu løsrevet fra samtidige opdateringer af det samlede SAS-program. Desuden er den gratis SAS-applikation SAS-U opdateret; især er det bemærkelsesværdigt at der via SAS-U nu også stilles procedurer til rådighed for avancerede ikke-modelbaserede tidsrækkeanalyser....

  20. Matrixregning med SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Aage T.; Feilberg, Michael; Milhøj, Anders

    IML i SAS anvendes til matrixberegninger som en integreret del af SAS pakken. Den anvendes typisk til matrixberegninger i tilknytning til andre SAS applikationer, fx kan matricer let dannes ud fra datasæt i SAS. Desuden indeholder IML en række videregående matematiske og statistiske subroutiner......, der ikke findes andre steder i SAS.I bogen gennemgås matrixregning svarende til et indledende matematikkursus ved en højere læreanstalt. Den teoretiske gennemgang understøttes og demonstreres konsekvent med IML programmering, så fokus er på praktiske anvendelser af matricer....

  1. The Application of the SAS Software in Chemical Education%SAS统计软件在化学教育上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴

    2007-01-01

    报道了SAS(统计分析系统)软件的特点.列举了一些在化学教育研究中使用SAS软件应用的实例.这一软件可实现化学、数学和计算机技术的良好结合,SAS软件已在化学教育和科研中获得了广泛应用.

  2. SAS and Sata SSDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarapu, S.

    This chapter focuses on the different types of solid state drives. The chapter details the differences between consumer and enterprise solid state drives and also details the differences between SAS and SATA solid state drive and what lies ahead for SATA and SAS protocols for SSDs.

  3. SAS ABM 助力浙江移动降低成本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐宁

    2006-01-01

    今天,有效降低成本成为企业的必然选择。国际上在成本核算和成本控制上主要采用作业成本法(ABC),因此,基于作业成本法的作业成本管理(ABM)成为企业降低成本的全新手段。在应用ABM之前,企业都是采用传统的成本账务系统对成本进行管理。以电信企业为例,一直以来,我国大部份电信企业仍然用着传统的成本核算体系,致使产品的成本和盈利性无从得知,产品定价和决策没有得到有效支撑。这其中,浙江移动就是一个典型的例子,尽管浙江移动一直在努力进行业务创新,但面对激烈竞争的市场,他们一直面对提高企业利润的压力。

  4. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  5. Inflation targeting in a learning economy: An ABM perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, I.; Yıldızoğlu, M.; Sénégas, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the performances of an inflation targeting regime in a learning economy framed as an Agent-Based Model (ABM). We keep our ABM as close as possible to the original New Keynesian (NK) model, but we model the individual behaviour of the agents under procedural rationality à la S

  6. 应用SAS软件宏命令实现二分类数据的Meta分析%Application of SAS software macros for realizing Meta-analysis of two-category data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢金柱; 李胜; 翁鸿; 曾宪涛

    2014-01-01

    SAS system is considered as one of international standard software systems in the field of data processing and statistics, however, it required the user has higher capability due to its complex and difficult programming. For well applying SAS for conducting a Meta-analysis, Stephen Senna and his colleagues developed a suite of macros for the Meta-analysis of binary data. These macros will realize the Meta-analysis of binary data conveniently and can generate the forest plot, funnel plot, Galbraith plot, Q-Q plot and other graphs. The authors introduced in the paper how to use these SAS macros for conducting the Meta-analysis of binary data.%SAS被誉为国际上数据处理和统计分析领域的标准软件系统,但其程序编写复杂且难度较大,对使用者的要求较高。为了更好的使用SAS软件实现Meta分析,Stephen Senna等人编写了一套专用于二分类资料的Meta分析的宏命令。这套宏语言可以方便的实现Meta分析,绘制森林图、漏斗图、加尔布雷斯图、Q-Q正态分布图等图形。本文结合实例对应用SAS宏语言实现二分类数据Meta分析的方法进行详细介绍。

  7. Sidste nyt fra SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2014-01-01

    I juli 2013 blev version 9.4 af SAS sendt på markedet. Denne release indeholdt ikke mange nye faciliteter indenfor statistik, økonometri, operationsanalyse etc, men alligevel er der vigtige aspekter at forholde sig til. Ved årsskiftet 2013/2014 er der siden kommet en opdatering af de analytiske...... programpakker for statistik, økonometri, operationsanalyse etc uden en samtidig opdatering af det samlede SAS-program. Denne opdatering kaldes Analytical Products 13.1 og er en væsentlig opdatering fra version 12, der i første version kom i august 2012....

  8. Nyheder i SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    I juli 2013 blev version 9.4 af SAS sendt på markedet. Denne release indeholdt ikke i sig selv mange nye faciliteter indenfor statistik, økonometri, operations-analyse etc, men alligevel er der vigtige aspekter at forholde sig til. Ved årsskiftet 2013/2014 kom opdateringen Analytical Products 13.......1 af de analytiske programpakker for statistik, økonometri, operationsanalyse etc uden en samtidig opdatering af det samlede SAS-program. Denne opdatering er siden fulgt op med en yderligere opdatering 13.2 i august 2014....

  9. SAS and R data management, statistical analysis, and graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinman, Ken

    2014-01-01

    An Up-to-Date, All-in-One Resource for Using SAS and R to Perform Frequent TasksThe first edition of this popular guide provided a path between SAS and R using an easy-to-understand, dictionary-like approach. Retaining the same accessible format, SAS and R: Data Management, Statistical Analysis, and Graphics, Second Edition explains how to easily perform an analytical task in both SAS and R, without having to navigate through the extensive, idiosyncratic, and sometimes unwieldy software documentation. The book covers many common tasks, such as data management, descriptive summaries, inferentia

  10. ABM11 PDFs and the cross section benchmarks in NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S -O

    2013-01-01

    We report an updated version of the ABKM09 NNLO PDF fit, which includes the most recent HERA collider data on the inclusive cross sections and an improved treatment of the heavy-quark contribution to deep-inelastic scattering using advantages of the running-mass definition for the heavy quarks. The ABM11 PDFs obtained from the updated fit are in a good agreement with the recent LHC data on the W- and Z-production within the experimental and PDF uncertainties. We also perform a determination of the strong coupling constant \\alpha_s in a variant of the ABM11 fit insensitive to the influence of the higher twist terms and find the value of \\alpha_s=0.1133(11) which is in good agreement with the nominal ABM11 one and our earlier determination.

  11. Design and analysis of experiments with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, John

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionStatistics and Data Collection Beginnings of Statistically Planned Experiments Definitions and Preliminaries Purposes of Experimental Design Types of Experimental Designs Planning Experiments Performing the Experiments Use of SAS SoftwareCompletely Randomized Designs with One Factor Introduction Replication and Randomization A Historical Example Linear Model for Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Verifying Assumptions of the Linear Model Analysis Strategies When Assumptions Are Violated Determining the Number of Replicates Comparison of Treatments after the F-TestFactorial Designs

  12. Agent-based modeling and simulation Part 3 : desktop ABMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of autonomous, interacting agents. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to support their research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS 'is a third way of doing science,' in addition to traditional deductive and inductive reasoning (Axelrod 1997b). Computational advances have made possible a growing number of agent-based models across a variety of application domains. Applications range from modeling agent behavior in the stock market, supply chains, and consumer markets, to predicting the spread of epidemics, the threat of bio-warfare, and the factors responsible for the fall of ancient civilizations. This tutorial describes the theoretical and practical foundations of ABMS, identifies toolkits and methods for developing agent models, and illustrates the development of a simple agent-based model of shopper behavior using spreadsheets.

  13. SASWeave: Literate Programming Using SAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Lenth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available SASweave is a collection of scripts that allow one to embed SAS code into a LATEX document, and automatically incorporate the results as well. SASweave is patterned after Sweave, which does the same thing for code written in R. In fact, a document may contain both SAS and R code. Besides the convenience of being able to easily incorporate SAS examples in a document, SASweave facilitates the concept of “literate programming”: having code, documentation, and results packaged together. Among other things, this helps to ensure that the SAS output in the document is in concordance with the code.

  14. SASWeave: Literate Programming Using SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenth, Russell V; Højsgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    the convenience of being able to easily incorporate SAS examples in a document, SASweave facilitates the concept of "literate programming": having code, documentation, and results packaged together. Among other things, this helps to ensure that the SAS output in the document is in concordance with the code...

  15. SASWeave: Literate Programming Using SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenth, Russell V; Højsgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    SASweave is a collection of scripts that allow one to embed SAS code into a LATEX document, and automatically incorporate the results as well. SASweave is patterned after Sweave, which does the same thing for code written in R. In fact, a document may contain both SAS and R code. Besides the conv...

  16. SAS and R data management, statistical analysis, and graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinman, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An All-in-One Resource for Using SAS and R to Carry out Common TasksProvides a path between languages that is easier than reading complete documentationSAS and R: Data Management, Statistical Analysis, and Graphics presents an easy way to learn how to perform an analytical task in both SAS and R, without having to navigate through the extensive, idiosyncratic, and sometimes unwieldy software documentation. The book covers many common tasks, such as data management, descriptive summaries, inferential procedures, regression analysis, and the creation of graphics, along with more complex applicat

  17. Applied medical statistics using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Der, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    ""Each chapter in the book is well laid out, contains examples with SAS code, and ends with a concise summary. The chapters in the book contain the right level of information to use SAS to apply different statistical methods. … a good overview of how to apply in SAS 9.3 the many possible statistical analysis methods.""-Caroline Kennedy, Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd., Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 2015""… a well-organized and thorough exploration of broad coverage in medical statistics. The book is an excellent reference of statistical methods

  18. Nye grafiske muligheder i SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Den vigtigste i SAS version 9.2 indenfor grafik er mulighederne for at producere dokumentationsgrafik i mange statistiske procedurer. Det drejer sig især om grafikker til modelkontrol, fx. residualdiagrammer, influensplot, normalfraktildiagrammer for residualerne etc.......Den vigtigste i SAS version 9.2 indenfor grafik er mulighederne for at producere dokumentationsgrafik i mange statistiske procedurer. Det drejer sig især om grafikker til modelkontrol, fx. residualdiagrammer, influensplot, normalfraktildiagrammer for residualerne etc....

  19. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

  20. Using SAS PROC MCMC for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Samonte, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    Interest in using Bayesian methods for estimating item response theory models has grown at a remarkable rate in recent years. This attentiveness to Bayesian estimation has also inspired a growth in available software such as WinBUGS, R packages, BMIRT, MPLUS, and SAS PROC MCMC. This article intends to provide an accessible overview of Bayesian…

  1. Activity-Based Management principles and implementation opportunities of the ABM system

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Management and treats the implementation stages of it in enterprises from steel industry of Romania. The ABC method becomes the main tool of providing information for the ABM method. Thus, the ABM method becomes an important tool of obtaining performances in business.

  2. Easing the adoption of agent-based modelling (ABM) in tourism research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter; Nicholls, Sarah; Student, Jillian; Amelung, Bas; Baggio, Rodolfo; Balbi, Stefano; Boavida-Portugal, Ines; Jong, de Eline; Hofstede, G.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Pons, Marc; Steiger, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Agent-based modelling (ABM) is an emerging approach in tourism research. Despite the natural fit between theories of tourism as a complex, interconnected system, and the generative approach supported in ABM, there has been only limited integration within mainstream tourism research. This research le

  3. Easing the adoption of agent-based modelling (ABM) in tourism research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter; Nicholls, Sarah; Student, Jillian; Amelung, Bas; Baggio, Rodolfo; Balbi, Stefano; Boavida-Portugal, Ines; Jong, de Eline; Hofstede, G.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Pons, Marc; Steiger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Agent-based modelling (ABM) is an emerging approach in tourism research. Despite the natural fit between theories of tourism as a complex, interconnected system, and the generative approach supported in ABM, there has been only limited integration within mainstream tourism research. This research

  4. Research Review: Attention Bias Modification (ABM)--A Novel Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Haim, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) is a newly emerging therapy for anxiety disorders that is rooted in current cognitive models of anxiety and in established experimental data on threat-related attentional biases in anxiety. This review describes the evidence indicating that ABM has the potential to become an enhancing tool for current…

  5. 药物Ⅰ期临床试验计量资料统计分析自动报表的SAS实现%Statistical analysis process by SAS software to realize automatically statements of measurement data in phase Ⅰ clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段锋; 魏振满; 陈大为; 朱珍真; 屠舒; 毕京峰; 李文淑; 孙斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To realize automatically statements of measurement data in phase I clinical trials by SAS software. Methods Based on the SAS software, we used its functions, such as spliting table, statistical analysis, choosing results, transposing table, mergering tables horizontally or lengthways, to built statements of measurement data step by step. Results The statistical analysis results were imported to EXELE form automaticlly as report requirement. Conclusion The process is accurate and reliable, and saves time and effort. It is suitable for the non-professional statistical researchers to realize automatically statements of measurement data.%目的 借助SAS软件实现Ⅰ期临床试验计量资料统计分析的自动报表.方法 基于SAS软件,应用其拆分表格、统计分析、结果选择、表格转置、横向合并表格、纵向合并表格等程序逐步导出报表.结果 借助EXELE表格成功实现药物Ⅰ期临床试验计量资料统计分析结果的自动报表.结论 该过程省时省力,准确可靠,为非统计专业医学研究人员提供了一种简便、可靠的自动报表方法.

  6. SAS4 and SAS5 are locus-specific regulators of silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, E. Y; S. Kim; Rivier, D H

    1999-01-01

    Sir2p, Sir3p, Sir4p, and the core histones form a repressive chromatin structure that silences transcription in the regions near telomeres and at the HML and HMR cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Null alleles of SAS4 and SAS5 suppress silencing defects at HMR; therefore, SAS4 and SAS5 are negative regulators of silencing at HMR. This study revealed that SAS4 and SAS5 contribute to silencing at HML and the telomeres, indicating that SAS4 and SAS5 are positive regulators of ...

  7. A SAS Package for Logistic Two-Phase Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Schill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase designs, in which for a large study a dichotomous outcome and partial or proxy information on risk factors is available, whereas precise or complete measurements on covariates have been obtained only in a stratified sub-sample, extend the standard case-control design and have been proven useful in practice. The application of two-phase designs, however, seems to be hampered by the lack of appropriate, easy-to-use software. This paper introduces sas-twophase-package, a collection of SAS-macros, to fulfill this task. sas-twophase-package implements weighted likelihood, pseudo likelihood and semi- parametric maximum likelihood estimation via the EM algorithm and via profile likelihood in two-phase settings with dichotomous outcome and a given stratification.

  8. A SAS/IML program using the Kalman filter for estimating state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Yung, Yiu-Fai

    2013-03-01

    To help disseminate the knowledge and software implementation of a state space model (SSM), this article provides a SAS/IML (SAS Institute, 2010) program for estimating the parameters of general linear Gaussian SSMs using the Kalman filter algorithm. In order to use this program, the user should have SAS installed on a computer and have a valid license for SAS/IML. Since the code is completely open, it is expected that this program can be used not only by applied researchers, but also by quantitative methodologists who are interested in improving their methods and promoting SSM as a research instrument.

  9. What's new in SAS 9.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I foråret 2010 blev den ny SAS version SAS 9.22 lanceret som en opdatering af SAS 9.2, med væsentlige nye muligheder for netop statistik. Her i sommeren 2011 blev version 9.3 så lanceret med endnu flere nyskabelser i både generel performance og specielt indenfor statistik, økonometri og...

  10. Software Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Not an acronym, the language was named after August Ada , Countess of Lovelace , purported to be the first programmer. ARCI/APB Acoustic Rapid COTS...Software Engineering Institute, has had a significant lasting effect. Two others were the creation of the Ada programming language and the STARS program...Definition ABM/GIFC Advanced Battle Manager/Global Integrated Fire Control Ada The name of the DOD programming language mandated in the 1980s

  11. Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Winfried; Huffcutt, Allen I; Arthur, Winfred

    2001-01-01

    Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instru

  12. Development of an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to Simulate the Immune System and Integration of a Regression Method to Estimate the Key ABM Parameters by Fitting the Experimental Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuming; Chen, Jinghang; Miao, Hongyu; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Le

    2015-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) and differential equations (DE) are two commonly used methods for immune system simulation. However, it is difficult for ABM to estimate key parameters of the model by incorporating experimental data, whereas the differential equation model is incapable of describing the complicated immune system in detail. To overcome these problems, we developed an integrated ABM regression model (IABMR). It can combine the advantages of ABM and DE by employing ABM to mimic the multi-scale immune system with various phenotypes and types of cells as well as using the input and output of ABM to build up the Loess regression for key parameter estimation. Next, we employed the greedy algorithm to estimate the key parameters of the ABM with respect to the same experimental data set and used ABM to describe a 3D immune system similar to previous studies that employed the DE model. These results indicate that IABMR not only has the potential to simulate the immune system at various scales, phenotypes and cell types, but can also accurately infer the key parameters like DE model. Therefore, this study innovatively developed a complex system development mechanism that could simulate the complicated immune system in detail like ABM and validate the reliability and efficiency of model like DE by fitting the experimental data.

  13. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  14. SAS : kosheljok ili proshtshai, Estonian Air!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Lennukompanii SAS saatis Eesti valitsusele kirja, milles teatab, et on nõus raskustesse sattunud Estonian Airile lisainvesteeringuid tegema ainult siis, kui valitsus müüb SAS-ile oma osaluse. Ettevõtjate, parlamendiliige Marko Mihkelsoni ja ministrite arvamusi

  15. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  16. The SAS-3 delayed command system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    To meet the requirements arising from the increased complexity of the power, attitude control and telemetry systems, a full redundant high-performance control section with delayed command capability was designed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3). The relay command system of SAS-3 is characterized by 56 bystate relay commands, with capability for handling up to 64 commands in future versions. The 'short' data command service of SAS-1 and SAS-2 consisting of shifting 24-bit words to two users was expanded to five users and augmented with a 'long load' data command service (up to 4080 bits) used to program the telemetry system and the delayed command subsystem. The inclusion of a delayed command service ensures a program of up to 30 relay or short data commands to be loaded for execution at designated times. The design and system operation of the SAS-3 command section are analyzed, with special attention given to the delayed command subsystem.

  17. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  18. Multilevel models applications using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan; Fisher, James F

    2011-01-01

    This book covers a broad range of topics about multilevel modeling. The goal is to help readers to understand the basic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and application methods of multilevel modeling. It is at a level also accessible to non-mathematicians, focusing on the methods and applications of various multilevel models and using the widely used statistical software SAS®. Examples are drawn from analysis of real-world research data.

  19. Multilevel Models Applications Using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan; Fisher, James

    2011-01-01

    This book covers a broad range of topics about multilevel modeling. The goal is to help readersto understand the basic concepts, theoretical frameworks, and application methods of multilevel modeling. Itis at a level also accessible to non-mathematicians, focusing on the methods and applications of various multilevel models and using the widely used statistical software SAS®.Examples are drawn from analysis of real-world research data.

  20. [Generating person-years and calculating SMR using SAS: a simple program for exact calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, J-L

    2010-10-01

    The computation of standardized incidence/mortality ratios or Poisson regression requires the calculation of person-years generated in a cohort. Softwares can do that, but SAS users still need to program this step themselves. Various algorithms were published previously, but they do not perform exact calculations: the present paper describes a simple program, which creates exact person-years, and computes SMRs. This program provides a referenced tool to perform this analysis in a cohort, with SAS or another language (the algorithm used can be easily adapted). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  2. Key Performance Indicators for SAS Flights

    OpenAIRE

    Arhall, Johanna; Cox, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    Revenue management is a thoroughly researched field of study and it is widely used in several different industries. The Revenue Management Department at the airline SAS (Scandinavian Airline System) serves to maximise the profit of the company’s flights. At their disposal they have a number of tools, which use KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) as a measurement. The KPIs are used in prognosis to determine future initiatives, and to analyse and verify results. SAS does not know if the KPIs they...

  3. SAS doctors career progression survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroz, Carlos; Sands, Lorna R; Lee, John

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a national survey of Staff, Associate Specialists and Specialty (SAS) doctors working in sexual health clinics in the UK in 2013 in order to explore their career progression. The aim of the survey was to assess SAS doctors' experience in passing through the thresholds and to gather information about the adherence by SAS doctors and employers to the terms and conditions of service laid out by the new 2008 contract. Out of 185 responders, whom the authors estimate comprise 34% of the total workforce, 159 were on the new contract. Of those, most SAS doctors were women (84%), the majority (67%) worked less than nine programmed activities per week; only a few had intentions to join the consultant grade (15%), and a considerable minority (26%) were older than 54 years of age and likely to retire in the next ten years. The survey showed that most participating SAS doctors had undergone appraisal in the previous 15 months (90%), most had a job planning discussion (83%) with their employer and most had some allocated time for supporting professional activities (86%). However, a significant minority had no appraisal (10%), no job planning discussion (17%) and had no allocated supporting professional activities (14%), which allows time for career development in the specialty. Most SAS doctors, who had the opportunity, had progressed through the thresholds automatically (88%); some experienced difficulties in passing (8%) and only a few did not pass (4%). SAS doctors must ensure that they work together with their employer in order to improve adherence to the terms and conditions of service of the contract, which allow for career progression and benefit both the individual doctors and ultimately service provision.

  4. The SAS-3 X-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment section of the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) launched in May 1975 is an X-ray observatory intended to determine the location of bright X-ray sources to an accuracy of 15 arc-seconds; to study a selected set of sources over a wide energy range, from 0.1 to 55 keV, while performing very specific measurements of the spectra and time variability of known X-ray sources; and to monitor the sky continuously for X-ray novae, flares, and unexpected phenomena. The improvements in SAS-3 spacecraft include a clock accurate to 1 part in 10 billion, rotatable solar panels, a programmable data format, and improved nutation damper, a delayed command system, improved magnetic trim and azimuth control systems. These improvements enable SAS-3 to perform three-axis stabilized observations of any point on the celestial sphere at any time of the year. The description of the experiment section and the SAS-3 operation is followed by a synopsis of scientific results obtained from the observations of X-ray sources, such as Vela X-1 (supposed to be an accreting neutron star), a transient source of hard X-ray (less than 36 min in duration) detected by SAS-3, the Crab Nebula pulsar, the Perseus cluster of galaxies, and the Vela supernova remnant.

  5. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  6. Statistical hypothesis testing with SAS and R

    CERN Document Server

    Taeger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to statistical hypothesis testing with examples in SAS and R When analyzing datasets the following questions often arise:Is there a short hand procedure for a statistical test available in SAS or R?If so, how do I use it?If not, how do I program the test myself? This book answers these questions and provides an overview of the most commonstatistical test problems in a comprehensive way, making it easy to find and performan appropriate statistical test. A general summary of statistical test theory is presented, along with a basicdescription for each test, including the

  7. SAS wave experiment on board Magion 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Błęcki

    Full Text Available A short description of the SAS (subsatellite analyser of spectra wave experiment on board the Magion-4 subsatellite is given. We present first measurements of the magnetic-field fluctuations in the frequency range 32–2000 Hz obtained in the magnetotail during the disturbed period at the magnetopause and in the polar cusp.

  8. Beijing, the SAS Gateway to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Scandinavian Airlines has launched the direct route from Stockholm to Beijing.China's Foreign Trade had an interview with Mr. Lars Lindgren,CEO of Scandinavian Airlines International (SAS).He pointed out that they expect to see that all across Scandinavia will be opened to China,and before long Beijing will become Scandinavian Airlines' gateway to China. The follows are the interview.

  9. A new SAS program for behavioral analysis of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new program is introduced that uses SAS software to duplicate output of descriptive statistics from the Sarria Excel workbook for EPG waveform analysis. Not only are publishable means and standard errors or deviations output, the user also is guided through four relatively simple sub-programs for ...

  10. SAS macro programs for geographically weighted generalized linear modeling with spatial point data: applications to health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2012-08-01

    An increasing interest in exploring spatial non-stationarity has generated several specialized analytic software programs; however, few of these programs can be integrated natively into a well-developed statistical environment such as SAS. We not only developed a set of SAS macro programs to fill this gap, but also expanded the geographically weighted generalized linear modeling (GWGLM) by integrating the strengths of SAS into the GWGLM framework. Three features distinguish our work. First, the macro programs of this study provide more kernel weighting functions than the existing programs. Second, with our codes the users are able to better specify the bandwidth selection process compared to the capabilities of existing programs. Third, the development of the macro programs is fully embedded in the SAS environment, providing great potential for future exploration of complicated spatially varying coefficient models in other disciplines. We provided three empirical examples to illustrate the use of the SAS macro programs and demonstrated the advantages explained above.

  11. The SAS-3 power and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. M.; Hogrefe, A. F.; Brenza, P. T.

    1975-01-01

    Solar array configurations of the SAS-3 are described: a configuration with two sets of coplanar panels in the horizontal and two others in the vertical position, and two other configurations with either four horizontal or four vertical sets of panels. The nickel-cadmium battery of the power subsystem is described in detail, with emphasis on voltage limits and charge-discharge characteristics. The characteristic of 'solar-only' operation in the case of damage to the battery is discussed. The thermal subsystem of SAS-3 is considered, with discussions of thermal design criteria and the thermal environment. Temperature is controlled by using internal thermal louvers that regulate the rate at which the heat load from electronic equipment is transmitted to the outer surface for dumping to space.

  12. Fitting polytomous Rasch models in SAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    The item parameters of a polytomous Rasch model can be estimated using marginal and conditional approaches. This paper describes how this can be done in SAS (V8.2) for three item parameter estimation procedures: marginal maximum likelihood estimation, conditional maximum likelihood estimation......, and pairwise conditional estimation. The use of the procedures for extensions of the Rasch model is also discussed. The accuracy of the methods are evaluated using a simulation study....

  13. SPSS and SAS programs for generalizability theory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Christopher; O'Connor, Brian P

    2006-08-01

    The identification and reduction of measurement errors is a major challenge in psychological testing. Most investigators rely solely on classical test theory for assessing reliability, whereas most experts have long recommended using generalizability theory instead. One reason for the common neglect of generalizability theory is the absence of analytic facilities for this purpose in popular statistical software packages. This article provides a brief introduction to generalizability theory, describes easy to use SPSS, SAS, and MATLAB programs for conducting the recommended analyses, and provides an illustrative example, using data (N = 329) for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Program output includes variance components, relative and absolute errors and generalizability coefficients, coefficients for D studies, and graphs of D study results.

  14. Mineralogical, chemical and physical study of potential buffer and backfill materials from ABM. Test Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. (B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-15

    In the ABM experiment, three test packages with centre steel heaters surrounded by stacks of compacted bentonite rings of various clay materials were placed in boreholes in Aespoe tunnel. The first parcel was saturated with Aespoe groundwater and the heater was turned on simultaneously with the start of saturation. This parcel was excavated 30 months after its installation. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the MX-80, Dep-CaN, Asha and Friedland clay samples from the ABM parcel 1 were analysed and compared to reference samples. Chemical analyses (ICP-AES, C, CO{sub 3}, S, water soluble SO{sub 4}, Fe2+/Fe3+), exchangeable cation analyses, mineralogical analyses (XRD, FTIR) and selective extractions were used to determine changes in the chemistry and mineralogy of ABM materials. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed both for extracted samples and for ground and recompacted samples. Major changes in exchangeable cation composition were observed in all samples originating from equilibration with Aespoe groundwater and interactions with equilibrated waters from neighbouring block materials. Some minor changes in chemical composition were observed as well. Increases in soluble sulphate content in the vicinity of the heater were thought to result from precipitation of sulphate salts. Decreases in sodium content and increases in calcium content were ascribed to changes in exchangeable cations. Interaction with iron was observed to occur only in the close vicinity (first few mm) of the heater. No significantly measureable change in mineralogical composition was seen in any of the studied materials. Extracted Dep-CaN samples showed a slight decrease in swelling pressure. However, when the material was ground, compacted and measured again the swelling pressure was fully recovered. No related change in hydraulic conductivities was observed. (orig.)

  15. Happiness and Human Relations: The Role of Materialistic Values. An ABM Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a person’s happiness must be understood as a phenomenon that emerges not only from her individual condition but also from her place in society. Understanding that a person is socially immersed implies giving a greater role to social interactions and social structure. The paper presents a simple model to take into consideration the role of human relations. An agent-based model (ABM is used to illustrate the implementation of the model in understanding people’s happiness.

  16. Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S. es una compañía de servicios de asesoramiento y acompañamiento a los visitantes extranjeros que vienen a la ciudad de Bogotá. Funciona a través de una página web, que facilitan a sus clientes la obtención de todos los servicios necesarios durante su estadía, en un solo lugar. El principal objetivo es proporcionar nuevas alternativas de servicios de asesoramiento, capitalizando la compañía bajo el cumplimiento del objetivo y cuota del mercado propuesta por la compañ...

  17. The SAS-3 attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, F. F.; Konigsberg, R.; Fountain, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    SAS-3 uses a reaction wheel to provide torque to control the spin rate. If the wheel speed becomes too great or too small, it must be restored to its nominal rate by momentum dumping which is done by magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field by the satellite's magnetic coils. A small rate-integrating gyro is used to sense the spin rate so that closed loop control of the spin rate can be achieved. These various systems are described in detail including the reaction wheel system, the gyro system, along with control modes (spin rate control and the star lock mode).

  18. SAS-Expander and Its Realization%SAS-Expander及其实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇

    2009-01-01

    SAS(Serial Attached SCSI)即串行SCSI技术,是一种磁盘连接技术.而Expander本质上就是SAS交换机,可以将多个SAS连接到有限数量的主机端口上.这里主要介绍了通过MAX-IM公司的VSC7154实现SAS-Expander磁盘阵列柜.此阵列柜机构部件依据SBB规范实现.

  19. Direct binding of SAS-6 to ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole for cartwheel assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettman, Molly M; Wong, Yao Liang; Viscardi, Valeria; Niessen, Sherry; Chen, Sheng-Hong; Shiau, Andrew K; Zhou, Huilin; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2013-05-13

    Assembly of SAS-6 dimers to form the centriolar cartwheel requires the ZYG-1/Plk4 kinase. Here, we show that ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole independently of its kinase activity; kinase activity is subsequently required for cartwheel assembly. We identify a direct interaction between ZYG-1 and the SAS-6 coiled coil that explains its kinase activity-independent function in SAS-6 recruitment. Perturbing this interaction, or the interaction between an adjacent segment of the SAS-6 coiled coil and SAS-5, prevented SAS-6 recruitment and cartwheel assembly. SAS-6 mutants with alanine substitutions in a previously described ZYG-1 target site or in 37 other residues, either phosphorylated by ZYG-1 in vitro or conserved in closely related nematodes, all supported cartwheel assembly. We propose that ZYG-1 binding to the SAS-6 coiled coil recruits the SAS-6-SAS-5 complex to the mother centriole, where a ZYG-1 kinase activity-dependent step, whose target is unlikely to be SAS-6, triggers cartwheel assembly.

  20. Meeting ACGME and ABMS Quality Improvement Requirements in a Sleep Medicine Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelgikar, Anita Valanju; Priddy, Cindy; Van Harrison, R

    2017-08-29

    To describe a sustainable program of teaching and implementing quality improvement (QI) in a 12-month sleep medicine fellowship. We created a QI curriculum based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) Part IV Maintenance of Certification (MOC) requirements for QI. Two program faculty with prior QI training volunteered to mentor fellows. Our institution's central QI office houses QI experts who teach QI across the health system. One of these experts, referred to as the "QI consultant," helped us adapt QI teaching materials to include 4 online modules and 5 group sessions. Fellows worked in teams to complete 2 data-guided QI cycles. The curriculum required 29 hours for fellows, 18 hours for faculty, and 55 hours for the QI consultant; now that teaching materials have been created, the QI consultant's involvement will decrease over time. Post-curriculum surveys showed that fellows' knowledge of QI concepts increased, as did their confidence performing QI activities. Fellows' QI projects objectively improved timeliness and quality of care for patients. Sleep medicine fellows and QI faculty mentors evaluated the curriculum positively. The curriculum met ACGME requirements for QI, and fellows and mentoring faculty received ABMS Part IV MOC credit upon completion of the curriculum. A QI curriculum can successfully be implemented into a 12-month sleep medicine fellowship to increase sleep medicine fellows' QI knowledge and confidence, meet ACGME and MOC requirements, and contribute to care of patients with sleep disorders.

  1. Dynamic building risk assessment theoretic model for rainstorm-flood utilization ABM and ABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenze; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Hailei; Huang, Yingliang; Wu, Xuelian; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters with the worst loss in the world. It needs to assess flood disaster risk so that we can reduce the loss of flood disaster. Disaster management practical work needs the dynamic risk results of building. Rainstorm flood disaster system is a typical complex system. From the view of complex system theory, flood disaster risk is the interaction result of hazard effect objects, rainstorm flood hazard factors, and hazard environments. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an important tool for complex system modeling. Rainstorm-flood building risk dynamic assessment method (RFBRDAM) was proposed using ABM in this paper. The interior structures and procedures of different agents in proposed meth had been designed. On the Netlogo platform, the proposed method was implemented to assess the building risk changes of the rainstorm flood disaster in the Huaihe River Basin using Agent-based simulation (ABS). The results indicated that the proposed method can dynamically assess building risk of the whole process for the rainstorm flood disaster. The results of this paper can provide one new approach for flood disaster building risk dynamic assessment and flood disaster management.

  2. Composites reinforcement by rods: a SAS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, V. [ESRF, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Botti, A.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Richter, D. [IFF-Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Straube, E. [University of Halle, FB Physik, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  3. Composites reinforcement by rods a SAS study

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, V; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Richter, D; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  4. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  5. Regression modeling methods, theory, and computation with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Regression Modeling: Methods, Theory, and Computation with SAS provides an introduction to a diverse assortment of regression techniques using SAS to solve a wide variety of regression problems. The author fully documents the SAS programs and thoroughly explains the output produced by the programs.The text presents the popular ordinary least squares (OLS) approach before introducing many alternative regression methods. It covers nonparametric regression, logistic regression (including Poisson regression), Bayesian regression, robust regression, fuzzy regression, random coefficients regression,

  6. SAS Code for Calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and Effect Size Benchmarks for Site-Randomized Education Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Paul R.; Harrison, George M.; Lawton, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluators plan site-randomized experiments, they must conduct the appropriate statistical power analyses. These analyses are most likely to be valid when they are based on data from the jurisdictions in which the studies are to be conducted. In this method note, we provide software code, in the form of a SAS macro, for producing statistical…

  7. Adaptive beamforming for low frequency SAS imagery and bathymetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, M.P.; Hunter, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic aperture side-scan sonar (SAS) is a mature technology for high-resolution sea floor imaging [1]. Interferometric synthetic aperture sonars (InSAS) use additional hydrophones in a vertical array for bathymetric mapping [2]. This has created high-resolution bathymetry in deep water environme

  8. Adaptive beamforming for low frequency SAS imagery and bathymetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, M.P.; Hunter, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic aperture side-scan sonar (SAS) is a mature technology for high-resolution sea floor imaging [1]. Interferometric synthetic aperture sonars (InSAS) use additional hydrophones in a vertical array for bathymetric mapping [2]. This has created high-resolution bathymetry in deep water

  9. Hotelli Radisson SAS mantra : jah, ma saan! / Kai Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Kai, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Radisson SAS hotell Tallinnas on kliendirahulolu-uuringute järgi keti hotellide seas esimeste hulgas. Hotelli direktor Kaido Ojaperv ja müügijuht Ann-Kai Tõrs Radisson SAS-i standarditest, kliendi sajaprotsendilise rahulolu tagamise põhimõtetest, personali valikust, koolitusest. Kommenteerib Sandra Dimitrovich

  10. PSHREG: a SAS macro for proportional and nonproportional subdistribution hazards regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Maria; Plischke, Max; Leffondré, Karen; Heinze, Georg

    2015-02-01

    We present a new SAS macro %pshreg that can be used to fit a proportional subdistribution hazards model for survival data subject to competing risks. Our macro first modifies the input data set appropriately and then applies SAS's standard Cox regression procedure, PROC PHREG, using weights and counting-process style of specifying survival times to the modified data set. The modified data set can also be used to estimate cumulative incidence curves for the event of interest. The application of PROC PHREG has several advantages, e.g., it directly enables the user to apply the Firth correction, which has been proposed as a solution to the problem of undefined (infinite) maximum likelihood estimates in Cox regression, frequently encountered in small sample analyses. Deviation from proportional subdistribution hazards can be detected by both inspecting Schoenfeld-type residuals and testing correlation of these residuals with time, or by including interactions of covariates with functions of time. We illustrate application of these extended methods for competing risk regression using our macro, which is freely available at: http://cemsiis.meduniwien.ac.at/en/kb/science-research/software/statistical-software/pshreg, by means of analysis of a real chronic kidney disease study. We discuss differences in features and capabilities of %pshreg and the recent (January 2014) SAS PROC PHREG implementation of proportional subdistribution hazards modelling.

  11. SPSS and SAS programs for comparing Pearson correlations and OLS regression coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Bruce; Wuensch, Karl L

    2013-09-01

    Several procedures that use summary data to test hypotheses about Pearson correlations and ordinary least squares regression coefficients have been described in various books and articles. To our knowledge, however, no single resource describes all of the most common tests. Furthermore, many of these tests have not yet been implemented in popular statistical software packages such as SPSS and SAS. In this article, we describe all of the most common tests and provide SPSS and SAS programs to perform them. When they are applicable, our code also computes 100 × (1 - α)% confidence intervals corresponding to the tests. For testing hypotheses about independent regression coefficients, we demonstrate one method that uses summary data and another that uses raw data (i.e., Potthoff analysis). When the raw data are available, the latter method is preferred, because use of summary data entails some loss of precision due to rounding.

  12. SAS-6 coiled-coil structure and interaction with SAS-5 suggest a regulatory mechanism in C. elegans centriole assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Renping; Cabral, Gabriela; Lettman, Molly M; Dammermann, Alexander; Dong, Gang

    2012-11-14

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. Five conserved proteins for centriole duplication have been identified. Two of them, SAS-5 and SAS-6, physically interact with each other and are codependent for their targeting to procentrioles. However, it remains unclear how these two proteins interact at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the short SAS-5 C-terminal domain (residues 390-404) specifically binds to a narrow central region (residues 275-288) of the SAS-6 coiled coil. This was supported by the crystal structure of the SAS-6 coiled-coil domain (CCD), which, together with mutagenesis studies, indicated that the association is mediated by synergistic hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The crystal structure also shows a periodic charge pattern along the SAS-6 CCD, which gives rise to an anti-parallel tetramer. Overall, our findings establish the molecular basis of the specific interaction between SAS-5 and SAS-6, and suggest that both proteins individually adopt an oligomeric conformation that is disrupted upon the formation of the hetero-complex to facilitate the correct assembly of the nine-fold symmetric centriole.

  13. Substrate Activity Screening (SAS) and Related Approaches in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-03-04

    Substrate activity screening (SAS) was presented a decade ago by Ellman and co-workers as a straightforward methodology for the identification of fragment-sized building blocks for enzyme inhibitors. Ever since, SAS and variations derived from it have been successfully applied to the discovery of inhibitors of various families of enzymatically active drug targets. This review covers key achievements and challenges of SAS and related methodologies, including the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach. Special attention is given to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of these methodologies, as a thorough understanding thereof is crucial for successfully transforming the identified fragment-sized hits into potent inhibitors.

  14. McSAS: A package for extracting quantitative form-free distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Breßler, Ingo; Thünemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A reliable and user-friendly characterisation of nano-objects in a target material is presented here in the form of a software data analysis package for interpreting small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns. When provided with data on absolute scale with reasonable uncertainty estimates, the software outputs (size) distributions in absolute volume fractions complete with uncertainty estimates and minimum evidence limits, and outputs all distribution modes of a user definable range of one or more model parameters. A multitude of models are included, including prolate and oblate nanoparticles, core-shell objects, polymer models (Gaussian chain and Kholodenko worm) and a model for densely packed spheres (using the LMA-PY approximations). The McSAS software can furthermore be integrated as part of an automated reduction and analysis procedure in laboratory instruments or at synchrotron beamlines.

  15. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  17. Islandlased tahavad SAS-i Skandinaavia turult kukutada / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Islandlastele kuuluv investeerimisfirma FL Grupp koondab lennufirmasid, et haarata liidrirolli Põhjala lennunduses. Lisad: Island; Islandi rikkaim mees; Uus põlvkond. Diagrammid: Islandi lennuärimehed versus SAS

  18. Structure of the SAS-6 cartwheel hub from Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breugel, Mark; Wilcken, Rainer; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Rutherford, Trevor J; Johnson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are cylindrical cell organelles with a ninefold symmetric peripheral microtubule array that is essential to template cilia and flagella. They are built around a central cartwheel assembly that is organized through homo-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but whether SAS-6 self-assembly can dictate cartwheel and thereby centriole symmetry is unclear. Here we show that Leishmania major SAS-6 crystallizes as a 9-fold symmetric cartwheel and provide the X-ray structure of this assembly at a resolution of 3.5 Å. We furthermore demonstrate that oligomerization of Leishmania SAS-6 can be inhibited by a small molecule in vitro and provide indications for its binding site. Our results firmly establish that SAS-6 can impose cartwheel symmetry on its own and indicate how this process might occur mechanistically in vivo. Importantly, our data also provide a proof-of-principle that inhibition of SAS-6 oligomerization by small molecules is feasible. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01812.001.

  19. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  20. Coupling the System Analysis Module with SAS4A/SASSYS-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hu, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is a simulation tool used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design basis and beyond design basis accidents for advanced reactors, with an emphasis on sodium fast reactors. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 has been under development and in active use for nearly forty-five years, and is currently maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Office of Advanced Reactor Technology. Although SAS4A/SASSYS-1 contains a very capable primary and intermediate system modeling component, PRIMAR-4, it also has some shortcomings: outdated data management and code structure makes extension of the PRIMAR-4 module somewhat difficult. The user input format for PRIMAR-4 also limits the number of volumes and segments that can be used to describe a given system. The System Analysis Module (SAM) is a fairly new code development effort being carried out under the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM is being developed with advanced physical models, numerical methods, and software engineering practices; however, it is currently somewhat limited in the system components and phenomena that can be represented. For example, component models for electromagnetic pumps and multi-layer stratified volumes have not yet been developed. Nor is there support for a balance of plant model. Similarly, system-level phenomena such as control-rod driveline expansion and vessel elongation are not represented. This report documents fiscal year 2016 work that was carried out to couple the transient safety analysis capabilities of SAS4A/SASSYS-1 with the system modeling capabilities of SAM under the joint support of the ART and NEAMS programs. The coupling effort was successful and is demonstrated by evaluating an unprotected loss of flow transient for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design. There are differences between the stand-alone SAS4A/SASSYS-1 simulations and the coupled SAS/SAM simulations, but these are mainly

  1. PREFACE Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen; Terrill, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    scientific heart of the conference comprised 10 plenary sessions, interspersed by 39 'themed' parallel sessions, 2 poster sessions, an afternoon tour of Diamond and ISIS, and a week-long exhibition. There were 144 contributed oral presentations and 308 poster presentations across a total of 21 themes. Over half of all presentations fell under 6 themes: biological systems, colloids and solutions, instrumentation, kinetic and time-resolved measurements, polymers, and surfaces and interfaces. The importance of SAS techniques to the study of biology, materials science and soft matter/nanoscience is clear. The plenary presentations, which covered topics as diverse as advanced analysis techniques, biology, green chemistry, materials science and surfaces, were delivered by Frank Bates, Minnesota, USA, Peter Fratzl, MPI Golm, Germany, Buxing Han, Bejing, China, Julia Kornfield, CIT, USA, Jan Skov Pedersen, Aarhus, Denmark, Moonhor Ree, Pohang, Korea, Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Tokyo, Japan, Robert Thomas, Oxford, UK, Jill Trewhella, Sydney, Australia, and Thomas Zemb, ICSM Bagnols, France. Instigated by representatives of the Belgian and Dutch SAS communities one parallel session was dedicated to a tribute for Michel Koch, the pioneer of so many novel applications of SAXS, who retired after 30 years at the EMBL Hamburg in late 2006. With a supporting cast that included Wim Bras, ESRF, France, Tony Ryan, Sheffield, UK and Joe Zaccai, ILL,France, and watched by former colleague André Gabriel, Michel treated the audience to a fascinating - and at times light-hearted - retrospective of the evolution of synchrotron SAXS. Another parallel session was devoted to the work of the canSAS (Collective Action for Nomadic Small-Angle Scatterers) network of large-facility representatives and instrument scientists in areas such as data file formats, intensity calibration and software development. For further information see http://www.smallangles.net/wgwiki/index.php/canSAS_Working_Groups. A total of

  2. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence. These findings suggest that the short version of the SAS-A is a developmentally appropriate instrument that can be used effectively to examine adolescent social anxiety development.

  3. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 1: Diffuse emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitudes 310 deg and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7 kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315, 330, 345, 0, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with galactic features and components such as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic-ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  4. [Calculating Pearson residual in logistic regressions: a comparison between SPSS and SAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiao-song; Liu, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results of Pearson residual calculations in logistic regression models using SPSS and SAS. We reviewed Pearson residual calculation methods, and used two sets of data to test logistic models constructed by SPSS and STATA. One model contained a small number of covariates compared to the number of observed. The other contained a similar number of covariates as the number of observed. The two software packages produced similar Pearson residual estimates when the models contained a similar number of covariates as the number of observed, but the results differed when the number of observed was much greater than the number of covariates. The two software packages produce different results of Pearson residuals, especially when the models contain a small number of covariates. Further studies are warranted.

  5. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS was demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale, visual analogue scale (VAS, and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96. Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. RESULTS: Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale "disturbance of reality testing" was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967. SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05, education (p<0.05, and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001 in SAS. CONCLUSIONS: This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.

  6. Want independent validation and assurance? Ask for a SAS-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Christopher C

    2008-08-01

    The AICPA's Statement on Auditing Standards No.70, Service Organizations addresses CPA audits of service providers conducted to verify that a provider has adequate controls over its operations. Hospitals should request a SAS-70, the report produced by such an audit, from all of their third-party service providers. SAS-70s can be issued for a specific date or for a six-month period, and they typically consist of three sections: a CPA opinion, a description of controls, and information about the design of the controls.

  7. Observations of A0620-00 by SAS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, H.; Matilsky, T.

    1976-01-01

    The transient X-ray source A0620-00 was observed by the SAS-3 group with the SAS-3 X-ray observatory. At maximum X-ray luminosity limits of 2% were placed on periodic variations from 0.2 ms - 2,000 sec. A precise position was obtained with the rotating modulation collimator. This led directly to radio and optical identification by groups at the NRAO, Arecibo, and McGraw Hill Observatories. The low energy (0.15-0.9 keV) system was pointed at the source, and a spectrum was derived. Hardness ratios are presented, as well as detailed light curves.

  8. Traitement des données par le logiciel SAS: introduction au module de base

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Isabelle; Prevot, Hugues

    2006-01-01

    Cette note constitue une introduction au module de base SAS. Après un bref aperçu de l'environnement de travail SAS et des principes du langage SAS, les étapes DATA et PROC d'un programme SAS sont exposées en plus en détails.

  9. SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and velicer's MAP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B P

    2000-08-01

    Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.

  10. SAS Radisson esitab Tallinnale väljakutse / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2000-01-01

    Tallinna Radisson SAS hotelli juht T. Bodin on kindel, et suudab pakkuda tipphotellile kohast teenindus. Vt. samas Mägus, Feliks. Hinnasõda hotellide vahel jääb ära. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. nov. lk. 20-21

  11. Tubulin nucleotide status controls Sas-4-dependent pericentriolar material recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Chim, Yiu-Cheung Frederick; Ha, Andrew; Basiri, Marcus L; Lerit, Dorothy A; Rusan, Nasser M; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2012-08-01

    Regulated centrosome biogenesis is required for accurate cell division and for maintaining genome integrity. Centrosomes consist of a centriole pair surrounded by a protein network known as pericentriolar material (PCM). PCM assembly is a tightly regulated, critical step that determines the size and capability of centrosomes. Here, we report a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment through the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4. Tubulin directly binds to Sas-4; together they are components of cytoplasmic complexes of centrosomal proteins. A Sas-4 mutant, which cannot bind tubulin, enhances centrosomal protein complex formation and has abnormally large centrosomes with excessive activity. These results suggest that tubulin negatively regulates PCM recruitment. Whereas tubulin-GTP prevents Sas-4 from forming protein complexes, tubulin-GDP promotes it. Thus, the regulation of PCM recruitment by tubulin depends on its GTP/GDP-bound state. These results identify a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment independent of its well-known role as a building block of microtubules. On the basis of its guanine-bound state, tubulin can act as a molecular switch in PCM recruitment.

  12. A SAS Interface for Bayesian Analysis with WinBUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Wang, Lijuan; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian methods are becoming very popular despite some practical difficulties in implementation. To assist in the practical application of Bayesian methods, we show how to implement Bayesian analysis with WinBUGS as part of a standard set of SAS routines. This implementation procedure is first illustrated by fitting a multiple regression model…

  13. A SAS/IML algorithm for an exact permutation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhäuser, Markus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm written in SAS/IML is presented that can perform an exact permutation test for a two-sample comparison. All possible permutations are considered. The Baumgartner-Weiß-Schindler statistic is exemplarily used as the test statistic for the permutation test.

  14. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  15. Tutorial: Survival Estimation for Cox Regression Models with Time-Varying Coe?cients Using SAS and R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laine Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival estimates are an essential compliment to multivariable regression models for time-to-event data, both for prediction and illustration of covariate effects. They are easily obtained under the Cox proportional-hazards model. In populations defined by an initial, acute event, like myocardial infarction, or in studies with long-term followup, the proportional-hazards assumption of constant hazard ratios is frequently violated. One alternative is to fit an interaction between covariates and a prespecified function of time, implemented as a time-dependent covariate. This effectively creates a time-varying coefficient that is easily estimated in software such as SAS and R. However, the usual programming statements for survival estimation are not directly applicable. Unique data manipulation and syntax is required, but is not well documented for either software. This paper offers a tutorial in survival estimation for the time-varying coefficient model, implemented in SAS and R. We provide a macro coxtvc to facilitate estimation in SAS where the current functionality is more limited. The macro is validated in simulated data and illustrated in an application.

  16. A SAS-6-like protein suggests that the Toxoplasma conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jessica Cruz; Scheumann, Nicole; Beatty, Wandy; Beck, Josh R; Tran, Johnson Q; Yau, Candace; Bradley, Peter J; Gull, Keith; Wickstead, Bill; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2013-07-01

    SAS-6 is required for centriole biogenesis in diverse eukaryotes. Here, we describe a novel family of SAS-6-like (SAS6L) proteins that share an N-terminal domain with SAS-6 but lack coiled-coil tails. SAS6L proteins are found in a subset of eukaryotes that contain SAS-6, including diverse protozoa and green algae. In the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, SAS-6 localizes to the centriole but SAS6L is found above the conoid, an enigmatic tubulin-containing structure found at the apex of a subset of alveolate organisms. Loss of SAS6L causes reduced fitness in Toxoplasma. The Trypanosoma brucei homolog of SAS6L localizes to the basal-plate region, the site in the axoneme where the central-pair microtubules are nucleated. When endogenous SAS6L is overexpressed in Toxoplasma tachyzoites or Trypanosoma trypomastigotes, it forms prominent filaments that extend through the cell cytoplasm, indicating that it retains a capacity to form higher-order structures despite lacking a coiled-coil domain. We conclude that although SAS6L proteins share a conserved domain with SAS-6, they are a functionally distinct family that predates the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Moreover, the distinct localization of the SAS6L protein in Trypanosoma and Toxoplasma adds weight to the hypothesis that the conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

  17. Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaopeng, Q I; Liang, Wei; Barker, Laurie; Lekiachvili, Akaki; Xingyou, Zhang

    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health. Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature's association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly-or 30-day-basis. Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS. We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v 9.2 on a CITGO platform. Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids. County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate. Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R(2), mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time. Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS. Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS. County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R(2) range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate. Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S. county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS's merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects.

  18. Development and validation of logistic prognostic models by predefined SAS-macros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler, Christoph

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In medical decision making about therapies or diagnostic procedures in the treatment of patients the prognoses of the course or of the magnitude of diseases plays a relevant role. Beside of the subjective attitude of the clinician mathematical models can help in providing such prognoses. Such models are mostly multivariate regression models. In the case of a dichotomous outcome the logistic model will be applied as the standard model. In this paper we will describe SAS-macros for the development of such a model, for examination of the prognostic performance, and for model validation. The rational for this developmental approach of a prognostic modelling and the description of the macros can only given briefly in this paper. Much more details are given in. These 14 SAS-macros are a tool for setting up the whole process of deriving a prognostic model. Especially the possibility of validating the model by a standardized software tool gives an opportunity, which is not used in general in published prognostic models. Therefore, this can help to develop new models with good prognostic performance for use in medical applications.

  19. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  20. Anatomy of the TAMA SAS seismic attenuation system

    CERN Document Server

    Marka, S; Ando, M; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Wang Chen Yang; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T

    2002-01-01

    The TAMA SAS seismic attenuation system was developed to provide the extremely high level of seismic isolation required by the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to achieve the desired sensitivity at low frequencies. Our aim was to provide good performance at frequencies above approx 10 Hz, while utilizing only passive subsystems in the sensitive frequency band of the TAMA interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The only active feedback is relegated below 6 Hz and it is used to damp the rigid body resonances of the attenuation chain. Simulations, based on subsystem performance characterizations, indicate that the system can achieve rms mirror residual motion measured in a few tens of nanometres. We will give a brief overview of the subsystems and point out some of the characterization results, supporting our claims of achieved performance. SAS is a passive, UHV compatible and low cost system. It is likely that extremely sensitive experiments in other fields will also profit ...

  1. SAS/QC在统计质量管理中的功能与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英莲

    2008-01-01

    在统计教学与实践中,对SAS系统的开发应用较多的是SAS/BASE、SAS/STAT、SAS/ETS等软件,而对于SAS/QC软件的开发应用尚属少见。本文将概括性地介绍SAS/QC软件在质量管理中的功能和作用,通过案例介绍SAS/QC在质量控制中的具体应用。

  2. Genome sequencing and annotation of Proteus sp. SAS71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Proteus sp. strain SAS71, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 3,037,704 bp with a G + C content of 39.3% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDIU00000000.

  3. Combination of functional MRI with SAS and MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Masayuki; Takeshita, Shinichirou; Kutsuna, Munenori; Akimitsu, Tomohide; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    For presurgical diagnosis of brain surface, combination of functional MRI (fMRI) with the MR angiography was examined. This method could visualize brain bay, convolution and vein as index of surface. Five normal adults (male, mean age: 28-year-old) and 7 patients with brain tumor on the main locus to surface (male: 4, female: 3, mean age: 52.3-year-old) were studied. fMRI was performed by SPGR method (TR 70, TE 40, flip angle 60, one slice, thickness 10 mm, FOV 20 cm, matrix 128 x 128). The brain surface was visualized by SAS (surface anatomy scanning). SAS was performed by FSE method (TR 6000, TE 200, echo train 16, thickness 20 mm, slice 3, NEX 2). Cortical veins near superior sagittal sinus were visualized by MRA with 2D-TOF method (TR 50, TE 20, flip angle 60, thickness 2 mm, slice 28, NEX 1). These images were superimposed and functional image of peripheral sensorimotor region was evaluated anatomically. In normal adults, high signal was visualized at another side of near sensorimotor region at 8 of 10 sides. All high signal area of fMRI agreed with cortical vein near sensorimotor region that was visualized by MRA. In patients with brain tumor, signal was visualized at another side of sensorimotor region of tumor without 2 cases with palsy. In another side of tumor, signal of fMRI was visualized in 5 of 7 cases. The tumor was visualized as opposite low signal field in SAS. Locational relation between tumor and brain surface and brain function was visualized distinctly by combination of MRA, SAS and MRA. This method could become useful for presurgical diagnosis. (K.H.)

  4. Quality assurance management plan (QAPP) special analytical support (SAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-05-20

    It is the policy of Special Analytical Support (SAS) that the analytical aspects of all environmental data generated and processed in the laboratory, subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Energy or other project specific requirements, be of known and acceptable quality. It is the intention of this QAPP to establish and assure that an effective quality controlled management system is maintained in order to meet the quality requirements of the intended use(s) of the data.

  5. Spatial Dynamic Models for Inclusive Cities: a Brief Concept of Cellular Automata (CA and Agent-Based Model (ABM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak.Kawasan perkotaan terutama di negara-negara berkembang menunjukkan laju pertumbuhan fisik yang tinggi. Telah banyak model yang mencoba merekonstruksi pertumbuhan perkotaan ini dengan menggunakan data demografi dan data sosial. Permodelan ini adalah salah satu yang lazim digunakan para praktisi perencana karena ketersediaan data dan waktu proses yang relatif lebih singkat. Sayangnya, model ini bersifat statis yaitu hanya menangkap karakteristik dan bentuk kota pada satu satuan waktu. Model ini tidak akan berubah saat variabel waktu berubah. Kebanyakan model ini bertujuan untuk memperkuat atau memperjelas suatu teori perencanaan perkotaan. Model statis ini juga memanfaatkan batas-batas administrasi dan tidak memungkinkan untuk melakukan permodelan diluar bentuk administrasi sebuah kota. Dengan permasalahan perkotaan yang semakin rumit yang menuntut pengambil keputusan membuat kebijakan tepat, diperlukan suatu metode permodelan pertumbuhan perkotaan yang dinamis yang dapat memberikan informasi yang lebih lengkap kepada pengambil kebijakan terkait struktur dan bentuk perkotaan, serta beroperasi pada skala yang lebih detail. Kemudian model perkotaan ini juga perlu mewakili perilaku para aktor pembangunan perkotaan. Salah satu konsep yang berkembang sejak tiga dasawarsa lalu adalah cellular automata (CA dan agent-based urban model (ABM. Dalam konteks penelitian perkotaan di Indonesia, sayangnya konsep-konsep ini belum banyak tersedia pada jurnal-jurnal perkotaan dan terlebih lagi belum banyak kontribusi pada konsep-konsep permodelan dan mekanisme pada proses perubahan guna/tutupan lahan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan teori dasar CA dan adaptasi dari sistem tersebut untuk keperluan aplikasi di bidang spasial perkotaan. Kami juga akan menjelaskan konsep ABM sebagai komponen dari model yang memiliki kemampuan mewakili perilaku para pelaku pembangunan. Beberapa contoh aplikasi dan kemungkinan perkembangan model dinamis untuk kota

  6. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.

  7. SPSS and SAS programming for the testing of mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, William N; Benuzillo, Jose G; Carrico, Mineh S

    2004-01-01

    Mediation modeling can explain the nature of the relation among three or more variables. In addition, it can be used to show how a variable mediates the relation between levels of intervention and outcome. The Sobel test, developed in 1990, provides a statistical method for determining the influence of a mediator on an intervention or outcome. Although interactive Web-based and stand-alone methods exist for computing the Sobel test, SPSS and SAS programs that automatically run the required regression analyses and computations increase the accessibility of mediation modeling to nursing researchers. To illustrate the utility of the Sobel test and to make this programming available to the Nursing Research audience in both SAS and SPSS. The history, logic, and technical aspects of mediation testing are introduced. The syntax files sobel.sps and sobel.sas, created to automate the computation of the regression analysis and test statistic, are available from the corresponding author. The reported programming allows the user to complete mediation testing with the user's own data in a single-step fashion. A technical manual included with the programming provides instruction on program use and interpretation of the output. Mediation modeling is a useful tool for describing the relation between three or more variables. Programming and manuals for using this model are made available.

  8. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  9. Investigating the (cost-) effectiveness of attention bias modification (ABM) for outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD): a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gina R A; Becker, Eni S; Smit, Filip; Rinck, Mike; Spijker, Jan

    2016-11-03

    Despite the range of available, evidence-based treatment options for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the rather low response and remission rates suggest that treatment is not optimal, yet. Computerized attention bias modification (ABM) trainings may have the potential to be provided as cost-effective intervention as adjunct to usual care (UC), by speeding up recovery and bringing more patients into remission. Research suggests, that a selective attention for negative information contributes to development and maintenance of depression and that reducing this negative bias might be of therapeutic value. Previous ABM studies in depression, however, have been limited by small sample sizes, lack of long-term follow-up measures or focus on sub-clinical samples. This study aims at evaluating the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of internet-based ABM, as add-on treatment to UC in adult outpatients with MDD, in a specialized mental health care setting. This study presents a double-blind randomized controlled trial in two parallel groups with follow-ups at 1, 6, and 12 months, combined with an economic evaluation. One hundred twenty six patients, diagnosed with MDD, who are registered for specialized outpatient services at a mental health care organization in the Netherlands, are randomized into either a positive training (towards positive and away from negative stimuli) or a sham training, as control condition (continuous attentional bias assessment). Patients complete eight training sessions (seven at home) during a period of two weeks (four weekly sessions). Primary outcome measures are change in attentional bias (pre- to post-test), mood response to stress (at post-test) and long-term effects on depressive symptoms (up to 1-year follow-up). Secondary outcome measures include rumination, resilience, positive and negative affect, and transfer to other cognitive measures (i.e., attentional bias for verbal stimuli, cognitive control, positive mental imagery), as well as

  10. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  11. SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup.......SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup....

  12. A Tool that Uses the SAS (registered trademark) PRX Functions to Fix Delimited Text Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Dec 2014 – Apr 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tool that Uses the SAS® PRX Functions to Fix Delimited Text Files 5a...Guide® project that uses the SAS PRX functions to import, fix, and export a delimited text file. This fixed file can then be easily imported and...sas, perl, prx , prx functions, sas enterprise guide, sas eg, prxmatch, prxchange 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR

  13. The SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (SAS[R] EVAAS[R]) in the Houston Independent School District (HISD): Intended and Unintended Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Collins, Clarin

    2012-01-01

    The SAS Educational Value-Added Assessment System (SAS[R] EVAAS[R]) is the most widely used value-added system in the country. It is also self-proclaimed as "the most robust and reliable" system available, with its greatest benefit to help educators improve their teaching practices. This study critically examined the effects of SAS[R] EVAAS[R] as…

  14. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications

    OpenAIRE

    D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques...

  15. 面向对象的SAS/AF程序设计语言的研究%Research on Object-Oriented Programming with SAS/AF Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇术

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing object-oriented program language using SAS/AF with the concepts of OOA and OOD.And it also discusses how to achieve these concepts in SAS/AF language.%本文结合面向对象分析(OOA)与面向对象设计(OOD)介绍了面向对象的SAS/AF程序语言及探讨了面向对象的理念在SAS/AF中的实现。

  16. Olev Schults : SAS vajab Estonian Airi rahvusliku lennufirmana / Olev Schults ; interv. Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schults, Olev

    2008-01-01

    Estonian Airi nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, kas SAS arendas Läti airBalticut Estonian SAS-i arvel, mis mõte on rahvuslikul lennukompaniil, kui riik ei tohi seda finantseerida, kuidas mõjutab investorite meeleolu SAS-i Eestis tabanud poliitikute kriitika tulv

  17. %HPGLIMMIX: A High-Performance SAS Macro for GLMM Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs comprise a class of widely used statistical tools for data analysis with fixed and random effects when the response variable has a conditional distribution in the exponential family. GLMM analysis also has a close relationship with actuarial credibility theory. While readily available programs such as the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS and the lme4 package in R are powerful tools for using this class of models, these progarms are not able to handle models with thousands of levels of fixed and random effects. By using sparse-matrix and other high performance techniques, procedures such as HPMIXED in SAS can easily fit models with thousands of factor levels, but only for normally distributed response variables. In this paper, we present the %HPGLIMMIX SAS macro that fits GLMMs with large number of sparsely populated design matrices using the doubly-iterative linearization (pseudo-likelihood method, in which the sparse-matrix-based HPMIXED is used for the inner iterations with the pseudo-variable constructed from the inverse-link function and the chosen model. Although the macro does not have the full functionality of the GLIMMIX procedure, time and memory savings can be large with the new macro. In applications in which design matrices contain many zeros and there are hundreds or thousands of factor levels, models can be fitted without exhausting computer memory, and 90% or better reduction in running time can be observed. Examples with a Poisson, binomial, and gamma conditional distribution are presented to demonstrate the usage and efficiency of this macro.

  18. SAS 3 survey of the soft X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Clark, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a survey of the soft X-ray sky in the C band (0.10-0.28keV) are reported. The observations were carried out using two independent flow proportional counters on board the SAS 3 X-ray satellite which had a total angular resolution of 2.9 deg FWHM, and a total exposure of 2.2 x 10 to the 4th per sq cm s sr. It is found that C band counting rates were generally inversely correlated with the column density of the neutral hydrogen on all angular scales down to the lowest angular resolution of the detectors. In the region 90-180 deg l and 0-10 deg b, the relation between C-band rates and the column densities of neutral hydrogen was fitted with a residual rms deviation of less than 13 percent by a two-component numerical model of the X-ray background. For the apparent attenuation column density a value of 2.7 x 10 to the 20th per sq cm was obtained. On the basis of a computer simulation of the SAS 3 data, it is shown that the observed clumping of interstellar matter was consistent with the magnitude of spatial fluctuations in the C-band map. When the background rates were subtracted from the survey map, the subsequent map showed foreground emission and absorption features with improved sensitivity and clarity. A series of computer-generated maps incorporating the SAS 3 data is given in an appendix.

  19. Atomistic modelling of scattering data in the Collaborative Computational Project for Small Angle Scattering (CCP-SAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stephen J; Wright, David W; Zhang, Hailiang; Brookes, Emre H; Chen, Jianhan; Irving, Thomas C; Krueger, Susan; Barlow, David J; Edler, Karen J; Scott, David J; Terrill, Nicholas J; King, Stephen M; Butler, Paul D; Curtis, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    The capabilities of current computer simulations provide a unique opportunity to model small-angle scattering (SAS) data at the atomistic level, and to include other structural constraints ranging from molecular and atomistic energetics to crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR. This extends the capabilities of solution scattering and provides deeper insights into the physics and chemistry of the systems studied. Realizing this potential, however, requires integrating the experimental data with a new generation of modelling software. To achieve this, the CCP-SAS collaboration (http://www.ccpsas.org/) is developing open-source, high-throughput and user-friendly software for the atomistic and coarse-grained molecular modelling of scattering data. Robust state-of-the-art molecular simulation engines and molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo force fields provide constraints to the solution structure inferred from the small-angle scattering data, which incorporates the known physical chemistry of the system. The implementation of this software suite involves a tiered approach in which GenApp provides the deployment infrastructure for running applications on both standard and high-performance computing hardware, and SASSIE provides a workflow framework into which modules can be plugged to prepare structures, carry out simulations, calculate theoretical scattering data and compare results with experimental data. GenApp produces the accessible web-based front end termed SASSIE-web, and GenApp and SASSIE also make community SAS codes available. Applications are illustrated by case studies: (i) inter-domain flexibility in two- to six-domain proteins as exemplified by HIV-1 Gag, MASP and ubiquitin; (ii) the hinge conformation in human IgG2 and IgA1 antibodies; (iii) the complex formed between a hexameric protein Hfq and mRNA; and (iv) synthetic 'bottlebrush' polymers.

  20. Categorical Data Analysis With Sas and Spss Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lawal, H Bayo

    2003-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of categorical data analysis with an emphasis on how to implement the models used in the book using SAS and SPSS. This is accomplished through the frequent use of examples, with relevant codes and instructions, that are closely related to the problems in the text. Concepts are explained in detail so that students can reproduce similar results on their own. Beginning with chapter two, exercises at the end of each chapter further strengthen students' understanding of the concepts by requiring them to apply some of the ideas expressed in the text in a more

  1. Identify S.A.S. -Plan de empresa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    IDENTIFY S.A.S. – Soluciones en Tecnología, tiene como objetivos desarrollar un plan de empresa para suplir una de las necesidades, que en la actualidad cobra importancia en los centros hospitalarios y que contribuye al control y detección automática de personas y activos y control de temperatura enn activos dedicados al almacenamiento de medicamentos e insumos, permitiendo el manejo de la información en tiempo real; teniendo presente la normatividad que las rige, la seguridad que les propor...

  2. Plan de empresa SZ Gastroconsulting S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuloaga Galofre, David; Serrano Zuleta, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    SZ GastroConsulting S.A.S. es una empresa colombiana que prestará servicios de consultoría al sector de restaurantes. El core del negocio estará orientado a incrementar la rotación de clientes y la facturación de los restaurantes. De forma complementaria, se adoptarán prácticas tecnológicas, aprovechando el entorno actual donde los comensales inician su experiencia de consumo antes de ir al restaurante, y la finalizan días después de vivirla. La compañía será dirigida por los socios y consult...

  3. Plan de Negocios Qualitas S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Verutti Bonilla, María Cecilia; Ávila González, Gloria Inés; Ortiz Alvarado, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    Qualitas S.A.S. Health & Consulting (del latín: “calidad”), nace un equipo multidisciplinario de profesionales de crear una empresa de consultoría especializada en salud en Popayán, como apoyo a los Prestadores de Servicios de Salud, en aspectos relacionados con los requisitos que deben cumplir ante las normas del Sistema Obligatorio de Garantía de la Calidad en Salud que reglamentan la atención de calidad en los servicios de salud en Colombia, teniendo como meta la excelencia. Objetivos: R...

  4. Polymer encapsulation of amoxicillin microparticles by SAS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, A; Baldauf, E; Gordillo, M D; Pereyra, C M; Martínez de la Ossa, E J

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of amoxicillin (AMC) with ethyl cellulose (EC) by a supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) was investigated. AMC microparticles obtained previously by an SAS process were used as host particles and EC, a biodegradable polymer used for the controlled release of drugs, was chosen as the coating material. In this work, a suspension of AMC microparticles in a solution of ethyl cellulose in dichloromethane (DCM) was sprayed through a nozzle into supercritical CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and HPLC analyses were carried out. The effects of AMC:EC ratio, the initial polymer concentration of the solution, temperature and pressure on the encapsulation process were investigated. Although all the experiments led to powder precipitation, the AMC encapsulation was achieved in only half of the cases, particularly when the lower drug:polymer ratios were assayed. In general, it was observed that the percentages of AMC present in the precipitates were higher on increasing the AMC:EC ratio. In these cases composites rather than encapsulates were obtained. The in vitro release profiles of the resulting materials were evaluated in order to ascertain whether composites can be used as encapsulated systems for drug delivery systems.

  5. Recent high energy gamma-ray results from SAS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Ogelman, H. B.; Ozel, M. E.; Tumer, T.; Lamb, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy due to the results from SAS-2 have focused on two areas. First, the emission from the plane of the Galaxy is the dominant feature in the gamma-ray sky. The galactic latitude and longitude distributions are consistent with the concept that the high-energy radiation originates from cosmic rays interacting with interstellar matter, and the measurements support a galactic origin for cosmic rays. Second, searches of the SAS-2 data for emission from localized sources have shown three strong discrete gamma-ray sources: the Crab nebula and PSR 0531 + 21, the Vela supernova remnant and PSR 0833-45, and a source near galactic coordinates 193 deg longitude, +3 deg latitude, which does not appear to be associated with other known celestial objects. Evidence has also been found for pulsed gamma-ray emission from two other radio pulsars, PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46. A localized source near longitudes 76-80 deg may be associated with the X-ray source Cyg X-3.

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-05-29

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo.

  7. Modeling binary correlated responses using SAS, SPSS and R

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tools to analyze correlated binary data are spread out in the existing literature. This book makes these tools accessible to practitioners in a single volume. Chapters cover recently developed statistical tools and statistical packages that are tailored to analyzing correlated binary data. The authors showcase both traditional and new methods for application to health-related research. Data and computer programs will be publicly available in order for readers to replicate model development, but learning a new statistical language is not necessary with this book. The inclusion of code for R, SAS, and SPSS allows for easy implementation by readers. For readers interested in learning more about the languages, though, there are short tutorials in the appendix. Accompanying data sets are available for download through the book s website. Data analysis presented in each chapter will provide step-by-step instructions so these new methods can be readily applied to projects.  Researchers and graduate stu...

  8. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J; Ram, Nilam

    2009-10-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included.

  9. %ERA: A SAS Macro for Extended Redundancy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to structural equation modeling based on so-called extended redundancy analysis has been recently proposed in the literature, enhanced with the added characteristic of generalizing redundancy analysis and reduced-rank regression models for more than two blocks. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites that were estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables, permitting a great flexibility to specify and fit a variety of structural relationships. In this paper, we propose the SAS macro %ERA to specify and fit structural relationships in the extended redundancy analysis (ERA framework. Two examples (simulation and real data are provided in order to reproduce results appearing in the original article where ERA was proposed.

  10. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

  11. Centriolar CPAP/SAS-4 Imparts Slow Processive Microtubule Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwani; Aher, Amol; Dynes, Nicola J; Frey, Daniel; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jaussi, Rolf; Grigoriev, Ilya; Croisier, Marie; Kammerer, Richard A; Akhmanova, Anna; Gönczy, Pierre; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-05-23

    Centrioles are fundamental and evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles whose assembly is characterized by microtubule growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than those of cytoplasmic microtubules. Several centriolar proteins can interact with tubulin or microtubules, but how they ensure the exceptionally slow growth of centriolar microtubules has remained mysterious. Here, we bring together crystallographic, biophysical, and reconstitution assays to demonstrate that the human centriolar protein CPAP (SAS-4 in worms and flies) binds and "caps" microtubule plus ends by associating with a site of β-tubulin engaged in longitudinal tubulin-tubulin interactions. Strikingly, we uncover that CPAP activity dampens microtubule growth and stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting catastrophes and promoting rescues. We further establish that the capping function of CPAP is important to limit growth of centriolar microtubules in cells. Our results suggest that CPAP acts as a molecular lid that ensures slow assembly of centriolar microtubules and, thereby, contributes to organelle length control.

  12. SAS program for quantitative stratigraphic correlation by principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A SAS program is presented which constructs a composite section of stratigraphic events through principal components analysis. The variables in the analysis are stratigraphic sections and the observational units are range limits of taxa. The program standardizes data in each section, extracts eigenvectors, estimates missing range limits, and computes the composite section from scores of events on the first principal component. Provided is an option of several types of diagnostic plots; these help one to determine conservative range limits or unrealistic estimates of missing values. Inspection of the graphs and eigenvalues allow one to evaluate goodness of fit between the composite and measured data. The program is extended easily to the creation of a rank-order composite. ?? 1985.

  13. Computing and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White, G. C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reality is that the statistical methods used for analysis of data depend upon the availability of software. Analysis of marked animal data is no different than the rest of the statistical field. The methods used for analysis are those that are available in reliable software packages. Thus, the critical importance of having reliable, up–to–date software available to biologists is obvious. Statisticians have continued to develop more robust models, ever expanding the suite of potential analysis methods available. But without software to implement these newer methods, they will languish in the abstract, and not be applied to the problems deserving them. In the Computers and Software Session, two new software packages are described, a comparison of implementation of methods for the estimation of nest survival is provided, and a more speculative paper about how the next generation of software might be structured is presented. Rotella et al. (2004 compare nest survival estimation with different software packages: SAS logistic regression, SAS non–linear mixed models, and Program MARK. Nests are assumed to be visited at various, possibly infrequent, intervals. All of the approaches described compute nest survival with the same likelihood, and require that the age of the nest is known to account for nests that eventually hatch. However, each approach offers advantages and disadvantages, explored by Rotella et al. (2004. Efford et al. (2004 present a new software package called DENSITY. The package computes population abundance and density from trapping arrays and other detection methods with a new and unique approach. DENSITY represents the first major addition to the analysis of trapping arrays in 20 years. Barker & White (2004 discuss how existing software such as Program MARK require that each new model’s likelihood must be programmed specifically for that model. They wishfully think that future software might allow the user to combine

  14. On Teaching Problems about Medical Statistics SAS Experimental Courses%医学统计学SAS实验课程相关教学问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤在祥

    2012-01-01

    SAS软件实验课是医学统计学的重要课程,上好SAS软件实验课对于学生掌握和应用统计学方法具有重要实践意义。针对医学统计学SAS软件实验课特点,以及当前教学过程中存在的问题,对SAS软件实验课了提出了几点探讨,为提高医学院校SAS软件实验课的教学效果提供参考。%SAS software experimental course is an important course about medical statistics, which is of great significance for students to master and apply the statistical method. According to characteristics of medical statistics SAS software, as well as problems in the educational process, the paper discusses the experimental course and hopes to improve the teach-ing effect of the SAS software.

  15. Phosphorylation of SAS-6 by ZYG-1 is critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Busso, Coralie; Flückiger, Isabelle; Gönczy, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Despite being essential for proper cell division, the mechanisms governing centrosome duplication are incompletely understood and represent an important open question in cell biology. Formation of a new centriole next to each existing one is critical for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but the mechanisms underlying their requirement remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the kinase ZYG-1 phosphorylates the coiled-coil protein SAS-6 at serine 123 in vitro. Importantly, we show that this phosphorylation event is crucial for centriole formation in vivo. Furthermore, we establish that such phosphorylation ensures the maintenance of SAS-6 at the emerging centriole. Overall, our findings establish that phosphorylation of the evolutionarily conserved protein SAS-6 is critical for centriole formation and thus for faithful cell division.

  16. LSI推出首批半高SAS RAID适配器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    LSI Logic公司近日宣布推出首批半高(low—profile,LP)SAS RAID存储适配器。新的MegaRAID SAS 8308ELP和SAS8344ELP是具有8个SAS端口的PCI Express接口适配器,应用于需要使用3GbpsSAS和/或SATAⅡ驱动器的服务器和工作站环境。

  17. Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS in a naturalistic schizophrenia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuisku Katinka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS is an established instrument for neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP, but its statistical properties have been studied insufficiently. Some shortcomings concerning its content have been suggested as well. According to a recent report, the widely used SAS mean score cut-off value 0.3 of for NIP detection may be too low. Our aim was to evaluate SAS against DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for NIP and objective motor assessment (actometry. Methods Ninety-nine chronic institutionalised schizophrenia patients were evaluated during the same interview by standardised actometric recording and SAS. The diagnosis of NIP was based on DSM-IV criteria. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's α, convergence to actometry and the capacity for NIP case detection were assessed. Results Cronbach's α for the scale was 0.79. SAS discriminated between DSM-IV NIP and non-NIP patients. The actometric findings did not correlate with SAS. ROC-analysis yielded a good case detection power for SAS mean score. The optimal threshold value of SAS mean score was between 0.65 and 0.95, i.e. clearly higher than previously suggested threshold value. Conclusion We conclude that SAS seems a reliable and valid instrument. The previously commonly used cut-off mean score of 0.3 has been too low resulting in low specificity, and we suggest a new cut-off value of 0.65, whereby specificity could be doubled without loosing sensitivity.

  18. 关于SAS-Weblogic的数据挖掘模型的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清松

    2015-01-01

    本文在对SAS-Weblogic的数据挖掘模型和应用进行应用分析时,首先分析了SAS-Weblogic的数据挖掘模型,最后基于实例分析了SAS-Weblogic的数据挖掘模型的具体应用。SAS-Weblogic数据挖掘模型不仅仅解决了一般数据量的设计要求,结合ARIMA模型同样对于大数据量的设计要求也能得到有效的解决。

  19. Observations of low energy gamma-ray bursts with SAS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegelman, H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the low-energy gamma-ray bursts observed by the plastic scintillator anticoincidence dome of the Small Astronomy Satellite-2 (SAS-2) gamma-ray telescope. SAS-2 detected two events observed by other satellites and discovered one which was subsequently confirmed by other satellite observations. Two events seen by other satellites were not detected by SAS-2, probably due to earth occultation. The event detection threshold for SAS-2 was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of the Vela satellites.

  20. PP2A phosphatase acts upon SAS-5 to ensure centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Flückiger, Isabelle; Polanowska, Jolanta; Keller, Debora; Reboul, Jérôme; Gönczy, Pierre

    2011-04-19

    Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and ensures that the two resulting centrosomes assemble a bipolar mitotic spindle. Centriole formation is fundamental for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolutionarily conserved proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but how they function is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is also critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos. We find that PP2A subunits genetically and physically interact with the SAS-5/SAS-6 complex. Furthermore, we show that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation promotes centriolar targeting of SAS-5 and ensures SAS-6 delivery to the site of centriole assembly. We find that PP2A is similarly needed for the presence of HsSAS-6 at centrioles and for centriole formation in human cells. These findings lead us to propose that PP2A-mediated loading of SAS-6 proteins is critical at the onset of centriole formation.

  1. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied.

  2. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  3. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 2: Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Because the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. PSR 1818-04 has a gamma ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, whereas the luminosities of PSR 1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations yielded upper limits to gamma ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars. For five of the closest pulsars, upper limits for gamma ray luminosity are found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Crab pulsar. Gamma ray enhancement near the Milky Way satellite galaxy and the galactic plane in the Cygnus region is also discussed.

  4. Design of experiment and data analysis by JMP (SAS institute) in analytical method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C; Liu, J; Ren, F; Okafo, N

    2000-08-15

    Validation of an analytical method through a series of experiments demonstrates that the method is suitable for its intended purpose. Due to multi-parameters to be examined and a large number of experiments involved in validation, it is important to design the experiments scientifically so that appropriate validation parameters can be examined simultaneously to provide a sound, overall knowledge of the capabilities of the analytical method. A statistical method through design of experiment (DOE) was applied to the validation of a HPLC analytical method for the quantitation of a small molecule in drug product in terms of intermediate precision and robustness study. The data were analyzed in JMP (SAS institute) software using analyses of variance method. Confidence intervals for outcomes and control limits for individual parameters were determined. It was demonstrated that the experimental design and statistical analysis used in this study provided an efficient and systematic approach to evaluating intermediate precision and robustness for a HPLC analytical method for small molecule quantitation.

  5. 基于 SAS 机床行业发展的数量化研究%Quantification Study of the Development of the Machine Tool Industry Based on SAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟芳婷

    2014-01-01

    Obtained large historical data of 11 typical industry and six machine tool companies from the stock market by using SAS software ,we get a mathematical formula about the development of machine tool industry by SAS programming , principal component analysis method and multivariate linear regression analysis method .This formula reflects the relationship between the development of machine tool industry and the national economy ,infrastructure ,the real estate .The study pro-vide a reference for the future development and investment of machine tool industry .%利用SAS软件从证券市场上获取11个典型行业和6家机床公司2008~2013年的庞大经济数据,通过SAS编程借助主成份分析法和多元线性回归分析法建立了影响机床行业发展的模型方程,数量化阐述了机床行业发展指数与国民经济、基础设施和房地产三者发展的关系,为机床行业的未来发展及投资提供借鉴。

  6. Using SAS/IntrNet for Evaluating Web-Based Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong-ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; Digangi, Sam; Wasson, Barnaby

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of SAS/IntrNet, a Web service rather than a Web server, to evaluate and enhance university level Web-based courses. IntrNet provides the ability to create both static and dynamic Web pages, using Web publishing tools to convert SAS output to hypertext markup language for the creation of static Web pages. (Author/LRW)

  7. Using SAS/IntrNet for Evaluating Web-Based Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong-ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; Digangi, Sam; Wasson, Barnaby

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of SAS/IntrNet, a Web service rather than a Web server, to evaluate and enhance university level Web-based courses. IntrNet provides the ability to create both static and dynamic Web pages, using Web publishing tools to convert SAS output to hypertext markup language for the creation of static Web pages. (Author/LRW)

  8. SAS üritab panna riiki lennufirma aktsiaid müüma / Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2007-01-01

    SAS-i eesmärgiks on saada enamusosalus nii Estonian Airis kui ka airBalticus, et seeläbi oma positsioone Baltimaades kinnistada. Diagramm: Estonian Airi majandusnäitajad ja omanikud. Vt. samas: SAS on Estonian Airi jahtinud kaua. Kommenteerib Raivo Vare

  9. SAS tahab Estonian Airi liita lätlaste firmaga airBaltic / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    SAS plaanib Estonian Airi ja Läti firma airBalticu liitmisega luua uue lennufirma. Autori hinnangul viitavad Estonian Airi laienemisplaanidele kriipsu peale tõmbamine ja SAS-i investeeringud airBalticusse sellele, et ühendamise käigus "neelab" Läti firma Estonian Airi

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  11. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  12. SAS-1 is a C2 domain protein critical for centriole integrity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tobel, Lukas; Mikeladze-Dvali, Tamara; Delattre, Marie; Balestra, Fernando R; Blanchoud, Simon; Finger, Susanne; Knott, Graham; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome.

  13. SAS-1 is a C2 domain protein critical for centriole integrity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas von Tobel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD syndrome.

  14. First report of sasX-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ito, Teruyo; Han, Xiao; Ito, Ayumu; Matsuo, Miki; Uehara, Yuki; Baba, Tadashi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    SasX is a known virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus involved in colonisation and immune evasion of the bacterium. The sasX gene, which is located on the ϕSPβ prophage, is frequently found in the sequence type (ST) 239 S. aureus lineage, which is the predominant healthcare-associated clone in Asian countries. In Japan, ST239 clones have rarely been identified, and sasX-positive strains have not been reported to date. Here, we report the first identification of 18 sasX-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in Japanese hospitals between 2009 and 2011. All sasX-positive isolates belonged to an ST239-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type III (ST239-III) lineage. However, we were unable to identify additional sasX-positive MRSA strains from 2012 to 2016, indicating that the small epidemic of sasX-positive isolates observed in this study was temporary. The sequence surrounding sasX in the strain TOHH628 lacked 51 genes that encode phage packaging and structural proteins, and no bacteriophage was induced by mitomycin C. Additionally, in the TOHH628 strain, the region (64.6 kb) containing sasX showed high identity to the ϕSPβ-like element (71.3 kb) of the Taiwanese MRSA strain Z172. The data strongly suggest that the present sasX-positive isolates found in Japanese hospitals were transmitted incidentally from other countries. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  16. Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Linda; Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2013-06-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful and widely employed approach to studies in the field of psychology and in the social and biomedical sciences. The contributions of this article are several-fold. First we seek to bring the developments in mediation analysis for nonlinear models within the counterfactual framework to the psychology audience in an accessible format and compare the sorts of inferences about mediation that are possible in the presence of exposure-mediator interaction when using a counterfactual versus the standard statistical approach. Second, the work by VanderWeele and Vansteelandt (2009, 2010) is extended here to allow for dichotomous mediators and count outcomes. Third, we provide SAS and SPSS macros to implement all of these mediation analysis techniques automatically, and we compare the types of inferences about mediation that are allowed by a variety of software macros.

  17. Zinc-dependent mechanical properties of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-forming surface protein SasG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-01-12

    Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG promotes cell-cell adhesion during the accumulation phase of biofilm formation, but the molecular basis of this interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we unravel the mechanical properties of SasG on the surface of living bacteria, that is, in its native cellular environment. Nanoscale multiparametric imaging of living bacteria reveals that Zn(2+) strongly increases cell wall rigidity and activates the adhesive function of SasG. Single-cell force measurements show that SasG mediates cell-cell adhesion via specific Zn(2+)-dependent homophilic bonds between β-sheet-rich G5-E domains on neighboring cells. The force required to unfold individual domains is remarkably strong, up to ∼500 pN, thus explaining how SasG can withstand physiological shear forces. We also observe that SasG forms homophilic bonds with the structurally related accumulation-associated protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis, suggesting the possibility of multispecies biofilms during host colonization and infection. Collectively, our findings support a model in which zinc plays a dual role in activating cell-cell adhesion: adsorption of zinc ions to the bacterial cell surface increases cell wall cohesion and favors the projection of elongated SasG proteins away from the cell surface, thereby enabling zinc-dependent homophilic bonds between opposing cells. This work demonstrates an unexpected relationship between mechanics and adhesion in a staphylococcal surface protein, which may represent a general mechanism among bacterial pathogens for activating cell association.

  18. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number.

  19. Self-assembling SAS-6 multimer is a core centriole building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Guichard, Paul; Smith, Andrew H; Schwarz, Heinz; Agard, David A; Marco, Sergio; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2010-03-19

    Centrioles are conserved microtubule-based organelles with 9-fold symmetry that are essential for cilia and mitotic spindle formation. A conserved structure at the onset of centriole assembly is a "cartwheel" with 9-fold radial symmetry and a central tubule in its core. It remains unclear how the cartwheel is formed. The conserved centriole protein, SAS-6, is a cartwheel component that functions early in centriole formation. Here, combining biochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterize SAS-6 and show that it self-assembles into stable tetramers, which serve as building blocks for the central tubule. These results suggest that SAS-6 self-assembly may be an initial step in the formation of the cartwheel that provides the 9-fold symmetry. Electron microscopy of centrosomes identified 25-nm central tubules with repeating subunits and show that SAS-6 concentrates at the core of the cartwheel. Recombinant and native SAS-6 self-oligomerizes into tetramers with approximately 6-nm subunits, and these tetramers are components of the centrosome, suggesting that tetramers are the building blocks of the central tubule. This is further supported by the observation that elevated levels of SAS-6 in Drosophila cells resulted in higher order structures resembling central tubule morphology. Finally, in the presence of embryonic extract, SAS-6 tetramers assembled into high density complexes, providing a starting point for the eventual in vitro reconstruction of centrioles.

  20. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in package 1 of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-02-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of MX-80, Asha and Deponit bentonites and of Friedland Clay in package 1 of the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied after over two years of experiment. The concentration distribution of chloride and sulphate in different clays as a function of distance from the heater and in the reference bentonites, not used in the experiment, were determined. The concentration distributions of chloride were quite even. In Friedland clay and Asha the chloride concentrations in the clay decreased during the experiment while in MX-80 and Deponit the concentrations increased. Sulphate accumulated towards the hot end in the samples where the initial content of sulphate was high (Friedland Clay, MX-80, Deponit), while in Asha, where the initial sulphate concentration was low, such an accumulation did not occur. The cation exchange capacity in different clays was determined at different distances from the heater using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)]2+ as the index cation. The CEC of MX-80 and Deponit increased slightly close to the heater. In Asha there was some indication about the decrease of CEC close to the heater while in Friedland Clay there was small decreasing trend towards the heater and the CEC was generally slightly higher than in the reference sample. The pH measurements in the clays were performed with IrOx electrodes at a distance of 8 cm from the heater. The pH values were for Friedland Clay 6.5 - 6.6, for MX-80 6.6 - 6.8, for Asha 6.9 - 7.0 and for Deponit 6.6 - 6.9. The Eh measurements were performed with Pt and Au electrodes placed in the clays at 8 cm from the heater. The final values obtained after five months of measurement with Au and Pt electrodes were for Friedland Clay 17 mV and -231 mV, for MX-80 22 mV and -48 mV, for Asha 104 mV and 40 mV and for Deponit 76 mV and 75 mV, respectively. The water content and bulk density were measured at different distances from the heater; the dry

  1. Studies on the chemical conditions and microstructure in the reference bentonites of alternative buffer materials project (ABM) in Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    The chemical and microstructural properties of some bentonites used in the ABM project in Aespoe HRL were studied in laboratory experiments. The aim was to obtain information about the materials before they were used in the field experiment and to test the research methods that will be used when the packages of the field experiment are retrieved. The bentonites of interest were MX-80, Deponit CAN, Asha 505 and Friedland Clay. The pH values in the compacted samples prepared from the clay powders and deionized water were about 8 for MX-80, 7 for Deponit and Asha, and 6.5 for Friedland clay. The Eh values in the compacted MX-80, Asha and Deponit samples varied between 100 mV and -100 mV, and in the Friedland clay from 0 mV to 200 mV. The total porosity, chloride porosity and the microstructure were studied in compacted samples prepared from MX-80, Deponit, Asha and Friedland Clay and equilibrated through filter plates with 0.1 M NaCl solution for 12.5 months in aerobic conditions. The dry densities of the samples were approximately 0.7, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.55 g/cm3. XRD and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were used to study the microstructure of the MX-80 and Deponit bentonites. It was obvious that the chloride porosity was lower than the water porosity in all the clays, which indicates the exclusion of anions caused by the negatively charged surfaces. In the XRD measurements on MX-80, Asha and Deponit, the measured basal spaces represented by the diffraction peaks were smaller than the theoretical one assuming a homogenous microstructure. This indicates that there was a substantial amount of water also in the pores, which were not seen by XRD. The SAXS data modelling which considered single discs and stacks of discs proposed that a large fraction of the clay should be considered as single platelets. The fraction of the single discs decreased with the increasing density of the sample. The number of layers in the stacks varied from 4 to 8. By combining the information

  2. SOFTWARE OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE GRATIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini Rakhmawati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Berlakunya Undang – undang Hak Atas Kekayaan Intelektual (HAKI, memunculkan suatu alternatif baru untuk menggunakan software open source. Penggunaan software open source menyebar seiring dengan isu global pada Information Communication Technology (ICT saat ini. Beberapa organisasi dan perusahaan mulai menjadikan software open source sebagai pertimbangan. Banyak konsep mengenai software open source ini. Mulai dari software yang gratis sampai software tidak berlisensi. Tidak sepenuhnya isu software open source benar, untuk itu perlu dikenalkan konsep software open source mulai dari sejarah, lisensi dan bagaimana cara memilih lisensi, serta pertimbangan dalam memilih software open source yang ada. Kata kunci :Lisensi, Open Source, HAKI

  3. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews software packages by providing extensive descriptions and discussions of their strengths and weaknesses. Software reviewed include (1) "VISIFROG: Vertebrate Anatomy" (grade seven-adult); (2) "Fraction Bars Computer Program" (grades three to six) and (3) four telecommunications utilities. (JN)

  4. Solving the Software Legacy Problem with RISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Gabriel, C.

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays hardware and system infrastructure evolve on time scales much shorter than the typical duration of space astronomy missions. Data processing software capabilities have to evolve to preserve the scientific return during the entire experiment life time. Software preservation is a key issue that has to be tackled before the end of the project to keep the data usable over many years. We present RISA (Remote Interface to Science Analysis) as a solution to decouple data processing software and infrastructure life-cycles, using JAVA applications and web-services wrappers to existing software. This architecture employs embedded SAS in virtual machines assuring a homogeneous job execution environment. We will also present the first studies to reactivate the data processing software of the EXOSAT mission, the first ESA X-ray astronomy mission launched in 1983, using the generic RISA approach.

  5. SAS paneb Estonian Airi kiirmüüki / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2009-01-01

    Majandusraskustes lennufirma SAS kavatseb loobuda osalustest kõigis lennufirmades, mis ei sobi kokku nende uue tegevuskavaga. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts arvab, et riik peaks leidma Estonian Airile kodumaised partnerid

  6. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of ursolic acid nanoparticles using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Zhen; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lin

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the study was to prepare ursolic acid (UA) nanoparticles using the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during SAS process, were investigated. Particles with mean particle size ranging from 139.2±19.7 to 1039.8±65.2nm were obtained by varying the process parameters. The UA was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, specific surface area, dissolution test and bioavailability test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline UA could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of UA.

  7. SAS ihub hammast Estonian Airile / Lauri Linnamäe, Meeli Vilukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Skandinaavia lennukompanii SAS soovib suurendada osalust Estonian Airis ja Läti airBalticus, soovides luua Baltimaade tugevaima lennufirma. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi sõnul on Eesti kaalunud oma osaluse müüki Estonian Airis. Lisa: Omanikering

  8. Reactivity and fate of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    This research is focused on secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), anionic surfactants widely used in household applications that access aquatic environments mainly via sewage discharges. We studied their sorption capacity and anaerobic degradation in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. SAS partition coefficients increased towards those homologues having longer alkyl chains (from up to 141 L kg(-1) for C14 to up to 1753 L kg(-1) for C17), which were those less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, SAS removal percentages reached up to 98% after 166 days of incubation using anoxic sediments. The degradation pathway consisted on the formation of sulfocarboxylic acids after an initial fumarate attack of the alkyl chain and successive β-oxidations. This is the first study showing that SAS can be degraded in absence of oxygen, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals.

  9. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  10. SAS 2 observation of pulsed high-energy gamma radiation from Geminga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Following the detection of pulsed X-rays and gamma rays from Geminga, the 1972-1973 SAS 2 data which first revealed this source have been reanalyzed. The 237 ms periodicity is visible in those observations. The phase of the SAS 2 periodicity is consistent with that of COS B suggesting that the gamma-ray data allow an accounting for every revolution of the Geminga pulsar between 1972 and 1982.

  11. Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, L E

    1986-10-01

    Software is the component in a computer system that permits the hardware to perform the various functions that a computer system is capable of doing. The history of software and its development can be traced to the early nineteenth century. All computer systems are designed to utilize the "stored program concept" as first developed by Charles Babbage in the 1850s. The concept was lost until the mid-1940s, when modern computers made their appearance. Today, because of the complex and myriad tasks that a computer system can perform, there has been a differentiation of types of software. There is software designed to perform specific business applications. There is software that controls the overall operation of a computer system. And there is software that is designed to carry out specialized tasks. Regardless of types, software is the most critical component of any computer system. Without it, all one has is a collection of circuits, transistors, and silicone chips.

  12. Comparative assessment of SAS and DES turbulence modeling for massively separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weilin; Yan, Chao; Liu, Hongkang; Luo, Dahai

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of the flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1.4× 105 and NACA0021 airfoil at the angle of attack 60° have been carried out by scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) and detached eddy simulation (DES), in comparison with the existing experimental data. The new version of the model developed by Egorov and Menter is assessed, and advantages and disadvantages of the SAS simulation are analyzed in detail to provide guidance for industrial application in the future. Moreover, the mechanism of the scale-adaptive characteristics in separated regions is discussed, which is obscure in previous analyses. It is concluded that: the mean flow properties satisfactorily agree with the experimental results for the SAS simulation, although the prediction of the second order turbulent statistics in the near wake region is just reasonable. The SAS model can produce a larger magnitude of the turbulent kinetic energy in the recirculation bubble, and, consequently, a smaller recirculation region and a more rapid recovery of the mean velocity outside the recirculation region than the DES approach with the same grid resolution. The vortex shedding is slightly less irregular with the SAS model than with the DES approach, probably due to the higher dissipation of the SAS simulation under the condition of the coarse mesh.

  13. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  14. Preparation and pharmaceutical characterization of amorphous cefdinir using spray-drying and SAS-process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Young-Shin; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2010-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of micronization and amorphorization of cefdinir on solubility and dissolution rate. The amorphous samples were prepared by spray-drying (SD) and supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process, respectively and their amorphous natures were confirmed by DSC, PXRD and FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was performed by TGA. SEM was used to investigate the morphology of particles and the processed particle had a spherical shape, while the unprocessed crystalline particle had a needle-like shape. The mean particle size and specific surface area were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and BET, respectively. The DLS result showed that the SAS-processed particle was the smallest, followed by SD and the unprocessed cefdinir. The BET result was the same as DLS result in that the SAS-processed particle had the largest surface area. Therefore, the processed cefdinir, especially the SAS-processed particle, appeared to have enhanced apparent solubility, improved intrinsic dissolution rate and better drug release when compared with SD-processed and unprocessed crystalline cefdinir due not only to its amorphous nature, but also its reduced particle size. Conclusions were that the solubility and dissolution rate of crystalline cefdinir could be improved by physically modifying the particles using SD and SAS-process. Furthermore, SAS-process was a powerful methodology for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of cefdinir.

  15. Analysis of Variance: What Is Your Statistical Software Actually Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lomax, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Users assume statistical software packages produce accurate results. In this article, the authors systematically examined Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Statistical Analysis System (SAS) for 3 analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs, mixed-effects ANOVA, fixed-effects analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and nested ANOVA. For each…

  16. Using Business Analysis Software in a Business Intelligence Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Juan; Parzinger, Monica J.; Welch, Orion J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an example of a project used in an undergraduate business intelligence class which integrates concepts from statistics, marketing, and information systems disciplines. SAS Enterprise Miner software is used as the foundation for predictive analysis and data mining. The course culminates with a competition and the project is used…

  17. Different Effects of Startling Acoustic Stimuli (SAS) on TMS-Induced Responses at Rest and during Sustained Voluntary Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Li, Shengai; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a habituated startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) can cause a transient suppression of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during light muscle contraction. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon persists when at rest or during a sustained voluntary contraction task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning SAS has different effects. TMS was delivered to the hot spot for the left biceps on 11 subjects at rest both with and without a conditioning SAS. Of the 11subjects, 9 also had TMS delivered during isometric flexion of the left elbow, also with and without a conditioning SAS. TMS-induced MEPs, TMS-induced force, and silent periods were used to determine the effect of conditioning SAS. Consistent with previous findings, TMS-induced MEPs were smaller with a conditioning SAS (0.49 ± 0.37 mV) as compared without the SAS (0.69 ± 0.52 mV) at rest. However, a conditioning SAS during the voluntary contraction tasks resulted in a significant shortening of the MEP silent period (187.22 ± 22.99 ms with SAS vs. 200.56 ± 29.71 ms without SAS) without any changes in the amplitude of the MEP (1.37 ± 0.9 mV with SAS V.S. 1.32 ± 0.92 mV without SAS) or the TMS-induced force (3.11 ± 2.03 N-m with SAS V.S. 3.62 ± 1.33 N-m without SAS). Our results provide novel evidence that a conditioning SAS has different effects on the excitability of the motor cortex when at rest or during sustained voluntary contractions.

  18. Software piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Kráčmer, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis is to clarify the term of software piracy and to determine responsibility of individual entities as to actual realization of software piracy. First, the thesis focuses on a computer programme, causes, realization and pitfalls of its inclusion under copyright protection. Subsequently, it observes methods of legal usage of a computer programme. This is the point of departure for the following attempt to define software piracy, accompanied with methods of actu...

  19. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    CERN Document Server

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T

    2006-01-01

    Simplifying the often confusing array of software programs for fitting linear mixed models (LMMs), Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software provides a basic introduction to primary concepts, notation, software implementation, model interpretation, and visualization of clustered and longitudinal data. This easy-to-navigate reference details the use of procedures for fitting LMMs in five popular statistical software packages: SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM. The authors introduce basic theoretical concepts, present a heuristic approach to fitting LMMs based on bo

  20. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangdong; Gooi, Li Ming; Wason, Arpit; Gabriel, Elke; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Xingrun; Debec, Alain; Basiri, Marcus L; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Saric, Tomo; Hyman, Anthony A; Li, Haitao; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2014-01-21

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4's tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of β-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an "extended surface-like" platform to tether the Sas-4-PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9-10th β-strands (β9-10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 β9-10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the β9-10 surface in mediating protein-protein interactions for efficient Sas-4-PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication.

  1. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): Hyperspectral Design and Initial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Barnard, James C.; Ermold, Brian D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-10-31

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation.

  2. SAS/IntrNet功能简介及初步应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒静; 刘沛

    2014-01-01

    目的 介绍统计分析软件(statistical analysis system,SAS)网络化模块(SAS/IntrNet)的基本功能并应用于医学实际.方法 应用SAS/IntrNet远程调用SAS程序进行在线分析,从客户端获取参数通过网络传递给服务器端的SAS程序进行分析,并反馈结果给客户端.结果 利用SAS/IntrNet程序处理流程和相关配置文件,成功地实现了在线膳食暴露评估分析实例,使得用户可以在不安装SAS软件的情况下方便地通过网页进行在线SAS统计分析.结论 利用SAS/IntrNet模块实现SAS网络化应用,可使不甚了解SAS编程的使用者通过友好的访问界面即可实现SAS的在线统计分析,大大提高了SAS系统信息共享的能力.

  3. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  4. Determination and occurrence of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2013-05-01

    A new methodology has been developed for the determination of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), an anionic surfactant, in environmental matrices. Sediment and sludge samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and sonication, whereas wastewater and surface water samples were processed using solid-phase extraction. Extraction recoveries were acceptable for both aqueous (78-120%) and solid samples (83-100%). Determination of SAS was carried out by high or ultra performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry using ion trap and time-of-flight detectors. The methodology was applied to samples from Guadalete River (SW Spain), where SAS concentrations below 1 μg L(-1) were measured in surface water, and from 72 to 9737 μg kg(-1) in sediments. Differential partitioning was observed for SAS homologues as those having a longer hydrocarbon chain which preferentially sorbed onto particulate matter. A preliminary environmental risk assessment also showed that SAS measured levels were not harmful to the aquatic community in the sampling area.

  5. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Mennella, Vito; Blachon, Stephanie; Zhai, Bo; Smith, Andrew H; Megraw, Timothy L; Nicastro, Daniela; Gygi, Steven P; Agard, David A; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2011-06-21

    Centrosomes are conserved organelles that are essential for accurate cell division and cilium formation. A centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a protein network of pericentriolar material (PCM) that is essential for the centrosome's function. In this study, we show that Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes (named S-CAP), which include CNN, Asl and D-PLP, proteins that are all found in the centrosomes at the vicinity of the centriole. When Sas-4 is absent, nascent procentrioles are unstable and lack PCM, and functional centrosomes are not generated. When Sas-4 is mutated, so that it cannot form S-CAP complexes, centrosomes are present but with dramatically reduced levels of PCM. Finally, purified S-CAP complexes or recombinant Sas-4 can bind centrosomes stripped of PCM, whereas recombinant CNN or Asl cannot. In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome.

  6. SAS-Pro: simultaneous residue assignment and structure superposition for protein structure alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shweta B; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html.

  7. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): hyperspectral design and initial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Flynn, Connor; Barnard, James; Ermold, Brian; Berg, Larry

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation

  8. Spanish Validation of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Marzo, Juan Carlos; Medrano, Laura; Espada, José Pedro

    2016-11-04

    This study aimed to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) in a community sample of 315 Spanish children aged 5 to 12 years. Thirty-seven teachers from eleven schools completed the SAS-TR and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for each child. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure, but a better fit model was obtained after removing four items. The scale was found to have high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for the Spanish sample. Convergent validity was supported by positive significant correlations between the SAS-TR and the Emotional Symptoms subscale of the SDQ. Lower correlations between the SAS-TR and the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale supported the divergent validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Spanish version of the SAS-TR is a reliable and valid instrument for teachers to assess anxiety in Spanish children.

  9. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  10. 基于SAS/IntrNet的预测系统实现%Implementation of Forecasting System Based on SAS/IntrNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢红

    2008-01-01

    SAS是一个使用广泛的大型模块化的应用软件系统,具有强大的数据分析和管理能力.文章以预测系统的实现为例,介绍如何使用SAS/IntrNet组件,实现SAS和J2EEWEB技术的结合.

  11. The SAS-5 N-terminal domain is a tetramer, with implications for centriole assembly in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Ekaterina; Qiao, Renping; Lesigang, Johannes; Dong, Gang

    2013-07-01

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. It has a unique 9-fold symmetry and its assembly is governed by at least five component proteins (SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-5, SAS-6 and SAS-4), which are recruited in a hierarchical order. Recently published structural studies of the SAS-6 N-terminal domain have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of centriole assembly. However, it remains unclear how the weak interaction between the SAS-6 N-terminal head groups could drive the assembly of a closed ring-like structure, and what determines the stacking of multiple rings on top one another in centriole duplication. We recently reported that SAS-5 binds specifically to a very narrow region of the SAS-6 central coiled coil through its C-terminal domain (CTD, residues 391-404). Here, we further demonstrate by both static light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering that the SAS-5 N-terminal domain (NTD, residues 1-260) forms a tetramer. Specifically, we found that the tetramer is formed by SAS-5 residues 82-260, whereas residues 1-81 are intrinsically disordered. Taking these results together, we propose a working model for SAS-5-mediated assembly of the multi-layered central tube structure.

  12. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  13. Comparing fibre channel, serial attached SCSI (SAS) and serial ATA (SATA)

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Hin Wing Allen

    2009-01-01

    Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), Serial ATA (SATA) and Fibre Channel (FC) are the main storage interconnect technologies at present. FC is the main interconnect in Storage Area Network (SAN) with a well-known high performance and strong foundation of SCSI. SATA is the most cost-effective and high capacity in the hard drive market. On the other hand, SAS is just picking-up the momentum in both storage and hard drive areas and positions itself as a potential player. All three of these technologies h...

  14. Univariate and multivariate general linear models theory and applications with SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Reviewing the theory of the general linear model (GLM) using a general framework, Univariate and Multivariate General Linear Models: Theory and Applications with SAS, Second Edition presents analyses of simple and complex models, both univariate and multivariate, that employ data sets from a variety of disciplines, such as the social and behavioral sciences.With revised examples that include options available using SAS 9.0, this expanded edition divides theory from applications within each chapter. Following an overview of the GLM, the book introduces unrestricted GLMs to analyze multiple regr

  15. Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2014-11-01

    Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups.

  16. A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2009-01-01

    the hazard rates, and the hazard rates are often estimated by the Cox regression. This procedure may not be suitable for large studies due to limited computer resources. Instead one uses Poisson regression, which approximates the Cox regression. Rosthøj et al. presented a SAS-macro for the estimation...... of the cumulative incidences based on the Cox regression. I present the functional form of the probabilities and variances when using piecewise constant hazard rates and a SAS-macro for the estimation using Poisson regression. The use of the macro is demonstrated through examples and compared to the macro presented...

  17. A Software Agent for Speech Abiding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manoharan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to bring speech into the mainstream of business process an efficient digital signal processor is necessary. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and the butter fly structure symmetry will enable the harwaring easier. With the DSP and software proposed, togetherly established by means of a system, named here as “Speech Abiding System (SAS”, a software agent, which involves the digital representation of speech signals and the use of digital processors to analyze, synthesize, or modify such signals. The proposed SAS addresses the issues in two parts. Part I: Capturing the Speaker and the Language independent error free Speech Content for speech applications processing and Part II: To accomplish the speech content as an input to the Speech User Applications/Interface (SUI. Approach: Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of the speech signal is the essential ingredient to evolve this SAS and Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT links the discrete-time domain to the continuous-frequency domain. The direct computation of DFT is prohibitively expensive in terms of the required computer operations. Fortunately, a number of “fast” transforms have been developed that are mathematically equivalent to the DFT, but which require significantly a fewer computer operations for their implementation. Results: From Part-I, the SAS able to capture an error free Speech content to facilitate the speech as a good input in the main stream of business processing. Part-II provides an environment to implement the speech user applications at a primitive level. Conclusion/Recommendations: The SAS agent along with the required hardware architecture, a Finite State Automata (FSA machine can be created to develop global oriented domain specific speech user applications easily. It will have a major impact on interoperability and disintermediation in the Information Technology Cycle (ITC for computer program generating.

  18. Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy

      Innovation is the forgotten key to modern systems development - the element that defines the enterprising engineer, the thriving software firm and the cutting edge software application.  Traditional forms of technical education pay little attention to creativity - often encouraging overly...... rationalistic ways of thinking which stifle the ability to innovate. Professional software developers are often drowned in commercial drudgery and overwhelmed by work pressure and deadlines. The topic that will both ensure success in the market and revitalize their work lives is never addressed. This book sets...... out the new field of software innovation. It organizes the existing scientific research into eight simple heuristics - guiding principles for organizing a system developer's work-life so that it focuses on innovation....

  19. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  20. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews seven computer software programs that can be used in science education programs. Describes courseware which deals with muscles and bones, terminology, classifying animals without backbones, molecular structures, drugs, genetics, and shaping the earth's surface. (TW)

  1. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  2. Reusable Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    overseeing reusable software, the Reusable Software Organization ( RUSO ). This author does not feel at this time that establishment of such a specific...49] have not been accompanied by establishment of RUSO -like activities. There is need, however, for assurance that functions which a RUSO might be...assurance 6. establishment and maintenance of reuse archival facilities and activities. Actual establishment of a RUSO is best dictated by size of the

  3. Software Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    comprehensive approach for determining software epistemology which significantly advances the state of the art in automated vulnerability discovery...straightforward. First, internet -based repositories of open source software (e.g., FreeBSD ports, GitHub, SourceForge, etc.) are mined Approved for...the fix delta, we attempted to perform the same process to determine if the firmware release present in an Internet -of-Things (IoT) streaming camera

  4. Testing the Short and Screener versions of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    The 54-item Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) is a measure of social functioning used in research studies and clinical practice. Two shortened versions were recently developed: the 24-item SAS-SR: Short and the 14-item SAS-SR: Screener. We briefly describe the development of the shortened scales and then assess their reliability and validity in comparison to the full SAS-SR in new analyses from two separate samples of convenience from a family study and from a primary care clinic. Compared to the full SAS-SR, the shortened scales performed well, exhibiting high correlations with full SAS-SR scores (r values between 0.81 and 0.95); significant correlations with health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the ability to distinguish subjects with major depression versus other psychiatric disorders versus no mental disorders; and sensitivity to change in clinical status as measured longitudinally with the Symptom Checklist-90 and Global Assessment Scale. The SAS-SR: Short and SAS-SR: Screener retained the areas assessed by the full SAS-SR with fewer items in each area, and appear to be promising replacements for the full scale when a shorter administration time is desired and detailed information on performance in different areas is not required. Further work is needed to test the validity of the shortened measures.

  5. SAS-4 Protein in Trypanosoma brucei Controls Life Cycle Transitions by Modulating the Length of the Flagellum Attachment Zone Filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-12-18

    The evolutionarily conserved centriole/basal body protein SAS-4 regulates centriole duplication in metazoa and basal body duplication in flagellated and ciliated organisms. Here, we report that the SAS-4 homolog in the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, TbSAS-4, plays an unusual role in controlling life cycle transitions by regulating the length of the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) filament, a specialized cytoskeletal structure required for flagellum adhesion and cell morphogenesis. TbSAS-4 is concentrated at the distal tip of the FAZ filament, and depletion of TbSAS-4 in the trypomastigote form disrupts the elongation of the new FAZ filament, generating cells with a shorter FAZ associated with a longer unattached flagellum and repositioned kinetoplast and basal body, reminiscent of epimastigote-like morphology. Further, we show that TbSAS-4 associates with six additional FAZ tip proteins, and depletion of TbSAS-4 disrupts the enrichment of these FAZ tip proteins at the new FAZ tip, suggesting a role of TbSAS-4 in maintaining the integrity of this FAZ tip protein complex. Together, these results uncover a novel function of TbSAS-4 in regulating the length of the FAZ filament to control basal body positioning and life cycle transitions in T. brucei.

  6. The Centriole Cartwheel Protein SAS-6 in Trypanosoma brucei Is Required for Probasal Body Biogenesis and Flagellum Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Qing; Siegel, Sara; Li, Ziyin

    2015-09-01

    The centriole in eukaryotes functions as the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to nucleate spindle assembly, and its biogenesis requires an evolutionarily conserved protein, SAS-6, which assembles the centriole cartwheel. Trypanosoma brucei, an early branching protozoan, possesses the basal body as its MTOC to nucleate flagellum biogenesis. However, little is known about the components of the basal body and their roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly. Here, we report that the T. brucei SAS-6 homolog, TbSAS-6, is localized to the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle. RNA interference (RNAi) of TbSAS-6 inhibited probasal body biogenesis, compromised flagellum assembly, and caused cytokinesis arrest. Surprisingly, overexpression of TbSAS-6 in T. brucei also impaired probasal body duplication and flagellum assembly, contrary to SAS-6 overexpression in humans, which produces supernumerary centrioles. Furthermore, we showed that depletion of T. brucei Polo-like kinase, TbPLK, or inhibition of TbPLK activity did not abolish TbSAS-6 localization to the basal body, in contrast to the essential role of Polo-like kinase in recruiting SAS-6 to centrioles in animals. Altogether, these results identified the essential role of TbSAS-6 in probasal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly and suggest the presence of a TbPLK-independent pathway governing basal body duplication in T. brucei.

  7. SAS võib omapoolse panusena kustutada osa Estonian Airi laenust / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2011-01-01

    Lennufirma SAS investorsuhete asepresidendi Sture Stoleni sõnul ei ole tõenäoline, et nende firma maksaks mingit raha Estonian Airi kapitali, küll aga ei saa välistada võimalust, et võidakse kustutada osa antud laenust

  8. Essentials of Excel, Excel VBA, SAS and Minitab for statistical and financial analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Cheng-Few; Chang, Jow-Ran; Tai, Tzu

    2016-01-01

    This introductory textbook for business statistics teaches statistical analysis and research methods via business case studies and financial data using Excel, MINITAB, and SAS. Every chapter in this textbook engages the reader with data of individual stock, stock indices, options, and futures. One studies and uses statistics to learn how to study, analyze, and understand a data set of particular interest. Some of the more popular statistical programs that have been developed to use statistical and computational methods to analyze data sets are SAS, SPSS, and MINITAB. Of those, we look at MINITAB and SAS in this textbook. One of the main reasons to use MINITAB is that it is the easiest to use among the popular statistical programs. We look at SAS because it is the leading statistical package used in industry. We also utilize the much less costly and ubiquitous Microsoft Excel to do statistical analysis, as the benefits of Excel have become widely recognized in the academic world and its analytical capabilities...

  9. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  10. Kuue riigi tudengid mängivad Radisson SAS hotelli juhatust / Agne Narusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Narusk, Agne

    2003-01-01

    90 soome, eesti, ungari, prantsusmaa, hollandi ja belgia tudengit kehastuvad Radisson SAS hotellide rahvusvahelise juhatuse liikmeteks ja esitavad kujuteldavale aktsionäride üldkoosolekule nägemuse uutest võimalikest hotellidest. Hotelliülesanded koostas Eesti Kõrgema Kommertskooli (EBS) ettevõtluse õppetooli lektor Elena Pruvli

  11. SAS pani Estonian Airi aktsiad müüki / Riina Kallas, Tuuli Aug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallas, Riina

    2009-01-01

    SAS müüb enamusosaluse Estonian Airis ja veel kuues tütarfirmas, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts näeb Estonian Airi uue osanikuna mõnda Eesti investorit. Endise Estonian Airi presidendi Erki Urva arvamus

  12. SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Vela pulsar. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of additional data from SAS-2 experiment and improvements in the orbit-attitude data and analysis procedures have produced revised values for the flux from the Vela gamma-ray source. The pulsar phase plot shows two peaks, neither of which is in phase with the single radio pulse.

  13. Clinical SAS programming in India: A study of industry needs versus wants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiyanandhan Ananthakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical SAS (www.sas.com programming industry, in India, has seen a rapid growth in the last decade and the trend seems set to continue, for the next couple of years, due to cost advantage and the availability of skilled labor. On one side the industry needs are focused on less execution time, high margins, segmented tasks and the delivery of high quality output with minimal oversight. On the other side, due to the increased demand for skilled resources, the wants of the programmers have taken a different shift toward diversifying exposure, unsustainable wage inflation due to multiple opportunities and generally high expectations around career progression. If the industry needs are not going to match with programmers want, or vice versa, then there is the possibility that the current year on year growth may start to slow or even go into decline. Aim: This paper is intended to identify the gap between wants and need and puts forwards some suggestions, for both sides, in ways to change the equation to benefit all. Settings and Design: Questionnaire on similar themes created to survey managers and programmers working in clinical SAS programming industry and was surveyed online to collect their perspectives. Their views are compared for each theme and presented as results. Materials and Methods: Two surveys were created in www.surveymonkey.com. Management: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_managment_needvswant_survey. Programmer: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/SAS_India_programmer_needvswant_survey. Statistical Analysis Used: Bar chart and pie chart used on data collect to show segmentation of data. Results and Conclusions: In conclusion, it seeks to highlight the future industry direction and the skillset that existing programmers need to have, in order to sustain the momentum and remain competitive, to contribute to the future pipeline and the development of the profession in India.

  14. The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Safety Analysis Code System, Version 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, T. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code is developed by Argonne National Laboratory for thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic analysis of power and flow transients in liquidmetal- cooled nuclear reactors (LMRs). SAS4A was developed to analyze severe core disruption accidents with coolant boiling and fuel melting and relocation, initiated by a very low probability coincidence of an accident precursor and failure of one or more safety systems. SASSYS-1, originally developed to address loss-of-decay-heat-removal accidents, has evolved into a tool for margin assessment in design basis accident (DBA) analysis and for consequence assessment in beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. SAS4A contains detailed, mechanistic models of transient thermal, hydraulic, neutronic, and mechanical phenomena to describe the response of the reactor core, its coolant, fuel elements, and structural members to accident conditions. The core channel models in SAS4A provide the capability to analyze the initial phase of core disruptive accidents, through coolant heat-up and boiling, fuel element failure, and fuel melting and relocation. Originally developed to analyze oxide fuel clad with stainless steel, the models in SAS4A have been extended and specialized to metallic fuel with advanced alloy cladding. SASSYS-1 provides the capability to perform a detailed thermal/hydraulic simulation of the primary and secondary sodium coolant circuits and the balance-ofplant steam/water circuit. These sodium and steam circuit models include component models for heat exchangers, pumps, valves, turbines, and condensers, and thermal/hydraulic models of pipes and plena. SASSYS-1 also contains a plant protection and control system modeling capability, which provides digital representations of reactor, pump, and valve controllers and their response to input signal changes.

  15. MIAWARE Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Pereira, Oscar N. M.; Dias, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    This article presents MIAWARE, a software for Medical Image Analysis With Automated Reporting Engine, which was designed and developed for doctor/radiologist assistance. It allows to analyze an image stack from computed axial tomography scan of lungs (thorax) and, at the same time, to mark all...... pathologies on images and report their characteristics. The reporting process is normalized - radiologists cannot describe pathological changes with their own words, but can only use some terms from a specific vocabulary set provided by the software. Consequently, a normalized radiological report...... is automatically generated. Furthermore, MIAWARE software is accompanied with an intelligent search engine for medical reports, based on the relations between parts of the lungs. A logical structure of the lungs is introduced to the search algorithm through the specially developed ontology. As a result...

  16. NParCov3: A SAS/IML Macro for Nonparametric Randomization-Based Analysis of Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Zink

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of covariance serves two important purposes in a randomized clinical trial. First, there is a reduction of variance for the treatment effect which provides more powerful statistical tests and more precise confidence intervals. Second, it provides estimates of the treatment effect which are adjusted for random imbalances of covariates between the treatment groups. The nonparametric analysis of covariance method of Koch, Tangen, Jung, and Amara (1998 defines a very general methodology using weighted least-squares to generate covariate-adjusted treatment effects with minimal assumptions. This methodology is general in its applicability to a variety of outcomes, whether continuous, binary, ordinal, incidence density or time-to-event. Further, its use has been illustrated in many clinical trial settings, such as multi-center, dose-response and non-inferiority trials.NParCov3 is a SAS/IML macro written to conduct the nonparametric randomization-based covariance analyses of Koch et al. (1998. The software can analyze a variety of outcomes and can account for stratification. Data from multiple clinical trials will be used for illustration.

  17. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  18. [Software version and medical device software supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of software version in the medical device software supervision does not cause enough attention at present. First of all, the effect of software version in the medical device software supervision is discussed, and then the necessity of software version in the medical device software supervision is analyzed based on the discussion of the misunderstanding of software version. Finally the concrete suggestions on software version naming rules, software version supervision for the software in medical devices, and software version supervision scheme are proposed.

  19. Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  20. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  1. Software Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔涛; 周淼

    1996-01-01

    The information used with computers is known as software and includesprograms and data. Programs are sets of instructions telling the computerwhat operations have to be carried out and in what order they should be done. Specialised programs which enable the computer to be used for particularpurposes are called applications programs. A collection of these programs kept

  2. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  3. Software Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT-A AND A ENVIRONMENTAL SEALS, INC., SEAL ASSIST SYSTEM (SAS) PHASE II REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Seal Assist System (SAS) for natural gas reciprocating compressor rod packing manufactured by A&A Environmental Seals, Inc. The SAS uses a secondary containment gland to collect natural g...

  5. Houston, We Have a Problem: Teachers Find No Value in the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clarin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®) in practice, as perceived and experienced by teachers in the Southwest School District (SSD). To evaluate teacher effectiveness, SSD is using SAS EVAAS® for high-stakes consequences more than any other district or state in the country. A mixed-method design including a…

  6. Unsteady Simulations of the Flow in a Channel Flow and a Ventilated Room Using the SST-SAS Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    -SAS model is evaluated for two flows: developing channel flow and the flow in a three-dimensional ventilated room. Unsteady inlet boundary conditions are prescribed in both cases by superimposing isotropic synthetic fluctuations on a steady inlet boundary velocity profile.......The SAS model (Scale Adapted Simulation) was invented by Menter and his co-workers. The idea behind the SST-SAS model is to add an additional production term - the SAS term - in the w equation which is sensitive to resolved (i.e. unsteady) fluctuations. In regions where the flow is on the limit...... of going unsteady, the object of the SAS term is to increase w. The result is that k and vt are reduced so that the dissipating (damping) effect of the turbulent viscosity on the resolved fluctuations is reduced, thereby promoting the momentum equations to switch from steady to unsteady mode. The SST...

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans centriolar protein SAS-6 forms a spiral that is consistent with imparting a ninefold symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Erat, Michèle C; Hachet, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Blank, Iris D; Flückiger, Isabelle; Slater, Leanne; Lowe, Edward D; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Steinmetz, Michel O; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2013-07-09

    Centrioles are evolutionary conserved organelles that give rise to cilia and flagella as well as centrosomes. Centrioles display a characteristic ninefold symmetry imposed by the spindle assembly abnormal protein 6 (SAS-6) family. SAS-6 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Danio rerio was shown to form ninefold symmetric, ring-shaped oligomers in vitro that were similar to the cartwheels observed in vivo during early steps of centriole assembly in most species. Here, we report crystallographic and EM analyses showing that, instead, Caenorhabotis elegans SAS-6 self-assembles into a spiral arrangement. Remarkably, we find that this spiral arrangement is also consistent with ninefold symmetry, suggesting that two distinct SAS-6 oligomerization architectures can direct the same output symmetry. Sequence analysis suggests that SAS-6 spirals are restricted to specific nematodes. This oligomeric arrangement may provide a structural basis for the presence of a central tube instead of a cartwheel during centriole assembly in these species.

  8. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermold, B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Flynn, CJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Barnard, J [University of Nevada Reno

    2013-11-27

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Hemispheric (SAS-He) is a ground-based, shadowband instrument that measures the direct and diffuse solar irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) – an instrument that has been in the ARM suite of instruments for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the MFRSR only observes the spectrum in six discrete wavelength channels of about 10 nm width from 415 to 940 nm. The SAS-He, in contrast, incorporates two fiber-coupled grating spectrometers: a Si CCD spectrometer with over 2000 pixels covering the range from 325-1040 nm with ~ 2.5 nm resolution ,and an InGaAs array spectrometer with 256 pixels covering the wavelength range from 960-1700 nm with ~ 6 nm resolution.

  9. SAS 2.0丰收期即将到来?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁绍龙

    2009-01-01

    @@ SAS技术诞生8年以来经历了重重考验,现在SAS2.0走入产品化,也意味着苦熬多年的SAS技术即将迎来自己的丰收期. 2001年11月26号,Compaq、IBM、LSI、Maxtor和Seagate联合宣布成立SAS(Serial Attached SCSI,也称串行SCSI)工作组,标志着SAS正式走入存储的舞台.一晃近8年时间过去了,从刚开始的广泛质疑到现在的逐渐接受,SAS技术在这8年中经历了重重考验.

  10. SAS-2 observations of celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The small astronomy satellite, SAS-2, used a 32-deck magnetic core digitized spark chamber to study gamma rays with energies above 30 MeV. Data for four regions of the sky away from the galactic plane were analyzed. These regions show a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum, and the flux is uniform over all the regions. Represented by a power law, the differential energy spectrum shows an index of 2.5 + or - 0.4. The steep SAS-2 spectrum and the lower energy data are reasonably consistent with a neutral pion gamma-ray spectrum which was red-shifted (such as that proposed by some cosmological theories). It is concluded that the diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum observed presents the possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual cosmic ray density, and supports the galactic superclusters of matter and antimatter remaining from baryon-symmetric big bang.

  11. The PLK4-STIL-SAS-6 module at the core of centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquint, Christian; Nigg, Erich A

    2016-10-15

    Centrioles are microtubule-based core components of centrosomes and cilia. They are duplicated exactly once during S-phase progression. Central to formation of each new (daughter) centriole is the formation of a nine-fold symmetrical cartwheel structure onto which microtubule triplets are deposited. In recent years, a module comprising the protein kinase polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and the two proteins STIL and SAS-6 have been shown to stay at the core of centriole duplication. Depletion of any one of these three proteins blocks centriole duplication and, conversely, overexpression causes centriole amplification. In this short review article, we summarize recent insights into how PLK4, STIL and SAS-6 co-operate in space and time to form a new centriole. These advances begin to shed light on the very first steps of centriole biogenesis.

  12. EPIQR software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. [Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Droutsa, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Wittchen, K.B. [Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenario and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (au)

  13. EPIQR software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flourentzos, F. [Federal Institute of Technology-Lausanne (EPFL), Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Droutsa, K. [National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Meteorology and Physics of Atmospheric Environment, Group Energy Conservation, Athens (Greece); Wittchen, K.B. [Danish Building Research Institute, Division of Energy and Indoor Environment, Hoersholm, (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The support of the EPIQR method is a multimedia computer program. Several modules help the users of the method to treat the data collected during a diagnosis survey, to set up refurbishment scenarios and calculate their cost or energy performance, and finally to visualize the results in a comprehensive way and to prepare quality reports. This article presents the structure and the main features of the software. (author)

  14. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  15. Síndrome de apnea del sueño (SAS Sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo José Borrego Abello

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el síndrome de apnea del sueño (SAS abarcando los aspectos históricos, signos y síntomas, las diversas modalidades (apneas obstructiva, central y mixta, complicaciones, principalmente cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares y formas de tratamiento. Se hace énfasis en la ayuda diagnóstica del polisomnograma que ha permitido definir como SAS síntomas antes considerados inespecíficos y cuantificar su gravedad. Se describen las diversas medidas terapéuticas, locales y generales, recalcando los beneficios que se obtienen con la aplicación de los aparatos de respiración a presión positiva. Estos permiten tratamientos no invasivos que hacen desaparecer la totalidad de los síntomas y evitan los riesgos incrementados de trastornos cardiovasculares y accidentes laborales o de tránsito. Este grave síndrome afecta a un grupo grande de población por lo que su importancia es indudable.

    Different aspects of the sleep apnea síndrome (SAS are described, including history, clinical manifestations, clinical forms (obstructive, central and mixed, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and other complications and treatment. With the use of the polysomnogram it has been possible to define non-specific symptoms as due to SAS and to quantitate their seriousness. Different therapeutic approaches are described, both local and systemic, with emphasis on the benefits obtained from the use of positive pressure breathing machines which control every manifestation of the syndrome and avoid the increased cardiovascular risks aswell as work and traffic accidents. This syndrome is important in terms of frequency and of increased death risk.

  16. Simple and flexible SAS and SPSS programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B P

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes simple and flexible programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data, using SAS and SPSS. The programs read a stream of codes and produce a variety of lag-sequential statistics, including transitional frequencies, expected transitional frequencies, transitional probabilities, adjusted residuals, z values, Yule's Q values, likelihood ratio tests of stationarity across time and homogeneity across groups or segments, transformed kappas for unidirectional dependence, bidirectional dependence, parallel and nonparallel dominance, and significance levels based on both parametric and randomization tests.

  17. Immunomagnetic separation and visual fluorescence detection of Salmonella spp., using AOAC approved SAS Molecular Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Maganty, Gayatri; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Morey, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular Tests method for detection of Salmonella spp. in various food matrixes has been certified by the AOAC Research Institute and designated Performance Tested Method No. 021202. The current method modification includes the optional immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to enrich the bacteria as well as optional visual fluorescence readout without the use of a turbidimeter. The modifications were validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) reference methods. Food matrixes (chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and spinach) were inoculated with low levels of Salmonella spp. (0.2-2 CFU/test portion) to generate fractional positives (5-15) in 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched with SAS Enrichment medium and incubated at 42 +/- 1 degree C. Enrichments were tested directly and subjected to anti-Salmonella IMS prior to the SAS Molecular Tests. Results were determined via visual fluorescence and via turbidity using a turbidimeter. All replicates were confirmed using the MLG or BAM reference method procedures, regardless of presumptive result. The SAS Molecular Tests Salmonella Detection modified methods were determined to be equivalent to the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and fresh spinach. The inclusion of IMS in the modified method improved the detection rate of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinses and spinach. The optional use of visual fluorescent reagent and heat block either with IMS or without IMS produced results that were comparable to the results obtained from using a real-time turbidimeter.

  18. Learning SAS’s Perl Regular Expression Matching the Easy Way: By Doing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-12

    Regular Expression ( PRX ) functions were added in SAS9. The key to learning how to use them is learning PRX metacharacter behavior within a PRX match. The...more you practice PRX matching, the more proficient you become. Ideally, practice would involve a method for repeating the matching process so as to...regex_learning_tool allows both beginner and expert to efficiently practice PRX matching by selecting and processing only the match records that the user is interested

  19. Poisson回归模型的SAS GENMOD实现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小平

    2000-01-01

    通过实例演示了Poisson回归模型的SAS程序实现方法,采用SAS GENMOD过程进行Poisson回归分析,结果齐全、应用灵活,为服从Poisson分布的队列、随访等频数资料提供了有力的分析工具.

  20. Recent results of X-ray observations from OSO-7 and SAS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Recent observations bearing on the nature of compact X-ray sources obtained from the MIT instruments aboard OSO-7 and SAS-3 are discussed. Results on the X-ray sky survey, new ultralow-energy X-ray sources, X-ray sources in globular clusters, slow X-ray pulsars, and variability and position of compact X-ray sources in Cen A are discussed. Descriptions of the satellite-borne X-ray instruments are provided.

  1. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  2. SAS统计分析软件模块揽要%Profiles on Modules of SAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 黄瑜

    2008-01-01

    SAS(Statistics Analysis System)是20世纪60年代初美国SAS公司研发的统计分析软件.SAS与SPSS及BMDP并称为国际上最有知名度的三大统计软件,如今,在我国社会科学乃至自然科学领域已得到了广泛应用.

  3. The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Ohsawa, Shizue; Kunimasa, Kei; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2017-02-09

    Normal epithelial cells often exert anti-tumour effects against nearby oncogenic cells. In the Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic cells with loss-of-function mutations in the apico-basal polarity genes scribble or discs large are actively eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling plays a crucial role in this cell elimination, the initial event, which occurs at the interface between normal cells and polarity-deficient cells, has not previously been identified. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify the ligand Sas and the receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase PTP10D as the cell-surface ligand-receptor system that drives tumour-suppressive cell competition. At the interface between the wild-type 'winner' and the polarity-deficient 'loser' clones, winner cells relocalize Sas to the lateral cell surface, whereas loser cells relocalize PTP10D there. This leads to the trans-activation of Sas-PTP10D signalling in loser cells, which restrains EGFR signalling and thereby enables elevated JNK signalling in loser cells, triggering cell elimination. In the absence of Sas-PTP10D, elevated EGFR signalling in loser cells switches the role of JNK from pro-apoptotic to pro-proliferative by inactivating the Hippo pathway, thereby driving the overgrowth of polarity-deficient cells. These findings uncover the mechanism by which normal epithelial cells recognize oncogenic polarity-deficient neighbours to drive cell competition.

  4. Solubilization of the poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan, using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Ahn, Junhyun; Han, Kang; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-30

    Telmisartan is a biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II drug that has extremely low water solubility but is freely soluble in highly alkalized solutions. Few organic solvents can dissolve telmisartan. This solubility problem is the main obstacle achieving the desired bioavailability. Because of its unique characteristics, the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process was used to BCS class II drug in a variety of ways including micronization, amorphization and solid dispersion. Solid dispersions were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose/polyvinylpyrrolidone (HPMC/PVP) at 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 weight ratios of drug to polymer, and pure telmisartan was also treated using the SAS process. Processed samples were characterized for morphology, particle size, crystallinity, solubility, dissolution rate and polymorphic stability. After the SAS process, all samples were converted to the amorphous form and were confirmed to be hundreds nm in size. Solubility and dissolution rate were increased compared to the raw material. Solubility tended to increase with increases in the amount of polymer used. However, unlike the solubility results, the dissolution rate decreased with increases in polymer concentration due to gel layer formation of the polymer. Processed pure telmisartan showed the best drug release even though it had lower solubility compared to other solid dispersions; however, because there were no stabilizers in processed pure telmisartan, it recrystallized after 1 month under severe conditions, while the other solid dispersion samples remained amorphous form. We conclude that after controlling the formulation of solid dispersion, the SAS process could be a promising approach for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of telmisartan.

  5. Software Engineering to Professionalize Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The role, increasingly important, that plays the software in the systems with widespread effects presents new challenges for the formation of Software Engineers. Not only because social dependence software is increasing, but also because the character of software development is also changing and with it the demands for software developers certified. In this paper are propose some challenges and aspirations that guide the learning processes Software Engineering and help to identify the need to train professionals in software development.

  6. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations.

  7. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1.

  8. Living Together v. Living Well Together: A Normative Examination of the SAS Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori G. Beaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Court of Human Rights decision in SAS from France illustrates how a policy and national mantra that ostensibly aims to enhance inclusiveness, ‘living together’, is legally deployed in a manner that may have the opposite effect. In essence, despite acknowledging the sincerity of SAS’s religious practice of wearing the niqab, and her agency in making the decision to do so, the Court focuses on radicalism and women’s oppression amongst Muslims. Taking the notion of living together as the beginning point, the paper explores the normative assumptions underlying this notion as illustrated in the judgment of the Court. An alternative approach, drawing on the work of Derrida for the notion of ‘living well together’ will be proposed and its implications for social inclusion explicated. The paper’s aim is to move beyond the specific example of SAS and France to argue that the SAS pattern of identifying particular values as ‘national values’, the deployment of those values through law, policy and public discourse, and their exclusionary effects is playing out in a number of Western democracies, including Canada, the country with which the author is most familiar. Because of this widespread dissemination of values and their framing as representative of who ‘we’ are, there is a pressing need to consider the potentially alienating effects of a specific manifestation of ‘living together’ and an alternative model of ‘living well together’.

  9. Embedding SAS approach into conjugate gradient algorithms for asymmetric 3D elasticity problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Chu; Warsi, N.A. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Sameh, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present two strategies to embed the SAS (symmetric-and-antisymmetric) scheme into conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms to make solving 3D elasticity problems, with or without global reflexive symmetry, more efficient. The SAS approach is physically a domain decomposition scheme that takes advantage of reflexive symmetry of discretized physical problems, and algebraically a matrix transformation method that exploits special reflexivity properties of the matrix resulting from discretization. In addition to offering large-grain parallelism, which is valuable in a multiprocessing environment, the SAS scheme also has the potential for reducing arithmetic operations in the numerical solution of a reasonably wide class of scientific and engineering problems. This approach can be applied directly to problems that have global reflexive symmetry, yielding smaller and independent subproblems to solve, or indirectly to problems with partial symmetry, resulting in loosely coupled subproblems. The decomposition is achieved by separating the reflexive subspace from the antireflexive one, possessed by a special class of matrices A, A {element_of} C{sup n x n} that satisfy the relation A = PAP where P is a reflection matrix (symmetric signed permutation matrix).

  10. [Perioperative management in children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing adenoidotonsillectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Nemoto, Mikiko; Sato, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    We should take care of the occurrences of apnea and hypopnea after emergence from general anesthesia in the children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) due to an increase in sensitivity to opioid agonists given for previous recurrent hypoxia. Preoperative assessment for SAS with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum artery oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (lowest SpO2) obtained from polysomnography (PSG) test could help to predict the postoperative respiratory depression. In perioperative management in the children with SAS who are candidates for adenotonsillectomy, the dose of opioid agonists during anesthesia maintenance for purpose of postoperative analgesia and sedation should be reduced; postoperative respiratory and circulatory management with monitoring of respiratory movement of the thoracoabdominal part, and electrographic (ECG) and SpO2 monitoring should be continued intensively under long-term oxygen administration; and airway management, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), and artificial ventilation should be prepared for the occurrence of postoperative respiratory depression.

  11. [Perioperative management of an obese patient complicated with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing awake craniotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komayama, Noriaki; Kamata, Kotoe; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Both obesity (BMI over 30) and SAS are risks for Supper airway maintenance. We report an obese patient (BMI 33.5) with SAS who underwent awake craniotomy. Weight reduction was instructed 1 month before the operation, and the patient lost enough weight to use intraoperative MRI. Under general anesthesia, surgical pads containing 2% lidocaine with adrenaline were inserted into the nasal cavities. The patient's airway S was secured by i-gel® until dura was opened. A nasal airway was then inserted to confirm the upper airway patency and anesthetics were terminated The patient regained consciousness and started respiration. The i-gel® was removed. The nasal airway was changed to an RAE tracheal tube ; the tube was fixed above the vocal cords under bronchofiberscopic observation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via RAE tube was started. Neither coughing nor epistaxis was observed.The RAE tube prevented glossoptosis and did not disturb speech mapping. Emergent endotracheal intubation was easily managed because the tube was close to the glottis. The RAE tube was removed and nasal CP AP was applied overnight Carefully prepared CP AP support via nasal RAE tube was practical in keeping upper airway patency for an obese patient complicated with SAS undergoing awake craniotomy.

  12. 基于SAS-WEBLOGIC的数据挖掘模型及应用%Data mining model and application based on SAS-weblogic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽红

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种基于SAS-Weblogic的数据挖掘模型,SAS作为数据挖掘语言处于模型的核心,Weblogic作为中间构件,负责SAS数据集联系前端浏览器和后台数据库,起着监控和管理作用.该模型适用于大中型数据挖掘应用,为现代企业提供了一种重要的决策支持系统模型.最后通过实验证明了模型的有效性.

  13. SAS在辐射剂量-效应研究中的应用%Application of SAS in the study on radiation dose-effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长安

    2001-01-01

    简述辐射剂量-效应研究中常用的13种数学模型。应用SAS 6.12 for windows统计软件包编写的程序可以方便、快捷地实现辐射剂量-效应曲线的拟合并筛选出最佳的数学模型。%Thirteen mathematical models usually used in study on radiation dose-effect are described in this paper.Radiation dose-effect curve can be fitted conveniently and quickly and an optimal mathematical model for it can be selected with computer programs programmed with Statistical Analysis System(SAS)software package,version 6.12 for windows.

  14. Space Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  15. Software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Oliver; Chughtai, Arif

    2011-01-01

    As a software architect you work in a wide-ranging and dynamic environment. You have to understand the needs of your customer, design architectures that satisfy both functional and non-functional requirements, and lead development teams in implementing the architecture. And it is an environment that is constantly changing: trends such as cloud computing, service orientation, and model-driven procedures open up new architectural possibilities. This book will help you to develop a holistic architectural awareness and knowledge base that extends beyond concrete methods, techniques, and technologi

  16. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  17. Software architects’ experiences of quality requirements : what we know and what we do not know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Buglione, Luigi; Herrmann, Andrea; Doerr, J.; Opdahl, A.

    2013-01-01

    [Context/motivation] Quality requirements (QRs) are a concern of both requirement engineering (RE) specialists and software architects (SAs). However, the majority of empirical studies on QRs take the RE analysts’/clients’ perspectives, and only recently very few included the SAs’ perspective. As a

  18. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  19. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds.

  20. De novo centriole formation in human cells is error-prone and does not require SAS-6 self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Won-Jing; Acehan, Devrim; Kao, Chien-Han; Jane, Wann-Neng; Uryu, Kunihiro; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2015-11-26

    Vertebrate centrioles normally propagate through duplication, but in the absence of preexisting centrioles, de novo synthesis can occur. Consistently, centriole formation is thought to strictly rely on self-assembly, involving self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6. Here, through reconstitution of de novo synthesis in human cells, we surprisingly found that normal looking centrioles capable of duplication and ciliation can arise in the absence of SAS-6 self-oligomerization. Moreover, whereas canonically duplicated centrioles always form correctly, de novo centrioles are prone to structural errors, even in the presence of SAS-6 self-oligomerization. These results indicate that centriole biogenesis does not strictly depend on SAS-6 self-assembly, and may require preexisting centrioles to ensure structural accuracy, fundamentally deviating from the current paradigm.

  1. SOFTWARE METRICS VALIDATION METHODOLOGIES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software measurement validations, assessing the validation of software metrics in software engineering is a very difficult task due to lack of theoretical methodology and empirical methodology [41, 44, 45]. During recent years, there have been a number of researchers addressing the issue of validating software metrics. At present, software metrics are validated theoretically using properties of measures. Further, software measurement plays an important role in understanding and controlling software development practices and products. The major requirement in software measurement is that the measures must represent accurately those attributes they purport to quantify and validation is critical to the success of software measurement. Normally, validation is a collection of analysis and testing activities across the full life cycle and complements the efforts of other quality engineering functions and validation is a critical task in any engineering project. Further, validation objective is to discover defects in a system and assess whether or not the system is useful and usable in operational situation. In the case of software engineering, validation is one of the software engineering disciplines that help build quality into software. The major objective of software validation process is to determine that the software performs its intended functions correctly and provides information about its quality and reliability. This paper discusses the validation methodology, techniques and different properties of measures that are used for software metrics validation. In most cases, theoretical and empirical validations are conducted for software metrics validations in software engineering [1-50].

  2. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) Isotopic Predictions for BWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  3. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions for BWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; DeHart, M.D.

    1998-09-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  4. Handling missing data in cluster randomized trials: A demonstration of multiple imputation with PAN through SAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangxiu Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a way of dealing with missing data in clustered randomized trials by doing multiple imputation (MI with the PAN package in R through SAS. The procedure for doing MI with PAN through SAS is demonstrated in detail in order for researchers to be able to use this procedure with their own data. An illustration of the technique with empirical data was also included. In this illustration thePAN results were compared with pairwise deletion and three types of MI: (1 Normal Model (NM-MI ignoring the cluster structure; (2 NM-MI with dummy-coded cluster variables (fixed cluster structure; and (3 a hybrid NM-MI which imputes half the time ignoring the cluster structure, and the other half including the dummy-coded cluster variables. The empirical analysis showed that using PAN and the other strategies produced comparable parameter estimates. However, the dummy-coded MI overestimated the intraclass correlation, whereas MI ignoring the cluster structure and the hybrid MI underestimated the intraclass correlation. When compared with PAN, the p-value and standard error for the treatment effect were higher with dummy-coded MI, and lower with MI ignoring the clusterstructure, the hybrid MI approach, and pairwise deletion. Previous studies have shown that NM-MI is not appropriate for handling missing data in clustered randomized trials. This approach, in addition to the pairwise deletion approach, leads to a biased intraclass correlation and faultystatistical conclusions. Imputation in clustered randomized trials should be performed with PAN. We have demonstrated an easy way for using PAN through SAS.

  5. SAS molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 detection kit. Performance tested method 031203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 Detection method, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. Ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion) was validated for 7-8 h enrichment, leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was also shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Salmonella. Thus, after a short co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection Kit was validated using the same test portions as for the SAS Molecular tests E. coli O157 Detection Kit and those results are presented in a separate report. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 50 E. coli 0157 strains, including H7 and non-motile strains, and 30 non-E. coli O157 strains examined. Finally, the method was shown to be robust when variations to DNA extract hold time and DNA volume were varied. The method comparison and robustness data suggest a full 7 h enrichment time should be used for 25 g ground beef test portions.

  6. Human SAS-6 C-Terminus Nucleates and Promotes Microtubule Assembly in Vitro by Binding to Microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hindol; Badarudeen, Binshad; George, Athira; Thomas, Geethu Emily; Gireesh, K K; Manna, Tapas K

    2015-10-20

    Centrioles are essential components of the animal centrosome and play crucial roles in the formation of cilia and flagella. They are cylindrical structures composed of nine triplet microtubules organized around a central cartwheel. Recent studies have identified spindle assembly abnormal protein SAS-6 as a critical component necessary for formation of the cartwheel. However, the molecular details of how the cartwheel participates in centriolar microtubule assembly have not been clearly understood. In this report, we show that the C-terminal tail (residues 470-657) of human SAS-6, HsSAS-6 C, the region that has been shown to extend toward the centriolar wall where the microtubule triplets are organized, nucleated and induced microtubule polymerization in vitro. The N-terminus (residues 1-166) of HsSAS-6, the domain known to be involved in formation of the central hub of the cartwheel, did not, however, exert any effect on microtubule polymerization. HsSAS-6 C bound to the microtubules and localized along the lengths of the microtubules in vitro. Microtubule pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments with S-phase synchronized HeLa cell lysates showed that the endogenous HsSAS-6 coprecipitated with the microtubules, and it mediated interaction with tubulin. Isothermal calorimetry titration and size exclusion chromatography showed that HsSAS-6 C bound to the αβ-tubulin dimer in vitro. The results demonstrate that HsSAS-6 possesses an intrinsic microtubule assembly promoting activity and further implicate that its outer exposed C-terminal tail may play critical roles in microtubule assembly and stabilizing microtubule attachment with the centriolar cartwheel.

  7. Modelo de franquicia "Wico y Dass Pasteleritos S.A.S"

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El modelo de franquicia para la empresa Wico Y Dass Pasteleritos S.A.S. se realizó con base a la investigación en torno al modelo de desarrollo de las franquicias tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, evidenciando en los grandes logros que han obtenido algunas empresas internacionales al aplicar el modelo franquiciario. En Colombia, los tipos de negociación basados en franquicias aún no se encuentran reglamentados por la jurisprudencia colombiana, por lo tanto, fue necesario guia...

  8. Café de la Montaña S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Crear la empresa Café de la Montaña S.A.S, para la implementación y sostenimiento de 27.500 árboles de café variedad castillo y producir 27.500 Kg de café pergamino seco de alta calidad en la finca La Estrella, vereda Buena Vista, municipio de Campo alegre departamento del Huila. El concepto innovador en este proyecto se encuentra en la implementación de un sistema agroforestal asociado al cultivo de café, además la implementación del modelo becolsub como alternativa para descontaminar los su...

  9. Generation of Synthetic SAS Data for Targets near the Seafloor: Propagation Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    ωωϕθω ωω srcijij it imin ti tj jmjn ti ij PFrr BAe rr BAeP ij       −        − =  , (1) where Psrc(ω) is the frequency... application and consists of the source and receiver locations rs and rr and a single image source located at rsi and image receiver at rri. This...range (provide the range meets the far field requirement). IMPACT/ APPLICATIONS The current version of SAS-ST has been used in comparisons with data

  10. %lrasch_mml: A SAS Macro for Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Longitudinal Polytomous Rasch Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Olsbjerg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing. Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included.

  11. %lrasch_mml: A SAS Macro for Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Longitudinal Polytomous Rasch Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Olsbjerg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing. Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included.

  12. SAS-2 observations of high energy gamma rays from discrete sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The SAS-2 identified six localized high energy (greater than 35 MeV) gamma ray sources. Four of these are the radio pulsars, PSR 0531+21, PSR 0833-45, PSR 1818-04, and PSR 1717-46 discovered in a search of 75 radio pulsars. The fact that only one of these is observed in X-rays, and the significant differences in pulse profiles in the gamma ray and radio observations, leads to the speculation that different mechanisms are involved.

  13. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.

  14. 人工改造基因Cry1Abm的合成、原核表达及其抗虫鉴定%Synthesis of the Modified Cry1Abm Gene, Expressionin E.coli and Bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳润清; 铁双贵; 陈小洁; 齐建双; 韩小花; 燕树峰; 徐玉格; 林鸿

    2013-01-01

    The coding regions of wild Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab was optimized and modified according to plant preferred codons and frequency. The modified Cry1Abm gene had 66.2 percent homology with the native cry1Ab gene, and G+C content was raised from 37.3% to 62.7%. The modified Cry1Abm gene was artificially synthesized. Modified Cry1Abm gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28bm, to construct plasmid pETAbm. The protein expression in E. coli BL21(DE3) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The results of insect assay with Asian corn borer showed the protein crude expression products of Cry1Abm gene in E. coli had a toxicity to corn borer. The mortality of insect larvae was accounted for 86.63%, and the growth of the survival larvae was seriously inhibited.%根据植物密码子的偏好性及使用频率,对苏云金芽孢杆菌Cry1Ab野生型基因的编码区序列进行优化和改造,改造后的Cry1Abm基因序列与原始序列同源性为66.2%,G+C含量由37.3%提高到62.7%。人工合成Cry1Abm基因,并将人工合成的改造后的Cry1Abm基因构建到原核表达载体pET28b中,构建原核表达载体pETAbm。将原核表达载体转入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行诱导表达,用诱导表达的蛋白进行饲虫(玉米螟)实验。结果表明,该蛋白对幼虫具有很强毒性,幼虫的死亡率高达86.63%,同时,存活幼虫的生长发育也受到明显抑制。该基因可以作为杀虫工程及培育转基因抗虫作物的候选基因。

  15. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Detection of sasX gene in Staphylococcus aureus and molecular epidemiological characteristics%金黄色葡萄球菌sasX基因的检测及其分子流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟一鸣; 丁健生; 刘文恩; 李虹玲; 晏群; 刘清霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查医院金黄色葡萄球菌 sasX 基因的携带情况并探究其分子流行特征,为揭示该基因在本地区的流行状况提供依据。方法收集中南大学湘雅医院2012年1-12月临床分离鉴定的金黄色葡萄球菌128株,采用 PCR 检测 sasX 基因,对该基因阳性的菌株采用多重 PCR 检测 SCCmec 分型、PCR 扩增 pvl 毒素基因,并进行多位点序列分型(MLST )和葡萄球菌 A 蛋白序列分析。结果128株金黄色葡萄球菌中共检测出2株 sasX 基因阳性菌株,检出率为1.6%,经头孢西丁鉴定这2株菌株均为耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA),SCCmec Ⅲ分型均为 SCCmec Ⅲ型,pv l 基因均阴性,MLST 分型为 ST239,spa 分型为 t037型。结论首次在湖南地区临床分离的金黄色葡萄球菌中发现存在 sasX 基因,sasX 基因可能是导致医院持续感染的毒力因素之一,应密切关注其流行发展趋势。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of sasX gene in Staphylococcus aureus (S .aureus) strains and explore the molecular epidemiological characteristics so as to reveal the prevalence of the gene in this area . METHODS A total of 128 clinical S .aureus isolates were collected from Xiangya Hospital ,Central South Universi-ty from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012 ,then the sasX gene was detected by using PCR ,the SCCmec Ⅲ genotypes were de-tected for the sasX-positive strains with the use of multiple PCR ,the pvl toxin gene was amplified by PCR ,the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was conducted to determine the sequence types(STs) ,and the staphylococcal protein A sequence typing (spa) of the sasX-positive strains was performed .RESULTS Of the 128 strains of S .au-reus ,2 were detected positive for the sasX gene ,with the detection rate 1 .6% ;both of the 2 strains were identi-fied as methicillin-resistant S .aureus (MRSA) by cefoxitin ,all of the SCCmec Ⅲ genotypes were SCCmec Ⅲ ,and the pvl gene was detected

  17. Software engineering architecture-driven software development

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineering: Architecture-driven Software Development is the first comprehensive guide to the underlying skills embodied in the IEEE's Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) standard. Standards expert Richard Schmidt explains the traditional software engineering practices recognized for developing projects for government or corporate systems. Software engineering education often lacks standardization, with many institutions focusing on implementation rather than design as it impacts product architecture. Many graduates join the workforce with incomplete skil

  18. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A: Psychometric properties in a Spanish-speaking population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olivares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental fue estudiar la estructura factorial y propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Ansiedad Social para Adolescentes (SASA. Participaron 2407 adolescentes (1263 chicos y 1144 chicas, con una edad media de 15 años, alumnos de nueve institutos de la región de Murcia. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la estructura tri-factorial propuesta por los autores de la escala (FNE, SAD-New, SAD-General. Se encontraron correlaciones interescalas significativas y niveles de consistencia interna elevados para las subescalas, así como respecto de los efectos del sexo en la puntuación SAS-A/Total y en sus subescalas, alcanzando las chicas las puntuaciones más elevadas. Sólo se hallaron diferencias significativas para la edad en la subescala FNE y no se constataron efectos de interacción entre los dos factores. Estos hallazgos parecen avalar el uso de la SAS-A en población adolescente de habla española.

  19. Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT Nanoparticles by Supercritical Antisolvent (SAS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyou Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to study the feasibility of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT nanoparticle preparation using supercritical antisolvent (SAS precipitation. The influences of various experimental factors on the mean particle size (MPS of HCPT nanoparticles were investigated. The optimum micronization conditions are determined as follows: HCPT solution concentration 0.5 mg/mL, the flow rate ratio of CO2 and HCPT solution 19.55, precipitation temperature 35 °C and precipitation pressure 20 MPa. Under the optimum conditions, HCPT nanoparticles with a MPS of 180 ± 20.3 nm were obtained. Moreover, the HCPT nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The physicochemical characterization results showed that the SAS process had not induced degradation of HCPT. Finally, the dissolution rates of HCPT nanoparticles were investigated and the results proved that there is a significant increase in dissolution rate compared to unprocessed HCPT.

  20. Krāsas un atmosfēra Edgara Alana Po dzejā

    OpenAIRE

    Kļimova, Kristīna

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir krāsas un noskaņa Edgar Allana Po dzejā. Pētījuma uzdevums ir noteikt biežāk lietojamos tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļus un krāsas Edgara Po dzejā, turklāt identificēt gaisotni un noskaņu šajos darbos. Darba autore ir veikusi pētījumu balstoties uz praktiskām un teorētiskām zināšanām. Teorētiskā daļa iztirzā tāda veida problēmas kā: tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļu būtību, simbolu un simbolsisko krāsu izmantošana literatūrā, ka arī to nozīmi Edgara Allana Po dzejā, un cit...

  1. MLGA: A SAS Macro to Compute Maximum Likelihood Estimators via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Juretig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear regression is usually implemented in SAS either by using PROC NLIN or PROC NLMIXED. Apart from the model structure, initial values need to be specified for each parameter. And after some convergence criteria are fulfilled, the second order conditions need to be analyzed. But numerical problems are expected to appear in case the likelihood is nearly discontinuous, has plateaus, multiple maxima, or the initial values are distant from the true parameter estimates. The usual solution consists of using a grid, and then choosing the set of parameters reporting the highest log-likelihood. However, if the amount of parameters or grid points is large, the computational burden will be excessive. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that, as the number of grid points increases, an equal or better set of points will be found. Genetic algorithms can overcome these problems by replicating how nature optimizes its processes. The MLGA macro is presented; it solves a maximum likelihood estimation problem under normality through PROC GA, and the resulting values can later be used as the starting values in SAS nonlinear procedures. As will be demonstrated, this macro can avoid the usual trial and error approach that is needed when convergence problems arise. Finally, it will be shown how this macro can deal with complicated restrictions involving multiple parameters.

  2. Efficiency prediction for a low head bulb turbine with SAS SST and zonal LES turbulence models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jošt, D.; Škerlavaj, A.

    2014-03-01

    A comparison between results of numerical simulations and measurements for a 3-blade bulb turbine is presented in order to determine an appropriate numerical setup for accurate and reliable simulations of flow in low head turbines. Numerical analysis was done for three angles of runner blades at two values of head. For the smallest blade angle the efficiency was quite accurately predicted, but for the optimal and maximal blade angles steady state analysis entirely failed to predict the efficiency due to underestimated torque on the shaft and incorrect results in the draft tube. Transient simulation with SST did not give satisfactory results, but with SAS and zonal LES models the prediction of efficiency was significantly improved. From the results obtained by SAS and zonal LES the interdependence between turbulence models, vortex structures in the flow, values of eddy viscosity and flow energy losses in the draft tube can be seen. Also the effect of using the bounded central differential scheme instead of the high resolution scheme was evident. To test the effect of grid density, simulations were performed on four grids. While a difference between results obtained on the basic grid and on the fine grid was small, the results obtained on the coarse grids were not satisfactory.

  3. Comparing the importance of prognostic factors in Cox and logistic regression using SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Georg; Schemper, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Two SAS macro programs are presented that evaluate the relative importance of prognostic factors in the proportional hazards regression model and in the logistic regression model. The importance of a prognostic factor is quantified by the proportion of variation in the outcome attributable to this factor. For proportional hazards regression, the program %RELIMPCR uses the recently proposed measure V to calculate the proportion of explained variation (PEV). For the logistic model, the R(2) measure based on squared raw residuals is used by the program %RELIMPLR. Both programs are able to compute marginal and partial PEV, to compare PEVs of factors, of groups of factors, and even to compare PEVs of different models. The programs use a bootstrap resampling scheme to test differences of the PEVs of different factors. Confidence limits for P-values are provided. The programs further allow to base the computation of PEV on models with shrinked or bias-corrected parameter estimates. The SAS macros are freely available at www.akh-wien.ac.at/imc/biometrie/relimp

  4. Final SAS-2 gamma ray results on sources in the galactic anticenter region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of SAS-2 high energy Gamma ray data from the direction of the galactic anticenter shows that this region is characterized by: a diffuse emission from the galactic plane which has a maximum along b=0 deg and an enhancement toward negative latitudes associated with Gould's Belt, a strong point source in the direction of the Crab nebula, and a second intense localized source near galactic coordinates 195 deg, +5 deg. Gamma ray emission from the Crab source is dominated by a pulsed flux from PSR 0531+21. The total flux above 100MeV is 3.7 + or - 0.8 million/sq cm s. The source near 195 deg, + 5 deg has a flux above 100 MeV of 4.3 + or - 0.9 million/sq cm s. Its spectrum appears flatter than that of the Crab. The diffuse galactic plane emission at negative lattitudes shows a general correlation with the local matter distribution associated with Gould's Belt. The calculated Gamma ray intensity agrees well with the SAS-2 observations.

  5. Effects of 2D and 3D Error Fields on the SAS Divertor Magnetic Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, G. L.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    The successful design of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments is of paramount importance in both the operation of future reactors and in the modification of operating machines. Indeed, the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor concept, proposed for application on the DIII-D experiment, combines a small incident angle at the plasma strike point with a progressively opening slot, so as to better control heat flux and erosion in high-performance tokamak plasmas. Uncertainty quantification of the error fields expected around the striking point provides additional useful information in both the design and the modeling phases of the new divertor, in part due to the particular geometric requirement of the striking flux surfaces. The presented work involves both 2D and 3D magnetic error field analysis on the SAS strike point carried out using the EFIT code for 2D equilibrium reconstruction, V3POST for vacuum 3D computations and the OMFIT integrated modeling framework for data analysis. An uncertainty in the magnetic probes' signals is found to propagate non-linearly as an uncertainty in the striking point and angle, which can be quantified through statistical analysis to yield robust estimates. Work supported by contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  6. Software Metrics to Estimate Software Quality using Software Component Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti Trivedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today most of the applications developed using some existing libraries, codes, open sources etc. As a code is accessed in a program, it is represented as the software component. Such as in java beans and in .net ActiveX controls are the software components. These components are ready to use programming code or controls that excel the code development. A component based software system defines the concept of software reusability. While using these components the main question arise is whether to use such components is beneficial or not. In this proposed work we are trying to present the answer for the same question. In this work we are presenting a set of software matrix that will check the interconnection between the software component and the application. How strong this relation defines the software quality after using this software component. The overall metrics will return the final result in terms of the boundless of the component with application.

  7. [Use of the anatomical cemented femoral stem SAS I: mid-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikláš, M; Pink, M; Valoušek, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In view of increasing interest in a relationship between the surface of an implant and its behaviour and longevity in total hip arthroplasty (THA), the aim of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic results, as well as complications, of hip replacement surgery using the cemented femoral stem SAS I. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 298 cemented femoral stems SAS I were implanted in 275 patients at our department between 1996 and 2005. The patient average age was 72.1 years, with the range from 64 to 92 years. The pre-operative diagnoses were as follows: primary osteoarthritis in 179 (30.1%); post-dysplastic osteoarthritis in 41 (13.7%); femoral neck fracture in 44 (14.8%); avascular necrosis of the femoral head in 23 (7.7%); rheumatoid arthritis in nine (3%) and other causes in two (0.7%) patients. Of the 275 patients who had the surgery, 186 (204 THAs) underwent clinical and X-ray examination at an average follow-up of 11.5 years (range, 8 to 17 years). The clinical results were used to calculate the Harris hip score and radiographic evaluation was based on antero-posterior views. RESULTS The group of 186 assessed patients (204 THAs) comprised 106 women and 80 men, who were on average 85.4 years old on evaluation (range, 72 to 92 years). Of the remaining patients, 62 patients (64 THAs) died from causes unrelated to the surgery and 27 patients (30 THAs) were lost to follow-up. The functional outcome of surgery assessed by the Harris hip score was excellent in 61 (32.8%), good in 94 (50.5%), satisfactory in 26 (14%) and poor in five (2.7%) patients. The 93.1% SAS I stem longevity was recorded in relation to aseptic loosening; reimplantation for this indication was performed in 14 THAs. No revision surgery for failure due to valgus/varus deviations of the stem was carried out. Of the 204 hips, 188 had femoral stems aligned in neutral, 12 (5.9%) in valgus and four (2%) in varus positions. DISCUSSION The anatomical femoral stem SAS I

  8. The software life cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, Darrel

    1990-01-01

    The Software Life Cycle deals with the software lifecycle, that is, what exactly happens when software is developed. Topics covered include aspects of software engineering, structured techniques of software development, and software project management. The use of mathematics to design and develop computer systems is also discussed. This book is comprised of 20 chapters divided into four sections and begins with an overview of software engineering and software development, paying particular attention to the birth of software engineering and the introduction of formal methods of software develop

  9. SWEPP assay system version 2.0 software requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, S.D.; East, L.V.; Marwil, E.S.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1996-06-01

    The INEL Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) operations staff use nondestructive analysis methods to characterize the radiological contents of contact-handled radioactive waste containers. Containers of waste from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and other DOE sites are currently stored at SWEPP. Before these containers can be shipped to WIPP, SWEPP must verify compliance with storage, shipping, and disposal requirements. One part of the SWEPP program measures neutron emissions from the containers and estimates the mass of Pu and other transuranic isotopes present. The code NEUT2 was originally used to perform data acquisition and reduction; the SWEPP Assay System (SAS) code replaced NEUT2 in early 1994. This document specifies the requirements for the SAS software as installed at INEL and was written to comply with RWMC (INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex) quality requirements.

  10. SAS、PASS、Stata三种常用软件样本量计算方法及结果差异的比较%Comparing the differences between SAS, PASS and Stata for sample size calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洁; 孙志明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the differences between SAS, PASS and Stata for sample size calculation in a test of two means (rates) and recommend the appropriate software for sample size calculation. Methods By setting different pa-rameters, sample sizes were calculated using three kinds of software respectively and compared with the formula results. Results In two sample means test, Stata and PASS had the most accurate results, the results in SAS were affected by different parameters. In two sample rates test, the SAS results were the best of three, the accuracy of PASS was related with the sample size, the results in Stata were larger than others and affected by different parameters. Conclusion The results are not consistent using different software, SAS is recommended for two sample mean (rate) of sample size calcu-lation.%目的:分析和探讨运用SAS、PASS、Stata 3种软件在两均数(率)比较中进行样本量估计的结果差异,推荐合适的样本量估计软件。方法通过设定不同的参数情况,分别运用3种软件计算各自样本量,并且与公式计算结果进行比较。结果在两均数比较时,Stata和PASS的样本量估计结果最准确,不同的参数会影响SAS的结果;在两个率比较时,SAS最准确,PASS的准确性与样本量大小有关系,Stata结果偏大且受不同参数的影响。结论不同软件计算结果并不一致,综合考虑推荐用SAS软件进行两样本均数(率)比较的样本量估计。

  11. The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee, Matthew A; Muschalik, Nadine; Johnson, Steven; Leveson, Joanna; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2015-05-23

    Sas-6 and Ana2/STIL proteins are required for centriole duplication and the homo-oligomerisation properties of Sas-6 help establish the ninefold symmetry of the central cartwheel that initiates centriole assembly. Ana2/STIL proteins are poorly conserved, but they all contain a predicted Central Coiled-Coil Domain (CCCD). Here we show that the Drosophila Ana2 CCCD forms a tetramer, and we solve its structure to 0.8 Å, revealing that it adopts an unusual parallel-coil topology. We also solve the structure of the Drosophila Sas-6 N-terminal domain to 2.9 Å revealing that it forms higher-order oligomers through canonical interactions. Point mutations that perturb Sas-6 or Ana2 homo-oligomerisation in vitro strongly perturb centriole assembly in vivo. Thus, efficient centriole duplication in flies requires the homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2, and the Ana2 CCCD tetramer structure provides important information on how these proteins might cooperate to form a cartwheel structure.

  12. Realization of data analysis system for Internet negotiation based on SAS/IntrNet%基于SAS/IntrNet的网上谈判数据分析系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉强; 马兴辉

    2005-01-01

    针对SAS统计分析系统局限于单机应用的现状,提出了SAS与Web服务器相结合的方式来弥补SAS系统在Web环境下应用的不足,介绍了利用SAS/IntrNet实现SAS的Web应用的基本原理,给出了SAS/IntrNet程序处理的一般流程和相关配置文件的详细配置方法,解决了SAS/IntrNet系统实现中的几个关键问题.同时给出这一应用的具体实例--网上谈判数据分析系统的具体实现方法.

  13. Amalgamation of Personal Software Process in Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evolutionary series of personal software engineering techniques that an engineer learns and ... Article History: Received : 30-04- ... began to realize that software process, plans and methodologies for ..... Executive Strategy. Addison-Wesley ...

  14. Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Andrew F; Matthes, Jörg

    2009-08-01

    Researchers often hypothesize moderated effects, in which the effect of an independent variable on an outcome variable depends on the value of a moderator variable. Such an effect reveals itself statistically as an interaction between the independent and moderator variables in a model of the outcome variable. When an interaction is found, it is important to probe the interaction, for theories and hypotheses often predict not just interaction but a specific pattern of effects of the focal independent variable as a function of the moderator. This article describes the familiar pick-a-point approach and the much less familiar Johnson-Neyman technique for probing interactions in linear models and introduces macros for SPSS and SAS to simplify the computations and facilitate the probing of interactions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression. A script version of the SPSS macro is also available for users who prefer a point-and-click user interface rather than command syntax.

  15. Estimation of the concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures using SAS and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Josep L; Phillips, Brenda R; Puig-Martinez, Josep; King, Tonya S; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2013-03-01

    The concordance correlation coefficient is one of the most common approaches used to assess agreement among different observers or instruments when the outcome of interest is a continuous variable. A SAS macro and R package are provided here to estimate the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) where the design of the data involves repeated measurements by subject and observer. The CCC is estimated using U-statistics (UST) and variance components (VC) approaches. Confidence intervals and standard errors are reported along with the point estimate of the CCC. In the case of the VC approach, the linear mixed model output and variance components estimates are also provided. The performance of each function is shown by means of some examples with real data sets.

  16. Valoración de empresa Haceb Whirpool Industrial S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Cardona, Juan Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la valoración de la empresa Haceb Whirlpool Industrial S.A.S. -- En la primera sección se describe la situación en estudio a través de la presentación de la empresa, una breve reseña histórica de cada uno de los accionistas, información del mercado de electrodomésticos en Colombia (especialmente la relacionada con el mercado de lavadoras), también se describe qué es un Joint Venture y por último la pertinencia de la valoración para los órganos de dirección -- En la segun...

  17. Plan estratégico para la empresa A.L Telecomunicaciones S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ascencio, Nohra Alejandra; Fonseca Torrijos, Camila Andrea

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo está constituido por cinco capítulos en los que se desarrolla el plan estratégico para la empresa A.L Telecomunicaciones S.A.S. El primer capítulo expone los antecedentes de la compañía y por qué se hace necesaria la elaboración del plan estratégico para el nuevo negocio de la empresa. En el segundo capítulo se elabora la fundamentación teórica, donde se describe la importancia de la planeación estratégica y el direccionamiento estratégico y los conceptos fundamental...

  18. SAS-2 observations of the high energy gamma radiation from the Vela region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-B high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg smaller than 12 smaller than 290 deg show a statistically significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy larger than 100 MeV. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from the supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, than on the order of 3 x 10 to the 50th power ergs would have been released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

  19. The dental X-ray file of crew members in the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser-Nielsen, S; Johanson, G; Solheim, T

    1981-11-01

    In 1977, the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) established a dental X-ray file of all crew members. Its aim was to have immediately available an adequate set of physical antemortem data useful for identification in case of a fatal crash. Recently, an investigation into the quality and suitability of this material was carried out. The radiographs of 100 Danish, 100 Norwegian, and 100 Swedish pilots were picked at random and evaluated for formal deficiences, technical deficiencies, treatment pattern as useful for identification purposes, and the presence of pathology. The major results of the investigation were that a number of formal and technical deficiencies were disclosed, that the treatment pattern would seem adequate for identification purposes, and that a number of pathological findings were made, several of which had to be considered possible safety risks in the form of barodontalgia.

  20. SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Vela pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2) high-energy (in excess of 35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope has detected pulsed gamma-ray emission at the radio period from PSR 0833-45, the Vela pulsar, as well as an unpulsed flux from the Vela region. The pulsed emission consists of two peaks following the single radio peak by about 13 ms and 48 ms. The luminosity of the pulsed emission above 100 MeV from Vela is about 0.1 that of the pulsar NP 0532 in the Crab nebula, whereas the pulsed emission from Vela at optical wavelengths is less than 0.0002 that from the Crab. The relatively high intensity of the pulsed gamma-ray emission, and the double peak structure, compared with the single pulse in the radio emission, suggest that the high-energy gamma-ray pulsar emission may be produced under different conditions from those at lower energies.

  1. SAS-2 observations of gamma rays from the galactic plane. [noting longitude and latitude observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary data are given for the SAS-2 high energy galactic gamma ray observation. These data include both latitude and longitude distributions. The longitude distribution shows a high density region. The latitude distributions toward the center and the anti-center are markedly different, the former showing a two-component structure of half-widths of approximately 3 and 6 deg. The energy spectrum in the range 35 to 200 MeV is hard, consistent with cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter, including neutral pions decay and emission from energetic electron interactions. The data is consistent with an interpretation in terms of the confinement of the cosmic rays in the spiral arms.

  2. Final SAS-2 gamma-ray results on sources in the galactic anticenter region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Final results are presented for SAS-2 observations of high-energy gamma-rays from the galactic anticenter region. Three main gamma-ray features are shown to characterize this region: a localized source associated with the Crab Nebula and its pulsar, another localized source near galactic coordinates 195 deg, +5 deg, and a general enhancement of the diffuse background 10 to 15 deg south of the galactic plane, which is associated with the Gould Belt. For the Crab, it is found that the radiation is mostly pulsed, the pulsed fraction increases with energy, and the intensity of the radiation in the main and interpulse peaks is approximately the same. The other localized source, provisionally designated as gamma 195+5, is found to have a harder spectrum than the Crab but no obvious radio counterpart; emission from an external galaxy is ruled out.

  3. SAS-2 gamma-ray observations of PSR 1747-46. [radio pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.; Lamb, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is reported for the observation of gamma-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 1747-46 by the gamma-ray telescope aboard SAS 2. The evidence is based on the presence of both an approximately 3-sigma enhancement of gamma rays at the pulsar's location and an approximately 4-sigma peak in the phase plot of 79 gamma-ray events whose phase was calculated from the pulsar's known period. The gamma-ray pulsation is found to appear at a phase lag of about 0.16 from that predicted by the radio observations. The pulsed gamma-ray fluxes above 35 MeV and 100 MeV are estimated, and it is shown that the gamma-ray pulse width is similar to the radio pulse width. It is concluded that PSR 1747-46 is a most likely candidate for pulsed gamma-ray emission.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Fluctuation in Centrifugal Pump Volute Based on SAS Model and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaorui Si

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of pressure fluctuation of a single-suction volute-type centrifugal pump, particularly volute casing, by using numerical and experimental methods. A new type of hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation, referred to as the shear stress transport-scale-adaptive simulation (SAS model, is employed to study the unsteady flow. Statistical analysis method is adopted to show the pressure fluctuation intensity distribution in the volute channel. A test rig for pressure pulsation measurement is built to validate the numerical simulation results using eight transient pressure sensors in the middle section of the volute wall. Results show that the SAS model can accurately predict the inner flow field of centrifugal pumps. Radial force acting on the impeller presents a star distribution related to the blade number. Pressure fluctuation intensity is strongest near the tongue and shows irregular distribution in the pump casing. Pressure fluctuation is distributed symmetrically at the cross-section of the volute casing because the volute can eliminate the rotational movement of the liquid discharged from the impeller. Blade passing frequency and its multiples indicate the dominant frequency of the monitoring points within the volute, and the low-frequency pulsation, particularly in the shaft component, increases when it operates at off-design condition, particularly with a small flow rate. The reason is that the vortex wave is enhanced at the off-design condition, which has an effect on the axle and is presented in the shaft component in the frequency domain.

  5. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  6. Ontologies for software engineering and software technology

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, Coral; Piattini, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Covers two applications of ontologies in software engineering and software technology: sharing knowledge of the problem domain and using a common terminology among all stakeholders; and filtering the knowledge when defining models and metamodels. This book is of benefit to software engineering researchers in both academia and industry.

  7. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru; Murakami, Yasufumi; Baiseitov, Diaz; Berikkhanova, Kulzhan; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Imahori, Yoshio; Itami, Jun; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2015-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(-) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR.

  8. Research of Linear Programming Problem on SAS/or and LINGO Mathematics Softwear%应用SAS/OR与LINGO求解优化问题的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕飞

    2011-01-01

    本文对一给定的线性规划问题,分别利用统计分析软件SAS的0R模块和LINGO优化软件进行求解和分析,并对这两种数学软件在求解规划问题上的差异上的比较,得出了LINGO优化软件比较适合求解线性规划问题的结论.%In this paper, the writer adopts the statistical analysis software SAS/OR module and the LINGO optimization software to solve linear programming problems, and compares the differences.

  9. Controlling Software Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  10. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  11. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and SAS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Jin, Shun-Ji; Lee, Sibeum; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-07-09

    The objective of the study was to prepare amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. Atorvastatin hemi-calcium trihydrate was transformed to anhydrous amorphous form by spray-drying and SAS process. With the SAS process, the mean particle size and the specific surface area of amorphous atorvastatin were drastically changed to 68.7+/-15.8nm, 120.35+/-1.40m2/g and 95.7+/-12.2nm, 79.78+/-0.93m2/g from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution, respectively and appeared to be associated with better performance in apparent solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies, compared with unprocessed crystalline atorvastatin. Oral AUC0-8h values in SD rats for crystalline and amorphous atorvastatin were as follow: 1121.4+/-212.0ngh/mL for crystalline atorvastatin, 3249.5+/-406.4ngh/mL and 3016.1+/-200.3ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution with SAS process, 2227.8+/-274.5 and 2099.9+/-339.2ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from acetone and tetrahydrofuran with spray-drying. The AUCs of all amorphous atorvastatin significantly increased (PSAS process exhibits better bioavailability than spray-drying because of particle size reduction with narrow particle size distribution. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline atorvastatin could be improved by physical modification such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using spray-drying and SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of atorvastatin.

  12. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  13. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  14. A leave-one-out cross-validation SAS macro for the identification of markers associated with survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Christel; Bulusu, Anuradha; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Nixon, Andrew B; Pang, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    A proper internal validation is necessary for the development of a reliable and reproducible prognostic model for external validation. Variable selection is an important step for building prognostic models. However, not many existing approaches couple the ability to specify the number of covariates in the model with a cross-validation algorithm. We describe a user-friendly SAS macro that implements a score selection method and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. We discuss the method and applications behind this algorithm, as well as details of the SAS macro.

  15. Software and systems traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland-Huang, Jane; Zisman, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    ""Software and Systems Traceability"" provides a comprehensive description of the practices and theories of software traceability across all phases of the software development lifecycle. The term software traceability is derived from the concept of requirements traceability. Requirements traceability is the ability to track a requirement all the way from its origins to the downstream work products that implement that requirement in a software system. Software traceability is defined as the ability to relate the various types of software artefacts created during the development of software syst

  16. SAS-4 is recruited to a dynamic structure in newly forming centrioles that is stabilized by the gamma-tubulin-mediated addition of centriolar microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammermann, Alexander; Maddox, Paul S; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2008-02-25

    Centrioles are surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which is proposed to promote new centriole assembly by concentrating gamma-tubulin. Here, we quantitatively monitor new centriole assembly in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, focusing on the conserved components SAS-4 and SAS-6. We show that SAS-4 and SAS-6 are coordinately recruited to the site of new centriole assembly and reach their maximum levels during S phase. Centriolar SAS-6 is subsequently reduced by a mechanism intrinsic to the early assembly pathway that does not require progression into mitosis. Centriolar SAS-4 remains in dynamic equilibrium with the cytoplasmic pool until late prophase, when it is stably incorporated in a step that requires gamma-tubulin and microtubule assembly. These results indicate that gamma-tubulin in the PCM stabilizes the nascent daughter centriole by promoting microtubule addition to its outer wall. Such a mechanism may help restrict new centriole assembly to the vicinity of preexisting parent centrioles that recruit PCM.

  17. Maximizing ROI on software development

    CERN Document Server

    Sikka, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of software development history. Software complexity crisis. Software development ROI. The case for global software development and testing. Software quality and test ROI. How do you implement global software development and testing. Case studies.

  18. Design of a Road Friendly SAS System for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Based on a Fuzzy-Hybrid-ADD and GH-Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhao; Pak Kin Wong; Zhengchao Xie; Xinbo Ma; Caiyang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Semiactive suspension (SAS) system has been widely used for its outstanding performance in offering competent ride quality, road holding, and handling capacity. However, the road friendliness is also one of the crucial factors that should be attached in the design of the SAS system for heavy-duty vehicles. In this study, a fuzzy controlled hybrid-acceleration driven damper (ADD) and ground hook- (GH-) control strategy is proposed for SAS system of heavy-duty vehicles. Firstly, a quarter-vehic...

  19. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  20. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  1. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  2. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  3. Software distribution using xnetlib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Wade, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  4. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, M. A.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

  5. Agile Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  6. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  7. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections.

  8. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  9. An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sara R; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Blagborough, Andrew M; Delves, Michael J; Talman, Arthur M; Sinden, Robert E

    2015-02-01

    Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flagellar/ciliary abnormalities in a diverse array of eukaryotes. Since basal body and flagellum assembly are intimately coupled to male gamete development in Plasmodium, we hypothesized that SAS-6 disruption may cause gametogenesis defects and perturb transmission. We show that Plasmodium berghei sas6 knockouts display severely abnormal male gametogenesis presenting reduced basal body numbers, axonemal assembly defects and abnormal nuclear allocation. The defects in gametogenesis reduce fertilization and render Pbsas6 knockouts less infectious to mosquitoes. Additionally, we show that lack of Pbsas6 blocks transmission from mosquito to vertebrate host, revealing an additional yet undefined role in ookinete to sporulating oocysts transition. These findings underscore the vulnerability of the basal body/SAS-6 to malaria transmission blocking interventions.

  10. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  11. Software Engineering for Practiced Software Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Yadav

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Software development scenario particularly in IT industries is very competitive and demands for development with minimum resources. Software development started and prevailed up to an extent in industry without the use of software engineering practices, which was perceived as an overhead. This approach causes over use of resources, such as money, man-hours, hardware components. This paper attempts to present the causes of inefficiencies in an almost exhaustive way. Further, an attempt has been made to elaborate the software engineering methods as remedies against the listed causes of inefficiencies of development.

  12. Software Metrics for Identifying Software Size in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.P Vidanapathirana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements are fundamental any engineering discipline. They indicate the amount, extent, dimension or capacity of an attribute or a product, in a quantitative manner. The analyzed results of the measured data can be given as the basic idea of metrics. It is a quantitative representation of the measurements of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses a given attribute. When it comes to software, the metrics are a wide scope of measurements of computer programming. The size oriented metrics takes a main role in it since they can be used as the key for better estimations, to improve trust and confidence, and to have a better control over the software products. Software professionals traditionally have been measuring the size of software applications by using several methods. In this paper the researchers discuss about the software size metrics for identifying software size and it is mainly focused on the software development projects in today’s Information Technology (IT industry.

  13. Software Cost Estimation Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Alphonce

    2013-01-01

    Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort, the time and the cost re-quired to complete software project successfully. It involves size measurement of the soft-ware project to be produced, estimating and allocating the effort, drawing the project schedules, and finally, estimating overall cost of the project. Accurate estimation of software project cost is an important factor for business and the welfare of software organization in general. If cost and effort estimat...

  14. Software Partitioning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    1 Software Partitioning Technologies Tim Skutt Smiths Aerospace 3290 Patterson Ave. SE Grand Rapids, MI 49512-1991 (616) 241-8645 skutt_timothy...Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 12 2 Agenda n Software Partitioning Overview n Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Software Partitioning...Partition Level OS Core Module Level OS Timers MMU I/O API Layer Partitioning Services 6 Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Smiths has developed

  15. Acetyltransferase SAS2 and sirtuin SIR2, respectively, control flocculation and biofilm formation in wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, María E; Orozco, Helena; Cantoral, Jesús M; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Cell-to-cell and cell-to-environment interactions of microorganisms are of substantial relevance for their biotechnological use. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, flocculation can be an advantage to clarify final liquid products after fermentation, and biofilm formation may be relevant for the encapsulation of strains of interest. The adhesion properties of wine yeast strains can be modified by the genetic manipulation of transcriptional regulatory proteins, such as histone deacetylases, and acetylases. Sirtuin SIR2 is essential for the formation of mat structures, a kind of biofilm that requires the expression of cell-wall protein FLO11 as its deletion reduces FLO11 expression, and adhesion of cells to themselves and to agar in a commercial wine strain. Deletion of acetyltransferase GCN5 leads to a similar phenotype. A naturally flocculant wine yeast strain called P2 was characterized. Its flocculation happens only during grape juice fermentation and is due to the presence of a highly transcribed version of flocculin FLO5, linked to the presence of a δ sequence in the promoter. Deletion of acetyltransferase SAS2 enhances this phenotype and maltose fermentation even more. Therefore, the manipulation of acetylation/deacetylation machinery members is a valid way to alter the interaction of industrial yeast to their environment.

  16. The ZpiM algorithm: a method for interferometric image reconstruction in SAR/SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, José M B; Leitao, José M N

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an effective algorithm for absolute phase (not simply modulo-2-pi) estimation from incomplete, noisy and modulo-2pi observations in interferometric aperture radar and sonar (InSAR/InSAS). The adopted framework is also representative of other applications such as optical interferometry, magnetic resonance imaging and diffraction tomography. The Bayesian viewpoint is adopted; the observation density is 2-pi-periodic and accounts for the interferometric pair decorrelation and system noise; the a priori probability of the absolute phase is modeled by a compound Gauss-Markov random field (CGMRF) tailored to piecewise smooth absolute phase images. We propose an iterative scheme for the computation of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) absolute phase estimate. Each iteration embodies a discrete optimization step (Z-step), implemented by network programming techniques and an iterative conditional modes (ICM) step (pi-step). Accordingly, the algorithm is termed ZpiM, where the letter M stands for maximization. An important contribution of the paper is the simultaneous implementation of phase unwrapping (inference of the 2pi-multiples) and smoothing (denoising of the observations). This improves considerably the accuracy of the absolute phase estimates compared to methods in which the data is low-pass filtered prior to unwrapping. A set of experimental results, comparing the proposed algorithm with alternative methods, illustrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. Evaluation of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) with low field MR fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoko; Ishigaki, Takeo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Okada, Tamotsu

    1995-02-01

    Eight cases of clinically diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and two normal volunteers were studied with low field MR fluoroscopy in order to monitor the waking and sleeping status of the upper airway. MR fluoroscopy revealed that only the sleeping patients showed occlusions of the upper airway. This technique provided us with useful information about the level, frequency and duration of occlusion in each case. Four of the eight patients demonstrated simple retropalatal occlusion, whereas the other four demonstrated mixed retropalatal and retropalato-retroglossal occlusion. Thus long-time monitoring, which is only possible with MR fluoroscopy, is needed to appreciate the complex nature of the disease. In addition, the comfortable surroundings and low noise level provided by the low field enabled physiological study to be performed without any tranquilizers in most of the patients, which is again only possible with MR fluoroscopy. MR fluoroscopy may become a tool of great clinical value, providing much important information for disease evaluation and treatment selection. (author).

  18. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F

    2004-11-01

    Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  19. [Evaluation of the factorial and metric equivalence of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) by sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Sexual assertiveness refers to the ability to initiate sexual activity, refuse unwanted sexual activity, and use contraceptive methods to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, developing healthy sexual behaviors. The Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) assesses these three dimensions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, using structural equation modeling and differential item functioning, the equivalence of the scale between men and women. Standard scores are also provided. A total of 4,034 participants from 21 Spanish provinces took part in the study. Quota sampling method was used. Results indicate a strict equivalent dimensionality of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale across sexes. One item was flagged by differential item functioning, although it does not affect the scale. Therefore, there is no significant bias in the scale when comparing across sexes. Standard scores show similar Initiation assertiveness scores for men and women, and higher scores on Refusal and Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention for women. This scale can be used on men and women with sufficient psychometric guarantees.

  20. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  1. SAS-2 observations of the galactic gamma radiation from the Vela region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg l2 290 deg show a statistically-significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy 100 MeV in the region 260 deg l2 270 deg and -7.5 deg b2 0 deg. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant, with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from this supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, then on the order of 3.10 to the 50th power ergs would be released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

  2. Age-related changes in the bone marrow and spleen of SAS/4 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggle, J E; Gordon, M Y; Proukakis, C; Bogg, C E

    1975-01-01

    The total number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow of SAS/4 mice increase some twofold between 1 and 24 months of age but when related to body weight remains essentially constant over a wide range of ages. The concentration of CFU-S in femoral marrow is also constant with age and since other bones containing marrow appear, at least in young mice, to have the same CFU-S concentration as the femur it is concluded that the CFU-S compartment size of the whole bone marrow is independent of age when expressed on a body weight basis, In contrast, both the absolute number and the concentration of exogenous CFU-S in the spleen decline markedly in old mice. Smilary there is a decline in the number of endogenous colony-forming cells and the spleens of 24-month-old mice seem virtually devoid of such colonies. Not only were older mice less capable of supporting the growth of endogenous colonies, but their spleens also appear to provide a poorer environment for exogenous colony growth when compared with growth in younger recipient spleens.

  3. SAS 3 observations of two X-ray transient events with precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Doty, J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Haney, M.; Richardson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    SAS 3 has observed two unusual fast transient X-ray events from different sources, one lasting about 150 s and one, approximately 1500 s. Both events were preceded by precursor pulses which lasted a few seconds and which rose and fell in less than 0.4 s. The precursors were separated from the 'main' events by several seconds, during which no X-rays were detected. There are similarities between the two main events and X-ray bursts in both their temporal and spectral evolution. The spectra of the main events started out much softer than the spectra of the precursors, became harder as they approached maximum intensity, and softened as they decayed. In the 1500-s event, X-rays with energies greater than 10 keV were delayed by about 80 s compared with 1.5-6-keV X-rays. A blackbody fit to the spectral data of the main event of approximately 1500-s duration gives a maximum temperature of 29 million K and a radius for the emitting region of at least about 9 km (at a distance of 10 kpc); this is similar to the temperature and sizes found for several X-ray burst sources.

  4. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  5. SAS-2 gamma-ray observations of PSR 1747-46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Observations with the SAS-2 high energy ( 35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope show evidence of gamma-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 1747-46. When the arrival times of gamma-rays from the region of the pulsar were converted to pulsar phases using the radio period and period derivative, a single peak was found in the phase plot, with a Poisson probability of occurring by chance of .00008. Independently, the time-averaged data for the PSR 1747-46 region show an enhancement over the surrounding region of the sky at the same galactic latitude, with a Poisson probability of chance occurrence of less than .008. The probability that these results are chance is the product of these two probabilities times the number of radio pulsars examined (73). This overall probability is sufficiently small (.00005) to suggest an identification of a new gamma-ray pulsar. In the gamma-ray pulsar plot, the peak falls 0.16 + or - 0.03 period after the radio pulsar peak. This phase shift is, within uncertainties, the same as that observed between the single radio peak and the first of the two gamma-ray peaks seen in the phase plot for PSR-0833-45 (the Vela pulsar).

  6. The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR: translation and psychometric properties of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiamini Zahra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR was designed to assess anxiety in children at school. The SAS-TR is a proxy rated measure and could assess social anxiety, generalized anxiety and also gives a total anxiety score. This study aimed to translate and validate the SAS-TR in Iran. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of students participated in the study. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and test-retest analysis. Validity was assessed using content validity. The factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results In all 200 elementary students aged 6 to 10 years were studied. Considering the recommended cut-off values, overall the prevalence of high anxiety condition in elementary students was found to be 21 %. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Iranian SAS-TR was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was found to be 0.81. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (generalized and social anxiety that jointly accounted for 55.3 % of variances observed. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure of the questionnaire. Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the Iranian version of SAS-TR has satisfactory reliability, and validity for measuring anxiety in 6 to 10 years old children in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in future studies.

  7. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  8. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PERFORMANCE TEST RESULTS FOR THE A AND A ENVIRONMENTAL SEALS' SEAL ASSIST SYSTEM (SAS), PHASE I--TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents results of tests determining the efficacy of A&A Environmental Seals, Inc's Seal Assist System (SAS) in preventing natural gas compressor station's compressor rod packing leaks from escaping into the atmosphere. The SAS consists of an Emission Containment Glan...

  10. Pragmatic Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby

    2014-01-01

    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation...

  11. RHESSI/SAS Observations of the Optical Solar Limb Over More Than 14 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivian, Martin; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The Solar Aspect System (SAS) of the RHESSI satellite measures the optical solar limb with a cadence typically set at 100 samples/s.RHESSI has observed the Sun continuously since its launch in early 2002, and we have acquired a unique data set ranging over more than a full 11-year solar cycle and consisting of about 4x10^10 single data points.The optics has a point spread of about 4.5 arcsec FWHM imaging the red continuum onto three linear CCD sensors with a pixel resolution of 1.7 arcsec.However, careful study of systematics, masking of contaminated data, and accumulation of data over appropriate time intervals has led to measurementswith sub-milli arcsec accuracy.Analyzing data for an initial period in 2004, these measurements have led to the most accurate oblateness measurement to date, 8.01+-0.14 milli arcsec (Fivian et al., 2008), a value consistent with models predicting an oblateness from surface rotation.An excess oblateness term can be attributed to magnetic elements possibly located in the enhanced network.We also study photometric properties of our data. Previous observations of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb had suggested the presence of a polar temperature excess as large as 1.5 K.The RHESSI observations, made with a rotating telescope in space, have great advantages in the rejection of systematic errors in the very precise photometry required for such an observation.Our measurements of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb lead to a quadrupolar term (a pole-to-equator temperature variation) of the order of 0.1 K, an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported.We present the analysis of these unique data, an overview of some results and we report on our progress as we apply our developed analysis method to the whole 14 years of data.

  12. Linear mixed models a practical guide using statistical software

    CERN Document Server

    West, Brady T; Galecki, Andrzej T

    2014-01-01

    Highly recommended by JASA, Technometrics, and other journals, the first edition of this bestseller showed how to easily perform complex linear mixed model (LMM) analyses via a variety of software programs. Linear Mixed Models: A Practical Guide Using Statistical Software, Second Edition continues to lead readers step by step through the process of fitting LMMs. This second edition covers additional topics on the application of LMMs that are valuable for data analysts in all fields. It also updates the case studies using the latest versions of the software procedures and provides up-to-date information on the options and features of the software procedures available for fitting LMMs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, R/S-plus, and HLM.New to the Second Edition A new chapter on models with crossed random effects that uses a case study to illustrate software procedures capable of fitting these models Power analysis methods for longitudinal and clustered study designs, including software options for power analyses and suggest...

  13. Pragmatic Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan; Jensen, Rikke Hagensby

    2014-01-01

    We understand software innovation as concerned with introducing innovation into the development of software intensive systems, i.e. systems in which software development and/or integration are dominant considerations. Innovation is key in almost any strategy for competitiveness in existing markets......, for creating new markets, or for curbing rising public expenses, and software intensive systems are core elements in most such strategies. Software innovation therefore is vital for about every sector of the economy. Changes in software technologies over the last decades have opened up for experimentation......, learning, and flexibility in ongoing software projects, but how can this change be used to facilitate software innovation? How can a team systematically identify and pursue opportunities to create added value in ongoing projects? In this paper, we describe Deweyan pragmatism as the philosophical foundation...

  14. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  15. Paladin Software Support Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Paladin Software Support Environment (SSE) occupies 2,241 square-feet. It contains the hardware and software tools required to support the Paladin Automatic Fire...

  16. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  17. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  18. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  19. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  20. Software engineering measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Munson, PhD, John C

    2003-01-01

    By demonstrating how to develop simple experiments for the empirical validation of theoretical research and showing how to convert measurement data into meaningful and valuable information, this text fosters more precise use of software measurement in the computer science and software engineering literature. Software Engineering Measurement shows you how to convert your measurement data to valuable information that can be used immediately for software process improvement.

  1. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Gartenmann, Lisa; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-06-20

    Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome.

  2. Software variability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Nord, RL

    2004-01-01

    During recent years, the amount of variability that has to be supported by a software artefact is growing considerably and its management is evolving into a major challenge during development, usage, and evolution of software artefacts. Successful management of variability in software leads to

  3. Software Language Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Software plays a critical role in our daily life. Vast amounts of money are spent on more and more complex systems. All software, regardless if it controls a plane or the game on your phone is never finished. Software changes when it contains bugs or when new functionality is added. This process of

  4. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  5. Java for flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  6. Software Language Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Software plays a critical role in our daily life. Vast amounts of money are spent on more and more complex systems. All software, regardless if it controls a plane or the game on your phone is never finished. Software changes when it contains bugs or when new functionality is added. This process of

  7. Software Engineering for Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  8. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  9. An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, SR; Ramakrishnan, C; Carzaniga, R.; Blagborough, AM; Delves, MJ; Talman, AM; Sinden, RE

    2014-01-01

    Gametocytes are the sole P lasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the P lasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flage...

  10. Annotated Computer Output for Illustrative Examples of Clustering Using the Mixture Method and Two Comparable Methods from SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-26

    BUREAU OF STANDAR-S1963-A Nw BOM -ILE COPY -. 4eo .?3sa.9"-,,A WIN* MAT HEMATICAL SCIENCES _*INSTITUTE AD-A184 687 DTICS!ELECTE ANNOTATED COMPUTER OUTPUT...intoduction to the use of mixture models in clustering. Cornell University Biometrics Unit Technical Report BU-920-M and Mathematical Sciences Institute...mixture method and two comparable methods from SAS. Cornell University Biometrics Unit Technical Report BU-921-M and Mathematical Sciences Institute

  11. Plan de negocios para la creación de la empresa Agua Vida S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Rio Caicedo, Sergio Antonio; Rosero Morán, Daniel Hernando

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo contiene el plan de negocios para crear la empresa Agua Vida SAS., donde sus productos son la purificación y comercialización de agua potable en universidades mediante dispensadores; el documento presenta el plan de mercadeo y a su vez pretende despertar en los estudiantes conciencia ambiental para que carguen un termo y paguen para que este sea llenado en los dispensadores de las instituciones educativas

  12. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994. Revised Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U

    1999-02-01

    The present report is a revised version of an earlier report (IFE/KR/E-96/008). The revision has been carried out since a completely new version of the computational tool has recently been released. All calculations have been redone. The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). The result presented in this report (radiation dose rates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) were calculated with the most recent computer program for this purpose, the CARI-5E from the United States Civil Aviation Authority. The other major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found the the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Association in Norway.

  13. Cucurbitacin E as inducer of cell death and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-08-20

    Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 µM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  14. Software Maintenance Success Recipes

    CERN Document Server

    Reifer, Donald J

    2011-01-01

    Dispelling much of the folklore surrounding software maintenance, Software Maintenance Success Recipes identifies actionable formulas for success based on in-depth analysis of more than 200 real-world maintenance projects. It details the set of factors that are usually present when effective software maintenance teams do their work and instructs on the methods required to achieve success. Donald J. Reifer--an award winner for his contributions to the field of software engineering and whose experience includes managing the DoD Software Initiatives Office--provides step-by-step guidance on how t

  15. Funding Research Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  16. Data management for prospective research studies using SAS® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehr David R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining data quality and integrity is important for research studies involving prospective data collection. Data must be entered, erroneous or missing data must be identified and corrected if possible, and an audit trail created. Methods Using as an example a large prospective study, the Missouri Lower Respiratory Infection (LRI Project, we present an approach to data management predominantly using SAS software. The Missouri LRI Project was a prospective cohort study of nursing home residents who developed an LRI. Subjects were enrolled, data collected, and follow-ups occurred for over three years. Data were collected on twenty different forms. Forms were inspected visually and sent off-site for data entry. SAS software was used to read the entered data files, check for potential errors, apply corrections to data sets, and combine batches into analytic data sets. The data management procedures are described. Results Study data collection resulted in over 20,000 completed forms. Data management was successful, resulting in clean, internally consistent data sets for analysis. The amount of time required for data management was substantially underestimated. Conclusion Data management for prospective studies should be planned well in advance of data collection. An ongoing process with data entered and checked as they become available allows timely recovery of errors and missing data.

  17. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  18. Tetrandrine induces cell death in SAS human oral cancer cells through caspase activation-dependent apoptosis and LC3-I and LC3-II activation-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, An-Cheng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Meng-Wei; Yang, Jai-Sing; Wu, Ping-Ping; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lai, Tung-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is associated with cancer development. Thus, agents to induce autophagy could be employed in some cases for the treatment of cancer. Our results showed that tetrandrine significantly decreased the viability of SAS cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tetrandrine induced nuclear condensation, demonstrated by DAPI staining. The early events in apoptosis analysed by Annexin V/PI staining indicated that the percentage of cells staining positive for Annexin V was slightly increased in SAS cells with tetrandrine treatment but was much lower following bafilomycin A1 pre-treatment. Tetrandrine caused AVO and MDC induction in SAS cells in a concentration-dependent manner by fluorescence microscopy. Tetrandrine also caused LC-3 expression in SAS cells in a time-dependent manner. Our results show that tetrandrine treatment induced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tetrandrine treatment induced the levels of LC-3 II, Atg-5, beclin-1, p-S6, p-ULK, p-mTOR, p-Akt (S473) and raptor. Tetrandrine decreased cell viability, but bafilomycin A1, 3-MA, chloroquine and NAC protected tetrandrine-treated SAS cells against decrease of cell viability. Atg-5, beclin-1 siRNA decreased tetrandrine-induced cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in SAS cells and protected tetrandrine-treated SAS cells against decrease in cell viability. Chloroquine, NAC and bafilomycin A1 also decreased tetrandrine-induced cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in SAS cells. Our results indicate the tetrandrine induces apoptosis and autophagy of SAS human cancer cells via caspase-dependent and LC3-I and LC3-II‑dependent pathways.

  19. Software Maintenance and Evolution: The Implication for Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... ... the test of time. Keywords: Software, software maintenance, software evolution, reverse engineering, ... area of human endeavour be it automobile, software, etc. at .... greater efficiency and productivity in the maintenance ...

  20. How to learn the usage of SAS software quickly%快速学会使用SAS软件的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春雪; 胡良平

    2016-01-01

    为了使读者能快速了解和学习到有关SAS软件的基础知识和用法,本文简明扼要地介绍了SAS软件的历史和结构,以及SAS软件有关的基础知识.包括SAS过程与SAS程序、运行SAS的两种常用方式、SAS程序结构、SAS语言、SAS用法,还有SASPAL软件.基于所介绍的内容,借助SASPAL软件,读者可以花较少的时间学会如何使用SAS软件解决约90%以上的生物医学和临床科研数据的统计分析问题.

  1. 基于SAS软件实现随机抽样及应用%How to implement random sampling and application based on SAS software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡完; 胡良平

    2016-01-01

    本文的目的是帮助读者方便快捷地运用SAS软件中的SURVEYSELECT过程实现随机抽样.首先,对SURVEYSELECT过程及SAS数据集Customers进行了简单介绍.接着,结合简单随机抽样、分层随机抽样和控制排序分层随机抽样,介绍了随机抽样的SAS实现方法.读者只需要修改本文中所呈现的SAS程序中的少量参数,就可很方便地使用SAS软件实现随机抽样任务.事实说明,尽管SAS软件非常难学难用,但借助现成的SAS程序,可以轻松自如地解决很多具体问题.

  2. LSI的半高SAS RAID适配器满足了DSA环境下成本和空间的需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    LSI Logic公司近日宣布推出业内首批半高(low-profile.LP)SAS RAID存储适配器。新的MegaRAID SAS 8308ELP和SAS 8344ELP是具有8个SAS端口的PCI Express接口适配器,应用于需要使用3Gb/sSAS和/或SATA Ⅱ驱动器的服务器和工作站环境。

  3. Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference With Examples in R, SAS and ADMB

    CERN Document Server

    Millar, Russell B

    2011-01-01

    This book takes a fresh look at the popular and well-established method of maximum likelihood for statistical estimation and inference. It begins with an intuitive introduction to the concepts and background of likelihood, and moves through to the latest developments in maximum likelihood methodology, including general latent variable models and new material for the practical implementation of integrated likelihood using the free ADMB software. Fundamental issues of statistical inference are also examined, with a presentation of some of the philosophical debates underlying the choice of statis

  4. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  5. Riik võib lüüa SAS-i esmaspäevaks Estonian Airi omanikeringist välja / Erik Müürsepp, Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2008-01-01

    SAS osaleb Estonian Airþile lisakapitali eraldamises ainult juhul, kui Eesti riik müüb oma osaluses lennukompaniis SAS-ile. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  6. Software Defined Networking Demands on Software Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galinac Grbac, T.; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a networking approach based on a centralized control plane architecture with standardised interfaces between control and data planes. SDN enables fast configuration and reconfiguration of the network to enhance resource utilization and service performances....... This new approach enables a more dynamic and flexible network, which may adapt to user needs and application requirements. To this end, systemized solutions must be implemented in network software, aiming to provide secure network services that meet the required service performance levels. In this paper......, we review this new approach to networking from an architectural point of view, and identify and discuss some critical quality issues that require new developments in software technologies. These issues we discuss along with use case scenarios. Here in this paper we aim to identify challenges...

  7. Trace Software Pipelining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  8. COTS software selection process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  9. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Social software (SoSo) is defined by Farkas as tools that (1) allow people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online (2) can be syndicated, shared, reused or remixed and (3) let people learn easily from and capitalize on the behavior and knowledge of others. [1]. SoSo include a wide...... variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  10. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Social software (SoSo) is defined by Farkas as tools that (1) allow people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online (2) can be syndicated, shared, reused or remixed and (3) let people learn easily from and capitalize on the behavior and knowledge of others. [1]. SoSo include a wide...... variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  11. Software Quality Assurance in Software Projects: A Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shafique Butt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Software quality is specific property which tells what kind of standard software should have. In a software project, quality is the key factor of success and decline of software related organization. Many researches have been done regarding software quality. Software related organization follows standards introduced by Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI to achieve good quality software. Quality is divided into three main layers which are Software Quality Assurance (SQA, Software Quality Plan (SQP and Software Quality Control (SQC. So In this study, we are discussing the quality standards and principles of software projects in Pakistan software Industry and how these implemented quality standards are measured and managed. In this study, we will see how many software firms are following the rules of CMMI to create software. How many are reaching international standards and how many firms are measuring the quality of their projects. The results show some of the companies are using software quality assurance techniques in Pakstan.

  12. Adaptive Software Development supported by an Automated Process: a Reference Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reference model as an automated process to assist the adaptive software development at runtime, also known as Self-adaptive Systems (SaS at runtime. This type of software has specific characteristics in comparison to traditional one, since it allows that changes (structural or behavioral to be incorporated at runtime. Automated processes have been used as a feasible solution to conduct software adaptation at runtime by minimizing human involvement (developers and speeding up the execution of tasks. In parallel, reference models have been used to aggregate knowledge and architectural artifacts, since they capture the systems essence in specific domains. However, presently no there is reference model based on reflection for the automation of software adaptation at runtime. In this scenario, this paper presents a reference model based on reflection, as an automated process, for the development of software systems that require adaptation at runtime. To show the applicability of the model, a case study was conducted and a good perspective to efficiently contribute to the area of SaS has been obtained.

  13. Software engineering the current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rajlich, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION History of Software EngineeringSoftware PropertiesOrigins of SoftwareBirth of Software EngineeringThird Paradigm: Iterative ApproachSoftware Life Span ModelsStaged ModelVariants of Staged ModelSoftware Technologies Programming Languages and CompilersObject-Oriented TechnologyVersion Control SystemSoftware ModelsClass DiagramsUML Activity DiagramsClass Dependency Graphs and ContractsSOFTWARE CHANGEIntroduction to Software ChangeCharacteristics of Software ChangePhases of Software ChangeRequirements and Their ElicitationRequirements Analysis and Change InitiationConcepts and Concept

  14. Real World Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-15

    semester addresses the remaining principles of a complete, mature software development process [ Humphrey 88]. In order to provide an instructional...Software Innovations Technology, 1083 Mandarin Drive N.E.. Palm Bay FL 32905-4706 [ Humphrey 88] W. S. Humphrey , "Characterizing the Software Process: A...Copies of all the forms mentioned are available via electronic mail from the authors. 40 [1) Doris Carver, "Comparison of Techniques In Project-Based

  15. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  16. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  17. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in our...... case study. Handling variants and tracing the impact of variants across the development lifecycle is a challenge. This chapter shows how we can maintain different versions of software in a reuse-based way....

  18. Software systems for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Albert R

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the use and development of software for astronomy. It describes the control systems used to point the telescope and operate its cameras and spectrographs, as well as the web-based tools used to plan those observations. In addition, the book also covers the analysis and archiving of astronomical data once it has been acquired. Readers will learn about existing software tools and packages, develop their own software tools, and analyze real data sets.

  19. Lean software development

    OpenAIRE

    Hefnerová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is the emergence of the clear Czech written material concerning the concept of Lean Software Development, which has been gaining significant attention in the field of software development, recently. Another goal of this thesis is to summarize the possible approaches of categorizing the concept and to summarize the possible approaches of defining the relationship between Lean and Agile software development. The detailed categorization of the tools potentia...

  20. Essential software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gorton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Job titles like ""Technical Architect"" and ""Chief Architect"" nowadays abound in software industry, yet many people suspect that ""architecture"" is one of the most overused and least understood terms in professional software development. Gorton's book tries to resolve this dilemma. It concisely describes the essential elements of knowledge and key skills required to be a software architect. The explanations encompass the essentials of architecture thinking, practices, and supporting technologies. They range from a general understanding of structure and quality attributes through technical i

  1. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  2. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  3. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  4. Software Architecture Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    2008 Carnegie Mellon University 2008 PLS March 2008 © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Software Architecture Technology Initiative SATURN 2008...SUBTITLE Software Architecture Technology Initiative 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the SEI Software Architecture Technology User Network (SATURN) Workshop, 30 Apr ? 1 May 2008, Pittsburgh, PA. 14

  5. Gammasphere software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  6. Parallel Software Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Software Model Checking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...3: ∧ ≥ 10 ∧ ≠ 10 ⇒ : Parallel Software Model Checking Team Members Sagar Chaki, Arie Gurfinkel

  7. Gammasphere software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  8. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  9. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  10. Agile software development

    CERN Document Server

    Dingsoyr, Torgeir; Moe, Nils Brede

    2010-01-01

    Agile software development has become an umbrella term for a number of changes in how software developers plan and coordinate their work, how they communicate with customers and external stakeholders, and how software development is organized in small, medium, and large companies, from the telecom and healthcare sectors to games and interactive media. Still, after a decade of research, agile software development is the source of continued debate due to its multifaceted nature and insufficient synthesis of research results. Dingsoyr, Dyba, and Moe now present a comprehensive snapshot of the kno

  11. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  12. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...... the organization and management of (software development) projects and process improvements projects....

  13. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  14. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  15. MYOB software for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Veechi

    2012-01-01

    Your complete guide to MYOB® AccountRight softwareNow in its seventh edition, MYOB® Software For Dummies walks you through everything you need to know, from starting your MYOB® file from scratch and recording payments and receipts, to tracking profit and analysing sales. This new edition includes all the information you need on the new generation of MYOB® AccountRight software, including the new cloud computing features. Set up MYOB® software - understand how to make it work the first time Keep track of purchases and sales - monitor customer accounts and ensure you get pai

  16. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hongbo; Hazawa, Masaharu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 µM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 µM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line.

  17. TD-LTE Test System Anite SAS Based on Anite 9000%基于AniteSAS的TD-LTE IOT测试系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康亮; 李传峰; 秦方民; 崔斌

    2012-01-01

    this article makes an all-around introduction to SAS, the TD-LTE Test system based on Anite 9000. Firstly, the necessity and the contents of SAS Test system is introduced. Then, how to realize TD-LTE test in SAS system is presented detailedly. Finally, the advantage of SAS system is analyzed.%对基于Anite9000的SAS测试系统进行了全面的介绍。首先介绍了SAS测试的必要陛和基本内容,接着阐述了如何使用SAS测试系统实现TD—LTE的测试。最后对SAS的优点进行飞龠舐。

  18. Teaching Social Software with Social Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Ulises

    2006-01-01

    Ulises Mejias examines how social software--information and communications technologies that facilitate the collaboration and exchange of ideas--enables students to participate in distributed research, an approach to learning in which knowledge is collectively constructed and shared. During Fall 2005, Mejias taught a graduate seminar that provided…

  19. The Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS): Validation of a new tool for music therapy process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Gnesi, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Morotti, Lara; Boffelli, Sara; Imbriani, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-08-25

    Music therapy (MT) interventions are aimed at creating and developing a relationship between patient and therapist. However, there is a lack of validated observational instruments to consistently evaluate the MT process. The purpose of this study was the validation of Music Therapy Session Assessment Scale (MT-SAS), designed to assess the relationship between therapist and patient during active MT sessions. Videotapes of a single 30-min session per patient were considered. A pilot study on the videotapes of 10 patients was carried out to help refine the items, define the scoring system and improve inter-rater reliability among the five raters. Then, a validation study on 100 patients with different clinical conditions was carried out. The Italian MT-SAS was used throughout the process, although we also provide an English translation. The final scale consisted of 7 binary items accounting for eye contact, countenance, and nonverbal and sound-music communication. In the pilot study, raters were found to share an acceptable level of agreement in their assessments. Explorative factorial analysis disclosed a single homogeneous factor including 6 items (thus supporting an ordinal total score), with only the item about eye contact being unrelated to the others. Moreover, the existence of 2 different archetypal profiles of attuned and disattuned behaviours was highlighted through multiple correspondence analysis. As suggested by the consistent results of 2 different analyses, MT-SAS is a reliable tool that globally evaluates sonorous-musical and nonverbal behaviours related to emotional attunement and empathetic relationship between patient and therapist during active MT sessions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Phenethyl isothiocyanate suppresses EGF-stimulated SAS human oral squamous carcinoma cell invasion by targeting EGF receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Chung-Ming; Lee, Chao-Ying; Shih, Nai-Chen; Amagaya, Sakae; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-08-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural compound that is involved in chemoprevention as well as inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. Previous studies have revealed that PEITC suppresses the invasion of AGS gastric and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. However, the effects of PEITC on the metastasis of SAS oral cancer cells remain to be determined. Our results showed that PEITC treatment inhibited the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but appeared not to affect the cell viability. The expression and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed by PEITC. Concomitantly, we observed an increase in the protein expression of both tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 (TIMP-2) in treated cells. Furthermore, PEITC treatments decreased the protein phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream signaling proteins including PDK1, PI3K (p85), AKT, phosphorylated IKK and IκB to inactivate NF-κB for the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, PEITC can trigger the MAPK signaling pathway through the increase in phosphorylated p38, JNK and ERK in treated cells. Our data indicate that PEITC is able to inhibit the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS oral cancer cells by targeting EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules and finally lead to the reduced expression and enzymatic activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results suggest that PEITC is promising for the therapy of oral cancer metastasis.

  1. Analysis of Correlates in SAS.SDS and MMPI of Stutters%口吃患者MMPI与SAS、SDS的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈; 丁宝坤; 肖可畏; 石文惠; 李晓东; 王晓武; 孙晓敏

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the personality feature of stuttering. Methods: SAS, SDS, MMPI were administered to 108 patients with stuttering, 110 normal controls, 103 patients with OCD, 137 patients with depression. Results: The scores of F, K, D, Mf, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si in stuttering group were significantly differen from OCD and depression groups. The scores of SAS were positively correlated with the score of F, D, Ht, Pd, Pt, Sc, Si. Conclusion: The personality feature of stuttering were depressive and compulsive personality.

  2. ¿Cuáles son las consecuencias jurídicas de constituir una Sociedad por Acciones Simplificada (SAS) para hacer fraude a la ley?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchao, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The Sociedades por Acciones Simplificadas, commonly known as SAS, offer to their stockholders a kind of company with multiple economic and juridical benefits. Nevertheless, this has caused that some of these SAS have been created with the aim to do fraud or to harm third parties, i.e. they are constituted with illicit purposes. As a result, the limited responsibility of partners becomes unlimited and shared; removing corporate image from juridical person, a legal phenomenon named di...

  3. Escala de sociotropía-autonomía (SAS: propiedades psicométricas de la adaptación a Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Alberto Toro Tobar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue adaptar y validar la Escala de Sociotropía-Autonomía (SAS de Clark & Beck, la cual evalúa dos dimensiones de personalidad cognitiva: la orientación interpersonal y actitudes de logro y metas personales. La muestra consistió en 460 participantes entre 15 y 71 años, escolarizados de distintos estratos socioeconómicos. Los resultados mostraron índices de consistencia interna en la Escala SAS: total (,85, SAS Sociotropía (,82 y menores para SAS autonomía (,61. Estos resultados guardan relación con investigaciones acerca de este instrumento; por lo tanto se considera confiable y válido para el contexto sociocultural; además podría apoyar la investigación en psicoterapia cognitiva y en procesos clínicos basados en el modelo diátesis estrés. Abstract This paper presents the results of a study whose aim was adapt and validate the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (SAS Clark & Beck. This scale assesses two dimensions of cognitive personality: interpersonal orientation and attitudes of achievement and personal goals. The sample consisted of 460 participants between 15 and 71 years enrolled from different socioeconomic levels. The results showed internal consistency in SAS Scale: Total (.85, SAS Sociotropy (.82 and lower for SAS Autonomy (.61. These results are relevant to research on this instrument. It is considered a reliable and valid instrument for socio-cultural context; could also support research in cognitive psychotherapy and clinical processes based on the diathesis stress model.

  4. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  5. Exploring item and higher order factor structure with the Schmid-Leiman solution: syntax codes for SPSS and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Preising, Katja

    2005-02-01

    To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  6. SAS Enterprise Data Integration Server - A Complete Solution Designed To Meet the Full Spectrum of Enterprise Data Integration Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BOLOHAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about why is Data Integration important for organisations around the world. Organizations struggle daily with the challenges of large distributed data volumes, inconsistently defined data across disparate systems and the high expectations of data consumers who depend on information to be correct, complete and available when they need it. SAS Enterprise Data Integration Server provides a comprehensive solution that enables organizations to solve these challenges in a timely, cost-effective manner with the ability to efficiently manage data integration projects on an enterprise scale, increasing overall productivity and reducing the total cost of ownership.

  7. Estructuración de un modelo de gestión eficiente para AJ Colombia SAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Gallego, Daniel Felipe; Morales Chavez, Daniela; Ortega Diaz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    En la mayoría de los países, los negocios familiares representan un alto porcentaje de todas las empresas constituidas. Colombia no es la excepción a este comportamiento, donde las empresas familiares representan el 70% de todas las compañías, según la Superintendencia de Sociedades, en las que se incluyen PYMES y grandes grupos económicos. Este trabajo de grado tiene como objetivo estructurar un modelo de gestión eficiente para la empresa AJ Colombia S.A.S. una empresa mediana que se ha v...

  8. Software for multistate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans; Putter, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growing interest in pathways, the increased availability of life-history data, innovations in statistical and demographic techniques, and advances in software technology have stimulated the development of software packages for multistate modeling of life histories. Objective: In the

  9. Software for multistate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans; Putter, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growing interest in pathways, the increased availability of life-history data, innovations in statistical and demographic techniques, and advances in software technology have stimulated the development of software packages for multistate modeling of life histories.Objective: In the

  10. Software evolution with XVCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stan; Zhang, Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces software evolution with XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language), which is an XML-based metaprogramming technique. As the software evolves, a large number of variants may arise, especially whtn such kinds of evolutions are related to multiple platforms as shown in o...

  11. Software Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    on software management obstacles and ways Chakrabarty, which held that genetically altered to cope with them are presented. Standardization is... algorith - MacProject89 mic models used to estimate software costs (SLIM, MacProject 11. Claris Corp., Mountain View, Calif., COCOMO, Function Points

  12. Software Quality Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    March 1979, pp. 121-128. Gorla, Narasimhaiah, Alan C. Benander, and Barbara A. Benander, "Debugging Effort Estimation Using Software Metrics", IEEE...Society, IEEE Guide for the Use of IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software, IEEE Std 982.2-1988, June 1989. Jones, Capers

  13. Software Engineering Education Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    The C Programming Language by Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M. Compilers: C Computers: NCR Tower 32/600 running UNIX System V...Sun Microsystems, Ada Eiffel 3B2) Software Testing CS 429 U P E O 10 Textbooks: Software Testing Techniques by Beizer, Boris Systems

  14. Marketing Mix del Software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith del Carmen Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-03-01

    Por ello, en este trabajo se define el concepto de producto software, se caracteriza al mismo y se exponen sus atributos de calidad. Además, se aborda la mezcla de marketing del software necesaria y diferente a la de otros productos para que este triunfe en el mercado.

  15. Software engineering ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    Software engineering ethics is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: lack of a system viewpoint; arrogance of PC DOS software vendors; violation od upward compatibility; internet worm; internet worm revisited; student cheating and company hiring interviews; computing practitioners and the commodity market; new projects and old programming languages; schedule and budget; and recent public domain comments.

  16. Software Assurance Competency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    2010a]: Application of technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the...for specific projects. L5: Analyze assurance technologies and contribute to the development of new ones. Assured Software Development L1

  17. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  18. Software cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the state of the art of software cost estimation (SCE). The main questions to be answered in the paper are: (1) What are the reasons for overruns of budgets and planned durations? (2) What are the prerequisites for estimating? (3) How can software development effort be

  19. Cactus: Software Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    The early eighties saw a period of rapid change in computing and teachers lost control of how they used computers in their classrooms. Software companies produced computer tools that looked so good that teachers forgot about writing their own classroom materials and happily purchased software--that offered much more than teachers needed--from…

  20. Selecting the Right Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Selection of administrative software requires analyzing present needs and, to meet future needs, choosing software that will function with a more powerful computer system. Other important factors to include are a professional system demonstration, maintenance and training, and financial considerations that allow leasing or renting alternatives.…

  1. Systematic Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The speed of innovation and the global allocation of resources to accelerate development or to reduce cost put pressure on the software industry. In the global competition, especially so-called high-price countries have to present arguments why the higher development cost is justified and what...... makes these countries an attractive host for software companies. Often, high-quality engineering and excellent quality of products, e.g., machinery and equipment, are mentioned. Yet, the question is: Can such arguments be also found for the software industry? We aim at investigating the degree...... of professionalism and systematization of software development to draw a map of strengths and weaknesses. To this end, we conducted as a first step an exploratory survey in Germany, presented in this paper. In this survey, we focused on the perceived importance of the two general software engineering process areas...

  2. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  3. Software quality in 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C. [Software Productivity Research, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    For many years, software quality assurance lagged behind hardware quality assurance in terms of methods, metrics, and successful results. New approaches such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) the ISO 9000-9004 standards, the SEI maturity levels, and Total Quality Management (TQM) are starting to attract wide attention, and in some cases to bring software quality levels up to a parity with manufacturing quality levels. Since software is on the critical path for many engineered products, and for internal business systems as well, the new approaches are starting to affect global competition and attract widespread international interest. It can be hypothesized that success in mastering software quality will be a key strategy for dominating global software markets in the 21st century.

  4. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  5. Software Requirements Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literature in the area while tabulating possible methods of managing requirements. It also highlights the benefits of following a proper guideline for the requirements management task. With the introduction of specific software tools for the requirements management task, better software products are now been developed with lesser resources.

  6. Software licenses: Stay honest!

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you recall our article about copyright violation in the last issue of the CERN Bulletin, “Music, videos and the risk for CERN”? Now let’s be more precise. “Violating copyright” not only means the illegal download of music and videos, it also applies to software packages and applications.   Users must respect proprietary rights in compliance with the CERN Computing Rules (OC5). Not having legitimately obtained a program or the required licenses to run that software is not a minor offense. It violates CERN rules and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. Therefore, make sure that you have the right to use their software. In other words, you have bought the software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “Shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “Freeware” is complete...

  7. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  8. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  9. DIVERSIFICATION IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er.Kirtesh Jailia,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the factors that have promoted the iversification of software process models. The intention is to understand more clearly the problem-solving process in software engineering & try to find out the efficient way to manage the risk. A review of software process modeling is given first, followed by a discussion of process evaluation techniques. A taxonomy for categorizing process models, based on establishing decision criteria,is identified that can guide selecting the appropriate model from a set of alternatives on the basis of model characteristics and software project needs. We are proposing a model in this paper, for dealing with the diversification in software engineering.

  10. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  11. AUTOMATED SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Strasheim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Automated distribution of computer software via electronic means in large corporate networks is growing in popularity. The relative importance of personal computer software, in financial and logistical terms, is described and the developing need for automated software distribution explained. An actual comparitive example of alternative software distribution strategies is presented and discussed proving the viability of Electronic Software Distribution.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geoutomatiseerde verspreiding van rekenaarprogrammatuur met behulp van elektroniese metodes in groot korporatiewe netwerke, is toenemend populer, Die relatiewe belangrikheid van persoonlike rekenaarprogrammatuur in finansiele en logistieke terme word bespreek en die groeiende behoefte na geoutomatiseerde programmatuurverspreiding verduidelik. 'n Werklike vergelykende voorbeeld van alternatiewe programmatuurverspreidingsstrategiee word aangebied en bespreek wat die lewensvatbaarheid van Elektroniese Programmatuurverspreiding bewys.

  12. Developing Software Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hall

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Programs in education and business often require learners to develop and demonstrate competence in specified areas and then be able to effectively apply this knowledge. One method to aid in developing a skill set in these areas is through the use of software simulations. These simulations can be used for learner demonstrations of competencies in a specified course as well as a review of the basic skills at the beginning of subsequent courses. The first section of this paper discusses ToolBook, the software used to develop our software simulations. The second section discusses the process of developing software simulations. The third part discusses how we have used software simulations to assess student knowledge of research design by providing simulations that allow the student to practice using SPSS and Excel.

  13. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  14. The High Throughput Sequence Annotation Service (HT-SAS – the shortcut from sequence to true Medline words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Pawel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in high-throughput technologies available to modern biology have created an increasing flood of experimentally determined facts. Ordering, managing and describing these raw results is the first step which allows facts to become knowledge. Currently there are limited ways to automatically annotate such data, especially utilizing information deposited in published literature. Results To aid researchers in describing results from high-throughput experiments we developed HT-SAS, a web service for automatic annotation of proteins using general English words. For each protein a poll of Medline abstracts connected to homologous proteins is gathered using the UniProt-Medline link. Overrepresented words are detected using binomial statistics approximation. We tested our automatic approach with a protein test set from SGD to determine the accuracy and usefulness of our approach. We also applied the automatic annotation service to improve annotations of proteins from Plasmodium bergei expressed exclusively during the blood stage. Conclusion Using HT-SAS we created new, or enriched already established annotations for over 20% of proteins from Plasmodium bergei expressed in the blood stage, deposited in PlasmoDB. Our tests show this approach to information extraction provides highly specific keywords, often also when the number of abstracts is limited. Our service should be useful for manual curators, as a complement to manually curated information sources and for researchers working with protein datasets, especially from poorly characterized organisms.

  15. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  16. One-Click Data Analysis Software for Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    One of the important activities of ESA Science Operations Centre is to provide Data Analysis Software (DAS) to enable users and scientists to process data further to higher levels. During operations and post-operations, Data Analysis Software (DAS) is fully maintained and updated for new OS and library releases. Nonetheless, once a Mission goes into the "legacy" phase, there are very limited funds and long-term preservation becomes more and more difficult. Building on Virtual Machine (VM), Cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS) technologies, this project has aimed at providing long-term preservation of Data Analysis Software for the following missions: - PIA for ISO (1995) - SAS for XMM-Newton (1999) - Hipe for Herschel (2009) - EXIA for EXOSAT (1983) Following goals have guided the architecture: - Support for all operations, post-operations and archive/legacy phases. - Support for local (user's computer) and cloud environments (ESAC-Cloud, Amazon - AWS). - Support for expert users, requiring full capabilities. - Provision of a simple web-based interface. This talk describes the architecture, challenges, results and lessons learnt gathered in this project.

  17. EDITORIAL Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Goran; Heenan, Richard

    2010-10-01

    particles based on the radial pair distance distribution function. The model takes account of different types of disorder, i.e. of both 1st ('thermal') and 2nd ('paracrystalline') kind, as well as finite size, stacking and orientational disorder. In paper 012014 Salvino Ciccariello works out the 3D correlation function of plane objects, specifically a triangle of a general shape. This paves the way to analysing morphologies that can be approximated by cylinders of different cross-sections. Papers 012051 (Polte et al.) and 012047 (Bras et al.) report the use of SAS in combination with X-ray spectroscopy. Ristic et al. describe a real-time study of crystal nucleation induced by ultrasound (012049), while Marianne Imperor-Clerc et al. present an investigation of lyotropic liquid crystals under shear (012052). In the Polymers section Geoff Mitchell describes modelling of SANS data on electrospun fibres (012042), while Cabral et al. describes a study of nanoparticle aggregation in bulk and thin polymer films (012046). Work on phospholipid membranes was reported by Spinozzi et al. and by Onai et al. in papers 012019 and 012018, respectively. The latter deals with the effect of osmotic pressure on model 'lipid rafts', these being considered as having an important role in the function of the mammalian cell membrane. Readers interested in biological systems will find a number of other interesting papers describing the use of either SAXS or SANS in the Biological Systems and Membranes section. A number of descriptions of recent designs of SAXS (synchrotron) and SANS beamlines, as well as detector developments can be found in the section on Beamlines and Instrumentation. Goran Ungar, Editor-in-Chief Richard Heenan, Deputy Editor-in-Chief

  18. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    SOFTWARE, LIKE ALL industry products, is the result of complex multinational supply chains with many partners from concept to development to production and maintenance. Global software engineering (GSE), IT outsourcing, and business process outsourcing during the past decade have showed growth...... rates of 10 to 20 percent per year. This instalment of Practitioner’s Digest summarizes experiences and guidance from industry to facilitate knowledge and technology transfer for GSE. It’s based on industry feedback from the annual IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, which had...

  19. Management systems and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R P

    2001-02-01

    To ensure that your software optimizes your practice management systems, design systems that allow you and your team to achieve your goals and provide high levels of quality dentistry and customer service to your patients. Then use your current software system or purchase a new practice management software program that will allow your practice to operate within the guidelines of the systems which you have established. You can be certain that taking these steps will allow you to practice dentistry with maximum profitability and minimum stress for the remainder of your career.

  20. Advanced fingerprint verification software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradarani, A.; Taylor, J. R. B.; Severin, F.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a fingerprint software package that can be used in a wide range of applications from law enforcement to public and private security systems, and to personal devices such as laptops, vehicles, and door- locks. The software and processing units are a unique implementation of new and sophisticated algorithms that compete with the current best systems in the world. Development of the software package has been in line with the third generation of our ultrasonic fingerprinting machine1. Solid and robust performance is achieved in the presence of misplaced and low quality fingerprints.

  1. Software takes command

    CERN Document Server

    Manovich, Lev

    2013-01-01

    Software has replaced a diverse array of physical, mechanical, and electronic technologies used before 21st century to create, store, distribute and interact with cultural artifacts. It has become our interface to the world, to others, to our memory and our imagination - a universal language through which the world speaks, and a universal engine on which the world runs. What electricity and combustion engine were to the early 20th century, software is to the early 21st century. Offering the the first theoretical and historical account of software for media authoring and its effects on the prac

  2. CNEOST Control Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  3. Speakeasy software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskinger, Patricia J.; Ozarow, Larry; Chruscicki, Mary C.

    1993-08-01

    The Speakeasy Software Development Project had three primary objectives. The first objective was to perform Independent Verification and Validation (IV & V) of the software and documentation associated with the signal processor being developed by Hazeltine and TRW under the Speakeasy program. The IV & V task also included an analysis and assessment of the ability of the signal processor software to provide LPI communications functions. The second objective was to assist in the enhancement and modification of an existing Rome Lab signal processor workstation. Finally, TASC developed project management support tools and provided program management support to the Speakeasy Program Office.

  4. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  5. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  6. Software quality assurance handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    There are two important reasons for Software Quality Assurance (SQA) at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD): First, the benefits from SQA make good business sense. Second, the Department of Energy has requested SQA. This handbook is one of the first steps in a plant-wide implementation of Software Quality Assurance at KCD. The handbook has two main purposes. The first is to provide information that you will need to perform software quality assurance activities. The second is to provide a common thread to unify the approach to SQA at KCD. 2 figs.

  7. Calidad de componentes software

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos años se constata una tendencia creciente por parte de las organizaciones a desarrollar sus sistemas software mediante la combinación de componentes, en lugar de desarrollar dichos sistemas partiendo de cero. Esta tendencia es debida a varios factores. Entre ellos cabe destacar: la necesidad de las organizaciones de reducir los costes y el tiempo dedicados al desarrollo de los sistemas software; el crecimiento del mercado de componentes software; la reducción de la distancia ent...

  8. Beginning software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Beginning Software Engineering demystifies the software engineering methodologies and techniques that professional developers use to design and build robust, efficient, and consistently reliable software. Free of jargon and assuming no previous programming, development, or management experience, this accessible guide explains important concepts and techniques that can be applied to any programming language. Each chapter ends with exercises that let you test your understanding and help you elaborate on the chapter's main concepts. Everything you need to understand waterfall, Sashimi, agile, RAD, Scrum, Kanban, Extreme Programming, and many other development models is inside!

  9. POSO-MA-SAS 三元共聚物的制备及脱墨应用%Synthesis of terpolymer surfactant POSO-MA-SAS and its deinking performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌辉; 李强; 李丹; 崔丽萍

    2014-01-01

    The terpolymer anionic surfactant POSO-MA-SAS was synthesized by copolymeri-zation reaction of potassium sorbate (POSO) ,methyl acrylate (MA) and sodium allyl sulfon-ate (SAS) .The better synthesis process and the application to waste paper deinking used washing method was studied ,and terpolymer compounded performance was compared with commercial deinking agent .It was found that the better synthesis condition was determined as follow s :the molar ratio of potassium sorbate (POSO ) to methyl acrylate (M A ) to sodi-um allyl sulfonate (SAS) was 1∶3∶1 at 90 ℃ for 5 h ,dosage of initiator is 6% of monomer mass fraction .The terpolymer has good deinking effect ;the deinking effect was further im-prove when terpolymer compound with AES as the ratio 1∶1 .Compound dosage was 0 .2% , the whiteness of the paper deinked can be increased by 3 .8% ISO compared with commercial-ly available deinking agent and the residual ink concentration was 49 .53 mm2 · m -2 .%以山梨酸钾(POSO)、丙烯酸甲酯(MA)和烯丙基磺酸钠(SAS)为单体通过共聚反应制得POSO-M A-SAS三元共聚物阴离子表面活性剂.研究了最佳合成工艺,考察了共聚物在洗涤法废纸脱墨中的应用,复配后与市售脱墨剂进行了对比.结果表明,当 n(POSO )∶ n (MA)∶ n(SAS)=1∶3∶1,聚合反应温度为90℃,聚合反应时间5 h ,引发剂用量为单体总质量6%时,共聚物具有较好洗涤脱墨效果;共聚物与A ES复配使用时洗涤脱墨效果进一步提高,当m(POSO-MA-SAS)∶ m(AES)=1∶1,用量为0.2%时,脱墨后成纸白度相比市售脱墨剂提高3.8% ISO ,残余油墨量仅为49.53 mm2· m -2.

  10. Guide to verification and validation of the SCALE-4 radiation shielding software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    Whenever a decision is made to newly install the SCALE radiation shielding software on a computer system, the user should run a set of verification and validation (V&V) test cases to demonstrate that the software is properly installed and functioning correctly. This report is intended to serve as a guide for this V&V in that it specifies test cases to run and gives expected results. The report describes the V&V that has been performed for the radiation shielding software in a version of SCALE-4. This report provides documentation of sample problems which are recommended for use in the V&V of the SCALE-4 system for all releases. The results reported in this document are from the SCALE-4.2P version which was run on an IBM RS/6000 work-station. These results verify that the SCALE-4 radiation shielding software has been correctly installed and is functioning properly. A set of problems for use by other shielding codes (e.g., MCNP, TWOTRAN, MORSE) performing similar V&V are discussed. A validation has been performed for XSDRNPM and MORSE-SGC6 utilizing SASI and SAS4 shielding sequences and the SCALE 27-18 group (27N-18COUPLE) cross-section library for typical nuclear reactor spent fuel sources and a variety of transport package geometries. The experimental models used for the validation were taken from two previous applications of the SASI and SAS4 methods.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of interacting proteins and genome-wide location studies of the Sas3-dependent NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Muñoz, Sara; Romero, Paco; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Martinez-Jimenez, Celia P; Tordera, Vicente; Pamblanco, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation affects several aspects of gene regulation, from chromatin remodelling to gene expression, by modulating the interplay between chromatin and key transcriptional regulators. The exact molecular mechanism underlying acetylation patterns and crosstalk with other epigenetic modifications requires further investigation. In budding yeast, these epigenetic markers are produced partly by histone acetyltransferase enzymes, which act as multi-protein complexes. The Sas3-dependent NuA3 complex has received less attention than other histone acetyltransferases (HAT), such as Gcn5-dependent complexes. Here, we report our analysis of Sas3p-interacting proteins using tandem affinity purification (TAP), coupled with mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed Pdp3p, a recently described component of NuA3, to be one of the most abundant Sas3p-interacting proteins. The PDP3 gene, was TAP-tagged and protein complex purification confirmed that Pdp3p co-purified with the NuA3 protein complex, histones, and several transcription-related and chromatin remodelling proteins. Our results also revealed that the protein complexes associated with Sas3p presented HAT activity even in the absence of Gcn5p and vice versa. We also provide evidence that Sas3p cannot substitute Gcn5p in acetylation of lysine 9 in histone H3 in vivo. Genome-wide occupancy of Sas3p using ChIP-on-chip tiled microarrays showed that Sas3p was located preferentially within the 5'-half of the coding regions of target genes, indicating its probable involvement in the transcriptional elongation process. Hence, this work further characterises the function and regulation of the NuA3 complex by identifying novel post-translational modifications in Pdp3p, additional Pdp3p-co-purifying chromatin regulatory proteins involved in chromatin-modifying complex dynamics and gene regulation, and a subset of genes whose transcriptional elongation is controlled by this complex.

  12. 基于干系人知识共享的多组织项目风险的仿真%ABMS of Multi-Organizational Project Risk Management Based on Knowledge Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚莉; 郭琳; 杨朝君

    2014-01-01

    多组织项目的风险管理涉及众多干系人的参与,从知识管理角度分析,项目风险管理过程是不同项目干系人在信任的基础上进行相互协作、共享风险知识以实现风险控制的持续过程。基于社会网络理论,利用智能体仿真技术研究在不同信任条件和活动自由度下,干系人风险知识的交互对项目风险绩效的影响。研究结果表明,合理的信任条件以及适当的干系人活动自由度能降低项目整个生命周期内的风险影响,提高项目风险绩效,并提出了相应的项目风险管理建议。%Many stakeholders are involved in risk management in a multi-organizational project. From the perspective of knowledge management,project risk management process is regarded as activities of different stakeholders’ mutual collaboration and knowledge sharing in order to achieve sustained risk control. Based on social network theory,Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS)is applied to study the impact of interactive stakeholders’ risk knowledge on project risk performance under different conditions and trust activities(participation)degrees of freedom. The results show that reasonable trust conditions,and appropriate stakeholder activities(participation)degrees of freedom help reduce risks throughout the project life cycle,and improve the performance of project risk as well. At last,some project risk management recommendations are suggested.

  13. "IBSAR" Software 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A review for Arabic software entitled "IBSAR" software assigned to help blinds in usage of the computer, the software pronounces the commands and the contents of screens and applications browsed by users, this review includes general introduction about the software, the components and commands of the software , system requirements , and its functions with Windows operating system and Microsoft Word.

  14. A Novel Software Evolution Model Based on Software Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weifeng; Li, Bing; Ma, Yutao; Liu, Jing

    Many published papers analyzed the forming mechanisms and evolution laws of OO software systems from software reuse, software pattern, etc. There, however, have been fewer models so far merely built on the software components such as methods, classes, etc. and their interactions. In this paper, a novel Software Evolution Model based on Software Networks (called SEM-SN) is proposed. It uses software network at class level to represent software systems, and uses software network’s dynamical generating process to simulate activities in real software development process such as new classes’ dynamical creations and their dynamical interactions with already existing classes. It also introduces the concept of node/edge ageing to describe the decaying of classes with time. Empirical results on eight open-source Object-Oriented (OO) software systems demonstrate that SCM-SN roughly describes the evolution process of software systems and the emergence of their complex network characteristics.

  15. Project Portfolio Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    In order to design a methodology for the development of project portfolio management (PPM) applications, the existing applications have to be studied. This paper describes the main characteristics of the leading project portfolio management software applications.

  16. Project Portfolio Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a methodology for the development of project portfolio management (PPM applications, the existing applications have to be studied. This paper describes the main characteristics of the leading project portfolio management software applications.

  17. Test af Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dette dokument udgør slutrapporten for netværkssamarbejdet ”Testnet”, som er udført i perioden 1.4.2006 til 31.12.2008. Netværket beskæftiger sig navnlig med emner inden for test af indlejret og teknisk software, men et antal eksempler på problemstillinger og løsninger forbundet med test af...... administrativ software indgår også. Rapporten er opdelt i følgende 3 dele: Overblik. Her giver vi et resumé af netværkets formål, aktiviteter og resultater. State of the art af software test ridses op. Vi omtaler, at CISS og netværket tager nye tiltag. Netværket. Formål, deltagere og behandlede emner på ti...... række danske software-, elektronik- og IT-virksomheder....

  18. Tier2 Submit Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download this tool for Windows or Mac, which helps facilities prepare a Tier II electronic chemical inventory report. The data can also be exported into the CAMEOfm (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) emergency planning software.

  19. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  20. Spreadsheet Auditing Software

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, David

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that errors in spreadsheets are both common and potentially dangerous. Further research has taken place to investigate how frequently these errors occur, what impact they have, how the risk of spreadsheet errors can be reduced by following spreadsheet design guidelines and methodologies, and how effective auditing of a spreadsheet is in the detection of these errors. However, little research exists to establish the usefulness of software tools in the auditing of spreadsheets. This paper documents and tests office software tools designed to assist in the audit of spreadsheets. The test was designed to identify the success of software tools in detecting different types of errors, to identify how the software tools assist the auditor and to determine the usefulness of the tools.