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Sample records for sarracenia species pitcher

  1. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

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    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

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    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  3. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

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    Hotti, Hannu; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  4. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

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    Hannu Hotti

    Full Text Available Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  5. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

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    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  6. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

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    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  7. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.).

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    Whitman, Richard L; Byers, Stacey E; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, Donna M; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2005-12-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n=43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28+/-0.23 and 1.97+/-0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  8. Effects of seed cryopreservation, stratification and scarification on germination for five rare species of pitcher plants.

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    Khanna, Sruti; Jenkins, Heather; Bucalo, Kylie; Determann, Ron O; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Pullman, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and over collection have caused North American pitcher plants to become rare, including U.S. federally endangered Sarracenia alabamensis and S. oreophila, and S. leucophylla, S. psittacina and S. purpurea spp. venosa, endangered in several states. To develop reliable seed cryopreservation protocols for endangered Sarracenia species enabling similar germination percentages before and after storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) either in vivo or using in vitro tools. Seed germination pre- and post-cryopreservation were compared following seed drying with germination in soil, aseptic environment with wet filter paper or enriched medium, and using scarification or stratification for dormancy removal. After cryostorage, germination in vitro (1/6- or 1/3-strength MS medium) increased compared to germination on peat moss. Germination pre- and post-cryopreservation was similar for S. alabamensis and S. oreophila when seeds were stratified and grown in vitro. S. leucophylla and S. psittacina also showed high germination after cryopreservation when germinated on medium following stratification. Rapid liquid nitrogen exposure and rewarming induced seed coat cracking that damaged seeds, likely allowing internal damage during acid scarification and microbial entry during germination in non-sterile environments.

  9. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

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    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at different scales

  10. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities.

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    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O(2) and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. MUTUALISTIC: Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N(2). There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization.

  11. Germination and field survival of white-topped pitcher plant seeds

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    Kristina Connor; Hilliard Gibbs

    2012-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine longevity of white-topped pitcher plant (Sarracenia leucophylla, Raf.) seeds in the field and in cold storage. Thirty seed pods were harvested in August 2009 from plants located in Alabama 38 miles from the Gulf Coast. Of the 10,000+ seeds extracted from the pods, some were buried outside in screen-wire bags and...

  12. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Species richness and trophic diversity increase decomposition in a co-evolved food web.

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    Benjamin Baiser

    Full Text Available Ecological communities show great variation in species richness, composition and food web structure across similar and diverse ecosystems. Knowledge of how this biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning is important for understanding the maintenance of diversity and the potential effects of species losses and gains on ecosystems. While research often focuses on how variation in species richness influences ecosystem processes, assessing species richness in a food web context can provide further insight into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and elucidate potential mechanisms underpinning this relationship. Here, we assessed how species richness and trophic diversity affect decomposition rates in a complete aquatic food web: the five trophic level web that occurs within water-filled leaves of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. We identified a trophic cascade in which top-predators--larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito--indirectly increased bacterial decomposition by preying on bactivorous protozoa. Our data also revealed a facultative relationship in which larvae of the pitcher-plant midge increased bacterial decomposition by shredding detritus. These important interactions occur only in food webs with high trophic diversity, which in turn only occur in food webs with high species richness. We show that species richness and trophic diversity underlie strong linkages between food web structure and dynamics that influence ecosystem functioning. The importance of trophic diversity and species interactions in determining how biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning suggests that simply focusing on species richness does not give a complete picture as to how ecosystems may change with the loss or gain of species.

  14. Mass spectrometry data of metabolomics analysis of Nepenthes pitchers

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    Muhammad Aqil Fitri Rosli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybridisation plays a significant role in the evolution and diversification of plants. Hybridisation among Nepenthes species is extensive, either naturally or man-made. To investigate the effects of hybridisation on the chemical compositions, we carried out metabolomics study on pitcher tissue of Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes rafflesiana and their hybrid, Nepenthes × hookeriana. Pitcher samples were harvested and extracted in methanol:chloroform:water via sonication-assisted extraction before analysed using LC-TOF-MS. MS data were analysed using XCMS online version 2.2.5. This is the first MS data report towards the profiling, identification and comprehensive comparison of metabolites present in Nepenthes species.

  15. Restoration of pitcher plant bogs in eastern Texas, USA

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    Ronald Mize; Robert E. Evans; Barbara R. MacRoberts; Michael H. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2005-01-01

    Pitcher plant bogs, also referred to as hillside seepages bogs or hillside bogs, are extremely restricted on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. the number and extent of extant bogs is in the low hundreds, comprising no more than a few thousand hectares of habitat. These bogs support a large number of plant species of significant conservation concern. threats to existing bogs...

  16. Harmless nectar source or deadly trap: Nepenthes pitchers are activated by rain, condensation and nectar.

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    Bauer, Ulrike; Bohn, Holger F; Federle, Walter

    2008-02-07

    The leaves of Nepenthes pitcher plants are specialized pitfall traps which capture and digest arthropod prey. In many species, insects become trapped by 'aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim (peristome). Here we investigate the ecological implications of this capture mechanism in Nepenthes rafflesiana var. typica. We combine meteorological data and continuous field measurements of peristome wetness using electrical conductance with experimental assessments of the pitchers' capture efficiency. Our results demonstrate that pitchers can be highly effective traps with capture rates as high as 80% but completely ineffective at other times. These dramatic changes are due to the wetting condition of the peristome. Variation of peristome wetness and capture efficiency was perfectly synchronous, and caused by rain, condensation and nectar secreted from peristome nectaries. The presence of nectar on the peristome increased surface wetness mainly indirectly by its hygroscopic properties. Experiments confirmed that pitchers with removed peristome nectaries remained generally drier and captured prey less efficiently than untreated controls. This role of nectar in prey capture represents a novel function of plant nectar. We propose that the intermittent and unpredictable activation of Nepenthes pitcher traps facilitates ant recruitment and constitutes a strategy to maximize prey capture.

  17. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

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    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Labis, John [Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  18. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

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    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-11-21

    The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera) flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  19. A viscoelastic deadly fluid in carnivorous pitcher plants.

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    Laurence Gaume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key trapping devices. However, the occurrence of species lacking such epidermal specializations but still effective at trapping insects suggests the possible implication of other mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a combination of insect bioassays, high-speed video and rheological measurements, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is highly viscoelastic and that this physical property is crucial for the retention of insects in its traps. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding challenges the common classification of Nepenthes pitchers as simple passive traps and is of great adaptive significance for these tropical plants, which are often submitted to high rainfalls and variations in fluid concentration. The viscoelastic trap constitutes a cryptic but potentially widespread adaptation of Nepenthes species and could be a homologous trait shared through common ancestry with the sundew (Drosera flypaper plants. Such large production of a highly viscoelastic biopolymer fluid in permanent pools is nevertheless unique in the plant kingdom and suggests novel applications for pest control.

  20. Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid viscosity to high prey ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    [Di Giusto B, Grosbois V, Fargeas E, Marshall D J and Gaume L 2008 Contribution of pitcher fragrance and fluid ... but does not permit distinction between the attractive and .... sweet scent between pitchers of the lower and upper forms.

  1. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

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    Melinda Greenwood

    Full Text Available The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  2. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Background : The carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes, widely distributed in the Asian tropics, rely mostly on nutrients derived from arthropods trapped in their pitcher-shaped leaves and digested by their enzymatic fluid. The genus exhibits a great diversity of prey and pitcher forms and its mechanism of trapping has long intrigued scientists. The slippery inner surfaces of the pitchers, which can be waxy or highly wettable, have so far been considered as the key...

  3. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E.; Sheah, Kenneth; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Labis, John [Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2008-06-15

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player. (orig.)

  4. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E.; Sheah, Kenneth; Torriani, Martin; Labis, John

    2008-01-01

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player. (orig.)

  5. Ants swimming in pitcher plants: kinematics of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Camponotus schmitzi.

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    Bohn, Holger Florian; Thornham, Daniel George; Federle, Walter

    2012-06-01

    Camponotus schmitzi ants live in symbiosis with the Bornean pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata. Unique among ants, the workers regularly dive and swim in the pitcher's digestive fluid to forage for food. High-speed motion analysis revealed that C. schmitzi ants swim at the surface with all legs submerged, with an alternating tripod pattern. Compared to running, swimming involves lower stepping frequencies and larger phase delays within the legs of each tripod. Swimming ants move front and middle legs faster and keep them more extended during the power stroke than during the return stroke. Thrust estimates calculated from three-dimensional leg kinematics using a blade-element approach confirmed that forward propulsion is mainly achieved by the front and middle legs. The hind legs move much less, suggesting that they mainly serve for steering. Experiments with tethered C. schmitzi ants showed that characteristic swimming movements can be triggered by submersion in water. This reaction was absent in another Camponotus species investigated. Our study demonstrates how insects can use the same locomotory system and similar gait patterns for moving on land and in water. We discuss insect adaptations for aquatic/amphibious lifestyles and the special adaptations of C. schmitzi to living on an insect-trapping pitcher plant.

  6. With a flick of the lid: a novel trapping mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bauer

    Full Text Available Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers, using diverse mechanisms such as 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to 'flick' insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated 'rain', wet after 'rain', or dry, insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid.

  7. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

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    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  8. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid's contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid's capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with ants. Flies were more often retained if they

  9. Visual abilities distinguish pitchers from hitters in professional baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemish, David; Ramger, Benjamin; Vittetoe, Kelly; Reiter, Jerome P; Tokdar, Surya T; Appelbaum, Lawrence Gregory

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that differences in sensorimotor abilities exist between hitters and pitchers in a large cohort of baseball players of varying levels of experience. Secondary data analysis was performed on 9 sensorimotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery. Bayesian hierarchical regression modelling was applied to test for differences between pitchers and hitters in data from 566 baseball players (112 high school, 85 college, 369 professional) collected at 20 testing centres. Explanatory variables including height, handedness, eye dominance, concussion history, and player position were modelled along with age curves using basis regression splines. Regression analyses revealed better performance for hitters relative to pitchers at the professional level in the visual clarity and depth perception tasks, but these differences did not exist at the high school or college levels. No significant differences were observed in the other 7 measures of sensorimotor capabilities included in the test battery, and no systematic biases were found between the testing centres. These findings, indicating that professional-level hitters have better visual acuity and depth perception than professional-level pitchers, affirm the notion that highly experienced athletes have differing perceptual skills. Findings are discussed in relation to deliberate practice theory.

  10. Medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher

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    Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Fronek, Jan [Scripps Healthcare, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    We report the occurrence of a medial supracondylar stress fracture in an adolescent pitcher. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the literature, and awareness of this entity allows initiation of therapy and precludes further unnecessary work-up. The radiographic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging appearances are reviewed and the mechanism of injury is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  12. Nepenthes Vogelii (Nepenthaceae): a new species from Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.; Vogel, de E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Nepenthes vogelii Schuit. & de Vogel is described as a new species from Sarawak. It is compared with N. fusca Danser, from which it differs e.g. in the much smaller pitchers, of which the lid lacks appendages.

  13. Dipteran larvae and microbes facilitate nutrient sequestration in the Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Weng Ngai; Chong, Kwek Yan; Anand, Ganesh S; Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah

    2017-03-01

    The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N. gracilis pitchers and both dipteran larvae and fluid microbes. Using dipteran larvae, prey and fluid volumes mimicking in situ pitcher conditions, we conducted in vitro experiments and measured changes in available fluid nitrogen in response to dipteran larvae and microbe presence. We showed that the presence of dipteran larvae resulted in significantly higher and faster releases of ammonium and soluble protein into fluids in artificial pitchers, and that the presence of fluid microbes did likewise for ammonium. We showed also that niche segregation occurs between phorid and culicid larvae, with the former fragmenting prey carcasses and the latter suppressing fluid microbe levels. These results clarify the relationships between several key pitcher-dwelling organisms, and show that pitcher communities facilitate nutrient sequestration in their host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Trunk Muscle Function Deficit in Youth Baseball Pitchers With Excessive Contralateral Trunk Tilt During Pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Waldhelm, Andrew G; Sosa, Araceli R; Patel, Ravina R; Kalinowski, Derick L

    2017-09-01

    Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. Cross-sectional study. Baseball practice fields. Twenty-eight youth baseball pitchers. Pitching technique was captured using a video camera. Based on the 2-dimensional trunk contralateral flexion angle, pitchers were categorized into low (30 degrees) CLT groups. Maximum isometric strength tests for trunk flexion, extension, and bilateral rotation, measured using a dynamometer. The pitchers with high CLT (n = 10) had longer pitching experience (P = 0.014), produced higher ball speed (P = 0.003) compared with the pitchers with moderate (n = 10) and low (n = 8) CLT, but demonstrated greater asymmetry in trunk rotation strength (relative weakness in rotation strength toward dominant side) compared with the pitchers with low CLT (P = 0.015). Excessive CLT may be a strategy that young pitchers learn to achieve higher ball velocity but also may be associated with imbalance between the oblique muscles on dominant and nondominant side, which may be acquired from repetitive pitching. Strengthening and emphasizing the use of dominant side oblique muscles may keep pitchers from leaning excessively during pitching and thus decrease joint loading.

  15. SHOULDER RANGE OF MOTION, PITCH COUNT, AND INJURIES AMONG INTERSCHOLASTIC FEMALE SOFTBALL PITCHERS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, Lori A.; Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Injury rates for softball players are similar to baseball players yet information regarding risk factors, pitching, and physical characteristics for high school windmill softball pitchers is limited. This information is needed to guide prevention, training, and rehabilitation efforts. The purpose of this study was to report descriptive data regarding the physical characteristics and pitching volume experienced by high school softball pitchers during one academic season. A secondary aim was to track and describe upper extremity injuries suffered by high school softball pitchers throughout the course of the 2009 season. Methods: Twelve uninjured female softball pitchers (13‐18y) from 5 Greenville, South Carolina high schools participated. Prior to the 2009 season, the pitchers' shoulder internal, external, total arc of rotation and horizontal adduction PROM was measured. During the 10‐week season, aggregate pitch counts (pitch volume) and occurrence of upper extremity injury were tracked for each pitcher. Results: Mean preseason internal, external, and total arc of rotation PROM was observed to be similar between the pitchers' dominant and non‐dominant shoulders. The PROM measures of horizontal abduction (HA) appear to demonstrate a side‐to‐side difference with less HA on the dominant arm of the pitchers who were examined. Subjects threw in an average of 10.1 games (±4.9) during the season. Six pitchers threw in 60% or more of the team's games and 3 of 12 pitchers pitched less than 25% of games. Pitchers averaged 61.8 pitches per game (±31.5) and 745.8 (±506.4) per season. Pitch count data did not appear to be different between injured and non‐injured pitchers. Conclusions: Knowledge of pitch volume can be used to prepare windmill softball pitchers for the seasonal stresses, guide establishment of goals when recovering from injury, or assist in training for an upcoming season. Further research is needed to examine larger samples of

  16. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  17. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  18. Kinematic and kinetic differences between left-and right-handed professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendaffer, Alek Z; Fleisig, Glenn S; Ivey, Brett; Aune, Kyle T

    2018-03-21

    While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups. Pitching biomechanics were collected on 96 left-handed pitchers and a group of 96 right-handed pitchers matched for age, height, mass and ball velocity. Student t-tests were used to identify kinematic and kinetic differences (p different between the groups. Landing position of the stride foot, trunk separation at foot contact, maximum shoulder external rotation and trunk forward tilt at ball release were all significantly greater in right-handed pitchers. The magnitude of the statistical differences found were small and not consistent with differences in the two previous, smaller studies. Thus, the differences found may be of minimal practical significance and mechanics can be taught the same to all pitchers, regardless of throwing hand.

  19. Interspecific variation in prey capture behavior by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur YC; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes. PMID:24481246

  20. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  1. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hip and upper extremity kinematics in youth baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Taylor; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and upper extremity kinematics during baseball pitching. Thirty-one youth baseball pitchers (10.87 ± 0.92 years; 150.03 ± 5.48 cm; 44.83 ± 8.04 kg) participated. A strong correlation was found between stance hip rotation and scapular upward rotation at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = 0.531, P = 0.002) and at ball release (r = 0.536, P = 0.002). No statistically significant correlations were found between dynamic hip rotational range of motion and passive hip range of motion. Hip range of motion deficits can constrain pelvis rotation and limit energy generation in the lower extremities. Shoulder pathomechanics can then develop as greater responsibility is placed on the shoulder to generate the energy lost from the proximal segments, increasing risk of upper extremity injury. Additionally, it appears that passive seated measurements of hip range of motion may not accurately reflect the dynamic range of motion of the hips through the progression of the pitch cycle.

  3. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Joseph J.; Block, John J.; Kan, J.H.; Hannah, Gene A.

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  4. Relationship of biomechanical factors to baseball pitching velocity: within pitcher variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Fleisig, Glenn S; McLean, Scott P; Andrews, James R

    2005-02-01

    To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis. Inclusion in the study required each one to demonstrate a variation in velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range 1.8-3.5 m/s) during 6 to 10 fastball pitch trials. Three mixed model analyses were performed to assess the independent effects of 7 kinetic, 11 temporal, and 12 kinematic parameters on pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that elbow flexion torque, shoulder proximal force, and elbow proximal force were the only three kinetic parameters significantly associated with increased ball velocity. Two temporal parameters (increased time to max shoulder horizontal adduction and decreased time to max shoulder internal rotation) and three kinematic parameters (decreased shoulder horizontal adduction at foot contact, decreased shoulder abduction during acceleration, and increased trunk tilt forward at release) were significantly related to increased ball velocity. These results point to variations in an individual's throwing mechanics that relate to pitched ball velocity, and also suggest that pitchers should focus on consistent mechanics to produce consistently high fastball velocities. In addition, pitchers should strengthen shoulder and elbow musculature that resist distraction as well as improve trunk strength and flexibility to maximize pitching velocity and help prevent injury.

  5. A controlled study on batted ball speed and available pitcher reaction time in slowpitch softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M; Ciocco, M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate safety risks in slowpitch softball by conducting laboratory and experimental studies on the performance of high tech softball bats with polyurethane softballs. To compare the results with the recommended safety standards. Methods: ASTM standard compression testing of seven softball models was conducted. Using these seven softball models, bat/ball impact testing was performed using seven adult male softball players and six high tech softball bat models to determine mean batted ball speeds. Over 500 bat/ball impact measurements were recorded and analysed. Available pitcher reaction time was calculated from the mean batted ball speed measurements. Results: According to the United States Specialty Sports Association and the Amateur Softball Association, the maximum initial batted ball speed should be 137.2 km/h, which corresponds to a minimum pitcher reaction time of 0.420 second. These experiments produced mean batted ball speeds of 134.0–159.7 km/h, which correspond to available pitcher reaction times of 0.409–0.361 second. Conclusion: The use of high tech softball bats with polyurethane softballs can result in batted ball speeds that exceed the recommended safety limits, which correspond to decreased available pitcher reaction times. PMID:15793092

  6. Carnivorous Nutrition in Pitcher Plants (Nepenthes spp.) via an Unusual Complement of Endogenous Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Zhang, Ye; Ozar, Brittany; Sensen, Christoph W; Schriemer, David C

    2016-09-02

    Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis.

  7. Trends in Revision Elbow Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander T; Pidgeon, Tyler S; Morrell, Nathan T; DaSilva, Manuel F

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequency of revision elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in professional baseball pitchers. Data were collected on 271 professional baseball pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction. Each player was evaluated retrospectively for occurrence of revision UCL reconstructive surgery to treat failed primary reconstruction. Data on players who underwent revision UCL reconstruction were compiled to determine total surgical revision incidence and revision rate by year. The incidence of early revision was analyzed for trends. Average career length after primary UCL reconstruction was calculated and compared with that of players who underwent revision surgery. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors for revision including handedness, pitching role, and age at the time of primary reconstruction. Between 1974 and 2014, the annual incidence of primary UCL reconstructions among professional pitchers increased, while the proportion of cases being revised per year decreased. Of the 271 pitchers included in the study, 40 (15%) required at least 1 revision procedure during their playing career. Three cases required a second UCL revision reconstruction. The average time from primary surgery to revision was 5.2 ± 3.2 years (range, 1-13 years). The average length of career following primary reconstruction for all players was 4.9 ± 4.3 years (range, 0-22 years). The average length of career following revision UCL reconstruction was 2.5 ± 2.4 years (range, 0-8 years). No risk factors for needing revision UCL reconstruction were identified. The incidence of primary UCL reconstructions among professional pitchers is increasing; however, the rate of primary reconstructions requiring revision is decreasing. Explanations for the decreased revision rate may include improved surgical technique and improved rehabilitation protocols. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    species, including orchids ( Orchidaceae ) and several carnivorous plants, such as sundews (Drosera sp.), pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) and pipeworts...a dense shrub cover including saw palmetto, sea grape (Coccoloba urifera), wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera), and tough buckthorn (Bumelia tenax) (George...Cherry Prunus serotina Shrubs Galberries Ilex glabra, I. coriacea Wax Myrtle yrica cerifeFa Vines Bamboo Vine Similax laurifolia Poison Ivy Rhus radicans

  9. Upper Extremity Functional Status of Female Youth Softball Pitchers Using the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Kaila A; O'Connor, Russell J

    2018-01-01

    Softball is a popular sport with a high incidence of upper extremity injuries. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) questionnaire is a validated performance and functional assessment tool used in overhead athletes. Upper extremity pain patterns and baseline KJOC scores have not been reported for active female youth softball pitchers. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of upper extremity pain and its effect in female youth softball pitchers over a competitive season. We hypothesized that participants who missed time due to injury in the past year would have lower KJOC scores. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-three female softball pitchers aged 12 to 18 years were recruited from softball clinics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. All participants self-identified as a pitcher on a competitive travel team. Participants were administered the KJOC questionnaire before and during the playing season. Missed time due to injury in the past year, current pain patterns, and KJOC scores were primary outcomes. The mean (±SD) preseason KJOC score was 87.2 ± 10.6. In the preseason, 22.6% of pitchers reported playing with arm trouble, and 32.1% missed time due to injury in the past year. The mean KJOC score for pitchers reporting a previous injury (n = 17) was significantly lower compared with those without an injury (n = 36) (79.5 ± 13.8 vs 90.9 ± 6.2, respectively; P = .02). The posterior shoulder was the most commonly reported pain location. For the cohort completing the questionnaire both before and during the playing season (n = 35), mean KJOC scores did not change significantly over the playing season ( P = .64). Lower preseason KJOC scores were significantly related to the in-season injury risk ( P = .016). Pitchers with a preseason score of less than 90 had a 3.5 (95% CI, 1.1-11.2) times greater risk of reporting an in-season injury. Female youth softball pitchers have a high baseline functional status. However, 1 in 3

  10. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  11. Knee Angle and Stride Length in Association with Ball Speed in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart van Trigt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether stride length and knee angle of the leading leg at foot contact, at the instant of maximal external rotation of the shoulder, and at ball release are associated with ball speed in elite youth baseball pitchers. In this study, fifty-two elite youth baseball pitchers (mean age 15.2 SD (standard deviation 1.7 years pitched ten fastballs. Data were collected with three high-speed video cameras at a frequency of 240 Hz. Stride length and knee angle of the leading leg were calculated at foot contact, maximal external rotation, and ball release. The associations between these kinematic variables and ball speed were separately determined using generalized estimating equations. Stride length as percentage of body height and knee angle at foot contact were not significantly associated with ball speed. However, knee angles at maximal external rotation and ball release were significantly associated with ball speed. Ball speed increased by 0.45 m/s (1 mph with an increase in knee extension of 18 degrees at maximal external rotation and 19.5 degrees at ball release. In conclusion, more knee extension of the leading leg at maximal external rotation and ball release is associated with higher ball speeds in elite youth baseball pitchers.

  12. Ulnar neuropathy and medial elbow pain in women's fastpitch softball pitchers: a report of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam M; Butler, Thomas H; Dolan, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. We identified 6 female softball pitchers (4 high school and 2 collegiate) with medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Trials of conservative care failed in all 6, and they underwent surgical treatment with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition. These patients were subsequently monitored postoperatively to determine outcome. All 6 female pitchers had early resolution of elbow pain and neuropathic symptoms after surgical treatment. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that 1 patient quit playing softball because of other injuries but no longer reported elbow pain or paresthesias. One player was able to return to pitching at the high school level but had recurrent forearm pain and neuritis 1 year later while playing a different sport and subsequently stopped playing competitive sports. Four patients continued to play at the collegiate level without further symptoms. Medial elbow pain in women's softball pitchers caused by ulnar neuropathy can be treated effectively with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition if nonsurgical options fail. Further study is necessary to examine the role of overuse, proper training techniques, and whether pitching limits may be necessary to avoid these injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment.

  14. Return to competition, re-injury, and impact on performance of preseason shoulder injuries in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Lee, Randall W; Nwosu, Ekene O; Steinhaus, Michael E; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Major league baseball (MLB) pitchers are vulnerable to overuse injury of the upper extremity, especially in the shoulder. Injuries sustained in the preseason may have negative impact on performance following return. The goal of this study was to document the frequency of preseason shoulder injury in these athletes, as well as risk for re-injury and impact on performance following return from injury. A comprehensive search of MLB injury information from 2001 to 2010 of public databases yielded a cohort of MLB pitchers who sustained preseason shoulder injuries. These databases were utilized to obtain information regarding return to MLB competition, re-injury, and performance following return from injury. All performance metrics were compared to those of an age-matched control cohort. A total of 74 pitchers were identified who sustained a preseason shoulder injury. Only 39 (53%) returned that same season to pitch in the MLB competition. Of those that returned, nearly 50% of players were re-designated on the Disabled List during the return season. There was a decline in performance in earned run average and batting average against in the year of return. Compared to age-matched control pitchers, those with preseason shoulder injury had lower performance metrics across a number of outcomes. Preseason shoulder injury in MLB pitchers has the potential to result in high re-injury rates and decreased subsequent performance.

  15. Descriptive profile of hip rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Ellenbecker, Gail A; Roetert, E Paul; Silva, Rogerio Teixeira; Keuter, Greg; Sperling, Fabio

    2007-08-01

    Repetitive loading to the hip joint in athletes has been reported as a factor in the development of degenerative joint disease and intra-articular injury. Little information is available on the bilateral symmetry of hip rotational measures in unilaterally dominant upper extremity athletes. Side-to-side differences in hip joint range of motion may be present because of asymmetrical loading in the lower extremities of elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers. Cohort (cross-sectional) study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 1. Descriptive measures of hip internal and external rotation active range of motion were taken in the prone position of 64 male and 83 female elite tennis players and 101 male professional baseball pitchers using digital photos and computerized angle calculation software. Bilateral differences in active range of motion between the dominant and nondominant hip were compared using paired t tests and Bonferroni correction for hip internal, external, and total rotation range of motion. A Pearson correlation test was used to test the relationship between years of competition and hip rotation active range of motion. No significant bilateral difference (P > .005) was measured for mean hip internal or external rotation for the elite tennis players or the professional baseball pitchers. An analysis of the number of subjects in each group with a bilateral difference in hip rotation greater than 10 degrees identified 17% of the professional baseball pitchers with internal rotation differences and 42% with external rotation differences. Differences in the elite male tennis players occurred in only 15% of the players for internal rotation and 9% in external rotation. Female subjects had differences in 8% and 12% of the players for internal and external rotation, respectively. Statistical differences were found between the mean total arc of hip range of internal and external rotation in the elite tennis players with the dominant side being greater

  16. Stress sonography of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow in professional baseball pitchers: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccotti, Michael G; Atanda, Alfred; Nazarian, Levon N; Dodson, Christopher C; Holmes, Laurens; Cohen, Steven B

    2014-03-01

    An injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is potentially career threatening for elite baseball pitchers. Stress ultrasound (US) of the elbow allows for evaluation of both the UCL and the ulnohumeral joint space at rest and with stress. Stress US can identify morphological and functional UCL changes and may predict the risk of a UCL injury in elite pitchers. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 368 asymptomatic professional baseball pitchers underwent preseason stress US of their dominant and nondominant elbows over a 10-year period (2002-2012). Stress US examinations were performed in 30° of flexion at rest and with 150 N of valgus stress by a single musculoskeletal radiologist. Ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space width, and ligament abnormalities (hypoechoic foci and calcifications) were documented. There were 736 stress US studies. The mean UCL thickness in the dominant elbow (6.15 mm) was significantly greater than that in the nondominant elbow (4.82 mm) (P .05) increases in baseline ligament thickness, ulnohumeral joint space gapping with stress, and incidence of hypoechoic foci and calcifications. More than 1 stress US examination was performed in 131 players, with a mean increase of 0.78 mm in joint space gapping with subsequent evaluations. Stress US indicates that the UCL in the dominant elbow of elite pitchers is thicker, is more likely to have hypoechoic foci and/or calcifications, and has increased laxity with valgus stress over time.

  17. Linking the development and functioning of a carnivorous pitcher plant's microbial digestive community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, David W

    2017-11-01

    Ecosystem development theory predicts that successional turnover in community composition can influence ecosystem functioning. However, tests of this theory in natural systems are made difficult by a lack of replicable and tractable model systems. Using the microbial digestive associates of a carnivorous pitcher plant, I tested hypotheses linking host age-driven microbial community development to host functioning. Monitoring the yearlong development of independent microbial digestive communities in two pitcher plant populations revealed a number of trends in community succession matching theoretical predictions. These included mid-successional peaks in bacterial diversity and metabolic substrate use, predictable and parallel successional trajectories among microbial communities, and convergence giving way to divergence in community composition and carbon substrate use. Bacterial composition, biomass, and diversity positively influenced the rate of prey decomposition, which was in turn positively associated with a host leaf's nitrogen uptake efficiency. Overall digestive performance was greatest during late summer. These results highlight links between community succession and ecosystem functioning and extend succession theory to host-associated microbial communities.

  18. Convergent evolution: floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Giurfa, Martin; Koedam, Dirk; Potts, Simon G.; Joel, Daniel M.; Dafni, Amots

    2005-09-01

    Several recent hypotheses, including sensory drive and sensory exploitation, suggest that receiver biases may drive selection of biological signals in the context of sexual selection. Here we suggest that a similar mechanism may have led to convergence of patterns in flowers, stingless bee nest entrances, and pitchers of insectivorous plants. A survey of these non-related visual stimuli shows that they share features such as stripes, dark centre, and peripheral dots. Next, we experimentally show that in stingless bees the close-up approach to a flower is guided by dark centre preference. Moreover, in the approach towards their nest entrance, they have a spontaneous preference for entrance patterns containing a dark centre and disrupted ornamentation. Together with existing empirical evidence on the honeybee's and other insects’ orientation to flowers, this suggests that the signal receivers of the natural patterns we examined, mainly Hymenoptera, have spontaneous preferences for radiating stripes, dark centres, and peripheral dots. These receiver biases may have evolved in other behavioural contexts in the ancestors of Hymenoptera, but our findings suggest that they have triggered the convergent evolution of visual stimuli in floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers.

  19. Completed Ulnar Shaft Stress Fracture in a Fast-Pitch Softball Pitcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltfong, Roger E; Carruthers, Katherine H; Popp, James E

    2017-03-01

    Stress fractures of the upper extremity have been previously described in the literature, yet reports of isolated injury to the ulna diaphysis or olecranon are rare. The authors describe a case involving an 18-year-old fast-pitch softball pitcher. She presented with a long history of elbow and forearm pain, which was exacerbated during a long weekend of pitching. Her initial physician diagnosed her as having forearm tendinitis. She was treated with nonsurgical means including rest, anti-inflammatory medications, therapy, and kinesiology taping. She resumed pitching when allowed and subsequently had an acute event immediately ceasing pitching. She presented to an urgent care clinic that evening and was diagnosed as having a complete ulnar shaft fracture subsequently needing surgical management. This case illustrates the need for a high degree of suspicion for ulnar stress fractures in fast-pitch soft-ball pitchers with an insidious onset of unilateral forearm pain. Through early identification and intervention, physicians may be able to reduce the risk of injury progression and possibly eliminate the need for surgical management. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e360-e362.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As 3+ and As 5+ , from 1000μg/L to water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interspecific variation in prey capture behavior by co-occurring Nepenthes pitcher plants: evidence for resource partitioning or sampling-scheme artifacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur Y C; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes.

  2. Deficits in glenohumeral passive range of motion increase risk of elbow injury in professional baseball pitchers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Injuries to the elbow joint in baseball pitchers appear common. There appears to be a correlation between shoulder range of motion and elbow injuries. To prospectively determine whether decreased ROM of the throwing shoulder is correlated with the onset of elbow injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. For 8 consecutive years (2005-2012), passive range of motion of both the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of all major and minor league pitchers within a single professional baseball organization were measured by using a bubble goniometer during spring training. In total, 505 examinations were conducted on 296 pitchers. Glenohumeral external rotation and internal rotation were assessed in the supine position with the arm at 90° of abduction and in the plane of the scapula. The scapula was stabilized per methods previously established. Total rotation was defined as the sum of external rotation and internal rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was assessed with the subject supine and the scapula stabilized per methods previously established. Elbow injuries and days missed because of elbow injuries were assessed and recorded by the medical staff of the team. Throwing and nonthrowing shoulder measurements were compared by using Student t tests; 1-tailed Fisher exact tests were performed to identify significant associations between shoulder motion and elbow injury. Nominal logistic regression was performed to determine the odds of elbow injury. Significant differences were noted during side-to-side comparisons within subjects. There were 49 elbow injuries and 8 surgeries in 38 players, accounting for a total of 2551 days missed. Neither glenohumeral internal rotation deficit nor external rotation insufficiency was correlated with elbow injuries. Pitchers with deficits of >5° in total rotation in their throwing shoulders had a 2.6 times greater risk for injury. Pitchers with deficit of ≥5° in flexion of the throwing shoulder had

  3. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  4. Upper Extremity Functional Status of Female Youth Softball Pitchers Using the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Holtz, Kaila A.; O’Connor, Russell J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Softball is a popular sport with a high incidence of upper extremity injuries. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) questionnaire is a validated performance and functional assessment tool used in overhead athletes. Upper extremity pain patterns and baseline KJOC scores have not been reported for active female youth softball pitchers. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of upper extremity pain and its effect in female youth softball pi...

  5. Prospective multifactorial analysis of preseason risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Osawa, Toshihisa; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    To prospectively identify preseason physical factors for shoulder and elbow injuries during the season in high school baseball pitchers. The study included 105 high school baseball pitchers [median age 16 (15-17) years]. The range of motion of the shoulder (90° abducted external and internal rotation) and elbow (extension/flexion), shoulder muscle strength (abduction and prone internal and external rotation), shoulder and elbow laxity, horizontal flexion, and scapular dyskinesis were assessed. After the season, the participants completed questionnaires regarding shoulder and/or elbow injuries, with injury defined as an inability to play for ≥1 week due to elbow/shoulder problems. The results of two groups (injured and noninjured) were compared using t tests and Chi-square analyses. Stepwise forward logistic regression models were developed to identify risk factors. Twenty-one injuries were observed. In univariate analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation and total arc of the dominant shoulder and the ratio of prone external rotation in the dominant to nondominant sides in the injured group were significantly less than those in the noninjured group (P = 0.02, 0.04, and 0.01, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder and prone external rotation ratio were significantly associated with injuries (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). A low prone external rotation ratio and decreased 90° abducted internal rotation in the dominant shoulder in the preseason were significant risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The results may contribute to reduce the incidence of these injuries. II.

  6. Compliance With Injury Prevention Measures in Youth Pitchers: Survey of Coaches in Little League of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamias-Velázquez, Kristian J; Figueroa-Negrón, Mariam M; Tirado-Crespo, Janiliz; Mulero-Portela, Ana L

    2016-05-01

    Because of the problem of elbow and shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers between 9 and 14 years of age, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee and the Department of Recreation and Sports in Puerto Rico developed injury prevention guidelines for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. (1) The coaches will have a satisfactory level of compliance with the Administrative Order as well as with the USA Baseball guidelines and (2) both the level of education of the coach as well as the years of experience will correlate with the level of compliance. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Level 5. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Administrative Order and on the USA Baseball guidelines. A descriptive univariate analysis was conducted to determine the mean coach compliance with both guidelines. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to describe the correlation between the level of education and the years of experience of the coaches with the level of compliance. Thirty-five coaches (response rate, 78%) participated in the study. On average, the coaches complied with 70% of the Administrative Order and with 73% of the USA Baseball guidelines. No significant correlations were found. The coaches who participated in the study did not reflect a satisfactory level of compliance with the USA Baseball guidelines or with the Administrative Order. These findings emphasize the need for reinforcing compliance with the injury prevention guidelines and the need to provide resources and training to coaches to effectively prevent elbow and shoulder injuries in pitchers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Abilities of the pitchers of female Softball in the community Los Arados Maisí from Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roylis Noa-Chávez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a subject of great interest from the major deficiencies in female softball pitchers in the community “Los Arados” from Maisí municipality. In this sense, the researcher offers in detail a group of elements on an activity that is very young in the territory and where its practitioners are started for the first time. From the review and updating of these physical activities the specialists criteria method was applied, which confirmed the feasibility of the proposal to insert it into the female softball lesson plans.

  8. Characterization anatomical leaf blade five species Nepenthes from Kerinci Seblat National Park, Kerinci regency, Jambi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Farishy, D. D.; Nisyawati, Metusala, D.

    2017-07-01

    Nepenthes is one of carnivorous plant genera which have key characters on leaf and pitcher as the modification. However, wide varieties of morphological features on pitcher intraspecies and between species could be tough for identification process. The objective was to provide alternative characters for identification process by anatomical features. Kerinci Seblat National Park was chosen because lack of update data on wild type of species there. Whole five species were collected at Lingkat Lake and Gunung Tujuh Lake as representative lowland and highland species. Leaves collected fresh, flawless, and has grown pitcher. Each leaf was separated into the paradermal and transversal section, dehydrated by series alcohol, and stained by safranin and fast green. Sections observed by light microscope. Result show there were specific differences between species that could be potential to be key characters. That features are stomatal density, stomatal length, sessile glands surface shaped, sessile glands density, trichome distribution, adaxial cuticle thickness, adaxial hypodermic thickness, and the number of layers of adaxial hypodermis

  9. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  10. Decreased Shoulder External Rotation and Flexion Are Greater Predictors of Injury Than Internal Rotation Deficits: Analysis of 132 Pitcher-Seasons in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Zajac, John M; Pearson, David B; Sinatro, Alec M; Spiker, Andrea M; Werner, Brian C; Altchek, David W; Coleman, Struan H; Dines, Joshua S

    2017-09-01

    The primary aims of this work were to (1) describe normal range of motion (ROM) profiles for elite pitchers, (2) describe the characteristics of shoulder and elbow injuries in professional pitchers over a 6-year period in one Major League Baseball organization, and (3) identify ROM measures that were independently associated with a future shoulder or elbow injury. Over 6 seasons (2010-2015), a preseason assessment was performed on all pitchers invited to Major League Baseball Spring Training for a single organization. ROM measures included shoulder flexion, horizontal adduction, external rotation (ER), internal rotation, as well as elbow flexion and extension, were measured for both the dominant and nondominant arm, and total range of motion and deficits were calculated. All noncontact shoulder and elbow injuries were identified. Using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis to control for age, height, weight, and all other ROM measures, the factors associated with an increased risk of subsequent shoulder or elbow injury were identified. A total of 53 shoulder (n = 25) and elbow (n = 28) injuries occurred during 132 pitcher seasons (n = 81 pitchers). The most significant categorical risk factor associated with increased elbow injury rates was the presence of a shoulder flexion deficit >5° (odds ratio [OR] 2.83; P = .042). For continuous variables, the risk of elbow injury increased by 7% for each degree of increased shoulder ER deficit (OR 1.07; P = .030) and 9% for each degree of decreased shoulder flexion (OR 1.09; P = .017). None of the measures significantly correlated with shoulder injuries. Preseason shoulder ER and flexion deficits are independent risk factors for the development of elbow injuries during the upcoming season. Although prior work has supported the importance of reducing glenohumeral internal rotation deficits in pitchers, this study demonstrates that deficits in shoulder ER and flexion are more significant predictors of

  11. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  12. Unaccounted Workload Factor: Game-Day Pitch Counts in High School Baseball Pitchers-An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremski, Jason L; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Jones, Deborah L; Tripp, Brady L; Bruner, Michelle; Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2018-04-01

    Throwing injuries are common in high school baseball. Known risk factors include excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, the prevalence of pitching injuries among high school players has not decreased. One possibility to explain this pattern is that players accumulate unaccounted pitch volume during warm-up and bullpen activity, but this has not yet been examined. Our primary hypothesis was that approximately 30% to 40% of pitches thrown off a mound by high school pitchers during a game-day outing are unaccounted for in current data but will be revealed when bullpen sessions and warm-up pitches are included. Our secondary hypothesis was that there is wide variability among players in the number of bullpen pitches thrown per outing. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Researchers counted all pitches thrown off a mound during varsity high school baseball games played by 34 high schools in North Central Florida during the 2017 season. We recorded 13,769 total pitches during 115 varsity high school baseball starting pitcher outings. The mean ± SD pitch numbers per game were calculated for bullpen activity (27.2 ± 9.4), warm-up (23.6 ±8.0), live games (68.9 ±19.7), and total pitches per game (119.7 ± 27.8). Thus, 42.4% of the pitches performed were not accounted for in the pitch count monitoring of these players. The number of bullpen pitches thrown varied widely among players, with 25% of participants in our data set throwing fewer than 22 pitches and 25% throwing more than 33 pitches per outing. In high school baseball players, pitch count monitoring does not account for the substantial volume of pitching that occurs during warm-up and bullpen activity during the playing season. These extra pitches should be closely monitored to help mitigate the risk of overuse injury.

  13. Improper trunk rotation sequence is associated with increased maximal shoulder external rotation angle and shoulder joint force in high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Yu, Bing; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A; Li, Li; Myers, Joseph B

    2014-09-01

    In a properly coordinated throwing motion, peak pelvic rotation velocity is reached before peak upper torso rotation velocity, so that angular momentum can be transferred effectively from the proximal (pelvis) to distal (upper torso) segment. However, the effects of trunk rotation sequence on pitching biomechanics and performance have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk rotation sequence on ball speed and on upper extremity biomechanics that are linked to injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that pitchers with improper trunk rotation sequence would demonstrate lower ball velocity and greater stress to the joint. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional pitching kinematics data were captured from 72 high school pitchers. Subjects were considered to have proper or improper trunk rotation sequences when the peak pelvic rotation velocity was reached either before or after the peak upper torso rotation velocity beyond the margin of error (±3.7% of the time from stride-foot contact to ball release). Maximal shoulder external rotation angle, elbow extension angle at ball release, peak shoulder proximal force, shoulder internal rotation moment, and elbow varus moment were compared between groups using independent t tests (α ways that may influence injury risk. As such, exercises that reinforce the use of a proper trunk rotation sequence during the pitching motion may reduce the stress placed on the structures around the shoulder joint and lead to the prevention of injuries. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. The Relationship of Throwing Arm Mechanics and Elbow Varus Torque: Within-Subject Variation for Professional Baseball Pitchers Across 82,000 Throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Tubbs, Travis G; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dowling, Brittany

    2017-11-01

    Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 81 professional pitchers performed 82,000 throws while wearing a motusBASEBALL sensor and sleeve. These throws represented a combination of throw types, such as warm-up/catch, structured long-toss, bullpen throwing from a mound, and live game activity. Variables recorded for each throw included arm slot (angle of the forearm relative to the ground at ball release), arm speed (maximal rotational velocity of the forearm), arm rotation (maximal external rotation of the throwing arm relative to the ground), and elbow varus torque. Linear mixed-effects models and likelihood ratio tests were used to estimate the relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot, arm speed, and arm rotation within individual pitchers. All 3 metrics-arm slot (χ 2 = 428, P relationship with elbow varus torque. Within individual athletes, a 1-N.m increase in elbow varus torque was associated with a 13° decrease in arm slot, a 116 deg/s increase in arm speed, and an 8° increase in arm rotation. Elbow varus torque increased significantly as pitchers increased their arm rotation during the arm cocking phase, increased the rotational velocity of their arm during the arm acceleration phase of throwing, and decreased arm slot at ball release. Thus, shoulder flexibility, arm speed, and elbow varus torque (and likely injury risk) are interrelated and should be considered collectively when treating pitchers. It is well established that elbow varus torque is related to ulnar collateral ligament injuries in overhead throwers. This

  15. Utilization of Cupping Therapy in the Treatment of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Cage

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present a clinical case detailing the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy in treating thoracic outlet syndrome. The utilization of dry cupping therapy on a 20-year-old collegiate baseball pitcher with diagnosed thoracic outlet syndrome is presented. Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively rare musculoskeletal condition affecting 1/100,000 patients annually. Dry cupping therapy is an ancient therapeutic modality that utilizes various means of suction with the goal of decompressing myofascial layers. Treatment: Following diagnosis, patient was successfully treated in two weeks using dry cupping therapy. The patient experienced no further incidence of thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms and was able to complete the remainder of his competitive season. Uniqueness: The patient’s thoracic outlet syndrome was diagnosed at an early stage, leading to the need of clearance from a vascular specialist before returning to competition. To the author’s knowledge, there are currently no published case reports detailing the use of cupping therapy to treat thoracic outlet syndrome. Conclusion: Cupping therapy may be a viable treatment option when seeking to address tight musculature. Further research needs to be conducted to determine optimal parameters for cupping therapy as a therapeutic modality.

  16. Replicate phylogenies and post-glacial range expansion of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Merz

    Full Text Available Herein we tested the repeatability of phylogenetic inference based on high throughput sequencing by increased taxon sampling using our previously published techniques in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii in North America. We sampled 25 natural populations drawn from different localities nearby 21 previous collection localities and used these new data to construct a second, independent phylogeny, expressly to test the reproducibility of phylogenetic patterns. Comparison of trees between the two data sets based on both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with Bayesian posterior probabilities showed close correspondence in the grouping of the most southern populations into clear clades. However, discrepancies emerged, particularly in the middle of W. smithii's current range near the previous maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, especially concerning the most recent common ancestor to mountain and northern populations. Combining all 46 populations from both studies into a single maximum parsimony tree and taking into account the post-glacial historical biogeography of associated flora provided an improved picture of W. smithii's range expansion in North America. In a more general sense, we propose that extensive taxon sampling, especially in areas of known geological disruption is key to a comprehensive approach to phylogenetics that leads to biologically meaningful phylogenetic inference.

  17. Correlation among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter Composite Scores, Hip Musculoskeletal Characteristics, and Pitching Kinematics in NCAA Division I Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culiver, Adam; Garrison, J Craig; Creed, Kalyssa M; Conway, John E; Goto, Shiho; Werner, Sherry

    2018-01-24

    Numerous studies have reported kinematic data on baseball pitchers using 3D motion analysis, but no studies to date have correlated this data with clinical outcome measures. To examine the relationship among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) composite scores, musculoskeletal characteristics of the hip and pitching kinematics in NCAA Division I baseball pitchers. Cross-sectional. 3D motion analysis laboratory. 19 healthy male collegiate baseball pitchers. Internal and external hip passive range of motion (PROM); hip abduction strength; YBT-LQ composite scores; kinematic variables of the pitching motion. Stride length demonstrated a moderate positive correlation with dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.524, p=0.018) and non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.550, p=0.012), and a weak positive correlation with normalized time to maximal humerus velocity (r=0.458, p=0.043). Stride length had a moderate negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.522, p=0.018) and dominant hip TRM (r= -0.660, p=0.002), and had a strong negative correlation with normalized time from SFC to maximal knee flexion (r= -0.722, pcorrelation with hip abduction strength difference (r= -0.459, p=0.042) and normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.468, p=0.037), as well as a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.160, p=0.004). Non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score demonstrated a weak negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.450, p=0.046) and had a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.668, p=0.001). Hip abduction strength difference demonstrated a weak positive correlation with dominant hip TRM (r=0.482, p=0.032). Dominant hip TRM had a moderate positive correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r=0.484, p=0.031). There were no other significant relationships between the remaining variables. YBT-LQ is a clinical measure which can be used to

  18. Assembly-history dynamics of a pitcher-plant protozoan community in experimental microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohmei Kadowaki

    Full Text Available History drives community assembly through differences both in density (density effects and in the sequence in which species arrive (sequence effects. Density effects arise from predictable population dynamics, which are free of history, but sequence effects are due to a density-free mechanism, arising solely from the order and timing of immigration events. Few studies have determined how components of immigration history (timing, number of individuals, frequency alter local dynamics to determine community assembly, beyond addressing when immigration history produces historically contingent assembly.We varied density and sequence effects independently in a two-way factorial design to follow community assembly in a three-species aquatic protozoan community. A superior competitor, Colpoda steinii, mediated alternative community states; early arrival or high introduction density allowed this species to outcompete or suppress the other competitors (Poterioochromonas malhamensis and Eimeriidae gen. sp.. Multivariate analysis showed that density effects caused greater variation in community states, whereas sequence effects altered the mean community composition.A significant interaction between density and sequence effects suggests that we should refine our understanding of priority effects. These results highlight a practical need to understand not only the "ingredients" (species in ecological communities but their "recipes" as well.

  19. A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jun-Youl; Kim, Jae-Hak; Hong, Ju; Choi, Young-Tae; Kim, Min-Ho; Cho, Ji-Hyun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. A total of 30 pitchers were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 16) and control group (CG, n= 14). The rehabilitation program consisted of physical therapy, warm-up, work-out, and cool-down. As results, body weight and fat mass of EG were decreased whereas muscle mass of EG was significantly increased after the experiment. The pain degrees in resting, normal daily activity, and strenuous activity on the numeric pain rating scale were significantly decreased in the EG. The internal and external peak torques (PTs) of uninvolved and involved sides of EG were increased in EG after 12 weeks. Such results provide a deficit ratio of both sides in EG close to normal values. The ratios of internal/external PTs in EG were also close to the reference values. The internal and external total works of both sides in EG were similar to the values of PT. The fatigue indices of internal and external rotators of both sides in EG were decreased. As a conclusion, a 12-week rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in EG with impingement symptoms. Also the study suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment.

  20. Biofilms in lab and nature: a molecular geneticist's voyage to microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the latest findings on how extracellular signaling controls cell fate determination during the process of biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis in the artificial setting of the laboratory. To complement molecular genetic approaches, surface-associated communities in settings as diverse as the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea and the human lung were investigated. The study of the pitcher plant revealed that the presence or absence of a mosquito larva in the pitcher plant controlled bacterial diversity in the ecosystem inside the pitcher plant. Through the analysis of the respiratory tract microbiota of humans suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) a correlation between lung function and bacterial community diversity was found. Those that had lungs in good condition had also more diverse communities, whereas patients harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa-the predominant CF pathogen-in their lungs had less diverse communities. Further studies focused on interspecies and intraspecies relationships at the molecular level in search for signaling molecules that would promote biofilm formation. Two molecules were found that induced biofilm formation in B. subtilis: nystatin-released by other species-and surfactin-released by B. subtilis itself. This is a role not previously known for two molecules that were known for other activities-nystatin as an antifungal and surfactin as a surfactant. In addition, surfactin was found to also trigger cannibalism under starvation. This could be a strategy to maintain the population because the cells destroyed serve as nutrients for the rest. The path that led the author to the study of microbial biofilms is also described.

  1. Species identification and sex determination of the genus Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkamul, Piya; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Tanee, Tawatchai

    2007-02-15

    Nepenthes species are well known for their ornamentally attractive pitchers. The species diversity was randomly surveyed in some conservation areas of Thailand and three species were found, namely N. gracilis Korth., N. mirabilis Druce. and N. smilesii Hemsl. Young plants as unknown species from Chatuchak market were added in plant sampled set. Thirty two Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were screened and 13 successful primers were used to produce DNA banding patterns for constructing a dendrogram. The dendrogram is potentially power tool to identify unknown species from Chatuchak market, differentiate species population, population by geographical areas and sex determination. The geographical area of N. mirabilis was specified to Southern and Northeastern regions and finally, subdivided into exact areas according to province. Male and female plants of N. gracilis at Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary and N. mirabilis at Bung Khonglong non-hunting area were determined. Two unknown species from Chatuchak market were analyzed to be N. mirabilis with the genetic similarities (S) 77.2 to 84.7. Be more sex specific in all sample studied, 37 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were investigated. The result shows that only one RAPD primer show high resolution results at about 750 bp specific male-related marker.

  2. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  3. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  4. Relación entre indicadores de la capacidad de equilibrio y el control de los envíos en lanzadores juveniles de béisbol / Relation between balance ability indicators and pitch control in junior baseball pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uverlandi Luis-Quintana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se investigó la relación entre el equilibrio y el control de los envíos en lanzadores juveniles de béisbol de la Escuela de Iniciación Deportiva Escolar Cerro Pelado de Camagüey, Cuba. Se empleó la Observación para establecer los resultados del control de los envíos y también una batería de pruebas compuesta por el Test de Romberg Complejo II, la Prueba ortostática y la Prueba de reacciometría simple inespecífica; resultados que fueron correlacionados con la efectividad de diez lanzadores seleccionados de forma aleatoria. Los resultados fueron procesados con métodos matemático-estadísticos con el empleo del paquete SPSS 12.0 para Windows. Las insuficiencias detectadas en la capacidad de equilibrio y control en los envíos de los atletas sirvieron de base para establecer la correlación entre ambas variables. Los resultados constituyen un punto de partida para realizar pruebas de equilibrio que brinden una idea aproximada de la efectividad de los movimientos, sin necesidad de hacer pruebas para lanzamientos que resultan más complejas; además, porque no es posible utilizar solamente la Prueba ortostática con este fin. Abstract A research was conducted on the relation between balance and pitch control in junior baseball pitchers of the Sports Introduction School Cerro Pelado in Camagüey, Cuba. The Observation method was used to establish the results of pitch control, and a set of tests composed by the Romberg complex text II, the orthostatic test, and a non-specific simple reacciometry test; the results were correlated with the effectiveness of ten pitchers selected at random. They were processed with the Mathematical-Statistical method by means of the SPSS 12.0 package for Windows. The inadequacies detected in the balance ability and pitch controlof the athletes served as the basis for correlating both variables. These results constitute the starting point for new balance tests that may show an approximate idea of

  5. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  6. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  7. The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotti, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-11-14

    Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886). In plants, coniine and twelve closely related alkaloids are known from poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.), and several Sarracenia and Aloe species. Recent work confirmed its biosynthetic polyketide origin. Biosynthesis commences by carbon backbone formation from butyryl-CoA and two malonyl-CoA building blocks catalyzed by polyketide synthase. A transamination reaction incorporates nitrogen from l-alanine and non-enzymatic cyclization leads to γ-coniceine, the first hemlock alkaloid in the pathway. Ultimately, reduction of γ-coniceine to coniine is facilitated by NADPH-dependent γ-coniceine reductase. Although coniine is notorious for its toxicity, there is no consensus on its ecological roles, especially in the carnivorous pitcher plants where it occurs. Lately there has been renewed interest in coniine's medical uses particularly for pain relief without an addictive side effect.

  8. The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine’s most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881, and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886. In plants, coniine and twelve closely related alkaloids are known from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L., and several Sarracenia and Aloe species. Recent work confirmed its biosynthetic polyketide origin. Biosynthesis commences by carbon backbone formation from butyryl-CoA and two malonyl-CoA building blocks catalyzed by polyketide synthase. A transamination reaction incorporates nitrogen from l-alanine and non-enzymatic cyclization leads to γ-coniceine, the first hemlock alkaloid in the pathway. Ultimately, reduction of γ-coniceine to coniine is facilitated by NADPH-dependent γ-coniceine reductase. Although coniine is notorious for its toxicity, there is no consensus on its ecological roles, especially in the carnivorous pitcher plants where it occurs. Lately there has been renewed interest in coniine’s medical uses particularly for pain relief without an addictive side effect.

  9. Endangered Species Day | Endangered Species Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual Top 10 Report Protecting the Endangered Species Act Wildlife Voices Stand for Wolves Endangered Campaigns Wildlife Voices Protecting the Endangered Species Act Annual Top 10 Report Endangered Species Day Stand for Wolves Vanishing BOOK: A Wild Success The Endangered Species Act at 40 Endangered Species The

  10. Species concept and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application. Keywords: Species concept, Species limitation, Species, Taxonomy, Classification

  11. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  12. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  13. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  14. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  15. Species diversity modulates predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Anholt, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator–prey interactions.Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity

  16. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  17. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  18. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, A.F.; Jensen, T.; Seawright, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  19. Detection of cryptic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, A F; Jensen, T; Seawright, J A [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Lab., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Chapter 16: Species Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zargaran

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... rarefaction method was recorded in Pardanan, with 28 oak gall wasps species. Furthermore, the highest amount of Gini-Simpson and Shannon entropy index were recorded in Sardasht, while the highest evenness was recorded in Shalmash. Differences in the local distribution of oak species, especially.

  1. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  2. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  3. Support your local species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stärk, Johanna

    Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...

  4. Extragastric Helicobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...

  5. The species in primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Biologists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries all bandied about the term "species," but very rarely actually said what they meant by it. Often, however, one can get inside their thinking by piecing together some of their remarks. One of the most nearly explicit-appropriately, for the man who wrote a book called The Origin of Species - was Charles Darwin: "Practically, when a naturalist can unite two forms together by others having intermediate characters, he treats the one as a variety of the other… He later translated this into evolutionary terms: "Hereafter, we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected"(1:484-5.) Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  7. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  8. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  9. Sub specie aeternitatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».

  10. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  11. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  12. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  13. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  14. Man as a Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…

  15. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Leok, Boon Tiong Melvin

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  16. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states

  17. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Daniel W.; Dalsgaard, Bo; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biogeographical systems can be analyzed as networks of species and geographical units. Within such a biogeographical network, individual species may differ fundamentally in their linkage pattern, and therefore hold different topological roles. To advance our understanding of the relationship betw...... to distributions at the local community level. We finally discuss how our biogeographical species roles may correspond to the stages of the taxon cycle and other prominent theories of species assembly.......Biogeographical systems can be analyzed as networks of species and geographical units. Within such a biogeographical network, individual species may differ fundamentally in their linkage pattern, and therefore hold different topological roles. To advance our understanding of the relationship...... between species traits and large-scale species distribution patterns in archipelagos, we use a network approach to classify birds as one of four biogeographical species roles: peripherals, connectors, module hubs, and network hubs. These roles are based upon the position of species within the modular...

  18. Autecology of broadleaved species

    OpenAIRE

    Gonin, Pierre; Larrieu, Laurent; Coello, Jaime; Marty, Pauline; Lestrade , Marine; Becquey, Jacques; Claessens, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Anyone involved in timber production needs some knowledge of autecology. With the renewed interest in hardwoods in the last 20 years, they are increasingly being introduced by planting or encouraged in natural stands. The results in terms of growth have not always met foresters’ expectations, due to technical problems and especially because the species are not always suited to the different sites. While the principle of establishing hardwoods is not in question, it is important to be aware of...

  19. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  20. Estimating Effects of Species Interactions on Populations of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tobias; Bühler, Christoph; Amrhein, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    Global change causes community composition to change considerably through time, with ever-new combinations of interacting species. To study the consequences of newly established species interactions, one available source of data could be observational surveys from biodiversity monitoring. However, approaches using observational data would need to account for niche differences between species and for imperfect detection of individuals. To estimate population sizes of interacting species, we extended N-mixture models that were developed to estimate true population sizes in single species. Simulations revealed that our model is able to disentangle direct effects of dominant on subordinate species from indirect effects of dominant species on detection probability of subordinate species. For illustration, we applied our model to data from a Swiss amphibian monitoring program and showed that sizes of expanding water frog populations were negatively related to population sizes of endangered yellow-bellied toads and common midwife toads and partly of natterjack toads. Unlike other studies that analyzed presence and absence of species, our model suggests that the spread of water frogs in Central Europe is one of the reasons for the decline of endangered toad species. Thus, studying population impacts of dominant species on population sizes of endangered species using data from biodiversity monitoring programs should help to inform conservation policy and to decide whether competing species should be subject to population management.

  1. CHROMOSOMES OF WOODY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R Daviña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of nine subtropical woody species collected in Argentina and Paraguay are reported. The counts tor Coutarea hexandra (2n=52, Inga vera subsp. affinis 2n=26 (Fabaceae and Chorisia speciosa 2n=86 (Bombacaceae are reported for the first time. The chromosome number given for Inga semialata 2n=52 is a new cytotype different from the previously reported. Somatic chromosome numbers of the other taxa studied are: Sesbania punicea 2n=12, S. virgata 2n=12 and Pilocarpus pennatifolius 2n=44 from Argentina

  2. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  3. New species of Malaysian ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    The present paper includes descriptions of several new species of ferns found among recent collections from various parts of Malaysia; also two new combinations of names of species which are of interest on account of their taxonomic history.

  4. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  5. New Malesian species of Viscaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1996-01-01

    Three new Malesian species of Viscaceae are described. Ginalloa flagellaris Barlow is distinguished as a species from New Guinea and New Britain, previously included within G. arnottiana Korthals. Viscum exile Barlow is recognized as a new species endemic to Celebes, related to V. ovalifolium.

  6. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  7. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit...

  8. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  9. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    .... 15596] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher has been...

  10. Electrosmog and species conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmori, Alfonso, E-mail: abalmorimartinez@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species. - Highlights: • Studies have shown effects in both animals and plants. • Two thirds of the studies reported ecological effects. • There is little research in this area and further research is needed. • The technology must be safe. • Controls should be introduced to mitigate the possible effects.

  11. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...... and mitigation are beneficial policy actions. However, the total and average net benefits under mitigation are larger than the benefits under prevention, implying that the former policy action is more beneficial. Despite this result, we conclude that prevention, not mitigation, shall be used because...

  12. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance......In recent decades a significant amount of literature has been produced concerned with establishing a link between production efficiency and environmental efficiency with respect to quantitative modelling. This has been mainly addressed by focusing on the incorporation of undesirable outputs...... or the incorporation of environmentally det-rimental inputs. However, while the debate with respect to linear programming based DEA modelling is already at an advanced stage the corresponding one with respect to stochastic frontier modelling still needs considerable efforts. This contribution fo-cuses on the case...

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  14. The preliminary attempts of in in vitro regeneration from petioles of recalcitrant species of Cephalotus follicularis Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuleja M.; Chmielowska A.; Płachno B.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalotus follicularis Labill. is representative of the extraordinary carnivorous group of plants. Carnivorous plants with pitcher traps grow in nutrient poor, sunny and wet habitats, they have adapted themselves to growth in bogs, sandy soils and obtain some nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphate) from insects and other arthropods or protozoa, even from small mammals occasionally (Król et al. 2012). C. follicularis belongs to the monotypic family Cephalotaceae, and it is the endemic plant o...

  15. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  16. Insular species swarm goes underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, C. julesvernei and C. oromii, are described from the subterranean ecosystem of Madeira Island, Portugal. Species are illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. The new species belong to the Cylindroiulus madeirae......-group, an insular species swarm distributed in the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. We discuss the differences between the new species and their relatives and present information on the subterranean environment of Madeira. An updated overview of the subterranean biodiversity of millipedes...

  17. Ring species as demonstrations of the continuum of species formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Ricardo José Do Nascimento; Wake, David B.

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-20th century, Ernst Mayr (1942) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (1958) championed the significance of 'circular overlaps' or 'ring species' as the perfect demonstration of the gradual nature of species formation. As an ancestral species expands its range, wrapping around a geographic barrier......? What conditions favour their formation? Modelling studies have attempted to address these knowledge gaps by estimating the biological parameters that result in stable ring species (Martins et al. 2013), and determining the necessary topographic parameters of the barriers encircled (Monahan et al. 2012......). However, any generalization is undermined by a major limitation: only a handful of ring species are known to exist in nature. In addition, many of them have been broken into multiple species presumed to be evolving independently, usually obscuring the evolutionary dynamics that generate diversity. A paper...

  18. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  19. Native species that can replace exotic species in landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Regina Tempel Stumpf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond aesthetics, the contemporary landscaping intends to provide other benefits for humans and environment, especially related to the environmental quality of urban spaces and conservation of the species. A trend in this direction is the reduction in the use of exotic plants in their designs, since, over time, they can become agents of replacement of native flora, as it has occurred in Rio Grande do Sul with many species introduced by settlers. However, the use of exotic species is unjustifiable, because the flora diversity of the Bioma Pampa offers many native species with appropriate features to the ornamental use. The commercial cultivation and the implantation of native species in landscaped areas constitute innovations for plant nurseries and landscapers and can provide a positive reduction in extractivism, contributing to dissemination, exploitation and preservation of native flora, and also decrease the impact of chemical products on environment. So, this work intends to identify native species of Bioma Pampa with features and uses similar to the most used exotic species at Brazilian landscaping. The species were selected from consulting books about native plants of Bioma Pampa and plants used at Brazilian landscaping, considering the similarity on habit and architecture, as well as characteristics of leafs, flowers and/or fruits and environmental conditions of occurrence and cultivation. There were identified 34 native species able to properly replace exotic species commonly used. The results show that many native species of Bioma Pampa have interesting ornamental features to landscape gardening, allowing them to replace exotic species that are traditionally cultivated.

  20. Population genetics and cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheron, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Does the definition of a species matter for pest management purposes? Taxonomists provide us with tools - usually morphological characters - to identify a group of organisms that we call a species. The implication of this identification is that all of the individuals that fit the provided description are members of the species in question. The taxonomists have considered the range of variation among individuals in defining the species, but this variation is often forgotten when we take the concept of species to the level of management. Just as there is morphological variation among individuals, there is also variation in practically any character we might imagine, which has implications for the short and long term success of our management tactics. The rich literature on insecticide resistance should be a constant reminder of the fact that the pressure on pest survival and reproduction applied by our management approaches frequently leads to evolutionary changes within the pest species. The degree of variation within a particular species is a defining characteristic of that species. This level of variability may have very important implications for successful management, so it is very important to measure variation and, whenever possible, the genetic basis of that variation, in a target species. Population genetic approaches can provide evidence of genetic structure (or lack thereof) among populations of a species. These types of data can be used to discuss the movement of pest populations on a local or global scale. In other cases, we may have a complex of species that share some, but not all, characteristics. Species complexes that share morphological characters (i.e., cannot be easily distinguished) but not biological characters are referred to as sibling or cryptic species

  1. Saldanha Bay, South Africa II: estimating bay productivity | Pitcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autotrophic communities, where organic matter is produced in excess of respiratory demand, were confined on average to the upper 5.8 m of the water column, and often excluded the bulk of the phytoplankton community, where light limitation is considered to lead to heterotrophic community metabolism. Estimates of ...

  2. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  3. Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M

    2016-02-01

    Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.

  4. Balance of bacterial species in the gut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Balance of bacterial species in the gut. Protective. Lactobacillus species. Bifidobacterium species. Selected E. coli. Saccharomyces boulardii. Clostridium butyricum.

  5. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  6. Uncommon Species and Other Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department's Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI) maintains a database of uncommon, rare, threatened and endangered species and natural...

  7. Incorporating Context Dependency of Species Interactions in Species Distribution Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Species distribution models typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change. Here, we incorporated the context dependency of species interactions into a dynamic species distribution model. We developed a multi-species model that uses a time-series of observational survey data to evaluate how abiotic conditions and species interactions affect the dynamics of three rocky intertidal species. The model further distinguishes between the direct effects of abiotic conditions on abundance and the indirect effects propagated through interactions with other species. We apply the model to keystone predation by the sea star Pisaster ochraceus on the mussel Mytilus californianus and the barnacle Balanus glandula in the rocky intertidal zone of the Pacific coast, USA. Our method indicated that biotic interactions between P. ochraceus and B. glandula affected B. glandula dynamics across >1000 km of coastline. Consistent with patterns from keystone predation, the growth rate of B. glandula varied according to the abundance of P. ochraceus in the previous year. The data and the model did not indicate that the strength of keystone predation by P. ochraceus varied with a mean annual upwelling index. Balanus glandula cover increased following years with high phytoplankton abundance measured as mean annual chlorophyll-a. M. californianus exhibited the same

  8. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  9. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  10. 76 FR 74778 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    .... 16439] Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and...

  11. [Yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Tamási, Béla; Mihalik, Noémi; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2015-01-04

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common mycosis, however, the available information about antifungal susceptibilities of these yeasts is limited. To compare the gold standard fungal culture with a new molecular identification method and report the incidence of yeast species in vulvovaginitis candidosa. The authors studied 370 yeasts isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis and identified them by phenotypic and molecular methods. The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species. At present there are no recommendations for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of pathogenic fungal species occurring in vulvovaginal candidiasis and the natural antifungal resistance of the different species is known only. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight identification can be used to differentiate the fluconazole resistant Candida dubliniensis and the sensitive Candida albicans strains.

  12. Enolonium Species-Umpoled Enolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arava, Shlomy; Kumar, Jayprakash N.; Maksymenko, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Enolonium species/iodo(III) enolates of carbonyl compounds have been suggested to be intermediates in a wide variety of hypervalent iodine induced chemical transformations of ketones, including α-C-O, α-C-N, α-C-C, and alpha-carbon- halide bond formation, but they have never been characterized. We...... report that these elusive umpoled enolates may be made as discrete species that are stable for several minutes at-78 degrees C, and report the first spectroscopic identification of such species. It is shown that enolonium species are direct intermediates in C-O, C-N, C-Cl, and C-C bond forming reactions....... Our results open up chemical space for designing a variety of new transformations. We showcase the ability of enolonium species to react with prenyl, crotyl, cinnamyl, and allyl silanes with absolute regioselectivity in up to 92% yield....

  13. Species concepts, species delimitation and the inherent limitations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frank Zachos

    synchrony and to sexually reproducing organisms would not be a problem anymore ... approach to species delimitation that combines genetic data with .... The datasets or algorithms could then be modified so that the groups yielded conform.

  14. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Itoh, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  15. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko

    2018-02-14

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  16. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Scale dependence in species turnover reflects variance in species occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinn, Daniel J; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-02-01

    Patterns of species turnover may reflect the processes driving community dynamics across scales. While the majority of studies on species turnover have examined pairwise comparison metrics (e.g., the average Jaccard dissimilarity), it has been proposed that the species-area relationship (SAR) also offers insight into patterns of species turnover because these two patterns may be analytically linked. However, these previous links only apply in a special case where turnover is scale invariant, and we demonstrate across three different plant communities that over 90% of the pairwise turnover values are larger than expected based on scale-invariant predictions from the SAR. Furthermore, the degree of scale dependence in turnover was negatively related to the degree of variance in the occupancy frequency distribution (OFD). These findings suggest that species turnover diverges from scale invariance, and as such pairwise turnover and the slope of the SAR are not redundant. Furthermore, models developed to explain the OFD should be linked with those developed to explain species turnover to achieve a more unified understanding of community structure.

  18. Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric

    2012-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope= 0.59), low abundance (slope= 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  19. Multiple mechanisms enable invasive species to suppress native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alison E; Thomsen, Meredith; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2011-07-01

    Invasive plants represent a significant threat to ecosystem biodiversity. To decrease the impacts of invasive species, a major scientific undertaking of the last few decades has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms that drive invasive plant success. Most studies and theories have focused on a single mechanism for predicting the success of invasive plants and therefore cannot provide insight as to the relative importance of multiple interactions in predicting invasive species' success. We examine four mechanisms that potentially contribute to the success of invasive velvetgrass Holcus lanatus: direct competition, indirect competition mediated by mammalian herbivores, interference competition via allelopathy, and indirect competition mediated by changes in the soil community. Using a combination of field and greenhouse approaches, we focus on the effects of H. lanatus on a common species in California coastal prairies, Erigeron glaucus, where the invasion is most intense. We found that H. lanatus had the strongest effects on E. glaucus via direct competition, but it also influenced the soil community in ways that feed back to negatively influence E. glaucus and other native species after H. lanatus removal. This approach provided evidence for multiple mechanisms contributing to negative effects of invasive species, and it identified when particular strategies were most likely to be important. These mechanisms can be applied to eradication of H. lanatus and conservation of California coastal prairie systems, and they illustrate the utility of an integrated set of experiments for determining the potential mechanisms of invasive species' success.

  20. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  1. Phase Two Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  2. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... the understanding of the pelagic ecology of these species and allow more reliable assessments of... permit: (1) Was applied for in good faith, (2) will not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or...

  3. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  4. THE USE OF CASSAVA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The plant is propagated from mature stems, which .... USE OF CASSAVA SPECIES AND ALUM IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT, .... acidity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and ..... Rural Areas, MSc Thesis, Department of Water.

  5. Achromobacter species in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C R; Pressler, T; Ridderberg, W

    2013-01-01

    Achromobacter species leads to chronic infection in an increasing number of CF patients. We report 2 cases of Achromobacter ruhlandii cross-infection between patients after well-described indirect contact....

  6. Species Typing in Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmania is an infectious protozoan parasite related to African and American trypanosomes. All Leishmania species that are pathogenic to humans can cause dermal disease. When one is confronted with cutaneous leishmaniasis, identification of the causative species is relevant in both clinical and epidemiological studies, case management, and control. This review gives an overview of the currently existing and most used assays for species discrimination, with a critical appraisal of the limitations of each technique. The consensus taxonomy for the genus is outlined, including debatable species designations. Finally, a numerical literature analysis is presented that describes which methods are most used in various countries and regions in the world, and for which purposes. PMID:25672782

  7. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  8. Phase One Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...

  9. Theoretical microbial ecology without species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  10. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae) species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Sizzo, Hernán; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Arreola-Nava, Hilda Julieta; Terrazas, Teresa; Sánchez, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  11. Species delimitation in the Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae species complex reveals a new species, S. huastecorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo

    Full Text Available The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S. pruinosus from central Mexico, S. laevigatus from southern Mexico, and S. griseus from northern South America. A fourth species, previously considered to be S. griseus and commonly misidentified as S. pruinosus in northern Mexico showed significant genetic, ecological, and morphological differentiation suggesting that it should be considered a new species, S. huastecorum, which we describe here. We show that population genetic analyses, ecological niche modeling, and morphological studies are complementary approaches for delimiting species in taxonomically challenging plant groups such as the SGSC.

  12. Species selection for smallholder aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Systems for selection of species for smallholder aquaculture are presented. These are: food fits; management decisions; and economic criteria. Food fits suggests categorizing pond food resources into a few categories based loosely on the instrinsic traits of food which effect their selectivity by predators. Using management decision techniques, potential polycultures might also be compared with each other and with monoculture. Under economic criteria (and for species known in local markets), ...

  13. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  14. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  15. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sophie Susanna Strindberg; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M

    2015-01-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species...... to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber...

  16. The nature of plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieseberg, Loren H; Wood, Troy E; Baack, Eric J

    2006-03-23

    Many botanists doubt the existence of plant species, viewing them as arbitrary constructs of the human mind, as opposed to discrete, objective entities that represent reproductively independent lineages or 'units of evolution'. However, the discreteness of plant species and their correspondence with reproductive communities have not been tested quantitatively, allowing zoologists to argue that botanists have been overly influenced by a few 'botanical horror stories', such as dandelions, blackberries and oaks. Here we analyse phenetic and/or crossing relationships in over 400 genera of plants and animals. We show that although discrete phenotypic clusters exist in most genera (> 80%), the correspondence of taxonomic species to these clusters is poor (< 60%) and no different between plants and animals. Lack of congruence is caused by polyploidy, asexual reproduction and over-differentiation by taxonomists, but not by contemporary hybridization. Nonetheless, crossability data indicate that 70% of taxonomic species and 75% of phenotypic clusters in plants correspond to reproductively independent lineages (as measured by postmating isolation), and thus represent biologically real entities. Contrary to conventional wisdom, plant species are more likely than animal species to represent reproductively independent lineages.

  17. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U

    2012-09-15

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  18. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  19. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Rodoplu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility

  20. Phenotypic covariance at species' borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, M Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T

    2013-05-28

    Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species' borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species' borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

  2. What is a Species? An Endless Debate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    a research scholar in ... perspectives are collectively termed as Phylogenetic Species ... tors view the origin of the species they study”. ..... explosion of molecular data has been the major driving force in unearthing cryptic species, it is no ...

  3. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  4. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  5. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among Maloideae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maloideae is a highly diverse sub-family of the Rosaceae containing several agronomically important species (Malus sp. and Pyrus sp.) and their wild relatives. Previous phylogenetic work within the group has revealed extensive intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization. In order to develop...

  7. Botrytis species on bulb crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorbeer, J.W.; Seyb, A.M.; Boer, de M.; Ende, van den J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. A number of Botrytis species are pathogens of bulb crops. Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph=Botrytotinia squamosa) causal agent of botrytis leaf blight and B. allii the causal agent of botrytis neck rotare two of the most important fungal diseases of onion. The taxonomics of several of the

  8. Endangered Species: An Educator's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean, M., Comp.

    Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Fonsecaea Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafzadeh, M.J.; Sun, J.; Vicente, V.A.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Menken, S.B.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    To assess population diversities among 81 strains of fungi in the genus Fonsecaea that had been identified down to species level, we applied amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technology and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions and the partial cell division cycle, β-tubulin,

  10. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  11. Species recovery in the United States: Increasing the effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Evans; Judy P. Che-Castaldo; Deborah Crouse; Frank W. Davis; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Curtis H. Flather; R. Kipp Frohlich; Dale D. Goble; Ya-Wei Li; Timothy D. Male; Lawrence L. Master; Matthew P. Moskwik; Maile C. Neel; Barry R. Noon; Camille Parmesan; Mark W. Schwartz; J. Michael Scott; Byron K. Williams

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species - has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient...

  12. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  13. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  14. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  15. ICRAF Species Switchboard. Version 1.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; Ordonez, J.; Smith, E.

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  16. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic ``nested'' structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm -similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity- here we propose a method which -by exploiting their nested architecture- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  17. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  18. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  19. Population Genomics of Paramecium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Parul; Krenek, Sascha; Marinov, Georgi K; Doak, Thomas G; Berendonk, Thomas U; Lynch, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Population-genomic analyses are essential to understanding factors shaping genomic variation and lineage-specific sequence constraints. The dearth of such analyses for unicellular eukaryotes prompted us to assess genomic variation in Paramecium, one of the most well-studied ciliate genera. The Paramecium aurelia complex consists of ∼15 morphologically indistinguishable species that diverged subsequent to two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs, as long as 320 MYA) and possess extremely streamlined genomes. We examine patterns of both nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphism, by sequencing whole genomes of 10-13 worldwide isolates of each of three species belonging to the P. aurelia complex: P. tetraurelia, P. biaurelia, P. sexaurelia, as well as two outgroup species that do not share the WGDs: P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum. An apparent absence of global geographic population structure suggests continuous or recent dispersal of Paramecium over long distances. Intergenic regions are highly constrained relative to coding sequences, especially in P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum that have shorter intergenic distances. Sequence diversity and divergence are reduced up to ∼100-150 bp both upstream and downstream of genes, suggesting strong constraints imposed by the presence of densely packed regulatory modules. In addition, comparison of sequence variation at non-synonymous and synonymous sites suggests similar recent selective pressures on paralogs within and orthologs across the deeply diverging species. This study presents the first genome-wide population-genomic analysis in ciliates and provides a valuable resource for future studies in evolutionary and functional genetics in Paramecium. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Haemolytic glycoglycerolipids from Gymnodinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, C C; Bodennec, G; Gentien, P

    1998-03-01

    Glycoglycerolipids derived from microalgae can be a source of biologically active substances including toxins. Such glycolipids were analysed in two isolates of toxic marine dinoflagellates from European waters. The lipids of Gymnodinium mikimotoi contained 17% of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), while in Gymnodinium sp. the proportion was 35%. MGDG and DGDG from both species were haemolytic. The major unsaturated fatty acid in both algal glycolipids was 18:5 omega 3.

  1. Chemokines in teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues which in mammals can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in their sequence: CXC (α), CC (β), C and CX(3)C classes. Evolutionarily, fish can be considered as an intermediate step between species which possess only innate immunity (invertebrates) and species with a fully developed acquired immune network such as mammals. Therefore, the functionality of their different immune cell types and molecules is sometimes also intermediate between innate and acquired responses. The first chemokine gene identified in a teleost was a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chemokine designated as CK1 in 1998. Since then, many different chemokine genes have been identified in several fish species, but their role in homeostasis and immune response remains largely unknown. Extensive genomic duplication events and the fact that chemokines evolve more quickly than other immune genes, make it very difficult to establish true orthologues between fish and mammalian chemokines that would help us with the ascription of immune roles. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish, focusing mainly on which genes have been identified so far and highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation, due to the great lack of functional information available for them. As the number of chemokine genes begins to close down for some teleost species, there is an important need for functional assays that may elucidate the role of each of these molecules within the fish immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  3. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  4. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  5. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  6. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lewitus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the

  7. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  8. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  9. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  10. Why some plant species are rare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieger Wamelink, G W; Wamelink, G W Weiger; Goedhart, Paul W; Frissel, Joep; Frissel, Josep Y

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others are not. Are they rare due to: intrinsic reasons, dispersal capacity, the effects of management or abiotic circumstances? Habitat preference of rare plant species may play an important role in determining why some species are rare. Based on an extensive data set of soil parameters we investigated if rarity is due to a narrow habitat preference for abiotic soil parameters. For 23 different abiotic soil parameters, of which the most influential were groundwater-table, soil-pH and nutrient-contents, we estimated species responses for common and rare species. Based on the responses per species we calculated the range of occurrence, the range between the 5 and 95 percentile of the response curve giving the habitat preference. Subsequently, we calculated the average response range for common and rare species. In addition, we designed a new graphic in order to provide a better means for presentation of the results. The habitat preferences of rare species for abiotic soil conditions are significantly narrower than for common species. Twenty of the twenty-three abiotic parameters showed on average significantly narrower habitat preferences for rare species than for common species; none of the abiotic parameters showed on average a narrower habitat preference for common species. The results have major implications for the conservation of rare plant species; accordingly management and nature development should be focussed on the maintenance and creation of a broad range of environmental conditions, so that the requirements of rare species are met. The conservation of (abiotic) gradients within ecosystems is particularly important for preserving rare species.

  11. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  12. Assessing Pesticides under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s pesticide risk assessment and regulatory processes ensure that protections are in place for all populations of non-target species. We have developed risk assessment procedures to determine potential for harm to individuals of a listed species.

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Pathogenic Sporothrix Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a chronic (sub)cutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species

  14. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their...-2012 Invasive Species National Management Plan. The meeting is open to the public. An orientation...

  15. Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Dunn, Robert R; Sodhi, Navjot S; Colwell, Robert K; Proctor, Heather C; Smith, Vincent S

    2004-09-10

    To assess the coextinction of species (the loss of a species upon the loss of another), we present a probabilistic model, scaled with empirical data. The model examines the relationship between coextinction levels (proportion of species extinct) of affiliates and their hosts across a wide range of coevolved interspecific systems: pollinating Ficus wasps and Ficus, parasites and their hosts, butterflies and their larval host plants, and ant butterflies and their host ants. Applying a nomographic method based on mean host specificity (number of host species per affiliate species), we estimate that 6300 affiliate species are "coendangered" with host species currently listed as endangered. Current extinction estimates need to be recalibrated by taking species coextinctions into account.

  16. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... both ecological and management contexts, will center on topics that: (1) Pertain to invasive species...

  17. Endangered species toxicity extrapolation using ICE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) report on assessing pesticide risks to threatened and endangered species (T&E) included the recommendation of using interspecies correlation models (ICE) as an alternative to general safety factors for extrapolating across species. ...

  18. Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia

    OpenAIRE

    SALATINO, ANTONIO; BLATT, CECÍLIA T.T.; SANTOS, DÉBORAH Y.A.C. DOS; VAZ, ANGELA M.S.F.

    1999-01-01

    Foliar flavonoids of nine species of Bauhinia were isolated and identified. All the compounds correspond to glycosides derived from kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and myricetin. Derivatives of the latter aglyconhe seem to be rare in Bauhinia. Derivatives of isorhamnetin are commonly found in species of subgenus Bauhinia and were not detected in the two species of subgenus Phanera. Flavonoid patterns of species of the former subgenus are in general more complex than those of the latter. ...

  19. New species of Cystolepiota from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Lin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new species, Cystolepiota pseudofumosifolia, is introduced. C. pseudofumosifolia is characterized by granulose or powdery pileus with an anatomic structure that is loosely globose, as well as ellipsoid cells in chains in the pileus covering the cheilocystidia. This new species is compared to the related and similar Cystolepiota species in morphology and molecular phylogeny based on Internal transcribed spacer sequences. Both types of data support our specimens as a new species in the genus Cystolepiota.

  20. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  1. Biodiversity in the cyclic competition system of three species according to the emergence of mutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junpyo

    2018-05-01

    Understanding mechanisms which promote or hinder existing ecosystems are important issues in ecological sciences. In addition to fundamental interactions such as competition and migration among native species, existing ecosystems can be easily disturbed by external factors, and the emergence of new species may be an example in such cases. The new species which does not exist in a current ecosystem can be regarded as either alien species entered from outside or mutant species born by mutation in existing normal species. Recently, as existing ecosystems are getting influenced by various physical/chemical external factors, mutation due to anthropogenic and environmental factors can occur more frequently and is thus attracting much attention for the maintenance of ecosystems. In this paper, we consider emergences of mutant species among self-competing three species in the cyclic dominance. By defining mutation as the birth of mutant species, we investigate how mutant species can affect biodiversity in the existing ecosystem. Through microscopic and macroscopic approaches, we have found that the society of existing normal species can be disturbed by mutant species either the society is maintained accompanying with the coexistence of all species or jeopardized by occupying of mutant species. Due to the birth of mutant species, the existing society may be more complex by constituting two different groups of normal and mutant species, and our results can be contributed to analyze complex ecosystems of many species. We hope our findings may propose a new insight on mutation in cyclic competition systems of many species.

  2. Unimodal models to relate species to environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their

  3. 3 CFR - The Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...

  4. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Council is co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of... of the most invaded marine/coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that... development of state invasive species councils. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  5. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  6. The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der X.M.; Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Estrella, de la Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt

  7. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Boer, de R.F.; Roelfsema, J.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  8. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L J; de Boer, R F; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L M; Wagenaar, J A; Bonten, M J M; Kusters, J G

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  9. 22 CFR 216.5 - Endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for each...

  10. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. Options in dealing with marine alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Sneekes, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention

  13. Species rarity: definition, causes, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    In virtually all ecological communities around the world, most species are represented by few individuals, and most individuals come from only a few of the most common species. Why this distribution of species abundances is so regularly observed among different taxonomic sets in geographically diverse systems is a question that has received considerable theoretical and...

  14. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  15. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  16. Ensemble forecasting of species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; New, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Concern over implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of bioclimatic models to forecast the range shifts of species under future climate-change scenarios. Recent studies have demonstrated that projections by alternative models can be so variable as to compromise their usefulness for guiding policy decisions. Here, we advocate the use of multiple models within an ensemble forecasting framework and describe alternative approaches to the analysis of bioclimatic ensembles, including bounding box, consensus and probabilistic techniques. We argue that, although improved accuracy can be delivered through the traditional tasks of trying to build better models with improved data, more robust forecasts can also be achieved if ensemble forecasts are produced and analysed appropriately.

  17. Core-satellite species hypothesis and native versus exotic species in secondary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kelsey A.; Gibson, David J.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of hypotheses exist to explain species’ distributions in a landscape, but these hypotheses are not frequently utilized to explain the differences in native and exotic species distributions. The core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis predicts species occupancy will be bimodally distributed, i.e., many species will be common and many species will be rare, but does not explicitly consider exotic species distributions. The parallel dynamics (PD) hypothesis predicts that regional occurrence patterns of exotic species will be similar to native species. Together, the CSS and PD hypotheses may increase our understanding of exotic species’ distribution relative to natives. We selected an old field undergoing secondary succession to study the CSS and PD hypotheses in conjunction with each other. The ratio of exotic to native species (richness and abundance) was observed through 17 years of secondary succession. We predicted species would be bimodally distributed and that exotic:native species ratios would remain steady or decrease through time under frequent disturbance. In contrast to the CSS and PD hypotheses, native species occupancies were not bimodally distributed at the site, but exotic species were. The exotic:native species ratios for both richness (E:Nrichness) and abundance (E:Ncover) generally decreased or remained constant throughout supporting the PD hypothesis. Our results suggest exotic species exhibit metapopulation structure in old field landscapes, but that metapopulation structures of native species are disrupted, perhaps because these species are dispersal limited in the fragmented landscape.

  18. The nuclear question: rethinking species importance in multi-species animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel

    2010-09-01

    1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in

  19. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  20. Microbial species delineation using whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Neha J; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-08-18

    Increased sequencing of microbial genomes has revealed that prevailing prokaryotic species assignments can be inconsistent with whole genome information for a significant number of species. The long-standing need for a systematic and scalable species assignment technique can be met by the genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) metric, which is widely acknowledged as a robust measure of genomic relatedness. In this work, we demonstrate that the combination of gANI and the alignment fraction (AF) between two genomes accurately reflects their genomic relatedness. We introduce an efficient implementation of AF,gANI and discuss its successful application to 86.5M genome pairs between 13,151 prokaryotic genomes assigned to 3032 species. Subsequently, by comparing the genome clusters obtained from complete linkage clustering of these pairs to existing taxonomy, we observed that nearly 18% of all prokaryotic species suffer from anomalies in species definition. Our results can be used to explore central questions such as whether microorganisms form a continuum of genetic diversity or distinct species represented by distinct genetic signatures. We propose that this precise and objective AF,gANI-based species definition: the MiSI (Microbial Species Identifier) method, be used to address previous inconsistencies in species classification and as the primary guide for new taxonomic species assignment, supplemented by the traditional polyphasic approach, as required. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. CINAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.

  2. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  3. Genomic definition of species. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.

    1992-06-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.

  4. Sea Cucumber (Holothuroidea Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 1200 sea cucumber species in the world oceans, while only 37 species from Holothuroidea class lives in the Mediterranean Sea. This preliminary study aims identification sea cucumbers species of the Turkish waters. The sea cucumber samples used in this study were obtained from a series of different studies between the years of 2008 and 2014. Identification of the species are mainly based on the morphometric characteristics while some of species are determined from their calcareous spicules. Eight sea species were identified in this research which are; Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria polii, Holothuria mammata, Holothuria (Platyperona sanctori, Holothuria forskali, Stichopus regalis, Synaptula reciprocans and Stereoderma kirschbergi. There are limited number of studies in the literature focusing on the identification of the sea cucumber species spread in our seas. Therefore, this study is believed to play an important role in guiding future researches.

  5. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    for marine organisms. One of the impacts will be the time that species start to spawn, and there is already evidence for earlier spawning in some North Sea fish species. A change like that may likely have a chain reaction, affecting larval stages and whether they will live in environments with high food...... of the species they consume now and increased availability of new species. In addition, there will likely be economic impacts on the local fishing communities. How species respond to climate change is a field of research that receives great attention because the responses will affect the management of fisheries......People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...

  6. Four new species of Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) and redescriptions of three other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijswijt, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis

  7. Palpi aplenty: New species in the Chrysotus longipalpus species group (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Renato S. Capellari

    2018-01-01

    Four new Nearctic species belonging to the Chrysotus longipalpus species group are described: Chrysotus keyensis sp. nov. (Florida), Chrysotus mccreadiei sp. nov. (Alabama), Chrysotus mystax sp. nov. (Alabama), and Chrysotus plumarista sp. nov. (Alabama). This brings the number of known species in this group to twelve. A key to species of males of the C. longipalpus...

  8. A globally-distributed alien invasive species poses risks to United States imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Meredith L; Burdett, Christopher L; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Sweeney, Steven J; Miller, Ryan S

    2018-03-28

    In the midst of Earth's sixth mass extinction event, non-native species are a driving factor in many imperiled species' declines. One of the most widespread and destructive alien invasive species in the world, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) threaten native species through predation, habitat destruction, competition, and disease transmission. We show that wild pigs co-occur with up to 87.2% of imperiled species in the contiguous U.S. identified as susceptible to their direct impacts, and we project increases in both the number of species at risk and the geographic extent of risks by 2025. Wild pigs may therefore present a severe threat to U.S. imperiled species, with serious implications for management of at-risk species throughout wild pigs' global distribution. We offer guidance for efficient allocation of research effort and conservation resources across species and regions using a simple approach that can be applied to wild pigs and other alien invasive species globally.

  9. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. A Theory of Flagship Species Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagship species approach is an enduring strategy in conservation. Academic discussion on flagship species has focussed on two dimensions: on what basis should they be selected and how have they been put to use. Here we consider a third dimension, namely the manner in which flagship species act and have the capacity to galvanise and influence conservation outcomes. Drawing on concepts from the social sciences, viz. affordance, framing, and actor-networks; we discuss examples of flagship species to propose a theory of flagship species action. In brief, our theory posits that a flagship species is one with traits that afford the assembly of relatively coherent networks of associations with ideational elements located in pre-existing cultural framings. These associations give rise to opportunities to align with deep cultural frames, contemporary cultural phenomena and political economy such that when a conservation action is introduced, forms of agency cause the species and human publics to change. The species becomes re-framed (or reinvigorated as a cultural asset speaking for a wider nature, publics and political agendas. Further our theory posits that species with traits that enrol in idea networks incorporating human fears, will have limited flagship capacity. This is because the ability of the representations produced to align with frames incorporating collective aspirations is constrained. In terms of applied conservation practice, our theory suggests that: a key criteria for selecting potential flagship species is presence in existing cultural frames, that effective deployment of flagship species requires an understanding of the species′ cultural associations, and a species ability to galvanise action may be limited to certain times and places. Furthermore, once deployed conservation interests will never have full control over the flagship species: it may act in uncertain and unexpected ways.

  13. Competition between species of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed

  14. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  15. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  16. Aging and immortality in unicellular species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Michael

    2017-10-01

    It has been historically thought that in conditions that permit growth, most unicellular species do not to age. This was particularly thought to be the case for symmetrically dividing species, as such species lack a clear distinction between the soma and the germline. Despite this, studies of the symmetrically dividing species Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have recently started to challenge this notion. They indicate that E. coli and S. pombe do age, but only when subjected to environmental stress. If true, this suggests that aging may be widespread among microbial species in general, and that studying aging in microbes may inform other long-standing questions in aging. This review examines the recent evidence for and against replicative aging in symmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, the mechanisms that underlie aging, why aging evolved in these species, and how microbial aging fits into the context of other questions in aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Costs Associated with Endangered Species Act Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    August 2013 2 on economic costs or values related to endangered species costs or values, focuses primarily on Contingent Valuation Method studies...of species preservation (Lew, Layton, and Rowe 2010; Wallmo 2006). Most studies consider public valuation of species preservation, and not costs of...2012, NMFS 2006, U.S. Army Engineer, Mississippi Valley Division 2012, Kozlowski 1993, PFMC 2002) and through development of expenditure categories

  18. The transformer species of the Ukrainian Polissya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protopopova Vira V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the transformer species participation (Echinocystis lobata (Michx. Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L. in different plant communities of the Ukrainian Polissya (Forest zone of Ukraine are presented. All the abovementioned species are strong edificators in the region that can significantly change important species composition parameters of communities and character of landscape.

  19. Species - San Diego Co. [ds121

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is the Biological Observation Database point layer representing baseline observations of sensitive species (as defined by the MSCP) throughout San Diego County....

  20. Biological species in the viral world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ochman, Howard

    2018-06-05

    Due to their dependence on cellular organisms for metabolism and replication, viruses are typically named and assigned to species according to their genome structure and the original host that they infect. But because viruses often infect multiple hosts and the numbers of distinct lineages within a host can be vast, their delineation into species is often dictated by arbitrary sequence thresholds, which are highly inconsistent across lineages. Here we apply an approach to determine the boundaries of viral species based on the detection of gene flow within populations, thereby defining viral species according to the biological species concept (BSC). Despite the potential for gene transfer between highly divergent genomes, viruses, like the cellular organisms they infect, assort into reproductively isolated groups and can be organized into biological species. This approach revealed that BSC-defined viral species are often congruent with the taxonomic partitioning based on shared gene contents and host tropism, and that bacteriophages can similarly be classified in biological species. These results open the possibility to use a single, universal definition of species that is applicable across cellular and acellular lifeforms.

  1. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  2. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  3. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Central American species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the parasitic subgenus Noctoraptor are presented.

  4. The species velocity of trees in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; de Lafontaine, G.; Heath, K.; Li, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has motivated interest in the paleo record to enhance our knowledge about past vegetation responses to climate change and help understand potential responses in the future. Additionally, polar regions currently experience the most rapid rates of climate change globally, prompting concern over changes in the ecological composition of high latitude ecosystems. Recent analyses have attempted to construct methods to estimate a species' ability to track climate change by computing climate velocity; a measure of the rate of climate displacement across a landscape which may indicate the speed an organism must migrate to keep pace with climate change. However, a challenge to using climate velocity in understanding range shifts is a lack of species-specificity in the velocity calculations: climate velocity does not actually use any species data in its analysis. To solve the shortcomings of climate velocity in estimating species displacement rates, we computed the "species velocity" of white spruce, green and grey alder populations across the state of Alaska from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to today. Species velocity represents the rate and direction a species is required to migrate to keep pace with a changing climate following the LGM. We used a species distribution model to determine past and present white spruce and alder distributions using statistically downscaled climate data at 60m. Species velocity was then derived from the change in species distribution per year by the change in distribution over Alaska (km/yr). High velocities indicate locations where the species environmental envelope is changing drastically and must disperse rapidly to survive climate change. As a result, high velocity regions are more vulnerable to distribution shifts and higher risk of local extinction. Conversely, low species velocities indicate locations where the local climate envelope is shifting relatively slowly, reducing the stress to disperse quickly

  5. Evaluating species richness: biased ecological inference results from spatial heterogeneity in species detection probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance B.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of species richness are necessary to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate biodiversity for conservation purposes. However, species richness is difficult to measure in the field because some species will almost always be overlooked due to their cryptic nature or the observer's failure to perceive their cues. Common measures of species richness that assume consistent observability across species are inviting because they may require only single counts of species at survey sites. Single-visit estimation methods ignore spatial and temporal variation in species detection probabilities related to survey or site conditions that may confound estimates of species richness. We used simulated and empirical data to evaluate the bias and precision of raw species counts, the limiting forms of jackknife and Chao estimators, and multi-species occupancy models when estimating species richness to evaluate whether the choice of estimator can affect inferences about the relationships between environmental conditions and community size under variable detection processes. Four simulated scenarios with realistic and variable detection processes were considered. Results of simulations indicated that (1) raw species counts were always biased low, (2) single-visit jackknife and Chao estimators were significantly biased regardless of detection process, (3) multispecies occupancy models were more precise and generally less biased than the jackknife and Chao estimators, and (4) spatial heterogeneity resulting from the effects of a site covariate on species detection probabilities had significant impacts on the inferred relationships between species richness and a spatially explicit environmental condition. For a real dataset of bird observations in northwestern Alaska, the four estimation methods produced different estimates of local species richness, which severely affected inferences about the effects of shrubs on local avian richness. Overall, our results

  6. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  7. New Species of Orchids from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of herbarium specimens collected in course of field exploration works in Vietnam during 2005-2007 revealed ten species of orchids new for science. Illustrated descriptions are provided for each discovered species, which are named as Anoectochilus papillosus, Arundina caespitosa, Bulbophyllum paraemarginatum, B. sinhoënse, Cheirostylis foliosa, Goodyera rhombodoides, Liparis rivularis, Oberonia multidentata, O. trichophora and Sunipia nigricans.

  8. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  9. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  10. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella species prevalent among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...

  11. In vitro propagation of Fraxinus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek; J.E. Preece

    2007-01-01

    The genus Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, includes over 65 ash species native to the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (Miller, 1955). Several of the ash species are important forest trees noted for their tough, highly resistant to shock, straight grained wood as well as being excellent shade trees for parks and residential...

  12. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  13. Two New American Species of Hordeum (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland Von; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1985-01-01

    Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala.......Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala....

  14. New and noteworthy Malesian species of Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new or noteworthy Malesian species of Loranthaceae are discussed. The known area of the relictual Cecarria obtusifolia (Merrill) Barlow is increased to include Flores and Timor. Dendrophthoe curvata (Blume) Miquel is accepted as a distinct species. The status of Dendrophthoe falcata (L. f.)

  15. On two new species of Cercopithecus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1886-01-01

    In 1877 our Museum received a Cercopithecus died in the Zoological Garden at Rotterdam. Professor Schlegel thought it to be a new species and called it Cercopithecus signatus, but he never described it. As it seems to me to be a very good species I describe it under the name given by Schlegel. It

  16. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis cause diarrheal infections in humans and other vertebrate animals globally and are considered to be of great public health importance. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis infections among patients attending ...

  18. New species of haematozoa in Phalacrocoracidae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New species of haematozoa, namely Leucocytozoon ugwidi sp. nov. from the Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and Haemoproteus skuae sp. nov. from the Subantarctic Skua Catharacta antarctica, are described. These are the first species to be recorded from the families Phalacrocoracidae and Stercorariidae, ...

  19. Metabolite production by differnt Ulocladium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hollensted, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Ulocladium, which is phylogenetically related to Alternaria, contains species that are food spoilers and plant pathogens, but also species that have potential as enzyme producers and bio-control agents. Ulocladium spp. are often found on dead vegetation, in soil, air and dust, but also on food...

  20. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  1. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Preliminary observations on the species composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the mushrooms appear during the rain season and are equally available during the short and long rains. This suggests that most species will grow well throughout the year whenever moisture level in the substrate is adequate irrespective of the season. Some of the species especially the Polypores (Ganoderma ...

  3. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are

  4. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  5. DNA species surveillance: Monitoring bushmeat poaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA species identification has applications in such areas as forensic science, systematics, conservation genetics and agriculture. One key anthropogenic activity threatening large wildlife fauna is illegal exploitation. In Kenya, species identification of raw and processed meat products remains a constraint to effective ...

  6. Distribution of crayfish species in Hungarian waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercédesz, Ludányi; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Kiss, B.; Roessink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Three native crayfish species, i.e.~Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus and Austropotamobius torrentium, occur in Hungary. Lately, however, non-indigenous crustaceans have also invaded the country Their most recent distribution and impact on the occurrences of the native species is not clear.

  7. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  8. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  9. ENDANGERED SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...

  10. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  11. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  12. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  13. Multiple bacterial species reside in chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2006-01-01

    species present were identified. More than one bacterial species were detected in all the ulcers. The most common bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus (found in 93.5% of the ulcers), Enterococcus faecalis (71.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (52.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (45.7%), Proteus...

  14. Multiplexed microsatellite markers for seven Metarhizium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-species transferability of 41 previously published simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was assessed for 11 species of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. A collection of 65 Metarhizium isolates including all 54 used in a recent phylogenetic revision of the genus were characterized. Betwe...

  15. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  16. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    *For Correspondence. e-mail: bashisthsingh2004@rediffmail.com, ... A species complex constitutes groups of closely related species which have diverged ..... there is a strong reproductive isolation too (See review by Singh and Banerjee 2016) .... figure both the loops touch the chromocenter and in our microphotograph ...

  17. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  18. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  19. New species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, J.A.; Martins, E.S.; Catarino, L.

    2014-01-01

    Genus Maerua has around 60 species represented on the African continent, of which three have been reported for Angola. Two new species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola are here described. Both are closely similar to M. juncea subsp. juncea, being distinguished by floral traits such as the

  20. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Commerce. The duty of the Council is to provide national leadership regarding invasive species issues... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... with Western-based scientists and practitioners on problems and potential solutions, as well as...

  1. Fatal attraction: rare species in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Elena; Deves, Anne-Laure; Saint Jalmes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2009-04-07

    The exploitation of rare and endangered species can end in the species's extinction because the increased value people associate with rarity increases the economic incentive to exploit the last individuals, creating a positive feedback loop. This recently proposed concept, called the anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE), relies on the assumption that people do value rarity, but this remains to be established. Moreover, it also remains to be determined whether attraction to rarity is a trait confined to a minority of hobbyists (e.g. wildlife collectors, exotic pet owners) or characteristic of the general public. We estimated how much the general public valued rare species compared with common ones, using five different metrics related to personal investment: time spent, physical effort, unpleasantness, economic investment and risk. We surveyed the visitors of a zoo. To see the rare species, the visitors to the zoo invested more time in searching and contemplation, they were ready to expend more physical effort, they tolerated more unpleasant conditions, they were willing to pay more and, finally, they risked more to obtain (steal) a rare species. Our results provide substantial evidence of how the general public places more value on rare species, compared with common species. This confirms the AAE as an actual process, which in addition concerns a large part of the population. This has important consequences for the conservation of species that are rare now, or that could become so in the future.

  2. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 82 triphala powder samples were analyzed for the association of different fungi. Results reveal the predominance of Aspergillus as the major genera with six predominant species namely, A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and A. amstelodami. Therefore, these six isolated Aspergillus species were ...

  3. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  4. Emergent neutrality drives phytoplankton species coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Angel M.; Calliari, Danilo; Kruk, Carla; Conde, Daniel; Bonilla, Sylvia; Fort, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that drive species coexistence and community dynamics have long puzzled ecologists. Here, we explain species coexistence, size structure and diversity patterns in a phytoplankton community using a combination of four fundamental factors: organism traits, size-based constraints, hydrology and species competition. Using a ‘microscopic’ Lotka–Volterra competition (MLVC) model (i.e. with explicit recipes to compute its parameters), we provide a mechanistic explanation of species coexistence along a niche axis (i.e. organismic volume). We based our model on empirically measured quantities, minimal ecological assumptions and stochastic processes. In nature, we found aggregated patterns of species biovolume (i.e. clumps) along the volume axis and a peak in species richness. Both patterns were reproduced by the MLVC model. Observed clumps corresponded to niche zones (volumes) where species fitness was highest, or where fitness was equal among competing species. The latter implies the action of equalizing processes, which would suggest emergent neutrality as a plausible mechanism to explain community patterns. PMID:21177680

  5. Finessing atlas data for species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niamir, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Munoz, A.R.; Real, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The spatial resolution of species atlases and therefore resulting model predictions are often too coarse for local applications. Collecting distribution data at a finer resolution for large numbers of species requires a comprehensive sampling effort, making it impractical and expensive. This

  6. 77 FR 70456 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...: TE-13844A Applicant: Aquatic Resources Management, Lexington, Kentucky. Applicant requests amendment... fish species, twelve (12) fresh-water mussel species, one (1) snake species, one (1) insect species and...

  7. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  8. Biodiversity hotspots house most undiscovered plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Roberts, David L; Myers, Norman; Pimm, Stuart L

    2011-08-09

    For most organisms, the number of described species considerably underestimates how many exist. This is itself a problem and causes secondary complications given present high rates of species extinction. Known numbers of flowering plants form the basis of biodiversity "hotspots"--places where high levels of endemism and habitat loss coincide to produce high extinction rates. How different would conservation priorities be if the catalog were complete? Approximately 15% more species of flowering plant are likely still undiscovered. They are almost certainly rare, and depending on where they live, suffer high risks of extinction from habitat loss and global climate disruption. By using a model that incorporates taxonomic effort over time, regions predicted to contain large numbers of undiscovered species are already conservation priorities. Our results leave global conservation priorities more or less intact, but suggest considerably higher levels of species imperilment than previously acknowledged.

  9. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    . clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A......Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  10. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S. F.; Morris, T.; Hughes, H.; Dixon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. PMID:26224846

  11. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  12. The Porphyra species of Helgoland (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmann, P.; Sahling, P.-H.

    1991-03-01

    This revision of seven Porphyra species of Helgoland was based on a study of the structure of their fertile thalli and the behaviour of their spores. Regarding the reproductive organization the species may be arranged in two groups. P. leucosticta and P. purpureo-violacea are obligate monoecious species. Asexual thalli have never been observed in the field. The other five species are generally dioecious. Isomorphic sexual thalli and asexually propagating ones are mixed in uniform populations. Carpospores originating from sexual fusion develop into the diploid Conchocelis phase. Sporangia of asexual plants, though homologous in formation, produce spores of different kinds: aplanospores that give rise to the vegetative thallus directly (in P. umbilicalis, P. insolita n. sp. and P. ochotensis) and spores that develop into haploid Conchocelis (in P. laciniata and in P. linearis). P. laciniata — formerly considered synonymous with P. purpurea — is an independent species.

  13. Effects of species' characteristics on nongovernmental organizations' attitudes toward species conservation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, E; Hendrickx, L.C W P; van der Windt, H.J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    The authors examined the willingness of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to support public species conservation measures as a function of species characteristics, NGOs' interests, and interests harmed by the measures. In an experiment, 39 policy makers from nature conservation, mobility and

  14. ConSpeciFix: Classifying prokaryotic species based on gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ellis, Brian Shin-Hua; Ochman, Howard

    2018-05-16

    Classification of prokaryotic species is usually based on sequence similarity thresholds, which are easy to apply but lack a biologically-relevant foundation. Here, we present ConSpeciFix, a program that classifies prokaryotes into species using criteria set forth by the Biological Species Concept, thereby unifying species definition in all domains of life. ConSpeciFix's webserver is freely available at www.conspecifix.com. The local version of the program can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/Bobay-Ochman/ConSpeciFix. ConSpeciFix is written in Python 2.7 and requires the following dependencies: Usearch, MCL, MAFFT and RAxML. ljbobay@uncg.edu.

  15. Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Gustafson

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium, during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes seed sources of the dominant grasses. There were genetic differences between subordinate species growing in the cultivar versus local ecotype communities, indicating that intraspecific genetic variation in the dominant grasses affected the genetic composition of subordinate species during community assembly. A positive association between genetic diversity of S. nutans, C. fasciculata, and S. integrifolium and species diversity established the role of an intraspecific biotic filter during community assembly. Our results show that intraspecific variation in dominant species can significantly modulate the genetic composition of subordinate species.

  16. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C. Benine

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

  17. 75 FR 38069 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...

  18. Spatial Complementarity and the Coexistence of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P.; Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric — ecological pressure — we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each

  19. Neosilba (Tephritoidea: Lonchaeidae) species reared from coffee in Brazil, with description of a new species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do, E-mail: apprado@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2006-07-01

    Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)

  20. Neosilba (Tephritoidea: Lonchaeidae) species reared from coffee in Brazil, with description of a new species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2006-01-01

    Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)

  1. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to...

  2. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Ni; Wang Yu-Tao; Björn Lars Olof; Li Shao-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lo...

  3. Invading species in the Eel River, California: Successes, failures, and relationships with resident species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Moyle, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined invasions of non-native fishes into the Eel River, California. At least 16 species of fish have been introduced into the drainage which originally supported 12-14 fish species. Our study was prompted by the unauthorized introduction in 1979 of Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis, a large predatory cyprinid. From 1986 to 1990, we conducted growth and diet studies of squaw fish, conducted intensive surveys of the distribution and habitat associations of both native and introduced species, and examined the nature of species-habitat and interspecies relationships. We found no evidence for increased growth or expanded feeding habits, compared to native populations, of Sacramento squawfish as they invaded the Eel River drainage. Ten of the introduced species were well established, with four species limited to a reservoir and six species established in streams. The success or failure of introductions of stream species appeared to be a function of the ability of a species to survive the fluctuating, highly seasonal, flow regime. The present mixture of native and exotic species has not formed stable fish assemblages but it seems likely that four habitat-associated assemblages will develop. The overall effect of the successful species introductions has been to assemble a group of species, with some exceptions, that are native to and occur together in many California streams. The assemblages now forming are similar to those found in other California streams. The assemblage characterized by squawfish and suckers is likely to be resistant to invasion, in the absence of human caused habitat modifications.

  4. Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-13

    There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Protectiveness of Species Sensitivity Distribution Hazard Concentrations for Acute Toxicity Used in Endangered Species Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate...

  6. Tree structural and species diversities in Okwangwo Forest, Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree species were grouped into abundance classes. A total of 125 tree species belonging to 36 families and 96 genera were recorded in the area with Margaleffs index of species richness of 2.2754. Most (99) of the tree species encountered were threatened/endangered, 23 species were rare with only 3 tree species ...

  7. Estimating tree species richness from forest inventory plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    Montreal Process Criterion 1, Conservation of Biological Diversity, expresses species diversity in terms of number of forest dependent species. Species richness, defined as the total number of species present, is a common metric for analyzing species diversity. A crucial difficulty in estimating species richness from sample data obtained from sources such as inventory...

  8. Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species' appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species' sympatriots might contribute to it's potential as flagship for wider conservation. Therefore, here we estimate ‘flexibility’ and ‘appeal’ scores for all terrestrial mammals (n = 4320 and identify which of these might serve as ambassadors (defined as both highly appealing and flexible. Relatively few mammals (between 240 and 331 emerged as ambassadors, with carnivores featuring heavily in this group (representing 5% of terrestrial mammals but 39% of ambassadors. ‘Top ambassadors’ were defined as those with both flexibility and appeal scores greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Less than a quarter of the 20 most endangered and evolutionary distinct species in this study were classed as ambassadors, highlighting the need for surrogate species to catalyse conservation effort in areas with such priority species. This is the first global analysis bringing together flexibility and appeal for all terrestrial mammals, and demonstrates an approach for determining how best to market species in order to achieve maximal conservation gain in a world with urgent conservation need but limited resources.

  9. Design and construction of "synthetic species".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreno

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is an area of biological research that combines science and engineering. Here, I merge the principles of synthetic biology and regulatory evolution to create a new species with a minimal set of known elements. Using preexisting transgenes and recessive mutations of Drosophila melanogaster, a transgenic population arises with small eyes and a different venation pattern that fulfils the criteria of a new species according to Mayr's Biological Species Concept. The population described here is the first transgenic organism that cannot hybridize with the original wild type population but remains fertile when crossed with other identical transgenic animals. I therefore propose the term "synthetic species" to distinguish it from "natural species", not only because it has been created by genetic manipulation, but also because it may never be able to survive outside the laboratory environment. The use of genetic engineering to design artificial species barriers could help us understand natural speciation and may have practical applications. For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity.

  10. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins. Among the most important mycotoxins produced by species of Fusarium are the trichothecenes and the fumonisins. Fumonisins cause fatal livestock diseases and are considered potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins for humans, while trichothecenes are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis. This chapter summarizes the main aspects of morphology, pathology, and toxigenicity of the main Fusarium species that colonize different agricultural crops and environments worldwide, and cause mycotoxin contamination of food and feed.

  11. Species coexistence in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Bastias, Cristina C; Godoy, Oscar; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  12. Phylogenetic and Phylogenomic Definition of Rhizopus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P. Gryganskyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R. microsporus as the basal species and the sister lineage to R. stolonifer and two closely related species R. arrhizus and R. delemar. A comparative analysis of the mating type locus across Rhizopus reveals that its structure is flexible even between different species in the same genus, but shows similarities between Rhizopus and other mucoralean fungi. The topology of single-gene phylogenies built for two genes involved in mating is similar to the phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the total length of the genome assemblies showed that genome size varies by as much as threefold within a species and is driven by changes in transposable element copy numbers and genome duplications.

  13. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  14. Pushing the pace of tree species migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli D Lazarus

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.

  15. Cryptic species as a window into the paradigm shift of the species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Cene; Robinson, Christopher T; Malard, Florian

    2018-02-01

    The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science, and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new "species" paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category-which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research. Cryptic species fall within this paradigm shift: they are continuously being reported from diverse animal phyla but are poorly considered in current tests of ecological and evolutionary theory. The aim of this review is to integrate cryptic species in biodiversity science. In the first section, we address that the absence of morphological diversification is an evolutionary phenomenon, a "process" counterpart to the long-studied mechanisms of morphological diversification. In the next section regarding taxonomy, we show that molecular delimitation of cryptic species is heavily biased towards distance-based methods. We also stress the importance of formally naming of cryptic species for better integration into research fields that use species as units of analysis. Finally, we show that incorporating cryptic species leads to novel insights regarding biodiversity patterns and processes, including large-scale biodiversity assessments, geographic variation in species distribution and species coexistence. It is time for incorporating multicriteria species approaches aiming to understand speciation across space and taxa, thus allowing integration into biodiversity conservation while accommodating for species uncertainty. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Review: Allee effects in social species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Elena; Luque, Gloria M; Gregory, Stephen D; Wenzel, John W; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Berec, Ludek; Courchamp, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. The benefits of aggregation of conspecific individuals are central to Allee effects, which have led to the widely held assumption that social species are more prone to Allee effects. Robust evidence for this assumption, however, remains rare. Furthermore, previous research on Allee effects has failed to adequately address the consequences of the different levels of organisation within social species' populations. Here, we review available evidence of Allee effects and model the role of demographic and behavioural factors that may combine to dampen or strengthen Allee effects in social species. We use examples across various species with contrasting social structure, including carnivores, bats, primates and eusocial insects. Building on this, we provide a conceptual framework that allows for the integration of different Allee effects in social species. Social species are characterised by nested levels of organisation. The benefits of cooperation, measured by mean individual fitness, can be observed at both the population and group levels, giving rise to "population level" and "group level" Allee effects respectively. We also speculate on the possibility of a third level, reporting per capita benefits for different individuals within a group (e.g. castes in social insects). We show that group size heterogeneity and intergroup interactions affect the strength of population-level demographic Allee effects. Populations with higher group size heterogeneity and in which individual social groups cooperate demonstrate the weakest Allee effects and may thus provide an explanation for why extinctions due to Allee effects are rare in social species. More adequately accounting for Allee effects in social species will improve our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary implications of cooperation in social species. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British

  17. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  18. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  19. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  20. Cross-species amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR loci in 23 species within the Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bach; Holm, Preben Bach; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Amplification of 105 Lolium perenne SSR markers was studied in 23 grass species representing seven tribes from three subfamilies of Poaceae. Twelve of the SSR markers are published for the first time. Between 2% and 96% of the SSR markers could be amplified within a given species. A subset of eight...... SSR markers was evaluated for polymorphism across nine of the 23 grass species. Four to seven of the markers were polymorphic within each species, with an average detection of 2.4 alleles per species....

  1. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lowest DNA C-value among the perennials, indicating that native species with low nuclear content may also possess an invasive potential.

  2. Metabolite production by species of Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Rossman, Amy; Andersen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    metabolites were found to be important for distinguishing species, while some unknown metabolites were also found to have important roles in distinguishing species of Stemphylium. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium across the whole genus.......Morphology and phylogeny has been used to distinguish members of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Stemphylium. A third method for distinguishing species is by chemotaxonomy. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium via HPLC-UV-MS analysis, while...

  3. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  4. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  5. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  6. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  7. Species Diversity Enhances Predator Growth Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.H.; Jacobs, R.P.; O'Donnell, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Predators can be important top-down regulators of community structure and are known to have both positive and negative effects on species diversity. However, little is known about the reciprocal effects of species diversity on predators. Across a set of 80 lakes in Connecticut, USA, we found a strong positive correlation between prey species diversity (using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index) and growth rates of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). This correlation was strongest for small predators and decreased with body size. Although the underlying mechanisms are not known, the correlation is not driven by total fish abundance, predator abundance, or productivity.

  8. Predictions For New, Exotic Actinide Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyykko, P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach. New, simple chemical species can be predicted by studying isoelectronic series using ab initio quantum chemistry. We currently use in most cases relativistic pseudopotentials and handle the electron correlation using density functional theory (DFT) or wave-function-based methods, from MP2 to CCSD(T). Typical codes are Gaussian 98, Turbomole or MolCas. For full four-component Dirac-Fock calculations, the DREAMS code of K. G. Dyall has been utilized. For mapping out the possible new species, complete maps of all possibilities are made, whenever possible, and the new species typically occur along the coast-line of the 'island of stability' of already known species

  9. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE VOL. 2 NO. 1 & 2 2009: 5 - ... This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. ... south-east Asia, parts of Latin America, the. Caribbean, and ...

  10. Metabolomic analysis of three Mollicute species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Vanyushkina

    Full Text Available We present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class Mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, Spiroplasma melliferum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii. To understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. The results of metabolome, proteome and genome profiling suggest a fundamental difference in the adaptation of the three closely related Mollicute species to stress conditions. As the transaldolase is not annotated in Mollicutes, we propose variants of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzed by annotated enzymes for three species. For metabolite detection we employed high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We used liquid chromatography method - hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica column - as it effectively separates highly polar cellular metabolites prior to their detection by mass spectrometer.

  11. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  12. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  13. CONSERVATION METHODS OF ENDANGERED SPECIES GUNDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Forestry, Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture Yandev, Gboko ... conservation measure, an endangered species finally goes into extinction, that ... either for tourism, scientific studies/ .... economic, educational, scientific, cultural.

  14. New trends in species distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.

  15. Cooperation and the Endangered Species Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973 set the stage for some of the nations most polemic environmental battles. One of these is in the Colorado River Basin which is home to four native and rare fish species. Acrimonious confrontation has characterized the consultations under the ESA regarding these fish species. In 1983, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that no new water depletions such as for hydropower plants, from the Upper Colorado River Basin would be allowed. This created no small stir among basin states and water developers and a negotiated solution was sought. The result was the Recovery Implementation Program for Endangered Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This paper reports that models of political negotiation indicate conceptually, that the Recovery Program with its decisions made by unanimity of consensus, its open process and sharing of information, its shared budget and users fees, is a vehicle of political compromise and cooperation

  16. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  17. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. PARUL BANERJEE and BASHISTH N. SINGH. ∗. Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi ...

  18. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  19. Marine linefish programme priority species list

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wallace, JH

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available in Durban in April 1982. For each species, information is presented on; distribution, angling status, preferred habitat, growth, reproduction, catch statistics and further research work required. The publication is intended to act as a working document...

  20. Germplasm characterization of three jabuticaba tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize cultivated genotypes of three jabuticaba species (Plinia cauliflora, P. trunciflora, and P. jaboticaba. Phenology and fruit growth, as well as leaf, flower and fruit traits were evaluated. Variability in all traits was observed among genotypes of the three jabuticaba species. The trait peduncle size is indicated for differentiation of the three species under study. The leaf and fruit sizes of the genotypes P. trunciflora 3, P. trunciflora 4, P. trunciflora 5 and P. jaboticaba 1 differ from those described in the literature for these species, indicating the formation of ecotypes. Jabuticaba fruit skin contains high anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, with potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  2. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    environments. This may be particularly true in the world's boreal oceans as melting sea ice facilitates new migratory passages between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Moreover, as the ebb and flow of biodiversity intensifies under anthropogenic climate change, novel climates and communities of species......Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  3. Osmoregulation in three species of Ambassidae (Osteichthyes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-25

    Jul 25, 1989 ... the temperature tolerance ranges of the three species (Martin. 1988) suggest that ..... dependent on the period spent in freshwater (Holliday 1971;. Nordlie 1985). .... GILLES, R. 1975. Mechanisms of ion and osmoregulation.

  4. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Estrada, Alba; Font, Xavier; Matias, Miguel G.; Meireles, Catarina; Mendoza, Manuel; Honrado, Joao P.; Prasad, Hari D.; Vicente, Joana R.; Early, Regan

    2018-01-01

    spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. 'community structure') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales

  5. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  6. On two new species of Siriella (Mysidacea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Descriptions of two new mysids, Siriella africana ap. nov. collected from Agulhas Bank and S. intermedia sp. nov. collected from Laccadives are given. The present paper contains observations on two species of mysidacea collected from the Indian...

  7. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endangered Species Litigation and Associated Pesticide Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.

  9. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  10. EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and ... species majorana, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum ... inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities[10] .

  11. Clonal growth and plant species abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-08-01

    Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf-height-seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area - height - seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially underlying clonal growth effects on abundance. Garden

  12. The Endangered Species Act and Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-05

    population segment” under ESA? ! If a species is wide-ranging and begins, on its own, to reappear in an area it once occupied (as with a few wolves in... Yellowstone ), should these animals be regarded as a “resident population” for purposes of ESA? ! Should a formerly widely-distributed species (such as bald... wolves ), and is delisted as soon as possible (as with bald eagles and Florida panthers). Representatives of many scientific or environmental

  13. Invasive Species - A Threat to the Homeland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    species of weeds, diseases and organisms on both my farm and the surrounding woodlands. Some of these species include soybean cyst nematode, soybean aphid ...natural enemies in their new environment. Parasites, pathogens , or predators that would inhibit or limit their spread are few or non-existent. In...tested, and fielded to control the genetically modified organism. Serums would be less effective, and diagnosis of human pathogens could change and

  14. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, P.K.; Varshney, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2±6.8 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2±4.9 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made

  15. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)]. E-mail: padhypk2003@yahoo.com; Varshney, C.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2{+-}6.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2{+-}4.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made.

  16. The ethics of reviving long extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2014-04-01

    There now appears to be a plausible pathway for reviving species that have been extinct for several decades, centuries, or even millennia. I conducted an ethical analysis of de-extinction of long extinct species. I assessed several possible ethical considerations in favor of pursuing de-extinction: that it is a matter of justice; that it would reestablish lost value; that it would create new value; and that society needs it as a conservation last resort. I also assessed several possible ethical arguments against pursuing de-extinction: that it is unnatural; that it could cause animal suffering; that it could be ecologically problematic or detrimental to human health; and that it is hubristic. There are reasons in favor of reviving long extinct species, and it can be ethically acceptable to do so. However, the reasons in favor of pursuing de-extinction do not have to do with its usefulness in species conservation; rather, they concern the status of revived species as scientific and technological achievements, and it would be ethically problematic to promote de-extinction as a significant conservation strategy, because it does not prevent species extinctions, does not address the causes of extinction, and could be detrimental to some species conservation efforts. Moreover, humanity does not have a responsibility or obligation to pursue de-extinction of long extinct species, and reviving them does not address any urgent problem. Therefore, legitimate ecological, political, animal welfare, legal, or human health concerns associated with a de-extinction (and reintroduction) must be thoroughly addressed for it to be ethically acceptable. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Relation of chironomids with Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan eLaviad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae, also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, pupa, and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6% and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a six-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship.

  18. Phylogeny and species traits predict bird detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymos, Peter; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Stralberg, Diana; Barker, Nicole K. S.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2018-01-01

    Avian acoustic communication has resulted from evolutionary pressures and ecological constraints. We therefore expect that auditory detectability in birds might be predictable by species traits and phylogenetic relatedness. We evaluated the relationship between phylogeny, species traits, and field‐based estimates of the two processes that determine species detectability (singing rate and detection distance) for 141 bird species breeding in boreal North America. We used phylogenetic mixed models and cross‐validation to compare the relative merits of using trait data only, phylogeny only, or the combination of both to predict detectability. We found a strong phylogenetic signal in both singing rates and detection distances; however the strength of phylogenetic effects was less than expected under Brownian motion evolution. The evolution of behavioural traits that determine singing rates was found to be more labile, leaving more room for species to evolve independently, whereas detection distance was mostly determined by anatomy (i.e. body size) and thus the laws of physics. Our findings can help in disentangling how complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped different aspects of detectability in boreal birds. Such information can greatly inform single‐ and multi‐species models but more work is required to better understand how to best correct possible biases in phylogenetic diversity and other community metrics.

  19. The temporal variability of species densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfearn, A.; Pimm, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ecologists use the term 'stability' to mean to number of different things (Pimm 1984a). One use is to equate stability with low variability in population density over time (henceforth, temporal variability). Temporal variability varies greatly from species to species, so what effects it? There are at least three sets of factors: the variability of extrinsic abiotic factors, food web structure, and the intrinsic features of the species themselves. We can measure temporal variability using at least three statistics: the coefficient of variation of density (CV); the standard deviation of the logarithms of density (SDL); and the variance in the differences between logarithms of density for pairs of consecutive years (called annual variability, hence AV, b y Wolda 1978). There are advantages and disadvantages to each measure (Williamson 1984), though in our experience, the measures are strongly correlated across sets of taxonomically related species. The increasing availability of long-term data sets allows one to calculate these statistics for many species and so to begin to understand the various causes of species differences in temporal variability

  20. Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Montoya-Lerma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species.

  1. Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, F. I.; Zeb, M.; Farooqi, B. J.; Murtaza, G.; Hussain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. Results: A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. Conclusion: The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure. (author)

  2. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W J; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested.

  3. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  4. Rare species are valued big time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been postulated that the value humans place on rarity could cause the extinction of rare species. This is because people are willing to pay the high costs of exploiting the last individuals. Many hobbies, such as ecotourism or the keeping of exotic pets may cause this effect--known as the anthropogenic Allee effect. However, the entire theory relies on the insofar undemonstrated assumption that people do value rarity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to quantify how much people valued rare species relative to common ones, we created online slideshows of photographs of either rare or common species on an Internet web site. The slideshow with photographs of rare species attracted more visitors, and visitors spent, in general, more time waiting to view it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide evidence that people value rare more than common species. As we did not target consumers of a specific market, this finding suggests that the anthropogenic Allee effect is likely be driven by a large part of the population. Given the substantial participation in our online experiment, we highlight the potential of the world wide web resource as a tool for conservation action. However, the evidence presented here that the general public value rare species, combined with the assumption that anthropogenic Allee effect is operating, implies that conservationists should be prudent when using rarity to promote conservation.

  5. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Reptilian reovirus: a new fusogenic orthoreovirus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Roy.; Corcoran, Jennifer; Shou Jingyun; Stoltz, Don

    2004-01-01

    The fusogenic subgroup of orthoreoviruses contains most of the few known examples of non-enveloped viruses capable of inducing syncytium formation. The only unclassified orthoreoviruses at the species level represent several fusogenic reptilian isolates. To clarify the relationship of reptilian reoviruses (RRV) to the existing fusogenic and nonfusogenic orthoreovirus species, we undertook a characterization of a python reovirus isolate. Biochemical, biophysical, and biological analyses confirmed the designation of this reptilian reovirus (RRV) isolate as an unclassified fusogenic orthoreovirus. Sequence analysis revealed that the RRV S1 and S3 genome segments contain a novel conserved 5'-terminal sequence not found in other orthoreovirus species. In addition, the gene arrangement and the coding potential of the bicistronic RRV S1 genome segment differ from that of established orthoreovirus species, encoding a predicted homologue of the reovirus cell attachment protein and a unique 125 residue p14 protein. The RRV S3 genome segment encodes a homologue of the reovirus sigma-class major outer capsid protein, although it is highly diverged from that of other orthoreovirus species (amino acid identities of only 16-25%). Based on sequence analysis, biological properties, and phylogenetic analysis, we propose this python reovirus be designated as the prototype strain of a fifth species of orthoreoviruses, the reptilian reoviruses

  7. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  8. Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie

    2008-10-01

    Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.

  9. The status of Botryosphaeriaceae species infecting grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón URBEZ-TORRES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, and occur on a wide range of annual and perennial hosts including grapevines. To date, morphological and taxonomic studies, as well as analyses of nucleotide sequences of multiple genes, have allowed the identification of at least 21 different species in the Botryosphaeriaceae occurring in grapevines worldwide. Grapevine disease symptoms caused by members of this family include leaf spots, fruit rots, shoot dieback, bud necrosis, vascular discoloration of the wood, and perennial cankers, and their current status as pathogens is reviewed. Additionally, the disease name Botryosphaeria dieback is proposed here to describe the different grapevine trunk disease symptoms caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. Much has been written during the last decade about the association between species in the Botryosphaeriaceae and grapevine trunk diseases, which has contributed to a better understanding of the role that these fungal taxa play in grapevine diseases. Although virulence has been shown to vary between species and isolates of the same species in different countries, these fungi have become well-recognized as important grapevine pathogens worldwide. Latest and novel findings from studies conducted in different countries, on disease etiology and species distribution, epidemiology and biology are discussed. Much progress has been achieved in the development and implementation of novel diagnostic and detection techniques.Vineyard sanitation techniques, as well as chemical, biological, and cultural control strategies available at the present time to reduce the infection caused by botryosphaeriaceous fungi, are presented in this review. 

  10. New species of Auritella (Inocybaceae) from Cameroon, with a worldwide key to the known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, P Brandon; Henkel, Terry W; Séné, Olivier; Korotkin, Hailee B; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Two new species in the genus Auritella ( Inocybaceae ) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella . This work raises the known number of described species of Auritella to thirteen worldwide, four of which occur in tropical Africa, one in tropical India, and eight in temperate and tropical regions of Australia. This is the first study to confirm an ectomycorrhizal status of Auritella using molecular data.

  11. Molluscan indicator species and their potential use in ecological status assessment using species distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Manos L; Tsikopoulou, Irini; Geropoulos, Antonios; Dimitriou, Panagiotis D; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Giannoulaki, Marianna; Valavanis, Vasilis D; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2018-05-24

    Marine habitat assessment using indicator species through Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) was investigated. The bivalves: Corbula gibba and Flexopecten hyalinus were the indicator species characterizing disturbed and undisturbed areas respectively in terms of chlorophyll a concentration in Greece. The habitat suitability maps of these species reflected the overall ecological status of the area. The C. gibba model successfully predicted the occurrence of this species in areas with increased physical disturbance driven by chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the habitat map for F. hyalinus showed an increased probability of occurrence in chlorophyll-poor areas, affected mainly by salinity. We advocate the use of C. gibba as a proxy for eutrophication and the incorporation of this species in monitoring studies through SDM methods. For the Mediterranean Sea we suggest the use of F. hyalinus in SDM as an indicator of environmental stability and a possible forecasting tool for salinity fluctuations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive Impacts of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Wildlife Species: Implications for Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Christopher W; McDonough, Caitlin E

    2018-02-15

    Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study. Here, we highlight those barriers and review the available literature concerning EDC effects on endangered species. Drawing from other investigations into nonthreatened wildlife species, we highlight opportunities for new approaches to advance our understanding and potentially mitigate the effects of EDCs on endangered species to enhance their fertility.

  13. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  14. Proactive Conservation Program: Species of Concern :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invertebrates & Plants Species of Concern Threatened & Endangered Health & Stranding Marine Mammals : Species of Concern Species of Concern List | Grants and Technical Resources/Links bluefin tuna Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Photo: NOAA Species of Concern are those species about which we have some

  15. Effects of habitat structure and altitudinal gradients on avian species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on bird species diversity. Bird species diversity increased with increase in tree height. A significant decline in bird species diversity with increased number of trees and canopy cover was noted. This result probably suggests an accumulation of forest edge species and generalist species in the less forested habitat.

  16. Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Cord, Anna F; Kessler, Michael; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Pompe, Sven; Sandel, Brody; Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Smith, Adam B; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Tuomisto, Hanna; Weigelt, Patrick; Wesche, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide a mechanistic and probabilistic framework for defining the species pool based on species-specific probabilities of dispersal, environmental suitability and biotic interactions within a specific temporal extent, and to show how probabilistic species pools can help disentangle the geographical structure of different community assembly processes. Innovation Probabilistic species pools provide an improved species pool definition based on probabilities in conjuncti...

  17. Two new species of the Phanaeus endymion species group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Victor; Sánchez-Huerta, José Luis; Halffter, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Phanaeus bravoensis sp. n. is described from the coniferous-oak forests in the state of Guerrero, and P. huichol sp. n. from coniferous-oak forests and cloud forests in Jalisco and Nayarit. The new species are closely related to P. halffterorum and P. zoque respectively. Morphological trait combination, geographic distribution, and trophic habits show important differences among the studied species. A distribution map and an updated key to separate the species are included.

  18. Discordance between morphological and molecular species boundaries among Caribbean species of the reef sponge Callyspongia

    OpenAIRE

    DeBiasse, Melissa B; Hellberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are among the most species-rich and ecologically important taxa on coral reefs, yet documenting their diversity is difficult due to the simplicity and plasticity of their morphological characters. Genetic attempts to identify species are hampered by the slow rate of mitochondrial sequence evolution characteristic of sponges and some other basal metazoans. Here we determine species boundaries of the Caribbean coral reef sponge genus Callyspongia using a multilocus, model-based approach...

  19. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district.

  20. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  1. Two-species occupancy modeling accounting for species misidentification and nondetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James; Mulder, Kevin P.; Brand, Adrianne B,

    2018-01-01

    1. In occupancy studies, species misidentification can lead to false positive detections, which can cause severe estimator biases. Currently, all models that account for false positive errors only consider omnibus sources of false detections and are limited to single species occupancy. 2. However, false detections for a given species often occur because of the misidentification with another, closely-related species. To exploit this explicit source of false positive detection error, we develop a two-species occupancy model that accounts for misidentifications between two species of interest. As with other false positive models, identifiability is greatly improved by the availability of unambiguous detections at a subset of site-occasions. Here, we consider the case where some of the field observations can be confirmed using laboratory or other independent identification methods (“confirmatory data”). 3. We performed three simulation studies to (1) assess the model’s performance under various realistic scenarios, (2) investigate the influence of the proportion of confirmatory data on estimator accuracy, and (3) compare the performance of this two-species model with that of the single-species false positive model. The model shows good performance under all scenarios, even when only small proportions of detections are confirmed (e.g., 5%). It also clearly outperforms the single-species model.

  2. Bias correction in species distribution models: pooling survey and collection data for multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithian, William; Elith, Jane; Hastie, Trevor; Keith, David A

    2015-04-01

    Presence-only records may provide data on the distributions of rare species, but commonly suffer from large, unknown biases due to their typically haphazard collection schemes. Presence-absence or count data collected in systematic, planned surveys are more reliable but typically less abundant.We proposed a probabilistic model to allow for joint analysis of presence-only and survey data to exploit their complementary strengths. Our method pools presence-only and presence-absence data for many species and maximizes a joint likelihood, simultaneously estimating and adjusting for the sampling bias affecting the presence-only data. By assuming that the sampling bias is the same for all species, we can borrow strength across species to efficiently estimate the bias and improve our inference from presence-only data.We evaluate our model's performance on data for 36 eucalypt species in south-eastern Australia. We find that presence-only records exhibit a strong sampling bias towards the coast and towards Sydney, the largest city. Our data-pooling technique substantially improves the out-of-sample predictive performance of our model when the amount of available presence-absence data for a given species is scarceIf we have only presence-only data and no presence-absence data for a given species, but both types of data for several other species that suffer from the same spatial sampling bias, then our method can obtain an unbiased estimate of the first species' geographic range.

  3. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures.

  4. Socially-parasitic Myrmica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Himalaya, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Himender; Radchenko, Alexander; Sasi, Sishal

    2016-01-01

    A new socially-parasitic species, Myrmica latra sp. n. is described based on a queen and male from Indian Himalaya. Its queen differs from other species by the distinctly narrower petiole and postpetiole, blunt and non-divergent propodeal spines, and a darker body colour. The taxonomic position of the three known Himalayan socially-parasitic Myrmica species is discussed, and Myrmica ereptrix Bolton 1988 is transferred to the smythiesii species-group. It is supposed that Myrmica nefaria Bharti 2012 is a temporary social parasite, but Myrmica ereptrix and Myrmica latra sp. n. are permanent social parasites, and a key for their identification is provided.

  5. Onychiurid species from Wanda Mountains in China, with descriptions of two new species (Collembola, Onychiuridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of onychiurid species from the Wanda Mountains in China is presented. Eighteen species belonging to twelve genera have been found, including two new species. Bionychiurus qinglongensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from other known species of the genus by the absence of pseudocelli on Th. I tergum and fewer number of vesicles in postantennal organ. Onychiurus heilongjiangensis sp. n. is diagnosed by pseudocellar formulae as 32/133/33352 dorsally and 3/011/31120 ventrally, parapseudocellar formula as 0/000/111001+1m, ratio of anal spine/unguis as 0.6, unguiculus without inner basal lamella, and male ventral organ absent. PMID:25147452

  6. Reconciliation of Gene and Species Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree.

  7. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  8. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  9. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  10. Bracken: estimating species abundance in metagenomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic experiments attempt to characterize microbial communities using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Identification of the microorganisms in a sample provides information about the genetic profile, population structure, and role of microorganisms within an environment. Until recently, most metagenomics studies focused on high-level characterization at the level of phyla, or alternatively sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene that is present in bacterial species. As the cost of sequencing has fallen, though, metagenomics experiments have increasingly used unbiased shotgun sequencing to capture all the organisms in a sample. This approach requires a method for estimating abundance directly from the raw read data. Here we describe a fast, accurate new method that computes the abundance at the species level using the reads collected in a metagenomics experiment. Bracken (Bayesian Reestimation of Abundance after Classification with KrakEN uses the taxonomic assignments made by Kraken, a very fast read-level classifier, along with information about the genomes themselves to estimate abundance at the species level, the genus level, or above. We demonstrate that Bracken can produce accurate species- and genus-level abundance estimates even when a sample contains multiple near-identical species.

  11. Atomic collisions research with excited atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogerland, M.D.; Gulley, R.J.; Colla, M.; Lu, W.; Milic, D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of fundamental atomic collision and spectroscopic properties such as collision cross sections, reaction rates, transition probabilities etc. underpin the understanding and operation of many plasma and gas-discharge-based devices and phenomena, for example plasma processing and deposition. In almost all cases the complex series of reactions which sustains the discharge or plasma, or produces the reactive species of interest, has a precursor electron impact excitation, attachment, dissociation or ionisation event. These processes have been extensively studied in a wide range of atomic and molecular species and an impressive data base of collision cross sections and reaction rates now exists. However, most of these measurements are for collisions with stable atomic or molecular species which are initially in their ground electronic state. Relatively little information is available for scattering from excited states or for scattering from unstable molecular radicals. Examples of such species would be metastable excited rare gases, which are often used as buffer gases, or CF 2 radicals formed by electron impact dissociation in a CF 4 plasma processing discharge. We are interested in developing experimental techniques which will enable the quantitative study of such exotic atomic and molecular species. In this talk I would like to outline one such facility which is being used for studies of collisions with metastable He(2 3 S) atoms

  12. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  13. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...... seven climate variables. Generalized additive models are used to relate species richness, climate and area. Results We found that variation in the grid cell area was large (50 × 50 km: 8-3311 km2; 220 × 220: 193-55,100 km2), but this did not affect the selection of variables in the models. Similarly...... support the assumption that variation in near-equal area cells may be of second-order importance for models explaining or predicting species richness in relation to climate, although there is a possibility that drops in accuracy might increase with grid cell size. The results are, however, contingent...

  14. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  15. 77 FR 30261 - Petition To List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... List 83 Species of Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) AGENCY... Diversity (CBD) to list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... the U.S. Endangered Species Act (Status Review Report) and the draft Management Report for 82 Corals...

  16. Current understanding of multi-species biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    every year worldwide to deal with damage to equipment, contaminations of products, energy losses, and infections in human beings resulted from microbial biofilms. Microorganisms compete, cooperate, and communicate with each other in multi-species biofilms. Understanding the mechanisms of multi......Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial strain. However, most natural biofilms are actually......-species biofilm formation will facilitate the development of methods for combating bacterial biofilms in clinical, environmental, industrial, and agricultural areas. The most recent advances in the understanding of multi-species biofilms are summarized and discussed in the review....

  17. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Michela; Foden, Wendy B.; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E. M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Scheffers, Brett R.; Hole, David G.; Martin, Tara G.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Corlett, Richard T.; Huntley, Brian; Bickford, David; Carr, Jamie A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Midgley, Guy F.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Pearson, Richard G.; Williams, Stephen E.; Willis, Stephen G.; Young, Bruce; Rondinini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.

  18. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Płytycz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

  19. The prairie dog as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Miller, Brian J.; Reading, Richard P.; Clark, Timothy W.; Hoogland, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The prairie dog has a pronounced impact on its grassland ecosystem (King 1955; Uresk and Bjugstad 1983; Miller et al. 1994; Society for Conservation Biology 1994; Wuerthner 1997; Johnsgard 2005). They maintain short vegetation by their grazing and by selective removal of tall plants and shrubs; provide shelter, foraging grounds, and nesting habitat for a diverse array of animals; serve as prey for many predators; and alter soil chemistry.Do these impacts mean that the prairie dog is a keystone species? To investigate, we first scrutinize the definition for a keystone species. We then document both vertebrates and invertebrates that associate with prairie dogs and their colony-sites. We examine ecosystem processes at colony-sites, and then assess whether the prairie dog is a legitimate keystone species. Finally, we explore the implications of keystone status for the conservation of prairie dogs.

  20. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  1. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    are related to P. citrinum, P. gorlenkoanum is revived, Penicillium hetheringtonii sp. nov. and Penicillium tropicoides sp. nov. are described here as new species, and the combination Penicillium tropicum is proposed. Penicillium hetheringtonii is closely related to P. citrinum and differs in having slightly......Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii...... broader stipes, metulae in verticils of four or more and the production of an uncharacterized metabolite, tentatively named PR1-x. Penicillium tropicoides resembles P. tropicum, but differs in the slow maturation of the cleistothecia, slower growth at 30A degrees C and the production of isochromantoxins...

  2. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  3. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  4. Computational botany methods for automated species identification

    CERN Document Server

    Remagnino, Paolo; Wilkin, Paul; Cope, James; Kirkup, Don

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses innovative methods for mining information from images of plants, especially leaves, and highlights the diagnostic features that can be implemented in fully automatic systems for identifying plant species. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, it explores the problem of plant species identification, covering both the concepts of taxonomy and morphology. It then provides an overview of morphometrics, including the historical background and the main steps in the morphometric analysis of leaves together with a number of applications. The core of the book focuses on novel diagnostic methods for plant species identification developed from a computer scientist’s perspective. It then concludes with a chapter on the characterization of botanists' visions, which highlights important cognitive aspects that can be implemented in a computer system to more accurately replicate the human expert’s fixation process. The book not only represents an authoritative guide to advanced computational tools fo...

  5. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  6. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Spivak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1 chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2 gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3 gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1 combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2 combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species.

  7. Nocardiopsis species: Incidence, ecological roles and adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, Tahsin; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita; Javdekar, Vaishali

    2015-05-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important. They produce a variety of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobial agents, anticancer substances, tumor inducers, toxins and immunomodulators. They also secrete novel extracellular enzymes such as amylases, chitinases, cellulases, β-glucanases, inulinases, xylanases and proteases. Nocardiopsis species are aerobic, Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, catalase-positive actinomycetes with nocardioform substrate mycelia and their aerial mycelia bear long chains of spores. Their DNA possesses high contents of guanine and cytosine. There is a marked variation in properties of the isolates obtained from different ecological niches and their products. An important feature of several species is their halophilic or halotolerant nature. They are associated with a variety of marine and terrestrial biological forms wherein they produce antibiotics and toxins that help their hosts in evading pathogens and predators. Two Nocardiopsis species, namely, N. dassonvillei and N. synnemataformans (among the thirty nine reported ones) are opportunistic human pathogens and cause mycetoma, suppurative infections and abscesses. Nocardiopsis species are present in some plants (as endophytes or surface microflora) and their rhizospheres. Here, they are reported to produce enzymes such as α-amylases and antifungal agents that are effective in warding-off plant pathogens. They are prevalent as free-living entities in terrestrial locales, indoor locations, marine ecosystems and hypersaline habitats on account of their salt-, alkali- and desiccation-resistant behavior. In such natural locations, Nocardiopsis species mainly help in recycling organic compounds. Survival under these diverse conditions is mediated by the production of extracellular enzymes, antibiotics, surfactants, and the accumulation of compatible solutes. The accommodative genomic features of Nocardiopsis species support their existence

  8. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sophila bipectinata species complex, comprising four closely related species namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata,. D. malerkotliana and D. ... vials with four males (two each from the respective parental species, to increase the probability ...

  9. Cryptic Sebastes norvegicus species in Greenland waters revealed by microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saha, Atal; Hauser, Lorenz; Hedeholm, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Identification of cryptic species can have profound implications in fishery management, conservation and biodiversity contexts. In the North Atlantic, the genus Sebastes is currently represented by four species, although additional cryptic species have been assumed. The connectivity of the gene...

  10. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  11. Variation in biofouling on different species of Indian timbers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    Biofouling on twenty species of wood exposed in waters of Mormugao Harbour, Goa, India have been presented. Macrofouling biomass varied from species to species. Maximum biomass was recorded on Artocarpus chaplasha (4 kg/m2) and minimum on Hopea...

  12. Hypoxylon species on beech and other broadleaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Hypoxylon cause wood decay and most of them are saprophytes on dead wood or parasites of weakness. The following species in this genus were identified in this study performed at several localities in Serbia and Montenegro: H. deustum, H. fragiforme, H. nummularium, H. multiforme, H. rubiginosum and H. fuscum. Among them the most significant species is H. deustum, the fungus causing root and butt rot of standing beech trees. It was recorded from all coppice and high forests of beech. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the recorded fungi their range, plant hosts and significance.

  13. Functional biology of sympatric krill species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2016-01-01

    Here we compare the functional biology of the sympatric krill species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa inermis. For M. norvegica, we investigated functional responses on diatoms and copepods, together with prey size spectra on plankton ,400 mm and copepods in the size range 500–3220 mm....... For T. inermis, only prey size spectrum on plankton ,400 mm were investigated. The prey size ranges of both species include organisms ,400 mm, and they consequently graze on several trophic levels. However, T. inermis feed on cells ,10 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), whereas M. norvegica only...

  14. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  15. A new dimension in documenting new species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Metscher, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    We review the state-of-the-art approaches currently applied in myriapod taxonomy, and we describe, for the first time, a new species of millipede (Ommatoiulus avatar n. sp., family Julidae) using high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) as a substantive adjunct to traditional morphological...... examination. We present 3D models of the holotype and paratype specimens and discuss the potential of this non-destructive technique in documenting new species of millipedes and other organisms. The microCT data have been uploaded to an open repository (Dryad) to serve as the first actual millipede cybertypes...

  16. A new alamellate Hygrocybe species from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David

    2008-01-01

    The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data.......The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data....

  17. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  18. Big data of tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Enquist, Brian J.; Maitner, Brian

    2018-01-01

    are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. Methods: We combined data from five major...... and data aggregation, especially from national forest inventory programs, to improve the current publicly available data.......Background: Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data...

  19. 77 FR 15701 - Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Species Fishery Management Plan; Amendment 4 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: This fishery management plan (FMP) amendment addresses Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS... to create an HMS Caribbean Small Boat Commercial Permit (CSBP) allowing fishing for and sales of...

  20. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  1. Species composition of a soil invertebrate multi-species test system determines the level of ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sechi, Valentina; D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    A soil multi-species, SMS, experimental test system consisting of the natural microbial community, five collembolan species and a predatory mite along with either Enchytraeus crypticus or the earthworm Eisenia fetida were exposed to α-cypermethrin. A comparison of the performance of these two typ...

  2. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  3. Usefulness of the wildlife species as a focal species in the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yasinucarlı

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... keystone species are the most important species in that ecosystems to sustainability. ... bear, Wolf and Eurasian Lynx can be also used as a flagship, indicator and ... Washington's Pacific coast. ... sidered keystones because their effect is not dispro- ..... conservation of South American terrestrial mammals.

  4. A new Amazonian species from the Drosophila annulimana species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Gottschalk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila caxiuana sp. nov., Drosophila subgenus, is described and illustrated. This new species was collected in the Amazonian Biome (Caquajó river, Portel, Pará, Brazil and is an atypical species to the group due the unusual morphology of the male terminalia.

  5. A Framework for Spatial Risk Assessments: Potential Impacts of Nonindigenous Invasive Species on Native Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts.

  6. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Councils, the 18 states in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, both the U.S. Virgin Islands and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  7. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and each of the constituent interstate commissions: the Atlantic States... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  8. 77 FR 59842 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels permitted in the Atlantic tunas General category in Puerto Rico and 10 in the U.S. Virgin Islands... [Docket No. 080603729-2454-02] RIN 0648-AW83 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly... management plan (FMP) amendment addresses Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) fishery management measures...

  9. 77 FR 19164 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... RIN 0648-XB121 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery..., United States Virgin Islands (USVI) St. Thomas, USVI, San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), Ponce, PR, and Mayaguez... INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Fairclough or Randy Blankinship at 727-824-5399. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Atlantic...

  10. Multilocus phylogeny and coalescent species delimitation in Kotschy's gecko, Mediodactylus kotschyi: Hidden diversity and cryptic species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotsakiozi, P.; Jablonski, D.; Ilgaz, Ç.; Kumlutaş, Y.; Avci, A.; Meiri, S.; Itescu, Y.; Kukushkin, O.; Gvoždík, Václav; Scillitani, G.; Roussos, S. A.; Jandzik, D.; Kasapidis, P.; Lymberakis, P.; Poulakakis, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 125, August (2018), s. 177-187 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gekkonidae * Divergence times * Species delimitation * Species complex * Systematics * Eastern Mediterranean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  11. Setting maximum sustainable yield targets when yield of one species affects that of other species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Reid, David; Mackinson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    species. But how should we prioritize and identify most appropriate targets? Do we prefer to maximize by focusing on total yield in biomass across species, or are other measures targeting maximization of profits or preserving high living qualities more relevant? And how do we ensure that targets remain...

  12. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  13. Species composition and abundance of Brevipalpus spp. on different citrus species in Mexican orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Vargas, D; Santillán-Galicia, M T; Valdez-Carrasco, J; Mora-Aguilera, G; Atanacio-Serrano, Y; Romero-Pescador, P

    2013-08-01

    We studied the abundance of Brevipalpus spp. in citrus orchards in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Quintana Roo and Campeche. Mites were collected from 100 trees containing a mixture of citrus species where sweet orange was always the main species. Eight collections were made at each location from February 2010 to February 2011. Mites from the genus Brevipalpus were separated from other mites surveyed and their abundance and relationships with the different citrus species were quantified throughout the collection period. A subsample of 25% of the total Brevipalpus mites collected were identified to species level and the interaction of mite species and citrus species were described. Brevipalpus spp. were present on all collection dates and their relative abundance was similar on all citrus species studies. The smallest number of mites collected was during the rainy season. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) and Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) were the only two species present and they were found in all locations except Campeche, where only B. phoenicis was present. Yucatan and Campeche are at greater risk of leprosis virus transmission than Quintana Roo because the main vector, B. phoenicis, was more abundant than B. californicus. The implications of our results for the design of more accurate sampling and control methods for Brevipalpus spp. are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of a multiple-species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia N. Manley; William J. Zielinski; Matthew D. Schlesinger; Sylvia R. Mori

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring is required of land managers and conservation practitioners to assess the success of management actions. "Shortcuts" are sought to reduce monitoring costs, most often consisting of the selection of a small number of species that are closely monitored to represent the status of many associated species and environmental correlates. Assumptions...

  15. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  16. New Species of Calamus (Palmae from Lao and Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Henderson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns southern Asian species of Calamus from Beccari’s Groups V and VI. Calamus floribundus var. depauperatus is recognized as a distinct species, C. meghalayensis; C. kingianus is recognized as a distinct species from northeastern India and the Lao population of C. kingianus is recognized as a separate species, C. evansii; recently collected specimens from northern Myanmar are recognized as two distinct species, C. hukaungensis and C. spicatus; C. hypoleucus is recognized as a distinct species from Myanmar and the Lao population of C. hypoleucus is recognized as a distinct species, C minor. Nomenclature, descriptions, illustrations, specimens examined, and distribution maps are given for the new species.

  17. Valuing local endangered species. The role of intra-species substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Maria L. [Department of Economic Analysis, Universidade de Santiago (Spain); IDEGA, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, Avda das Ciencias, S/N. 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ojea, Elena [IDEGA, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, Avda das Ciencias, S/N. 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2008-12-01

    Valuation of endangered species is important in many circumstances, and particularly when assessing the impact of large accidental oil spills. Previous studies have tested the effects of including in the contingent valuation survey reminders about the existence of diverse substitutes (in terms of other natural resources also in danger of extinction in the same area, other programs to be valued, or alternative uses of money). We include a reminder about the existence of the same biological species not being under danger of extinction elsewhere. We believe this reminder allows individuals to make an easy assessment of the biological scarcity of the species they are supposed to value. Thus, the key difference with previous studies is that valuation of endangered species is combined with an assessment of preferences towards conservation of local and native species. Our WTP results are not sensitive to the information provided about other foreign substitutes. Implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  18. Valuing local endangered species. The role of intra-species substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Maria L.; Ojea, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Valuation of endangered species is important in many circumstances, and particularly when assessing the impact of large accidental oil spills. Previous studies have tested the effects of including in the contingent valuation survey reminders about the existence of diverse substitutes (in terms of other natural resources also in danger of extinction in the same area, other programs to be valued, or alternative uses of money). We include a reminder about the existence of the same biological species not being under danger of extinction elsewhere. We believe this reminder allows individuals to make an easy assessment of the biological scarcity of the species they are supposed to value. Thus, the key difference with previous studies is that valuation of endangered species is combined with an assessment of preferences towards conservation of local and native species. Our WTP results are not sensitive to the information provided about other foreign substitutes. Implications of this finding are discussed. (author)

  19. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  20. SESAM – a new framework integrating macroecological and species distribution models for predicting spatio-temporal patterns of species assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisan, Antoine; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Two different approaches currently prevail for predicting spatial patterns of species assemblages. The first approach (macroecological modelling, MEM) focuses directly on realized properties of species assemblages, whereas the second approach (stacked species distribution modelling, S-SDM) starts...

  1. Cryptic Species Due to Hybridization: A Combined Approach to Describe a New Species (Carex: Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Disappearance of diagnostic morphological characters due to hybridization is considered to be one of the causes of the complex taxonomy of the species-rich (ca. 2000 described species) genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Carex furva s.l. belongs to section Glareosae. It is an endemic species from the high mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Previous studies suggested the existence of two different, cryptic taxa within C. furva s.l. Intermediate morphologies found in the southern Iberian Peninsula precluded the description of a new taxa. We aimed to determine whether C. furva s.l. should be split into two different species based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. We sampled ten populations across its full range and performed a morphological study based on measurements on herbarium specimens and silica-dried inflorescences. Both morphological and phylogenetic data support the existence of two different species within C. furva s.l. Nevertheless, intermediate morphologies and sterile specimens were found in one of the southern populations (Sierra Nevada) of C. furva s.l., suggesting the presence of hybrid populations in areas where both supposed species coexist. Hybridization between these two putative species has blurred morphological and genetic limits among them in this hybrid zone. We have proved the utility of combining molecular and morphological data to discover a new cryptic species in a scenario of hybridization. We now recognize a new species, C. lucennoiberica, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra Nevada, Central system and Cantabrian Mountains). On the other hand, C. furva s.s. is distributed only in Sierra Nevada, where it may be threatened by hybridization with C. lucennoiberica. The restricted distribution of both species and their specific habitat requirements are the main limiting factors for their conservation.

  2. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  3. Are Humans the Most Intelligent Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Erickson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hunt and Jaeggi [1] nicely summarize the point that within the academic field of intelligence, we do not have a commonly understandable definition of what intelligence is. Still the term is used extensively and with consensus to the effect that humans are the most intelligent species. An example is given of this problem, and a definition and solution are suggested.

  4. Molecular species identification and population genetics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular genetic techniques, such as DNA barcoding and genotyping, are increasingly being used to assist with the conservation and management of chondrichthyans worldwide. Southern Africa is a shark biodiversity hotspot, with a large number of endemic species. According to the IUCN Red List, a quarter of South ...

  5. Evaluation of two okra species [Abelmoschusesculentus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DizMat_Ogwu

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of two okra species ..... Amakiri JO, Onofeghara FA (1984). Effect of crude oil pollution on the growth of Zea mays, Abelmoschusesculentusand capsicum frutescans. Oil Pet. Pollut. 1:199-206. Ariyo OJ (1993). Genetic diversity in west ...

  6. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...

  7. A new Species of Spadella (Benthic Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvariño, Angeles

    1970-01-01

    According to the literature, the genus Spadella Langerhans includes several species, Sp. cephaloptera (Busch) 1851, Sp. schizoptera Conant 1895, Sp. moretonensis Johnston & Taylor 1919, Sp. sheardi Mawson 1944, Sp. johnstoni Mawson 1944, Sp. angulata Tokioka 1951, Sp. nana Owre 1963, Sp. pulchella

  8. Is Echinococcus intermedius a valid species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medical and veterinary sciences require scientific names to discriminate pathogenic organisms in our living environment. Various species concepts have been proposed for metazoan animals. There are, however, constant controversies over their validity because of lack of a common criterion to define ...

  9. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  10. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  11. Spatial patterns of species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.

    2001-01-01

    The most striking feature of Earth is the existence of life and the most striking feature of life is its diversity. Explaining patterns of species diversity is one of the most complex problems in ecology. This is because diversity is usually the outcome of many contributing factors whose relative

  12. Mannheimia Species Associated with Ovine Mastitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.

  13. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by honey bee, Apis mellifera from the nectar of plants. Honey is a natural product that has been used from ancient times till now as food and for medicinal purpose. This study was carried out to determine the mode of action of Bacillus species and antibiotics residues in branded and ...

  14. Environmental Politics and the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the controversial issue of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) discussing the Act and the scope of the extinction problem. Reviews the arguments for and against the ESA, addresses the tactics that have been used in the political struggle over the ESA, and highlights the future of the ESA. Includes teaching activities. (CMK)

  15. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  16. Biodiversity and the exotic species threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. White

    1998-01-01

    Exotic species invasions, called by one conservation biologist the "least reversible" of all human impacts, cause harm to economies (e.g., fisheries, wildlife populations, tourism), the environment (e.g., in the form of broadcast of pesticides and herbicides), human health and wellbeing (e.g., allergic responses and the increase in fire severity in some...

  17. Unparalleled rates of species diversification in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Luis M.; Savolainen, Vincent; Vargas, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The most rapid species radiations have been reported from ‘evolutionary laboratories’, such as the Andes and the Cape of South Africa, leading to the prevailing view that diversification elsewhere has not been as dramatic. However, few studies have explicitly assessed rates of diversification in northern regions such as Europe. Here, we show that carnations (Dianthus, Caryophyllaceae), a well-known group of plants from temperate Eurasia, have diversified at the most rapid rate ever reported in plants or terrestrial vertebrates. Using phylogenetic methods, we found that the majority of species of carnations belong to a lineage that is remarkably species-rich in Europe, and arose at the rate of 2.2–7.6 species per million years. Unlike most previous studies that have inferred rates of diversification in young diverse groups, we use a conservative approach throughout that explicitly incorporates the uncertainties associated with phylogenetic inference, molecular dating and incomplete taxon sampling. We detected a shift in diversification rates of carnations coinciding with a period of increase in climatic aridity in the Pleistocene, suggesting a link between climate and biodiversity. This explosive radiation suggests that Europe, the continent with the world's best-studied flora, has been underestimated as a cradle of recent and rapid speciation. PMID:20106850

  18. Alien invasive species and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency control measures for invasive species often rely on use of pesticides and other destructive practices. Public concern about pesticide contamination of the ground water and the environment has lead to increased restrictions on the use of pesticides for control of many destructive invasive ...

  19. (OLIGOCHAETA) FROM SOUTH AFRICAN RIVERS Two species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portion and may be regarded as a chamber of the ampulla, though its walls may be con- voluted. The duct ..... fall within known variation for the species: dimensions, number of segments, form of the ...... 01igochaeta in Das Tierrich, 10, Berlin.

  20. Some new Australasian species of Xyris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.

    1954-01-01

    During the study of the Xyridaceae of the Malaysian area it was desirable to study those of Australia and Continental Asia as well. The Malaysian species now have, in the meantime, been published (Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 4, 1953, 366—376). To the new taxa described in Blumea 7, 1953, 307—308 the

  1. On the Origins of a Vibrio species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Hallin, Peter Fischer

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-two genome sequences of various Vibrionaceae members are compared, with emphasis on what makes V. cholerae unique. As few as 1,000 gene families are conserved across all the Vibrionaceae genomes analysed; this fraction roughly doubles for gene families conserved within the species V. chole...

  2. Karyotype of some Thai Hypoxidaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladda Eksomtramage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers and karyotypes of nine species in three genera of Thai Hypoxidaceae were determinedin root tips. All species are diploid with 2n = 18 and asymmetrical karyotypes including metacentric (m submetacentric (smsubtelocentric (st and also telocentric (t in some species. Satellite chromosomes (SAT were observed in all species studiedexcept in C. latifolia. The karyotypes of Curculigo ensifolia 4m+8sm+6st(2SAT, C. latifolia 2m+14sm+2st, C. megacarpa2m+12sm+4st(2SAT, C. villosa 4m+10sm(2SAT+4st, Hypoxis aurea 2m+8sm+8st(2SAT, Molineria capitulata 2m+10sm+2st (2SAT+4t, M. trichocarpa 2m+10sm+6st(2SAT, M. gracilis and M. latifolia 4m+8sm+4st (2SAT+2t are reported forthe first time. The chromosome relative length of Curculigo, Hypoxis and Molineria range between 3.44-9.55, 4.03-8.12 and3.64-8.97, respectively.

  3. Immunological detection of Fusarium species in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M S; Cousin, M A

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Fusarium species in foods. Antibodies to proteins extracted from the mycelia of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme (verticillioides) were produced in New Zealand white rabbits. These antibodies detected 13 Fusarium species in addition to the producer strains. Levels of Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium tricinctum strains were below the detection threshold. The specificity of the assay was tested against 70 molds and yeasts belonging to 23 genera. One strain of Monascus species and one strain of Phoma exigua were detected; however, these two molds are not common contaminants of cereal grains or foods and should not interfere with the assay. The indirect ELISA's detection limits for F. graminearum and F. moniliforme were 0.1 and 1 microg of mold mycelium per ml of a cornmeal mixture, respectively. When spores of each mold were added individually to cornmeal mixtures (at ca. 10 spores per g) and incubated at 25 degrees C, these spores were detected by the indirect ELISA when they reached levels of 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml after 24 to 36 h. The indirect ELISA developed here shows promise for the detection of Fusarium species in grains or foods.

  4. The South African species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available While writing up the three South African species of  Teucrium for the Flora o f Southern Africa it became necessary to replace two well-known names as follows:  T. trifidum Retz. (1779 ( = T.  capense Thunb., 1800 and  T. kraussii Codd  {=T. riparium Hochst., 1845, non Rafin., 1838.

  5. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  6. Self-thinning in four pine species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunet-Navarro, Pau; Sterck, Frank J.; Vayreda, Jordi; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mohren, Frits

    2016-01-01

    Key message: Self-thinning lines are species- and climate-specific, and they should be used when assessing the capacity of different forest stands to increase biomass/carbon storage. Context: The capacity of forests to store carbon can help to mitigate the effects of atmospheric CO2

  7. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  8. Vanishing Species: The Planet in Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/04/0321-0336. Keywords. Species; mass extinction; biotic crisis; hotspot. Author Affiliations. Uttam Saikia1 Narayan Sharma Abhijit Das. High Altitude Zoology Field Station, Zoological Survey of India, Saproon, Solan, H.P.173211. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  9. Radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiptsova, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Using the model object influence of mineral nutritions level on radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species has been studied. It was shown the wheat roots accumulation the minimal value on radiocaesium on normal potassium level, the rye roots accumulation maximal level radiocaesium. (authors)

  10. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  11. Multiple bacterial species reside in chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2006-01-01

    . aeruginosa were found to be significantly larger than ulcers without the presence of P. aeruginosa (P wound is colonised by multiple bacterial species and that once they are established many of them persist in the wound. Our results suggest that the presence...... of P. aeruginosa in venous leg ulcers can induce ulcer enlargement and/or cause delayed healing....

  12. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  13. Phylogeography of five Polytrichum species within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, M; Bijlsma, R

    Using allozymes and microsatellites we have analysed the genetic structure among European populations for several Polytrichum species to infer relevant factors, such as historical events or gene flow, that have shaped their genetic structure. As we observed low levels of genetic differentiation

  14. Flavanol binding of nuclei from tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, W; Treutter, D; Polster, J

    2004-01-01

    Light microscopy was used to examine the nuclei of five tree species with respect to the presence of flavanols. Flavanols develop a blue colouration in the presence of a special p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) reagent that enables those nuclei loaded with flavanols to be recognized. Staining of the nuclei was most pronounced in both Tsuga canadensis and Taxus baccata, variable in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, faint in Coffea arabica and minimal in Prunus avium. HPLC analysis showed that the five species contained substantial amounts of different flavanols such as catechin, epicatechin and proanthocyanidins. Quantitatively, total flavanols were quite different among the species. The nuclei themselves, as studied in Tsuga seed wings, were found to contain mainly catechin, much lower amounts of epicatechin and traces of proanthocyanidins. Blue-coloured nuclei located centrally in small cells were often found to maximally occupy up to 90% of a cell's radius, and the surrounding small rim of cytoplasm was visibly free of flavanols. A survey of 34 gymnosperm and angiosperm species indicated that the first group has much higher nuclear binding capacities for flavanols than the second group.

  15. Integration of species persistence, costs and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Niels; Theilade, Ida; Thea, So

    2007-01-01

    -industries, encroachment, illegal logging, over-harvesting and forest fire as well as the use of chemicals during war. The purpose of the paper is to: (i) apply reserve selection methods to design more robust conservation networks when knowledge of species occurrence is incomplete and habitat is threatened, and (ii...

  16. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose...

  17. Super-performance in a palm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Merel

    2016-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic disturbance. Effects include: global warming, massive pollution, a changed global nitrogen cycle, high rates of land-use change, and exotic species spread. This has a tremendous impact on both natural and agricultural systems. To understand these

  18. CLIMBING BEHAVIOUR IN THREE AFRICAN RODENT SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These two species, but more no~ ably TIUlllomy8 ... covered by thin wire mesh. Three branches, two with rough bark and the third barkless, were ... Animals were tested during the dark phase of a reversed photoperiod (09hOO-17hOO of the.

  19. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  20. Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterial Species Identification and Public Health Implications of Tuberculosis Among Nomadic Pastoralists in Three Local Governments of Plateau State, North ... Bovine and human tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, and apart from meat inspection at the abattoir, which is not very effective, no control measures are ...