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Sample records for sarracenia rubra ssp

  1. Festuca rubra L. op Terschelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heusden, van H.T.A.

    1965-01-01

    The authors performed a preliminary survey of Festuca rubra L. s.l. in the outer dunes of the West- Frisian island of Terschelling. Starting-point was the question which dune-form of this grass — Festuca juncifolia St. Amans or Festuca rubra subvar. arenaria (Osb.) Hack. — was growing there. In the

  2. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotti, Hannu; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Rischer, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  3. Metabolite profiling of the carnivorous pitcher plants Darlingtonia and Sarracenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hotti

    Full Text Available Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals. In this comprehensive metabolic profiling study, we looked for compound patterns that are associated with the taxonomy of Sarracenia species. In total, 57 different Sarracenia and D. californica accessions were used for metabolite content screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting high-dimensional data were studied using a data mining approach. The two genera are characterized by a large number of metabolites and huge chemical diversity between different species. By applying feature selection for clustering and by integrating new biochemical data with existing phylogenetic data, we were able to demonstrate that the chemical composition of the species can be explained by their known classification. Although transcriptome analysis did not reveal a candidate gene for coniine biosynthesis, the use of a sensitive selected ion monitoring method enabled the detection of coniine in eight Sarracenia species, showing that it is more widespread in this genus than previously believed.

  4. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  5. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

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    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  6. Association pityriasis rubra pilaire et myasthenie

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    Fatima Zahra Agharbi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le pityriasis rubra pilaire est un trouble de keratinisation rare dont l�etiopathogenie reste inconnue mais dont l�association avec autres pathologies a ete deja rapportee. Nous rapportons l�observation d�une jeune patiente qui presente un pityriasis rubra pilaire associe a une myasthenie. Traitee par Neostigmine et thymectomie avec bonne evolution sur le plan neurologique. Vu son desir de grossesse un traitement systemique de son pityriasis rubra pilaire n�a pas pu etre instaure et l�evolution sous dermocorticoides n�etait pas tres favorable.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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    Kubanov Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with clinical diagnosis and treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP. The authors analyze the diagnostic errors, present literature review, and their own observations. The clinical study included 23 patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris: 18 women and 5 men, average age of 54 ± 7.2. The clinical diagnosis of all examined patients was subsequently confirmed by histological analysis of the skin. The primary clinical diagnosis was psoriasis in 15 (65.2% patients, 6 (26% patients received treatment for toxic exanthema, and only 2 (8.8% patients were presumptively diagnosed with pityriasis rubra pilaris. In conclusion, pityriasis rubra pilaris was initially misdiagnosed in 91.2% of patients. Considering the great number of diagnostic errors, we analyzed the main diagnostic and differential diagnostic features of PRP. The most effective of all synthetic retinoids in PRP treatment is acitretin. Although symptomatic improvement in PRP occurs within a month, substantial improvement, even clearing is possible within 4 - 6 months.

  8. The SSP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovitz, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

  9. Systemic sclerosis in a patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris | Frikha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, chronic erythematous squamous disorder of unknown etiology. It has been found in association with several autoimmune diseases, including thyroiditis, myositis, myasthenia gravis and vitiligo. Herein we report a case of systemic sclerosis in a patient with classic adult pityriasis rubra ...

  10. Over de twee ondersoorten van Festuca rubra L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde-Duyfjes, de B.E.E.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is given of the literature concerning Festuca rubra L. s.l. as it occurs along the European coasts. For the Netherlands two subspecies are distinguished, viz. subsp. rubra and subsp. arenaria (Osb.) Richt. This is in accordance with the findings of FREIJSEN & HEERES (1972).

  11. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris In The Indian Scenario

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    Sarkar Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon idiopathic papulosqamous disorder characterized by circumscribed follicular keratosis, palmoplantar keratoderma and frequently erythroderma. Seven patients of PRP (five females and two males in the age range of 2 to 50 years seen over a 2-year period are presented with their clinical features, triggering factors, associations and laboratory investigations. The clinical type of PRP was adult onset classical variety in three, juvenile circumscribed variety in two and adult onset atypical variety and juvenile classical variety in one each. The triggering factors were upper respiratory tract infection with nutritional deficiencies in two and folliculitis in one. The histopathology was consistent with PRP in all. Four patients were managed with oral vitamin A while one each was put on methotrexate, etretinate and topical steroids and they showed a good response. More number of cases should be studied over a longer period to substantiate the suggested immunologic mechanism of PRP.

  12. Miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A M; Sinclair, M J

    2000-08-01

    This report documents a case series of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in miners at a deep underground metalliferous mine in tropical arid Australia. During the summer months of February and March 1999, all cases of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs in underground miners seen at the mine's medical centre were clinically examined and administered a questionnaire. Twenty-five patients were seen, an incidence of 56.4 cases per million man-hours. Miliaria rubra was most often located between the ankle and knee (88% of cases). Twenty-four percent had concurrent folliculitis and 20% had concurrent tinea. Thirty-two percent had a personal history of asthma. Walking through ground-water and splashing of the legs was common. Three to 4 weeks of sedentary duties in air conditioning was generally required to achieve resolution of miliaria rubra. The incidence of miliaria rubra of the lower limbs is 38% of the incidence of heat exhaustion at the same mine. The length of disablement is greater, however. Atopics may be at increased risk of miliaria rubra. Control measures are discussed.

  13. Regulation of Streptococcus gordonii sspB by the sspA Gene Product

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sabaeny, Azza; Demuth, Donald R.; Lamont, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii expresses two related adhesins, SspA and SspB, the genes for which are adjacent on the chromosome and are regulated independently. Although the adhesins are functionally similar, the sspA promoter is more active than that of sspB. In this study we show an additional role for SspA in the control of sspB activity. Gel shift and DNA footprinting assays demonstrate that the SspA protein binds to the sspB promoter and protects a region 233 to 264 bp upstream of the predicted...

  14. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  15. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet , Gwenola; Jan , Gwenaël; Boyaval , Patrick

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the dairy food industry. Since the industrial processes are a succession of constraints, it is essential to understand the behaviour of L. bulgaricus when facing usual stresses. The influence of heat stress was investigated on the viability of L. bulgaricus cells grown in a chemically defined medium. The susceptibility of cells to heat-shock was obvious only above 55 $^{\\circ}$C. We inv...

  16. Evaluation of various therapeutic measures in striae rubra

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    Umesh Karsandas Karia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA (30% peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8 of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25% as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6 patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%. While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%. Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen

  17. Evaluation of Various Therapeutic Measures in Striae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Umesh Karsandas; Padhiar, Bela Bhemabhai; Shah, Bela Jaswantbhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w) gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA) combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (30%) peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow) peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8) of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25%) as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6) patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%). While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%). Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen with

  18. Self-stabilized pinch (SSP) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1985-01-01

    Self-Stabilized pinch (SSP) consept is revealed. SSP providcs many attractive features for application to a fusion reactor. Design studies for high temperature plasma production are carried out. Use of adiabatic compression leads to a remarkable reduction of required power source. (author)

  19. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus: a chronicle of evolution in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Kennedy, Sean; Galleron, Nathalie; Quinquis, Benoît; Batto, Jean-Michel; Moumen, Bouziane; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2014-05-28

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus are lactic acid producing bacteria that are largely used in dairy industries, notably in cheese-making and yogurt production. An earlier in-depth study of the first completely sequenced ssp. bulgaricus genome revealed the characteristics of a genome in an active phase of rapid evolution, in what appears to be an adaptation to the milk environment. Here we examine for the first time if the same conclusions apply to the ssp. lactis, and discuss intra- and inter-subspecies genomic diversity in the context of evolutionary adaptation. Both L. delbrueckii ssp. show the signs of reductive evolution through the elimination of superfluous genes, thereby limiting their carbohydrate metabolic capacities and amino acid biosynthesis potential. In the ssp. lactis this reductive evolution has gone less far than in the ssp. bulgaricus. Consequently, the ssp. lactis retained more extended carbohydrate metabolizing capabilities than the ssp. bulgaricus but, due to high intra-subspecies diversity, very few carbohydrate substrates, if any, allow a reliable distinction of the two ssp. We further show that one of the most important traits, lactose fermentation, of one of the economically most important dairy bacteria, L. delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, relies on horizontally acquired rather than deep ancestral genes. In this sense this bacterium may thus be regarded as a natural GMO avant la lettre. The dairy lactic acid producing bacteria L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus appear to represent different points on the same evolutionary track of adaptation to the milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and the acquisition of functions that allow an optimized utilization of milk resources, where the ssp. bulgaricus has progressed further away from the common ancestor.

  20. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  1. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea leaves.

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    Taylor K Paisie

    Full Text Available The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  2. Gustatory perception and metabolic utilization of sugars by Myrmica rubra ant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boevé, J-L.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of various nectar and honeydew sugars as a food source for the polyphagous ant species M. rubra (L.) was studied. The sugars used included monosaccharides (fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, trehalose, melibiose, lactose) and

  3. EFFECT OF VARIOUS GROWING MEDIA AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH OF Antherura Rubra Lour

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    Fitri Kurniawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antherura rubra Lour is one of the critical plant at Cibodas Botanical Garden. Study of cultivation through vegetative propagation of A. Rubra is rare. Therefore, the research of A. rubra on various of media and inorganic fertilizers is required to conserve A.rubra at Cibodas Botanical Garden. This study was conducted at the Nursery - Cibodas Botanic Garden for 10 months. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD with four replications. Treatments consisted of three combinations of natural compost media with three levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, 1g/L, and 2g/L, three katalek compost combination with three levels of inorganic fertilizer and a control (top soil without inorganic fertilizers. Variable tested consists of plant height, number of leaves, and dry weight shoot and root as an indicator of growth A. rubra Lour The results showed that the growth of seedlings A. rubra Lour on katalek compost media's with one dose of levels inorganic fertilizer growth better than other treatments.

  4. Scirpus lacustrus L. ssp. flevensis Bakker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.

    1957-01-01

    De ssp. flavensis was tot voor kort alleen bekend van de IJselmeerkust ter hoogte van het Kampereiland en van Schokkerhaven in de Noordoostpolder. In de zomer van 1956 ontdekte ik de plant tevens op een eilandje in het Kadoelermeer hij Vollenhove en aan de rand van een matig voedselrijk veen tussen

  5. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea: Structures and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes. Whole cp genome comparison of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, along with ten other Arabidopsis species, showed an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with divergence among some intergenic spacers. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera is A. umezawana, whereas the closest relative of A. lyrata spp. petraea is A. arenicola.

  6. The mitochondrial genomes of the acoelomorph worms Paratomella rubra, Isodiametra pulchra and Archaphanostoma ylvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen E; Lapraz, François; Egger, Bernhard; Telford, Maximilian J; Schiffer, Philipp H

    2017-05-12

    Acoels are small, ubiquitous - but understudied - marine worms with a very simple body plan. Their internal phylogeny is still not fully resolved, and the position of their proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha remains debated. Here we describe mitochondrial genome sequences from the acoels Paratomella rubra and Isodiametra pulchra, and the complete mitochondrial genome of the acoel Archaphanostoma ylvae. The P. rubra and A. ylvae sequences are typical for metazoans in size and gene content. The larger I. pulchra  mitochondrial genome contains both ribosomal genes, 21 tRNAs, but only 11 protein-coding genes. We find evidence suggesting a duplicated sequence in the I. pulchra mitochondrial genome. The P. rubra, I. pulchra and A. ylvae mitochondria have a unique genome organisation in comparison to other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. We found a large degree of protein-coding gene and tRNA overlap with little non-coding sequence in the compact P. rubra genome. Conversely, the A. ylvae and I. pulchra genomes have many long non-coding sequences between genes, likely driving genome size expansion in the latter. Phylogenetic trees inferred from mitochondrial genes retrieve Xenacoelomorpha as an early branching taxon in the deuterostomes. Sequence divergence analysis between P. rubra sampled in England and Spain indicates cryptic diversity.

  7. Genetic differentiation between the ant Myrmica rubra and its microgynous social parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vepsäläinen, K.; Ebsen, J. R.; Savolainen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hymenopteran inquiline species have been proposed to originate by sympatric speciation through intraspecific social parasitism. One such parasite, Myrmica microrubra, was recently synonymized with its Myrmica rubra host, because comparisons across Europe indicated insufficient genetic differentia......Hymenopteran inquiline species have been proposed to originate by sympatric speciation through intraspecific social parasitism. One such parasite, Myrmica microrubra, was recently synonymized with its Myrmica rubra host, because comparisons across Europe indicated insufficient genetic...... differentiation. Here, we use microsatellite markers to study genetic differentiation more precisely in a sample of Finnish M. rubra and its inquilines collected at two localities, supplemented with mitochondrial DNA sequences. The parasite had much lower genetic variation than the host at three of the four loci...

  8. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

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    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  9. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

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    Thakur K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula spp . are common saprophytes but may be responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula spp. in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients has been reported only rarely. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in HIV infected patient. The presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made on the basis of India ink preparation, Gram staining and latex agglutination test (LAT for cryptococcal antigen. The final diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Rhodotorula rubra from cerebrospinal fluid on culture. LAT was considered false positive. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were administered but the patient succumbed to his illness.

  10. Antihypertensive effect of extracts from Crateva adansonii DC.ssp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii (CA) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including hypertension. The main objective of ... All rights reserved. Keywords: Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii, medicinal plant, L-NAME, high blood pressure, Wistar rat, liquid-liquid chromatography ...

  11. Aryltetralin lignans from Linum mucronatum Bertol. ssp mucronatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Konuklugil, B; Evren, H

    2005-01-01

    The dried and aerial part of Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum was analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two aryltetralin lignans, podophylloyoxin, 6-methoxypodophylloyoxin, and P-peltatin, were identified. This is the first report of the analysis of L. mucronatum ssp. mucronatum.

  12. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  13. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  14. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  15. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Chen, Yousheng; Olsen, Richard T; Lutz, Sue; Wen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple) and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple), of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa , and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  16. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  17. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score from 304 to 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and to place clones into early, intermediate, and late phenology classes. Although the absolute number of clones in each phenological class...

  18. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. 15-demethylisoplumieride acid, a new iridoid isolated from the bark of Plumeria rubra and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba; Acido 15-desmetilisoplumierideo, um novo iridoide isolado das cascas de Plumeria rubra e do latex de Himatanthus sucuuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Alaide de Sa; Amaral, Ana Claudia F. [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos -Farmanguinhos. Lab. de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jrocha_01@ufam.edu.br; Schripsema, Jan [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Himatanthus sucuuba and Plumeria rubra are used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat various ailments. The isolation of the new iridoid 15-demethylisoplumieride from the bark of Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia (Ait) Woodson and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson is reported. Other iridoid glycosides were obtained from both plants. The structures of these substances were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison with data already reported. (author)

  20. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, M.; Hanušová, V.; Skarka, A.; Boušová, I.; Králová, V.; Langhansová, Lenka; Skálová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, 1/2 (2016), s. 89-96 ISSN 0032-0943 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Myricaceae * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2016

  1. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  2. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Abbott

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment. There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  3. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  4. EFEITO ALELOPÁTICO E MOLUSCICIDA DE AMORA (Morus rubra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRISTINA MENDES MIRANDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite produced in some plants can provoke alterations in the development of other plants or even other organisms. The aim of this paper was to identify possible allelopathic effects and biologic control of Achatina fulica Bowdich with aqueous extracts of Morus rubra L. leaves. For obtaining the aqueous extract, we used previously dried leaves in concentration of 1g 10 mL-1. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100% and compared to control (0.0%, distilled water. The aqueous extracts of Morus rubra showed up allelopathic potentialities on the seed germination and in the growth of the shoot and the root system of the tested species, considering that the reduction in the germination and initial growth increased with the rising of the aqueous extracts concentrations used and, in the biologic control, only in the final mass of A. fulica. The results indicated the existence of allelopathic effect, but not molluscicide of M. rubra.

  5. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  6. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  7. Anatomical and phenological implications of the relationship between Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) and the galling insect Calophya rubra (Blanchard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, L M; Aguilera, N; Ferreira, B G; Becerra, J; Hernández, V; Isaias, R M S

    2018-05-01

    The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronisation with host plant phenology and climate conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survival. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronisation strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was evaluated and compared to that of the congeneric C. cf. duvauae (Scott) from Brazil and closely related host plant S. engleri in a subtropical climate. Anatomical, histometric, histochemical and vegetative phenology studies of the stem and galls were conducted from June 2015 to December 2016. Based on the anatomical, histometric and histochemical analysis, the conical stem gall traits imply gains over the non-galled stem toward the galling insect survival, but the maintenance of phellem, secretory ducts and pith indicate conservative developmental traits that cannot be manipulated by C. rubra. Our results indicate that the conditions of the Mediterranean climate zone limit C. rubra immature activity during unfavourable periods, probably determining a diapause period and a univoltine life cycle, which are peculiarities of the S. polygama- C. rubra system. The synchronisation between development and seasonality confers peculiarities to the S. polygama- C. rubra system in the Mediterranean climate zone. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Welke soort rood zwenkgras (Festuca rubra s.l.) komt voor in de jonge kustduinen van Voorne en die van overig Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heeres, Els

    1972-01-01

    By common consent two taxa of Festuca rubra s.l. occur in sandy outer dunes along the N.W. European coasts. Festuca juncifolia St. Amans is considered to be a typical grass of Ammophiladunes. Festuca rubra subsp. arenaria (Osb.) Richt. could be found on almost fixed dunes. The only usable character

  9. Impacts of the Invasive European Red Ant (Myrmica rubra (L.): Hymenoptera; Formicidae) on a Myrmecochorous System in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammans, Nicola; Drummond, Frank; Groden, Eleanor

    2018-05-16

    We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites. Field experiments demonstrated higher diaspore removal rates over a 10-min and 24-h period by M. rubra compared to native ants. M. rubra's diaspore dispersal distance was 40% greater compared to native ants. In two of three laboratory studies and one field study, there was no significant difference between the seed species which M. rubra and native ants selected. Our data suggest no long-term deleterious effects of M. rubra's invasion on diaspore dispersal in the Maine plant community that is comprised of both native and invasive species. This implies that M. rubra benefits from the myrmechorous plant species' diaspores by increasing their dispersal range away from the parent plant and potentially reducing seed predation. However, it is not known whether the fact that the native ant fauna and M. rubra are attracted to the same plant species' diaspores creates a high level of competition between the ants with deleterious effects on the native ant community.

  10. Acantholytic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Associated with Imiquimod 3.75% Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imiquimod is an immunomodulator with both antitumor and antiviral properties. It is currently available in two cream formulations as Aldara (imiquimod 5% and the newly approved Zyclara (imiquimod 3.75%. Imiquimod has been associated with localized erythema, crusting, and scaling at the site of application. However, more severe generalized skin eruptions including erythema multiforme, psoriasis, and hyperpigmentation have been described. The newly approved imiquimod 3.75% cream is a presumably safer alternative due to its lower concentration. This paper describes the development of generalized acantholytic pityriasis rubra pilaris after the treatment of an actinic keratosis on the forehead with imiquimod 3.75% cream.

  11. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an idiopathic inflammatory hyperproliferative chronic dermatosis characterized by: perifollicular coalescing papules with central keratotic acuminate plugs gradually submerged in sheets of erythema; perifollicular erythema with islands of unaffected skin; palmoplantar keratoderma; diffuse desquamation which typically spreads from the head down to the feet. The cause of the condition is unknown, but possible etiological factors include: vitamin A deficiency, trauma, infections, autoimmune mechanisms, and malignancies. Taking into account different age of onset, clinical course, morphology and prognosis, there are six different types of the disease: two in adults (classical and atypical; three in children (classical, circumscribed and atypical; one in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

  12. Myrica rubra leaves as a potential source of a dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; Tauchen, Jan; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2017), s. 343-353 ISSN 0954-0105 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-07193S Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : in-vitro * antiinflammatory activity * zucc. leaves * 5-lipoxygenase * sieb. * cyclooxygenase * constituents * antioxidants * myricitrin * metabolism * Myrica rubra * anti-inflammatory * cyclooxygenase 1 * cyclooxygenase 2 * 5-lipoxygenase Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Medicinal chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2016

  13. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  14. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  15. Determination of chromosomal ploidy in Agave ssp. | Lingling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome observation is necessary to elucidate the structure, function and organization of Agave plants' genes and genomes. However, few researches about chromosome observation of Agave ssp. were done, not only because their chromosome numbers are large, but also because their ploidies are complicated.

  16. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  17. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  18. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  19. Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    1998-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding propert...

  20. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  1. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  2. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  3. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  4. Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in leaves of Quercus rubra and Q. alba seedlings of different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dianpeng Xu; Paul P. Kormanik; Clanton C. Black

    1997-01-01

    Two and three years after the outplanting of 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra, NRO) and white oak (Q. alba, WO) nursery stocks, the highest net photosynthetic rates (Amax) were observed from seedlings growing on a clearcut site, followed by those under a pine stand. Both NRO and WO...

  5. Essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several human intestinal lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Hanusová, V.; Rezek, Jan; Stohanslová, B.; Ambrož, M.; Králová, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Yang, J.; Skálová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 20-26 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Essential oil * Antiproliferative effect Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2014

  6. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  7. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Octocorallia), a new bubblegum coral species from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Zifeng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-07-01

    A new species of bubblegum coral, Paragorgia rubra sp. nov., discovered from a seamount at a water depth of 373 m near the Yap Trench is studied using morphological and molecular approaches. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is the fourth species of the genus found in the tropical Western Pacific. The new gorgonian is red-colored, uniplanar, and measures approximately 530 mm high and 440 mm wide, with autozooids distributed only on one side of the colony. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is most similar to P. kaupeka Sánchez, 2005, but differs distinctly in the polyp ovals with large and compound protuberances (vs. small and simple conical protuberances) and the medullar spindles possessing simple conical protuberances (vs. compound protuberances). Moreover, P. rubra sp. nov. differs from P. kaupeka in the smaller length/width ratio of surface radiates (1.53 vs. 1.75). The genetic distance of the mtMutS gene between P. rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka is 0.66%, while the intraspecific distances within Paragorgia Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857 except the species P. regalis complex are no more than 0.5%, further supporting the establishment of the new species. Furthermore, the ITS2 secondary structure of P. rubra sp. nov. is also different from those of congeners. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka form a clade, which branched early within Paragorgia and diversified approximately 15 Mya.

  8. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Adsorption recovery of thorium(IV) by Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin immobilized onto collagen fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuepin Liao; Li Li; Bi Shi

    2004-01-01

    Novel adsorbents which can concentrate Th(IV) in aqueous solution were prepared by immobilizing Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin onto collagen fibre matrices. The adsorption capacities of the immobilized tannins to Th(IV) are related to temperature and pH value of the adsorption process. For example, when the initial concentration of Th(IV) was 116.0 mg x l -1 and the immobilized tannin was 100 mg, the adsorption capacities of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin were 55.98 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 13.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 , respectively at 303 K, and 73.67 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 18.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 at 323 K. It was also found that the higher adsorption capacity was obtained at higher pH value. The adsorption equilibrium data of the immobilized tannins for Th(IV) can be well fitted by the Langmuir model and the mechanism of the adsorption was found to be a chemical adsorption. In general, the adsorption capacity of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin to Th(IV) is significantly higher than that of immobilized larch tannin, probably due to the fact that the B ring of Myrica rubra tannin has a pyrogallol structure which has higher reaction activity with metal ions. The breakthrough point of the adsorption column of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin was at 33 bed volumes for the experimental system. The mass transfer coefficient of adsorption column determined by Adams-Bohart equation was 1.61 x 10 -4 l x mg -1 x min -1 . The adsorption column can be easily regenerated by 0.1 mol x l -1 HNO 3 solution, showing outstanding ability of concentrating Th(IV). (author)

  10. Highly Enantioselective Production of (R-Halohydrins with Whole Cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janeczko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R-alcohols according to Prelog’s rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee = 97% and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%; 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%; 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%; 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%; 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%. There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses.

  11. Highly enantioselective production of (R)-halohydrins with whole cells of Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Tomasz; Dymarska, Monika; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta

    2014-12-04

    Biotransformation of ten α-haloacetophenones in the growing culture of the strain Rhodotorula rubra KCh 82 has been carried out. Nine of the substrates underwent an effective enantioselective reduction to the respective (R)-alcohols according to Prelog's rule, with the exception of 2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one that was not transformed by this strain. The expected reduction proceeded without dehalogenation, leading to the respective (R)-halohydrins in high yields. The use of this biocatalyst yielded (R)-2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethan-1-ol (enantiomeric excess (ee) = 97%) and its derivatives: 4'-Bromo- (ee = 99%); 4'-Chloro- (ee > 99%); 4'-Methoxy- (ee = 96%); 3'-Methoxy- (ee = 93%); 2'-Methoxy- (ee = 98%). There were also obtained and characterized 2,4'-dichloro-, 2,2',4'-trichloro- and 2-chloro-4'-fluoro-phenyetan-1-ol with >99% of enantiomeric excesses.

  12. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  13. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  14. Chemical characteristic of salt fermented meat inoculated with Pediococcus ssp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Y. B.; Rahayu, E. S.; Suparmo; Utami, T.; Nurwantoro; Yunianto, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The research goal is knowing of the characteristict of salt fermented meat by Pediococcus ssp. There were microbiological, chemical, and off-flavor compound during fermentation. This study was conducted on research of influence of salt-meat fermentation inoculated used starter. They were included microbiological characteristics, and chemical characteristics. Microbiological characteristics observed were total bacteria, number of coliform groups, bacteria producing bioamine, and total lactic acid bacteria. The result showed that decreasing of coliform and bioamine producer bacteria, and total lactic acid bacteria decreased 3 log cycle. While the soluble protein increased of 7-8% and bioamine increased of 5-6 mg/100 g. And then Off-flavour compound, TVN and TMA increased of 36-20 mg/100g and 16-30 mg/100g, respectively. Conclusion of the research that Pedioccoccus ssp. influenced salt fermented meat.

  15. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as Potential Functional Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Cvrtila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and characterise potential autochthonous functional starter cultures in homemade horsemeat sausage. The dominant microflora in the samples of horsemeat sausage were lactic acid bacteria (LAB, followed by micrococci. Among the LAB, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species, and since the first is not common in fermented sausages, we characterised it as a potential functional starter culture. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis produced a significant amount of lactic acid, displayed good growth capability at 12, 18 and 22 °C, growth in the presence of 5 % NaCl, good viability after lyophilisation and in simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, antimicrobial activity against test pathogens, and good adhesive properties in vitro.

  16. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  17. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  18. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-­quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%. PMID:19478454

  2. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra was expressed, purified, and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data of this crystal were collected to 2.2 Å resolution. (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%

  4. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  5. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  6. Back to America: tracking the origin of European introduced populations of Quercus rubra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Nastasia R; Leroy, Thibault; Chancerel, Emilie; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Borkowski, Daniel S; Ducousso, Alexis; Monty, Arnaud; Porté, Annabel J; Kremer, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Quercus rubra has been introduced in Europe since the end of the 17th century. It is widely distributed today across this continent and considered invasive in some countries. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations with the aim of tracing the origin of introduced populations. A large sampling of 883 individuals from 73 native and 38 European locations were genotyped at 69 SNPs. In the natural range, we found a continuous geographic gradient of variation with a predominant latitudinal component. We explored the existence of ancestral populations by performing Bayesian clustering analysis and found support for two or three ancestral genetic clusters. Approximate Bayesian Computations analyses based on these two or three clusters support recent extensive secondary contacts between them, suggesting that present-day continuous genetic variation resulted from recent admixture. In the introduced range, one main genetic cluster was not recovered in Europe, suggesting that source populations were preferentially located in the northern part of the natural distribution. However, our results cannot refute the introduction of populations from the southern states that did not survive in Europe.

  7. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  8. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra on herring gull (Larus argentatus reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E DeFisher

    Full Text Available Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

  9. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  10. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Chowdhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands' of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life.

  11. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  12. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, and thromboelastography (TEG. All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  13. Paralytic shellfish toxins, including deoxydecarbamoyl-STX, in wild-caught Tasmanian abalone (Haliotis rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, D Tim; Selwood, Andrew I; van Ginkel, Roel; Waugh, Craig; McNabb, Paul S; Munday, Rex; Hay, Brenda; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A; Malhi, Navreet; Dowsett, Natalie; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    For the first time wild-caught Tasmanian abalone, Haliotis rubra, have been reported to contain paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). This observation followed blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. No illnesses were reported, but harvesting restrictions were enforced in commercial areas. Abalone were assayed using HPLC-FLD methodology based on AOAC official method 2005.06. An uncommon congener, deoxydecarbamoyl-STX (doSTX), was observed in addition to regulated PSTs as unassigned chromatographic peaks. A quantitative reference material was prepared from contaminated Tasmanian abalone viscera and ampouled at 54.2 μmol/L. The LD50 of doSTX via intraperitoneal injection was 1069 nmol/kg (95% confidence limits 983-1100 nmol/kg), indicating it is nearly 40 times less toxic than STX. A toxicity equivalence factor of 0.042 was generated using the mouse bioassay. Levels of PSTs varied among individuals from the same site, although the toxin profile remained relatively consistent. In the foot tissue, STX, decarbamoyl-STX and doSTX were identified. On a molar basis doSTX was the dominant congener in both foot and viscera samples. The viscera toxin profile was more complex, with other less toxic PST congeners observed and was similar to mussels from the same site. This finding implicates localised dinoflagellate blooms as the PST source in Tasmanian abalone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro Anti-Thrombotic Activity of Extracts from Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra) Processing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Hines, Barney M; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda; Osborne, Simone A

    2016-12-31

    Waste generated from the processing of marine organisms for food represents an underutilized resource that has the potential to provide bioactive molecules with pharmaceutical applications. Some of these molecules have known anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities and are being investigated as alternatives to common anti-thrombotic drugs, like heparin and warfarin that have serious side effects. In the current study, extracts prepared from blacklip abalone ( Haliotis rubra ) processing waste, using food grade enzymes papain and bromelain, were found to contain sulphated polysaccharide with anti-thrombotic activity. Extracts were found to be enriched with sulphated polysaccharides and assessed for anti-thrombotic activity in vitro through heparin cofactor-II (HCII)-mediated inhibition of thrombin. More than 60% thrombin inhibition was observed in response to 100 μg/mL sulphated polysaccharides. Anti-thrombotic potential was further assessed as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and blood, using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG). All abalone extracts had significant activity compared with saline control. Anion exchange chromatography was used to separate extracts into fractions with enhanced anti-thrombotic activity, improving HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition, PT and aPTT almost 2-fold. Overall this study identifies an alternative source of anti-thrombotic molecules that can be easily processed offering alternatives to current anti-thrombotic agents like heparin.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar)

  16. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...

  17. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L; Byers, Stacey E; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, Donna M; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2005-12-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n=43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28+/-0.23 and 1.97+/-0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  19. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  20. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

    2006-01-01

    We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activities in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities.

  2. Tetrahydroxanthones from Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangxin; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Damdinjav, Davaadagva; Dorjbal, Enkhjargal; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-O-β-D-xyloside, and 1-O-β-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-O-β-D-glucoside, and 3-O-β-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  4. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  5. Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive

  6. Pengaruh SSP tematik terhadap peningkatkan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik kelas I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnur Masnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui, pengaruh Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik dan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik pada tema peristiwa alam semester genap kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung kota Parepare tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan nonequivalent groups pretest-posttest design ini mengandung satu variabel bebas dan dua variabel terikat. Variabel bebas adalah Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik sedangkan variabel terikat adalah karakter kejujuran dan disiplin. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh peserta didik kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung Kota Parepare. Sampel dipilih dengan tekhnik purposive sampling, sehingga didapat tiga kelas sebagai sampel penelitian. Kelompok eksperimen 1 dan kelompok eksperimen 2 diberi perlakuan menggunakan SSP tematik, dan kelompok kontrol diberi perlakuan menggunakan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik angket dan teknik observasi. Teknik angket digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik observasi digunakan untuk mengungkap perilaku karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik analisis data digunakan adalah Analisys of Variance (ANOVA dengan taraf signifikansi 0.05. Hasil penelitian ini adalah SSP tematik secara signifkan berpengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F = 27,890; dan karakter disiplin peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F= 9,294. Kata kunci: Subject Specific Pedagogy tematik, kejujuran, disiplin The effect of SSP thematic on the increase of characters honesty and discipline of grade 1 elementary school students Abstract The

  7. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  8. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (spoil, however the application of 0.5 phosphate was less favourable. Liming, application of amendments and growth of red fescue can stabilize metals in acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil, and by phytostabilization they can reduce the risk of metal contamination of the food chain.

  9. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

  10. ICLUS v2.1 land use projections for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (SSP2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SSP2 is a “middle-of-the-road” projection, where social, economic and technological trends do not shift markedly from historical patterns, resulting in a U.S....

  11. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  13. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...... the collaboration and on historic sources that document the background of the establishment of SSP, the articles main focus is to explore and explain how the actors in the collaboration view legitimate and valuable knowledge. The article’s main conclusion is that the actors mainly view knowledge legitimate...... to the extent it can be linked to research based models. Consequently, this means that the conception of professional knowledge in SSP is at risk of being reduced to only include their information, which can be linked to these models....

  14. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  16. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM. These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC, where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  17. Influence of papermill sludge on growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum in gold mine tailings: A greenhouse study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Scott; Renault, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the suitability of adding papermill sludge to neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings to improve the establishment of Festuca rubra, Agropyron trachycaulum and Medicago sativa. Festuca rubra root and shoot biomass and A. Trachycaulum shoot biomass were increased with papermill sludge amendment. The addition of papermill sludge and fertilizer drastically increased the shoot and root biomass of M. sativa (20-30 times) while A. trachycaulum and F. rubra showed a more moderate increase in growth. Photosynthetic pigment content of the leaves was higher in papermill sludge treatments than in the treatments without papermill sludge. The organic carbon content, macro-aggregate content and field capacity of the gold mine tailings were increased while the bulk density was decreased by the addition of papermill sludge. This study suggests that addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization can alleviate some of the adverse conditions of neutral/alkaline gold mine tailings. - Addition of papermill sludge and adequate fertilization of neutral gold mine tailings increased growth of Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra and Agropyron trachycaulum

  18. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  19. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton preparation (Rubratin) for superficial bladder cancer immunotherapy--a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; de Boer, E. C.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pTa, pT1) were treated with six consecutive weekly intravesical instillations of Rubratin (in a dose of 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg), a cell wall skeleton preparation of Nocardia rubra (NCW). The main objective of this

  20. Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae) first description of the male from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and implications for re-introduction of an extirpated population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Measures, L.; Moravec, František; Douglas, S.; Lair, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2017), s. 345-352 ISSN 0008-4301 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra rubra * striped bass * Morone saxatilis * re-introduction * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2016

  1. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  2. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risø National Laboratory for sustainable energy – Technical university of Denmark, SSP......This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test......-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen’s PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results...

  3. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp. © 2013.

  4. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  5. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  6. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  7. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  9. Searching for moving objects in HSC-SSP: Pipeline and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Alexandersen, Mike; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Jen-Hung; Yoshida, Fumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) is currently the deepest wide-field survey in progress. The 8.2 m aperture of the Subaru telescope is very powerful in detecting faint/small moving objects, including near-Earth objects, asteroids, centaurs and Tran-Neptunian objects (TNOs). However, the cadence and dithering pattern of the HSC-SSP are not designed for detecting moving objects, making it difficult to do so systematically. In this paper, we introduce a new pipeline for detecting moving objects (specifically TNOs) in a non-dedicated survey. The HSC-SSP catalogs are sliced into HEALPix partitions. Then, the stationary detections and false positives are removed with a machine-learning algorithm to produce a list of moving object candidates. An orbit linking algorithm and visual inspections are executed to generate the final list of detected TNOs. The preliminary results of a search for TNOs using this new pipeline on data from the first HSC-SSP data release (2014 March to 2015 November) present 231 TNO/Centaurs candidates. The bright candidates with Hr 5 show that the best-fitting slope of a single power law to absolute magnitude distribution is 0.77. The g - r color distribution of hot HSC-SSP TNOs indicates a bluer peak at g - r = 0.9, which is consistent with the bluer peak of the bimodal color distribution in literature.

  10. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  11. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  12. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S G [Physics Department, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D [Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.vonhunerbein@salford.ac.uk

    2008-05-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group.

  13. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  14. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S G; Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D

    2008-01-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group

  15. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  16. Some aspects of cultivation and utilization of waxy maize (Zea mays L. ssp. ceratina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of available literature on Zea mays L.ssp.ceratina. It contains information on the origin, cul- tivation and utilization of waxy maize in the world and can be a contribution to the development of new research on maize cultivation and starch processing technology. Maize, as an old and economically important cereal, played an enormous role in the ancient civilisations of the New World. Among the maize subspecies compared, Z. mays ssp. indurata and Z. mays ssp. indentata are now the most important in Poland. The subspecies Z. mays ssp. saccharata has a marginal role, while Z. mays ssp. ceratina has not been hitherto cultivated. Decisions to introduce the subspecies Z. mays ssp. ceratina into cultivation are based on different grounds, taking into account both agro-climatic conditions and industrial uses of grain processing products. The growing demand for maize grain, stimulated by the increased demand for maize starch and oil in the global market as raw materials that are important in food production, is an impulse for the development of agrobiological research. The development of the starch industry, associated with the demand for industrial starch, will probably contribute to increased interest in this subspecies in Central Europe, also including Poland. Waxy maize grain can be a major ingredient of high-energy feeds for livestock, replacing in this role the type of maize that has been grown for this purpose until now. A great advantage of waxy maize is its specific structure of starch, due to its unique and high amylopectin content (95-98%, which creates unlimited possibilities of industrial use. Currently, waxy maize acreage in Europe does not exceed 2% of the maize crop area in this continent.

  17. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4?C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A ...

  18. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  19. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) Bougainvillea spectabilis had an LD50 > 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV.

  20. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  1. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  2. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  3. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  4. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis ssp collina cultivated in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Hendriks, H; Pras, N; St Stojanova, A; Georgiev, EV

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from air-dried subterranean parts of Valeriana officinalis ssp. collina (Wallr.) Nyman (Valerianaceae), 'Shipka,' was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 62 components were identified. The oil yield, collected in plants grown in 1995 and 1938, was 0.42% (v/m) and 0.40% (v/m)

  5. PENGEMBANGAN SSP FISIKA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN CTL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Makhdum Noor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a learning device as Subject-Specific Pedagogy (SSP of physics, and to improve science process skills and learning motivation of the students. This research used the 4D model. The subjects of this research were the XI grade students of Muhammadiyah High School 2 Yogyakarta. The data collecting instruments were expert validation sheets, science process skill observation sheets, questionnaire of students’ response to the student books and worksheets, question-naire of students’ response to teaching process, students’ motivation learning sheets, and science process skill paper test. The research data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and paper test, and analyzed quantitatively. The results show as follows. (1 The development of physics SSP is carried out in accordance with the procedures of 4D model product development. (2 The results of expert’s validation show the physics SSP is in the very good criteria. (3 The readability of the student books and worksheets is in the good criteria. (4 The increasing of the score of science process skills and students’ learning motivation in the experimental class is higher than that in the control class. This shows that the physics SSP is fit for use in physics teaching.

  6. Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, N; O'Callaghan, J; Buttò, L F; Kilcoyne, M; Joshi, L; Hickey, R M

    2018-05-23

    Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  8. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  9. Surveillance of Campylobacter ssp. in broiler flocks by PCR on boot sock samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Lund, Marianne; Hald, Birthe

    on sampling with one pair of boot sock was established. Samples were collected by the farmer app. 10 days before slaughter and send to laboratory for analysis. To detect Campylobacter ssp. in these fecal samples, a PCR based method was established and validated. The assay was developed as a genus specific...

  10. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK-INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DISIPLIN DAN KREATIF SISWA KELAS I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wahyu Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    DEVELOPING THEMATIC-INTEGRATED SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF DISCIPLINE AND CREATIVE OF GRADE I STUDENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSTRACT This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of discipline and creative of grade I students of elementary school.This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, namely: preliminary study and data collection, planning, product draft development, preliminary field tryout, revision of the tryout result, field tryout, product finalization based the field tryout result, field implementation testing, final product finalization, and dissemination. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess the validity. The tryout subjects comprised 82 students consisting of 26 students of SD Baran, Pundong, Bantul, DIY in the small-scale tryout, 25 students in the control class of SD Manding Tengah, Bantul, DIY and 31 students in the experimental class of SD 1 Tulung, Bantul, DIY. The results of this study are in the form of SSP consisting of: a syllabus, lesson plans, course sheets, student worksheets, and evaluation sheets. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus is good score of 47. The developed lesson plans score of 67, student course sheets score of 65, student worksheets score of 47, and assessment instruments, are very good , while the developed learning media are good score of 66. The results of the tryout show that the developed SSP otherwise meet the criteria for the practical views of teacher assessment score of 281 and a score of 730 student responses. In field trials the results obtained for the control class average pretest score of 70.8 and an average posttest score of 80.8. While the experimental class scored an average of 74.1 pretest and posttest score of 90.9. Improved control class scores of 10 and an increase of 16.8 experimental class. Teaching using developed SSP is capable of developing

  11. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton promotes CD4+ T cell activation and drives Th1 immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangchuan; Wu, Jie; Miao, Miao; Dou, Heng; Nan, Ning; Shi, Mingsheng; Yu, Guang; Shan, Fengping

    2017-08-01

    Several lines of evidences have shown that Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) has immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities. However, there is no information about the effect of Nr-CWS on CD4 + T cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Nr-CWS on the phenotype and function of CD4 + T cells. Our results of in vitro experiments showed that Nr-CWS could significantly up-regulate the expression of CD69 and CD25 on CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, increase the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in the supernatants, but has no significant effect on the apoptosis and death of CD4 + T cells. Results of in vivo experiments showed that Nr-CWS could promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells, and increase the production of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 type cytokines). These data suggest that Nr-CWS can enhance the activation of CD4 + T cells, promote the proliferation of CD4 + T cells and the differentiation of CD4 + T cells to Th1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  14. In vitro anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant properties of blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Masci, Paul P; Addepalli, Rama; Chen, Wei; Gobe, Glenda C; Osborne, Simone A

    2017-07-01

    Abalone viscera contain sulphated polysaccharides with anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant activities. In this study, a hydrolysate was prepared from blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) viscera using papain and bromelain and fractionated using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Hydrolysates and fractions were investigated for in vitro thrombin inhibition mediated through heparin cofactor II (HCII) as well as anti-coagulant activity in plasma and whole blood. On the basis of sulphated polysaccharide concentration, the hydrolysate inhibited thrombin through HCII with an inhibitor concentration at 50% (IC50) of 16.5 μg/mL compared with 2.1 μg/mL for standard heparin. Fractionation concentrated HCII-mediated thrombin inhibition down to an IC50 of 1.8 μg/mL and improved anti-coagulant activities by significantly delaying clotting time. This study confirmed the presence of anti-thrombotic and anti-coagulant molecules in blacklip abalone viscera and demonstrated that these activities can be enriched with a simple chromatography regime. Blacklip abalone viscera warrant further investigation as a source of nutraceutical or functional food ingredients. Graphical abstract Schematic showing preparation of bioactive extracts and fractions from blacklip abalone.

  15. Effect of Mo-Doped Mesoporous Al-SSP Catalysts for the Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol to Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titinan Chanchuey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene over the mesoporous Al-SSP and Mo-doped Al-SSP catalysts was investigated. The Al-SSP catalyst was first synthesized by the modified sol-gel method and then doped with Mo by impregnation to obtain 1% Mo/Al-SSP and 5% Mo/Al-SSP catalysts (1 and 5 wt% of Mo. The final catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM/EDX, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The catalytic activity for all catalysts in gas-phase ethanol dehydration reaction was determined at temperature range of 200°C to 400°C. It was found that the most crucial factor influencing the catalytic activities appears to be the acidity. The acid property of catalysts depended on the amount of Mo loading. Increased Mo loading in Al-SSP resulted in increased weak acid sites, which enhanced the catalytic activity. Besides acidity, the high concentration of Al at surface of catalyst is also essential to obtain high activity. Based on the results, the most suitable catalyst in this study is 1% Mo/Al-SSP catalyst, which can produce ethylene yield of ca. 90% at 300°C with slight amounts of diethyl ether (DEE and acetaldehyde.

  16. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  18. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Ito

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340. This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K, a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2, suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide's activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06 and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06 biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  19. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  20. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP Public Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  1. Coordinated regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit by a R2R3 MYB transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shan-Shan; Xu, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Wang-Shu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C; Chen, Kun-Song

    2010-03-01

    Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is a fruit crop with cultivars producing fruit ranging from white (Shuijing, SJ) to red (Dongkui, DK) and dark red-purple (Biqi, BQ), as a result of different levels of anthocyanin accumulation. Genes encoding the anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), as well as MrMYB1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor homologous to known activators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, were isolated from ripe fruit of BQ. Differences in mRNA abundance of MrF3H, MrF3'H, MrDFR1, MrANS and MrUFGT were highly correlated with differential accumulation of anthocyanins between cultivars, suggesting coordinated regulation by transcription factors. The transcript level of MrMYB1 was strongly associated with the anthocyanin content in ripe fruit of the three cultivars, as well as different anthocyanin containing tissues of BQ fruit. Fruit bagging strongly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in fruit as well as the expression of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and MrMYB1. Overexpression of MrMYB1 stimulated both anthocyanin accumulation and activated an Arabidopsis-DFR promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). MrMYB1d, an allele with a 1 bp deletion at nucleotide 30 of coding sequence, was observed in SJ and DK fruit, suggesting that a nonsense mutation of the MYB1 protein may be responsible for no or low expression of MYB1 in the white and red fruit. These results show that coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic genes is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Chinese bayberry fruit, and this is regulated by MrMYB1.

  2. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is un...

  3. Multiple plasmid-borne virulence genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici critical for disease development in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Sun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Kim, Donghyuk; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp. capsici type strain PF008 carries one chromosome (3.056 Mb) and two plasmids (39 kb pCM1 Cmc and 145 kb pCM2 Cmc ). The genome analyses showed that this bacterium lacks a chromosomal pathogenicity island and celA gene that are important for disease development by C. michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato, but carries most putative virulence genes in both plasmids. Virulence of pCM1 Cmc -cured C. michiganensis ssp. capsici was greatly reduced compared with the wild-type strain in pepper. The complementation analysis with pCM1 Cmc -located putative virulence genes showed that at least five genes, chpE, chpG, ppaA1, ppaB1 and pelA1, encoding serine proteases or pectate lyase contribute to disease development in pepper. In conclusion, C. michiganensis ssp. capsici has a unique genome structure, and its multiple plasmid-borne genes play critical roles in virulence in pepper, either separately or together. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Alteration of foliar flavonoid chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B radiation in field-grown Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Bassman, John H; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Edwards, Gerald E; Robberecht, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    Chromatographic analyses of foliage from several tree species illustrate the species-specific effects of UV-B radiation on both quantity and composition of foliar flavonoids. Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii were field-grown under modulated ambient (1x) and enhanced (2x) biologically effective UV-B radiation. Foliage was harvested seasonally over a 3-year period, extracted, purified and the flavonoid fraction applied to a mu Bondapak/C(18) column HPLC system sampling at 254 nm. Total flavonoid concentrations in Quercus rubra foliage were more than twice (leaf area basis) that of the other species; Pseudotsuga menziesii foliage had intermediate levels and P. ponderosa had the lowest concentrations of total flavonoids. No statistically significant UV-B radiation-induced effects were found in total foliar flavonoid concentrations for any species; however, concentrations of specific compounds within each species exhibited significant treatment effects. Higher (but statistically insignificant) levels of flavonoids were induced by UV-B irradiation in 1- and 2-year-old P. ponderosa foliage. Total flavonoid concentrations in 2-year-old needles increased by 50% (1x ambient UV-B radiation) or 70% (2x ambient UV-B radiation) from that of 1-year-old tissue. Foliar flavonoids of Q. rubra under enhanced UV-B radiation tended to shift from early-eluting compounds to less polar flavonoids eluting later. There were no clear patterns of UV-B radiation effects on 1-year-old P. menziesii foliage. However, 2-year-old tissue had slightly higher foliar flavonoids under the 2x UV-B radiation treatment compared to ambient levels. Results suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation will alter foliar flavonoid composition and concentrations in forest tree species, which could impact tissue protection, and ultimately, competition, herbivory or litter decomposition.

  5. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  6. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  8. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  9. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  10. Brain SPECT analysis by 3D-SSP and clinical features of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Yasunori; Yoshida, Kazuto; Makino, Kenichi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao; Tashiro, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) with cerebral perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical features of PD were compared with SPECT images of the brain obtained by three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analysis. Thirty-eight patients who had PD without dementia (17 men and 21 women with a mean age of 68.6±4.7 years) were enrolled in this study. Their symptoms were rated using the unified parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS). Within a week, all patients were examined by SPECT with I-123, and reconstructed images were analyzed with 3D-SSP using an image-analysis software, iSSP ver. 3.5. Data on brain surface perfusion extracted by 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the PD patients and the normal control group. The same comparisons were made for subgroups of PD patients with severe symptoms, such as tremor, gait disturbance, bradykinesia, and the UPDRS motor score. Cerebral perfusion was decreased at the anterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe of the PD patients compared with the normal controls. In the subgroups with severe gait disturbance and severe bradykinesia, additional hypoperfusion was seen at the lateral frontal association and lateral temporal association and the medial frontal gyrus, and by the pixel-by-pixel comparison, perfusion was significantly decreased (p<0.05) at the medial frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex compared with the normal control group. In PD patients, severe gait disturbance and bradykinesia may be correlated with hypoperfusion of the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. This suggests that functional disturbance of the supplementary motor area and other parts of the frontal lobe are involved in the development of gait disturbance and bradykinesia in PD. (author)

  11. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  12. Extinction risk assessment for the species survival plan (SSP) population of the Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnhardt, Joanne M; Thompson, Steven D; Faust, Lisa J

    2009-05-01

    The Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), an Association of Zoos and Aquariums program, strives to maintain the genetic and demographic health of its population, avoid unplanned changes in size, and minimize the risk of population extinction. The SSP population meets current demographic and genetic objectives with a population size of 209 birds at 61 institutions and 96% genetic diversity (GD) retained from the source population. However, participating institutions have expressed concerns regarding space allocation, target population size (TPS), breeding restrictions, inbreeding depression, and harvest in relation to future population availability and viability. Based on these factors, we assess five questions with a quantitative risk assessment, specifically a population viability analysis (PVA) using ZooRisk software. Using an individual-based stochastic model, we project potential population changes under different conditions (e.g. changes in TPS and genetic management) to identify the most effective management actions. Our projections indicate that under current management conditions, population decline and extinction are unlikely and that although GD will decline over 100 years the projected loss does not exceed levels acceptable to population managers (less than 90% GD retained). Model simulations indicate that the combination of two genetic management strategies (i.e. priority breeding based on mean kinship and inbreeding avoidance) benefits the retention of GD and reduces the accumulation of inbreeding. The current TPS (250) is greater than necessary to minimize the risk of extinction for the SSP population but any reduction in TPS must be accompanied by continued application of genetic management. If carefully planned, birds can be harvested for transfer to Bali for a reintroduction program without jeopardizing the SSP population.

  13. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  14. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  15. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  16. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  17. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  18. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan (SSP) for fiscal year 1992 (FY92)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The FY-92 Site-Specific Plan (FY-92 SSP) for environmental restoration and waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to provide the reader with easy access to the status of environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL. The first chapter provides background on INIEL's physical environment, site history and mission, and general information about the site and its facilities. In addition, this chapter discusses the inter-relationships between the Site Specific Plan, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, the environmental restoration and waste management prioritization systems, and the Activity Data Sheets (ADSs) for environmental restoration and waste management. This discussion should help readers understand what the SSP is and how it fits into the environmental restoration and waste management process at INEL. This understanding should provide the reader with a better context for understanding the discussions in the SSP as well as a better feel for how and what to comment on during the public comment period that will be held from the first of September through the end of October 1991

  19. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  20. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays . These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  1. First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Schaper, Sabine; Küpper, Thomas; Kattner, Simone; Wölfel, Silke

    2017-11-01

    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples. Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia was detected in tick collected in Zambia for the first time, thus demonstrating the possibility of the occurrence of human disease, namely Astrakhan fever, due to this Rickettsia ssp. in this region of Africa. The prevalence of R. conorii ssp. caspia was 0.06% (one positive tick out of 1465 tested ticks) and 0.07% (one positive tick out of 1254 tested Rh. sanguineus).

  2. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4 + T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria . Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4 + T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.

  3. Comparison of the results of climate change impact assessment between RCP8.5 and SSP2 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Park, J. H.; Park, C.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change scenarios are mainly published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and include SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) scenarios (IPCC Third Report), RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios (IPCC 5th Report), and SSP (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) scenarios. Currently widely used RCP scenarios are based on how future greenhouse gas concentrations will change. In contrast, SSP scenarios are that predict how climate change will change in response to socio-economic indicators such as population, economy, land use, and energy change. In this study, based on RCP 8.5 climate data, we developed a new Korean scenario using the future social and economic scenarios of SSP2. In the development of the scenario, not only Korea's emissions but also China and Japan's emissions were considered in terms of space. In addition, GHG emissions and air pollutant emissions were taken into consideration. Using the newly developed scenarios, the impacts assessments of the forest were evaluated and the impacts were evaluated using the RCP scenarios. The average precipitation is similar to the SSP2 scenario and the RCP8.5 scenario, but the SSP2 scenario shows the maximum value is lower than RCP8.5 scenario. This is because the SSP2 scenario simulates the summer precipitation weakly. The temperature distribution is similar for both scenarios, and it can be seen that the average temperature in the 2090s is higher than that in the 2050s. At present, forest net primary productivity of Korea is 693 tC/km2, and it is 679 tC/km2 when SSP2 scenario is applied. Also, the damage of forest by ozone is about 4.1-5.1%. On the other hand, when SSP2 scenario is applied, the forest net primary productivity of Korea is 607 tC/km2 and the forest net primary productivity of RCP8.5 scenario is 657 tC/km2. The analysis shows that the damage caused by climate change is reduced by 14.2% for the SSP2 scenario and 6.9% for the RCP8.5 scenario. The damage caused

  4. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, David J.; Moran, Bridget M.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2005-01-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat

  5. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, David J. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: davematt00@hotmail.com; Moran, Bridget M. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Otte, Marinus L. [Wetland Ecology Research Group, Department of Botany, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat.

  6. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  7. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeletons (Rubratin) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin as therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Vos, P. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillations of Rubratin (ASTA Pharma AG, Frankfurt, Germany), a cell-wall preparation of Nocardia rubra. The objective was to compare the immunostimulating effect of Rubratin with that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

  8. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  9. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  10. Establishing Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis on mined lands: Science and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, G.E.; Vicklund, L.E.; Belden, S.E. [ARS, Cheyenne, WY (United States). High Plains Grasslands Research Station

    2005-12-01

    In 1996, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality enacted regulations governing the reestablishment of woody shrubs on mined lands. The regulation required that an average density of one shrub m{sup -2} be reestablished on at least 20% of the disturbed land area and that the shrub composition must include dominant premine species. In Wyoming, and much of the Northern Great Plains, that meant that Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) had to be reestablished on mined lands. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis had proven difficult to reestablish on mined lands because of poor quality seed, seed dormancy and a poor understanding of the seedbed ecology of this species. Research in the last two decades has produced significant knowledge in the area of direct-seed establishment of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis on mined lands. Our research has shown that reducing grass seeding rates will reduce competition and result in larger sagebrush plants that are more likely to survive and provide greater structural diversity to the plant community. Economic analyses demonstrated that big sagebrush can be established at a cost of $0.01-0.05 per seedling using direct seeding methods compared to transplanting nursery grown seedlings, estimated to cost $0.72-$1.65 per seedling (depending on size) to grow and from $1.30-$2.40 to plant (flat land to 2:1 slopes). An adequate level of precipitation will be necessary to ensure successful establishment of this species no matter what method of propagation is selected and direct seeding gives greater opportunity for success because of the demonstrated longevity of the seed to germinate 3-5 years after the initial seeding.

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in pure dysarthria. A 3D-SSP study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kensho; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okuda, Bungo; Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao

    2007-01-01

    Pure dysarthria from brain infarction is a rare condition, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. To clarify the underlying mechanism of pure dysarthria, we investigated the lesion sites and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with pure dysarthria. We examined 18 consecutive patients with pure dysarthria (9 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) who underwent MRI and cerebral blood flow studies. To visualize the regional cerebral blood flow, we generated Z score images using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) method with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine. Data on the brain surface perfusion extracted by the 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the pure dysarthria (PD) patients and 9 control subjects. MRI revealed multiple lacunar infarctions involving the internal capsule and/or corona radiata in 11 patients, left internal capsule-corona radiata infarction in 4 patients, and pontine infarction in 3 patients. SPECT with 3D-SSP demonstrated bilateral frontal cortical hypoperfusion in all patients, particularly in the anterior opercular region. Based on intergroup comparisons, the PD group exhibited pronounced cortical hypoperfusion in the opercular and medial frontal regions, left more than right. In conclusion, pure dysarthria is considered to originate from frontal cortical hypoperfusion, mainly in the anterior opercular and medial frontal regions, which is probably due to interruption of the corticosubcortical neural networks relevant to speech expression and articulation. In addition, it is suggested that left hemispheric lesions may make a greater contribution to the development of pure dysarthria than do right ones. (author)

  12. Global cost analysis on adaptation to sea level rise based on RCP/SSP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, N.; Tamura, M.; Yotsukuri, M.; Kuwahara, Y.; Yokoki, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low-lying areas are the most vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change in the future. In order to adapt to SLR, it is necessary to decide whether to retreat from vulnerable areas or to install dykes to protect them from inundation. Therefore, cost- analysis of adaptation using coastal dykes is one of the most essential issues in the context of climate change and its countermeasures. However, few studies have globally evaluated the future costs of adaptation in coastal areas. This study tries to globally analyze the cost of adaptation in coastal areas. First, global distributions of projected inundation impacts induced by SLR including astronomical high tide were assessed. Economic damage was estimated on the basis of the econometric relationship between past hydrological disasters, affected population, and per capita GDP using CRED's EM-DAT database. Second, the cost of adaptation was also determined using the cost database and future scenarios. The authors have built a cost database for installed coastal dykes worldwide and applied it to estimating the future cost of adaptation. The unit costs of dyke construction will increase with socio-economic scenario (SSP) such as per capita GDP. Length of vulnerable coastline is calculated by identifying inundation areas using ETOPO1. Future cost was obtained by multiplying the length of vulnerable coastline and the unit cost of dyke construction. Third, the effectiveness of dyke construction was estimated by comparing cases with and without adaptation.As a result, it was found that incremental adaptation cost is lower than economic damage in the cases of SSP1 and SSP3 under RCP scenario, while the cost of adaptation depends on the durability of the coastal dykes.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  14. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55...... of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades’ respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed....

  15. Chemical Composition and Possible in Vitro Phytotoxic Activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  16. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Emma; Kavanagh, Kerrie S; Buckley, Tom C; Cooney, Jakki C

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of 'Strangles' in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2-8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are also common in the UK.

  17. Estudo da viabilidade de Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis em suco de Yacon

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Felipe Miguel Farion

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A maioria dos produtos probióticos são elaborados à base de leite, com desvantagens aos consumidores intolerantes à lactose, tornando assim produtos probióticos não lácteos vantajosos. O yacon é uma planta que acumula em suas raízes compostos prebióticos conhecidos como frutooligossacarídeos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir o suco de yacon e utilizá-lo como matriz não láctea para a bactéria probiótica Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis. O yacon apresentou rápido escurecimento...

  18. Reduced CBF recovery detected by longitudinal 3D-SSP SPECT analyses predicts outcome of postoperative patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Totsune, Tomoko; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Nakagawa, Manabu; Suarez, Jose I; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral blood flow (CBF) recovery obtained from brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images on postoperative outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-nine patients who had undergone surgical clipping for ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were analyzed prospectively. Routine measurements of CBF were performed using technetium-99 m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine SPECT on days 4 and 14 after SAH. Regional voxel data analyzed by three dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) were compared between patients and age-matched normal database (NDB). In 3D-SSP analysis of all patients, cortical hypoperfusion around the surgical site in bilateral frontal lobes was evident on day 4 (P SSP SPECT image analyses can be a potential predictor of poor prognosis in postoperative patients after SAH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  20. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance

  1. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25° or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means.

  2. Comparative study of anatomical normalization errors in SPM and 3D-SSP using digital brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu; Matsutake, Yuki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Amijima, Hizuru

    2011-01-01

    In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow studies, two major algorithms are widely used statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). The aim of this study is to compare an SPM algorithm-based easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and a 3D-SSP system in the errors of anatomical standardization using 3D-digital brain phantom images. We developed a 3D-brain digital phantom based on MR images to simulate the effects of head tilt, perfusion defective region size, and count value reduction rate on the SPECT images. This digital phantom was used to compare the errors of anatomical standardization by the eZIS and the 3D-SSP algorithms. While the eZIS allowed accurate standardization of the images of the phantom simulating a head in rotation, lateroflexion, anteflexion, or retroflexion without angle dependency, the standardization by 3D-SSP was not accurate enough at approximately 25 deg or more head tilt. When the simulated head contained perfusion defective regions, one of the 3D-SSP images showed an error of 6.9% from the true value. Meanwhile, one of the eZIS images showed an error as large as 63.4%, revealing a significant underestimation. When required to evaluate regions with decreased perfusion due to such causes as hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the 3D-SSP is desirable. In a statistical image analysis, we must reconfirm the image after anatomical standardization by all means. (author)

  3. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    . Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  4. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... by HindIII ribotyping, as 85% of isolates from all herds were assigned to one ribotype. In conclusion, HindIII ribotyping seems to represent a useful tool for epidemiological studies of toxigenic P. multocida ssp. multocida....

  5. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  6. Lactoferrin affects the adherence and invasion of Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Fiona; Beecher, Christine; Chaurin, Valerie; Sweeney, Torres; Giblin, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae is an important causative agent of bovine mastitis worldwide. Lactoferrin is an innate immune protein that is associated with many functions including immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between lactoferrin and a clinical bovine mastitis isolate, Strep. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Initially a deliberate in vivo bovine intramammary challenge was performed with Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345. Results demonstrated a significant difference in lactoferrin mRNA levels in milk cells between the control and infused quarters 7h postinfusion. Milk lactoferrin levels in the Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 infused quarters were significantly increased compared with control quarters at 48h postinfusion. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactoferrin had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Strep. dysgalactiae DPC5345 and significantly decreased the ability of the bacteria to internalize into HC-11 mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy images of HC-11 cells exposed to Strep. dysgalactiae and lactoferrin further supported this effect by demonstrating reduced invasion of bacteria to HC-11 cells. The combined data suggest that a bovine immune response to Strep. dysgalactiae infection includes a significant increase in lactoferrin expression in vivo, and based on in vitro data, lactoferrin limits mammary cell invasion of this pathogen by binding to the bacteria and preventing its adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit P Bhavsar

    Full Text Available To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

  8. Systems Analysis of Early Host Gene Expression Provides Clues for Transient Mycobacterium avium ssp avium vs. Persistent Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Sangeeta; Drake, Kenneth L; Lawhon, Sara D; Nunes, Jairo E S; Figueiredo, Josely F; Rossetti, Carlos A; Gull, Tamara; Everts, Robin E; Lewin, Harris A; Adams, Leslie Garry

    It has long been a quest in ruminants to understand how two very similar mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (MAA) lead to either a chronic persistent infection or a rapid-transient infection, respectively. Here, we hypothesized that when the host immune response is activated by MAP or MAA, the outcome of the infection depends on the early activation of signaling molecules and host temporal gene expression. To test our hypothesis, ligated jejuno-ileal loops including Peyer's patches in neonatal calves were inoculated with PBS, MAP, or MAA. A temporal analysis of the host transcriptome profile was conducted at several times post-infection (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours). When comparing the transcriptional responses of calves infected with the MAA versus MAP, discordant patterns of mucosal expression were clearly evident, and the numbers of unique transcripts altered were moderately less for MAA-infected tissue than were mucosal tissues infected with the MAP. To interpret these complex data, changes in the gene expression were further analyzed by dynamic Bayesian analysis. Bayesian network modeling identified mechanistic genes, gene-to-gene relationships, pathways and Gene Ontologies (GO) biological processes that are involved in specific cell activation during infection. MAP and MAA had significant different pathway perturbation at 0.5 and 12 hours post inoculation. Inverse processes were observed between MAP and MAA response for epithelial cell proliferation, negative regulation of chemotaxis, cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin and regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling. MAP inoculated tissue had significantly lower expression of phagocytosis receptors such as mannose receptor and complement receptors. This study reveals that perturbation of genes and cellular pathways during MAP infection resulted in host evasion by mucosal membrane barrier weakening to access entry in the ileum

  9. Introgression of genetic material from Zea mays ssp. Mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Gu, X.; Qu, M.; Luan, J.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays ssp. mexicana, a wild relative of cultivated maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), is a useful gene resource for maize breeding. In this study, two populations were generated by conventional breeding scheme (population I) or tissue culture regime (population II), respectively, to introgress genetic material of Z. mays ssp. mexicana into maize. Karyotype analysis showed that the arm ratios of 10 pairs of chromosomes in parent maize Ye515 and derivative lines from 2 different populations with 26% and 38% chromosome variation frequencies, respectively. Alien chromatin was detected in the root tip cells of progeny plants through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). There were 3.3 chromosomes carrying alien chromatin on average in population I and 6.5 in population II. The hybridization signals were located mainly at the terminal or sub terminal regions of the chromosomes and the sizes were notably variant among lines. Based on those results, it is concluded that the introgression of genetic material from Z. mays ssp. mexicana into cultivated maize was facilitated by tissue culture, and subsequently some excellent materials for maize breeding were created. (author)

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  11. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is under observation for pain and swelling of the left hemiscrotum associated to high fever. The scrotal ultrasound shows the presence of a left intra-scrotal abscess with didymus, epididymis, and intact didymus-epididymis tunicae. The blood culture executed for evening fever during antibiotic therapy has underlined an infection with Propionibacterium acnes. A following blood culture has shown an increase in Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii. Due to fever the patient has undergone left orchifunicolectomy with inguino-scrotal toilet. The anatomical pathological examination has also shown the presence of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation compatible with Propionibacterium acnes infection. Conclusion. The onset of an intrascrotal abscess likely sustained by Propionibacterium acnes complicated by a possible systemic Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii suprainfection is an exceptional event that, in our case, has been resolved with surgical toilet.

  12. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masciovecchio Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is under observation for pain and swelling of the left hemiscrotum associated to high fever. The scrotal ultrasound shows the presence of a left intra-scrotal abscess with didymus, epididymis, and intact didymus-epididymis tunicae. The blood culture executed for evening fever during antibiotic therapy has underlined an infection with Propionibacterium acnes. A following blood culture has shown an increase in Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii. Due to fever the patient has undergone left orchifunicolectomy with inguino-scrotal toilet. The anatomical pathological examination has also shown the presence of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation compatible with Propionibacterium acnes infection. Conclusion. The onset of an intrascrotal abscess likely sustained by Propionibacterium acnes complicated by a possible systemic Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii suprainfection is an exceptional event that, in our case, has been resolved with surgical toilet.

  13. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  14. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  15. A black, non-troglomorphic amphibian from the karst of Slovenia: Proteus anguinus parkelj n. ssp. (Urodela: Proteidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sket, B.; Arntzen, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A morphologically distinct cavernicolous salamander Proteus anguinus from southeastern Slovenia (Bela Krajina) is described as P. a. parkelj ssp. n. It differs from P. a. anguinus in a dark pigmentation, fully developed eyes, a skull with broader and shorter bones and fewer teeth, a voluminous jaw

  16. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho Guerra da Fonseca, F.M; den Hertog, J; Stulen, G

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

  18. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of an N-Acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, A. H.; Nguyen, T.-H.; Křen, Vladimír; Eijsink, V. G. H.; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 12 (2012), s. 3275-3281 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0629 Keywords : N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase * Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis IL1403 * pNP-GlcNAc Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.906, year: 2012

  19. Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact.

  20. Iridoids from Scutellaria goulimyi Rech. f., Lamiaceae. Morphological and chemical relations with Scutellaria albida L. ssp albida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    the close relationship between the two species (Bothmer, 1991), we undertook to investigate chemical similarities between S. goulimyi and S. albida L. ssp albida (Gousiadou et al., 2007; 2012) for taxonomic purposes. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the chemical fingerprint of S...

  1. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaliyah Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  2. An Optimally Stable and Accurate Second-Order SSP Runge-Kutta IMEX Scheme for Atmospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhzadi, Arman; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Charron, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop an optimized implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta scheme for atmospheric applications focusing on stability and accuracy. Following the common terminology, the proposed method is called IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2), as it has second-order accuracy and is composed of diagonally implicit two-stage and explicit three-stage parts. This scheme enjoys the Strong Stability Preserving (SSP) property for both parts. This new scheme is applied to nonhydrostatic compressible Boussinesq equations in two different arrangements, including (i) semiimplicit and (ii) Horizontally Explicit-Vertically Implicit (HEVI) forms. The new scheme preserves the SSP property for larger regions of absolute monotonicity compared to the well-studied scheme in the same class. In addition, numerical tests confirm that the IMEX-SSP2(2,3,2) improves the maximum stable time step as well as the level of accuracy and computational cost compared to other schemes in the same class. It is demonstrated that the A-stability property as well as satisfying "second-stage order" and stiffly accurate conditions lead the proposed scheme to better performance than existing schemes for the applications examined herein.

  3. The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Nissen, Peter; Willats, William G.T.

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp...

  4. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  5. Aspectos ecológicos y distribución de Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bulacio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre es una hierba rizomatosa trepadora que en Argentina fue encontrada en las Sierras de Calilegua (Jujuy y en áreas montanas de Catamarca, aunque de esta última localidad sólo se conoce un único e incompleto ejemplar. Habita quebradas húmedas, entre los 2.100 y 2.650 m s.n.m., en el límite superior del bosque montano. El tallo es grácil de hasta 3 m de largo y la porción subterránea está constituida por rizomas alargados y de hasta 1 cm de diámetro. Estas son las principales diferencias con la ssp. tuberosum, en la cual el tallo es más corto, erguido y desarrolla tubérculos bien definidos.Ecological features and distribution of Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae in Argentina. Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre is a rhizomatous climbing herb that in Argentina was found in the Sierras of Calilegua (Jujuy and Catamarca mountains, yet of this last locality only is known an one and incomplete specimen. It inhabits humid gorges, between 2100-2650 masl, in the upper limit of the montane forest. The slender stem reaches 3 meters in lenght and the underground portion shows elongated rhizomes up to 1 cm in diameter. These are the main differences with the ssp. tuberosum, in which the stem is shorter, erect and develop well-defned tubers.

  6. Identification of small secreted peptides (SSPs) in maize and expression analysis of partial SSP genes in reproductive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye Long; Dai, Xin Ren; Yue, Xun; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Maize 1,491 small secreted peptides were identified, which were classified according to the character of peptide sequences. Partial SSP gene expressions in reproductive tissues were determined by qRT-PCR. Small secreted peptides (SSPs) are important cell-cell communication messengers in plants. Most information on plant SSPs come from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, while little is known about the SSPs of other grass species such as maize (Zea mays). In this study, we identified 1,491 SSP genes from maize genomic sequences. These putative SSP genes were distributed throughout the ten maize chromosomes. Among them, 611 SSPs were classified into 198 superfamilies according to their conserved domains, and 725 SSPs with four or more cysteines at their C-termini shared similar cysteine arrangements with their counterparts in other plant species. Moreover, the SSPs requiring post-translational modification, as well as defensin-like (DEFL) proteins, were identified. Further, the expression levels of 110 SSP genes were analyzed in reproductive tissues, including male flower, pollen, silk, and ovary. Most of the genes encoding basal-layer antifungal peptide-like, small coat proteins-like, thioredoxin-like proteins, γ-thionins-like, and DEFL proteins showed high expression levels in the ovary and male flower compared with their levels in silk and mature pollen. The rapid alkalinization factor-like genes were highly expressed only in the mature ovary and mature pollen, and pollen Ole e 1-like genes showed low expression in silk. The results of this study provide basic information for further analysis of SSP functions in the reproductive process of maize.

  7. Relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF) in CT image system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Teiji; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2004-01-01

    In the CT image system, we revealed the relationship between line spread function (LSF), or slice sensitivity profile (SSP), and point spread function (PSF). In the system, the following equation has been reported; I(x,y)=O(x,y) ** PSF(x,y), in which I(x,y) and O(x,y) are CT image and object function, respectively, and ** is 2-dimensional convolution. In the same way, the following 3-dimensional expression applies; I'(x,y,z)=O'(x,y,z) *** PSF'(x,y,z), in which z-axis is the direction perpendicular to the x/y-scan plane. We defined that the CT image system was separable, when the above two equations could be transformed into following equations; I(x,y)=[O(x,y) * LSF x (x)] * LSF y (y) and I'(x,y,z) =[O'(x,y,z) * SSP(z)] ** PSF(x,y), respectively, in which LSF x (x) and LSF y (y) are LSFs in x- and y-direction, respectively. Previous reports for the LSF and SSP are considered to assume the separable-system. Under the condition of separable-system, we derived following equations; PSF(x,y)=LSF x (x) ·LSF y (y) and PSF'(x,y,z)=PSF(x,y)·SSP(z). They were validated by the computer-simulations. When the study based on 1-dimensional functions of LSF and SSP are expanded to that based on 2- or 3-dimensional functions of PSF, derived equations must be required. (author)

  8. Investigation of the biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzarne Petri, G.; Shalaby El-Sayed, A.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker was studied using CH 3 - 14 COONa and 14 CH 3 - COONa precursors. It has been found that CH 3 - 14 COONa incorporates more slowly and in lower rate into the biosynthetic pathway of essential oil than 14 CH 3 - COONa. The incorporation of both demonstrates the oil forming ability of herb and flowers. The process is more emphasized in the flower out of the organs of the plants. Further on it was stated that the biosynthesis leads to bicyclic α-pinene and borneol through some aliphatic and cyclic monoterpenes, while eucalyptole (cineol) as an oxydation product appears in an early stage. Of sesquiterpenes the caryophyllene procedes the formation of camazulene. (author)

  9. Sesquiterpene Lactones of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus from Montenegro - Antifungal Leaf - Surface Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Jadranin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of leaf cuticular neutral lipids of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus collected at canyon of river Tara (North Montenegro was investigated by GC/MS (nonpolar fraction, LC-ESI TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy (more polar fraction. The nonpolar fraction (ca. 15% of the whole surface extract contained C 27 - 33 n-alkanes, those with odd-number of carbons predominating. The LC-ESI MS and 1H NMR of the more polar fraction revealed 13 sesquiterpene lactones, constituting ca. 97.5% of the lactone mixture, identified as the known guaianolides, so-called amphoricarpolides, found previously in the aerial parts of the genus. The lactone fraction exhibited considerable in vitro effect against eight fungi, i.e. Aspergillus ochraceus , A. niger, A. versicolor , Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium verticillioides and Fulvia fulvum.

  10. Combining ability for maturity and plant height in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Azam, S.M.; Nasim, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A 5 * 5 F1 diallel cross hybrids of Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt along with parents were evaluated through combining ability for days to flowering (initiation and completion), days to maturity and plant height. Highly significant differences were recorded for all the traits. Mean squares due to general, specific and reciprocal combining ability were significant for all the traits except plant height for which the latter two components were non-significant. Prevalence of additive (plant height), non-additive (days to flowering completion; days to maturity) and reciprocal effects (days to flowering initiation) were detected. Parental line G-403 was best general combiner for all the traits. The F1 hybrids G-902 * G-265 (days to flowering initiation), G-902 * G-403 (days to flowering completion), G-265 * G-1500 (days to maturity) and G-909 * G-265 (plant height) were superior and may be exploited for future breeding programs. (author)

  11. Assessment of (Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora Cell Cultures Response Under to Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Angélica Guerrero Zúñiga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures are homogenous experimental systems, highly controllable that allow the study of short and large water stress adaptations without the interference of the different tissues and development of plants. An approach to understand these adaptations is through the presence of induced proteins; as a result of changes in genetic expression. This work analyze the response of Fouquieria splendens ssp. breviflora cell cultures exposed to abscisic acid (ABA, through the electrophoretic characterization of quantity and quality of stress induced proteins. There were recorded low molecular weight polypeptides (< 35kDa, common in experiments under ABA 10mM, followed by the association with 20 and 30mM ABA conditions, with a particularly response of cell cultures without the stress agent.

  12. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report is a part of the research project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60......% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report...... as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new...

  13. The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP Conference 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Todd Kuenstner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. In order to further study this problem, the conferees discussed ways to improve MAP diagnostic tests and discussed potential future anti-MAP clinical trials. The conference proceedings may be viewed on the www.Humanpara.org website. A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees.

  14. Dampak Ketiadaan Pengaturan Kuota Ekspor Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp. di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hardiningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kuota ekspor merupakan salah satu mekanisme perlindungan ekosistem laut. Banyaknya perburuan Ikan Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp. di Indonesia saat ini karena permintaan pasar yang tinggi, khususnya dari luar negeri. Tingginya permintaan menyebabkan ikan jenis ini masuk ke dalam daftar Convention on International Trade in Endanger Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES Appendiks II pada tahun 2016. Jika Ikan Hiu Tikus yang merupakan predator puncak pada rantai makanan di laut ini sampai terancam punah, maka ekosistem laut akan mengalami kerusakan parah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia belum memiliki perangkat hukum yang memadai terkait dengan penentuan komponen-komponen kuota ekspor Ikan Hiu, khususnya Ikan Hiu Tikus sebagaimana ketentuan yang diatur di dalam CITES. Keadaan ini menimbulkan dampak terhadap kelestarian Ikan Hiu Tikus itu sendiri, kepentingan masyarakat Indonesia, keberlangsungan lingkungan laut dan generasi yang memanfaatkannya, serta berdampak terhadap perdagangan internasional.

  15. Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpene Ester Derivatives from Alnus viridis ssp. viridis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Miroslav; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Veselinovic, Jovana; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vidakovic, Vera; Tesevic, Vele; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2017-05-26

    Seven derivatives of pentacyclic triterpene acids (1-7) were isolated from the bark of Alnus viridis ssp. viridis using a combination of column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 were determined to be new after spectroscopic data interpretation and were assigned as 27-hydroxyalphitolic acid derivatives (1-3), a 27-hydroxybetulinic acid derivative (6), and a 3-epi-maslinic acid derivative (7), respectively. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with a C-27 hydroxymethyl group have been found in species of the genus Alnus for the first time. These compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity testing against a number of cancer cell lines. Also, selected pentacyclic triterpenoids were selected as potential inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIα for an in silico investigation.

  16. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  17. Effect of explant origin and different growth regulators on micropropagation of Pistacia atlantica ssp. mutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Ashraf Mehrabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of wild pistachio as a multipurpose woody species is a hard and tedious task. In this research, an effective in vitro protocol was developed for rapid proliferation of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica ssp. mutica in MS medium supplemented with B5 vitamins and different growth regulators. Rooting of plantlets was tested by two treatments containing Rhizopon and IBA in ex vitro. With respect to the results, the nodal segments explants, produced the highest shoot frequency, leaf frequency and the tallest shoots. On the other hand, the tallest shoots were generated from shoot tip explant and medium containing of TDZ plus IAA. Both treatments (Rhizopon and IBA led to a remarkable increase in the number of roots, root length and rooting percentage compared to the control. These results may be applied for rapid proliferation to spread the pistachio trees and shrubs that are difficult and time consuming.

  18. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC 50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  20. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  2. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  3. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyde Nargess Sadati Lamardi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla, is an herbaceous and perennial plant which belongs to Paeoniaceae family. Two species of this plant grow in northern parts of Iran. The roots in powder form have been used in Persian traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy, nightmares and gynecological diseases. Several biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-tumor effects of Paeonia species have been reported. Methods: methanol-water (80-20 extract (total extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, cytotoxic activity of the fractions was determined against brine shrimp larvae. Column chromatography with normal phase silica gel and preparative TLC were also used for the isolation and purification of compounds. Results: Evaluation of the results indicated that the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions with IC50 values of 16.55, 23.9 µg/mL, respectively showed potent radical scavenging activity. As well, the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions indicated the highest antioxidant power by FRAP assay. Due to the potent antioxidant activity, the chloroform fraction was chosen for further investigations. Three compounds were identified as benzoic acid, veratric acid and oleanolic acid by different spectroscopic methods. Conclusion: According to our findings in this study, the root of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophyla has beneficial antioxidant activity without toxicity and the therapeutic use of this plant in traditional medicine can be somewhat justifiable.

  4. A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Furumoto, Shozo; Iwata, Ren; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze (11)C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy)benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p SSP analysis of amyloid PET imaging possible. This new method of 3D-SSP analysis for BF-227 PET could prove useful for detecting differences between normal groups and AD and MCI groups, and between converters and non-converters.

  5. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    (Coregonus ssp.) for signals of positive selection. These salmonids show several distinct morphological and ecological differences that may be associated with energetics and therefore potentially positive selection at the mitogenome level. We found that purifying selection and genetic drift were...

  6. Draft Genome of Scalindua rubra, Obtained from the Interface Above the Discovery Deep Brine in the Red Sea, Sheds Light on Potential Salt Adaptation Strategies in Anammox Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2017-07-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that members of the phylum Planctomycetes are abundantly present at the brine-seawater interface (BSI) above multiple brine pools in the Red Sea. Planctomycetes include bacteria capable of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Here, we investigated the possibility of anammox at BSI sites using metagenomic shotgun sequencing of DNA obtained from the BSI above the Discovery Deep brine pool. Analysis of sequencing reads matching the 16S rRNA and hzsA genes confirmed presence of anammox bacteria of the genus Scalindua. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that this Scalindua sp. belongs to a distinct group, separate from the anammox bacteria in the seawater column, that contains mostly sequences retrieved from high-salt environments. Using coverage- and composition-based binning, we extracted and assembled the draft genome of the dominant anammox bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that this Scalindua species uses compatible solutes for osmoadaptation, in contrast to other marine anammox bacteria that likely use a salt-in strategy. We propose the name Candidatus Scalindua rubra for this novel species, alluding to its discovery in the Red Sea.

  7. Immunoreactive proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 identified by gnotobiotic mono-colonized mice sera, immune rabbit sera and nonimmune human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Górska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372.

  8. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK ( B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372).

  9. Overcoming interspecific incompatibility in the cross Brassica campestris ssp. japonica x Brassica oleracea var. botrytis using irradiated mentor pollen page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarla, N.

    1988-01-01

    The cross B. campestris ssp. japonica x B. oleracea var. botrytis fails due to incompatibility barrier at the stigma. To realize this cross, irradiated compatible pollen (mentor pollen) was used before the incompatible pollination. The presence of mentor pollen stimulated the incompatible pollen to germinate and effect fertilization and seed set. One hybrid was thus obtained. Most of the seeds were inviable. Of the 5 plants raised one was a hybrid and 4 resembled the female parent. 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  11. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia

  12. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Osbak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection.To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26 was found between previous microarray signal data and protein abundance.This is

  13. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a

  14. Genetic (RAPD) diversity between Oleria onega agarista and Oleria onega ssp. (Ithomiinae, Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera) in north-eastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallusser, S; Guadagnuolo, R; Rahier, M

    2004-05-01

    Oleria onega agarista Felder and Felder and Oleria onega ssp. nov. are two Ithomiinae subspecies from north-eastern Peru, that differ for some morphological and behavioural traits. Two contact zones are known near the town of Tarapoto: Ahuashiyacu, where both subspecies cohabit but do not seem to hybridise, and Estero (near the village of Shapaja), where they apparently hybridise. Genetic differences between the two subspecies and between populations were investigated with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Both Cluster and Principal Coordinates Analyses (CCoA and PCoA) performed using these data, provided a clear but weak discrimination between the two subspecies. Genetic diversity is much higher within the populations than between them. Moreover, the geographically more distant populations are grouped together by the genetic data. Morphological traits on the wing patterns of the hybrids are intermediary between the two butterflies subspecies, while RAPDs data place them closer to O. onega agarista than to O. onega ssp. The individuals of the Ahuashiyacu population are clearly separated into two groups, those of O. onega ssp. and O. onega agarista, by both morphology and RAPDs data. Moreover, none of those individuals show RAPD similarity with the hybrids, suggesting that hybridisation has not occurred in this population.

  15. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  16. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-01-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  17. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Nitrogen Application in Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of drought stress on the growth and nitrogen nutrition status of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. at different nitrogen (N levels, the changes in N accumulation and enzyme activities involved in N assimilation were investigated. The drought was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG under hydroponic culture conditions. Pakchoi seedlings were exposed to a modified nutrient solution with different nitrogen concentration (N1, N2, and N3 represent 2, 9 and 18 mM NaNO3, respectively and osmotic potential (W1, W2 and W3 represent 0, 60 and 120 g·L−1 PEG 6000 in a full factorial, replicated randomized block design. A short time (seven days of drought stress caused a significant decline in plant water content, transpiration rate, shoot biomass and shoot nitrogen concentration. Increasing N availability considerably alleviate drought stress by increasing the content of total free amino acids in the roots, promoting the acceleration of root biomass accumulation, and improving the activities of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1 and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2 which would reduce moisture limitations. The results suggested that pakchoi supplied with relative higher N had better growth performance under drought stress.

  18. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  19. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urease inhibitory profile of extracts and chemical constituents of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Ismail; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Khan, Haroon; Nasruddin; Khan, Majid; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Arifullah

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the urease inhibitory profile of extract and fractions of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks followed by bioactivity-guided isolated compounds. The crude extract was found significantly active with urease inhibitor (95.40% at 0.2 mg/mL) with IC50 values of 32.0 ± 0.28 μg/mL. Upon fractionation, ethyl acetate fraction displayed 100% urease inhibition with IC50 values of 19.9 ± 0.51 μg/mL at 0.2 mg/mL. However, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited insignificant urease inhibition. Similarly, the isolated compound, transilitin (1) and dihydro luteolin (2) demonstrated marked urease attenuation with 95 and 98% respectively, at 0.15 mg/mL. Both the isolated compounds showed marked potency with IC50 values of 8.54 ± 0.54 and 9.58 ± 2.22 μg/mL, respectively. In short, both the extract and fractions and isolated compounds showed marked urease inhibition and thus a useful natural source of urease inhibition.

  2. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Data Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2010-01-15

    This report is a part of a research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new load areas. The global deflection is compared with results from a previous test and results from FEM analyses in order to validate the solution as to how the gravity load on the blade was handled. Furthermore, the DIC measurement and the displacement sensors measurements are compared in order to validate the results from the DIC measurements. The report includes the results from the test and a description of the measurement equipment and the data acquisition. (author)

  3. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis: bacterial canker of tomato, molecular interactions and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Munmun; Macdonald, Jacqueline; Liu, Peng; Weselowski, Brian; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2018-03-12

    Bacterial canker disease is considered to be one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids. The virulence factors include serine proteases, cell wall-degrading enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, pectinases) and others. Mutational analyses of these genes and gene expression profiling (via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, transcriptomics and proteomics) have begun to shed light on their roles in colonization and virulence, whereas the expression of tomato genes in response to Cmm infection suggests plant factors involved in the defence response. These findings may aid in the generation of target-specific bactericides or new resistant varieties of tomato. Meanwhile, various chemical and biological controls have been researched to control Cmm. This review presents a detailed investigation regarding the pathogen Cmm, bacterial canker infection, molecular interactions between Cmm and tomato, and current perspectives on improved disease management. © 2018 AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  5. Interaction between M-like protein and macrophage thioredoxin facilitates antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ma

    Full Text Available Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH. TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis.

  6. Interaction between M-Like Protein and Macrophage Thioredoxin Facilitates Antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Junxi; Li, Yue; Yi, Li; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z) is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP) is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX) was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH). TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis. PMID:22384152

  7. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... Risø DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen‟s PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...

  8. Curated genome annotation of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and comparative genome analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Yamasaki, Chisato; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Hilton, Phillip B.; Antonio, Baltazar A.; Aono, Hideo; Apweiler, Rolf; Bruskiewich, Richard; Bureau, Thomas; Burr, Frances; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Fuks, Galina; Habara, Takuya; Haberer, Georg; Han, Bin; Harada, Erimi; Hiraki, Aiko T.; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hoen, Douglas; Hokari, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Satomi; Hsing, Yue; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ito, Yukiyo; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kanno, Masako; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Kubooka, Hiromi; Lieberherr, Damien; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Lonsdale, David; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsuya, Akihiro; McCombie, W. Richard; Messing, Joachim; Miyao, Akio; Mulder, Nicola; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nam, Jongmin; Namiki, Nobukazu; Numa, Hisataka; Nurimoto, Shin; O’Donovan, Claire; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okido, Toshihisa; OOta, Satoshi; Osato, Naoki; Palmer, Lance E.; Quetier, Francis; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Saichi, Naomi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yasumichi; Sakata, Katsumi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Schoof, Heiko; Seki, Motoaki; Shibata, Michie; Shimizu, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinso, Yuji; Singh, Nagendra K.; Smith-White, Brian; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Tanino, Motohiko; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thongjuea, Supat; Todokoro, Fusano; Tsugane, Mika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Wang, Aihui; Wing, Rod A.; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Higo, Kenichi; Burr, Benjamin; Gojobori, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    We present here the annotation of the complete genome of rice Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar Nipponbare. All functional annotations for proteins and non-protein-coding RNA (npRNA) candidates were manually curated. Functions were identified or inferred in 19,969 (70%) of the proteins, and 131 possible npRNAs (including 58 antisense transcripts) were found. Almost 5000 annotated protein-coding genes were found to be disrupted in insertional mutant lines, which will accelerate future experimental validation of the annotations. The rice loci were determined by using cDNA sequences obtained from rice and other representative cereals. Our conservative estimate based on these loci and an extrapolation suggested that the gene number of rice is ∼32,000, which is smaller than previous estimates. We conducted comparative analyses between rice and Arabidopsis thaliana and found that both genomes possessed several lineage-specific genes, which might account for the observed differences between these species, while they had similar sets of predicted functional domains among the protein sequences. A system to control translational efficiency seems to be conserved across large evolutionary distances. Moreover, the evolutionary process of protein-coding genes was examined. Our results suggest that natural selection may have played a role for duplicated genes in both species, so that duplication was suppressed or favored in a manner that depended on the function of a gene. PMID:17210932

  9. CRECIMIENTO DE Lactobacillus casei ssp casei ATCC 393 EN SUERO CLARIFICADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN ALEXANDER VELASQUEZ-TELLEZ

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del pH y la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de Lactobacillus casei ssp casei ATCC 393, cultivado en suero de leche clarificado en fermentación por lotes. Se observó el efecto de los factores sobre la velocidad específica de crecimiento y la producción de biomasa, utilizando para cada parámetro evaluado la metodología de superficie de respuesta, empleando un diseño central compuesto rotable 22. Los resultados obtenidos del modelo para maximizar la velocidad de crecimiento especifica a 0,061h-1 el proceso debe ser realizado a pH cercano de 7,1 y temperatura de 36,9°C, y para maximizar la producción de biomasa a 11,58 g/L debe realizarse a pH de 7,0 y temperatura de 35,7°C, estos resultados ratifican el efecto del pH y la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de Lactobacillus casei

  10. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  11. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of ΣDDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([ΣDDT] ∼ 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of ΣDDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about ΣDDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the ΣDDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that ΣDDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that ΣDDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of ΣDDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of ΣDDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  12. A bacterial artificial chromosome-based physical map of Manihot esculenta ssp.flabellifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhua FU; Zhiqiang XIA; Shujuan WANG; Xin CHEN; Cheng LU; Mingcheng LUO; Hongbin ZHANG; Wenquan WANG

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is known as the third most important food crop in the tropics and also used for industrial feedstock for biofuels.Two new bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed for W14 (M.Esculenta ssp.flabellifolia),a wild ancestor of domesticated cassava.The libraries were constructed with EcoRI and HindⅢ insertion vectors,respectively.The EcoRI library has 29952 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb,while the HindⅢ library consists of 29952 clones with an average insert of 129 kb.The combined libraries contain a total of 59904 clones with an average insert size of 125 kb,representing approximately 10×haploid genome equivalents.A total of 29952 clones were fingerprinted and resulted in a cassava physical map composed of 2485 contigs with an average physical length of 336 kb and 2909 singletons,representing approximately 762 Mb of the cassava genome.5000 clones located at the ends of BAC contigs were selected and sequenced.A total of 6077 SNPs and 231 indels were identified,that covered 459 gene sequences,of which 6 genes were associated with starch and sucrose metabolism.This BAC-based physical map provides valuable tools to understand the genetics and evolution of cassava.

  13. Improved metabolic control and hepatic oxidative biomarkers with the periconception use of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezik, M; Aslan, M; Orhan, D D; Erdemoglu, E; Pekcan, M; Mungan, T; Sezik, E

    2010-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of the Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum (HPsP) plant extract in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes rat model during pregnancy. Five groups (n = 8, each) were formed: (1) diabetic non-mated control, (2) non-diabetic mated control, (3) diabetic mated control, (4) diabetic non-mated treatment and (5) diabetic mated treatment. The HPsP extract was administered orally for 15 days (250 mg/kg body weight), beginning 3 days before mating. The extract led to decreased blood glucose, increased serum insulin, and decreased serum triglycerides in pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic animals. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) measurements in extract-treated diabetics were similar to non-diabetic pregnant controls, indicating probable reversal of increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. The mean pup number tended to increase (p = 0.06) with extract administration. In conclusion, the beneficial effects we encountered with the periconception use of the studied herbal extract warrant further investigation.

  14. A new acetophenone derivative from flowers of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Pagano, Ester; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Masullo, Milena; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    A new acetophenone derivative named gnaphaliol 9-O-propanoate (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of EtOH extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers along with the five known acetophenones 12-acetoxytremetone (2), 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxy)toxol (3), [2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (4), 1-[2-[1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (5) and gnaphaliol (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D-NMR (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY and ROESY) experiments as well as ESIMS analysis. The isolated compounds were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Biological assays on human colonic epithelial cells showed that compound 2 possessed antioxidant effects reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares

  16. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, A.; Lewinsohn, J.; Auger, C.; Downs, J.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Burrows, R.

    1997-09-01

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares.

  17. Influence of casein hydrolysates on exopolysaccharide synthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Yang, Bao; Brashears, Mindy M; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Li, Yinjuan

    2014-05-01

    A lot of interesting research has been undertaken to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of casein hydrolysates (CH) with molecular weight less than 3 kDa on cell viability, EPS synthesis and the enzyme activity involved in EPS synthesis during the co-culturing of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in MRS broth for 72 h at 37 ± 0.1 °C. The highest EPS yield (150.1 mg L⁻¹) was obtained on CH prepared with papain (CHP) at 48 h. At 24 h, EPS were composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1.0:2.4:1.5. The monosaccharide composition changed with extension of the fermentation time. The activities of α-phosphoglucomutase, uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase were associated with EPS synthesis. Moreover, the activities of β-phosphoglucomutase and deoxythymadine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in rhamnose synthesis were very low at the exponential growth phase and could not be detected during other given periods. The influence of different CH (<3 kDa) on LAB viability, EPS production, EPS monomeric composition and activity levels of key metabolic enzymes was distinct. Besides, their influence was related to the distribution of amino acids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Sec_205 of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huihuang; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Pengpeng; Deng, Mingyong; Yan, Lili; Zhai, Pan; Wei, Zigong

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model. The protection against SEZ infection was mediated by specific antibodies to Sec_205 to some extent and was identified by the passive protection assay. The Sec_205 was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the inhibition assay. These suggest that Sec_205 may play a vital role in pathogenicity and serve as a new vaccine candidate against SEZ infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short communication: Investigation into Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in pasteurized milk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Bonilauri, P; Giacometti, F; Ricchi, M; Cammi, G; Piva, S; Zambrini, V; Canever, A; Arrigoni, N

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in pasteurized milk produced by Italian industrial dairy plants to verify the prediction of a previously performed risk assessment. The study analyzed 160 one-liter bottles of pasteurized milk from 2 dairy plants located in 2 different regions. Traditional cultural protocols were applied to 500mL of pasteurized milk for each sample. The investigation focused also on the pasteurization parameters and data on the microbiological characteristics of raw milk (total bacterial count) and pasteurized milk (Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria monocytogenes). No sample was positive for MAP, the pasteurization parameters complied with European Union legislation, and the microbiological analysis of raw and pasteurized milk showed good microbiological quality. The results show that a 7-log (or >7) reduction could be a plausible value for commercial pasteurization. The combination of hygiene practices at farm level and commercial pasteurization yield very low or absent levels of MAP contamination in pasteurized milk, suggesting that pasteurized milk is not a significant source of human exposure to MAP in the dairies investigated. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  3. Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2017-11-01

    Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 derived from 2 propagation procedures was determined. The subpopulations consisted of 3 categories (physiological states): viable cells capable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC+), viable cells incapable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC-), widely referred to as viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells, and nonviable or dead cells (NVC). Counts of VC+ were recorded using a conventional plate count procedure. A fluorescent vital staining procedure that discriminates between viable (VC+ and VC-) and NVC cells was used to determine the number of viable and nonviable cells. Both propagation procedures had 2 variables: in procedure (P)1, the propagation medium was rich in yeast extract (4.0%) and the pH was maintained at 5.7; in P2, the medium was devoid of yeast extract and the pH was maintained at 5.1. The results showed that post-propagation operations-concentration of cells by centrifugation and subsequent freezing or lyophilization of cell concentrate-induced different degrees of transience from VC+ to VC- states in cells derived from P1 and P2. Compared with cells derived from P2, cells from P1 were more labile to stress associated with centrifugation, freezing, and lyophilization, as revealed by differential counting. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on clinical mastitis occurrence in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, G; Grohn, Y T; Schukken, Y H; Smith, R L

    2017-09-01

    Endemic diseases can be counted among the most serious sources of losses for livestock production. In dairy farms in particular, one of the most common diseases is Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP causes direct costs because it affects milk production, but it has also been suspected to increase the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) among infected animals. This might contribute to further costs for farmers. We asked whether MAP infection represents a risk factor for CM and, in particular, whether CM occurrences were more common in MAP-infected animals. Our results, obtained by survival analysis, suggest that MAP-infected cows had an increased probability of experiencing CM during lactation. These results highlight the need to account for the interplay of infectious diseases and other health conditions in economic and epidemiological modeling. In this case, accounting for MAP-infected cows having an increased CM occurrence might have nonnegligible effects on the estimated benefit of MAP control. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Boosting the growth of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignone, Desideria; Radmann, Pia; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Single so-called booster substances were added to the fermentation medium of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus (L.) paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 to enhance its growth. A wide screening was carried out in microtiter plates and a statistical analysis of the growth parameters was performed. CFU counts were used to correlate the increase in OD 590nm with the increase in viable cell number. Sodium ascorbate, sodium pyruvate, manganese sulfate and cysteine had a remarkable boosting effect on the growth of L. paracasei F19. Three of the boosters increased the growth rate of the strain and led to a higher cell density and biomass yield in laboratory conditions. Cysteine significantly shortened the lag phase, therefore reducing the fermentation times. The boosters were tested on four additional Lactobacillus species and their growth boosting activity was retained. To investigate whether the growth boosters could improve the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to the adverse condition in the GI tract, additional tests were performed. Sodium ascorbate and sodium pyruvate exerted a certain antioxidant effect, as they improved the tolerance of L. paracasei F19 to H 2 O 2 . Sodium ascorbate enhanced the growth of the strain in low pH.

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  7. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  8. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  9. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  10. Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata, ESPECIE FORESTAL CON POTENCIAL PARA SER INTRODUCIDA EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Román-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de especies forestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria contribuye a reducir la presión en los bosques naturales y se pueden incorporar en áreas no arboladas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad nutritiva, germinación, desarrollo de plántula en vivero y diversidad de usos de Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson ssp. lanceolata. El material comestible y las semillas se colectaron en Tomatlán, Jalisco. Se realizaron análisis bromatológicos, pruebas de escarificación y evaluación de plántula en vivero sobre tres suelos con diferente pH. El experimento se analizó en un diseño completamente al azar con comparación de medias de Tukey (P ≤ 0.05. Además, se hicieron entrevistas a productores, una revisión bibliográfica y consulta de ejemplares en los herbarios para conocer los usos locales y potenciales de la especie. Los resultados indican alto contenido de materia seca (97.40 % y proteína cruda (29.05 %, mayor germinación en los tratamientos térmicos, mejor desarrollo de la plántula en el suelo ligeramente ácido (6.57 y la diversidad de usos incluye leña, forraje y madera, entre otros. Por el alto valor nutritivo y diversidad de usos en el medio rural, L. lanceolata representa una opción viable para utilizarse en sistemas silvopastoriles del trópico seco.

  11. Short communication: Passive shedding of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in commercial dairy goats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D G G; Lima, M C; Barros, M; Valente, F L; Scatamburlo, T M; Rosado, N; Oliveira, C T S A M; Oliveira, L L; Moreira, M A S

    2017-10-01

    Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. Because no clinical signs were observed over 1 yr of monitoring, we hypothesized that these MAP-positive goats could be passive shedders. Thus, in the present study, 4 positive goats (4/13) from the previous study were purchased and feces and milk samples were collected for evaluation (twice, with an interval of 3 mo between tests) by culture of MAP, IS900 PCR, or both. All analyses were negative for MAP. At the last time point, blood samples were collected for ELISA, the animals were killed, and tissues collected for tissue culture and histopathology. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions related to paratuberculosis were observed. Similarly, no histological changes were observed and MAP in samples stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was not detected. These animals were characterized as potential passive shedders with upward contamination of the teat canal by MAP. This is the first report of the passive shedding phenomenon in goats in Brazil and it highlights the importance of identifying these animals for control programs and to ensure the quality of dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Khorasan wheat population researching (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum (McKey in the minimum tillage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat occupies a special place in the group of new-old cereals (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum McKey. It is an ancient species, native to eastern Persia, that is very close to durum wheat by morphological characteristics. Investigations were carried out in agro ecological conditions of the eastern Srem, with two wheat populations with dark and bright awns as objects of study. The following morphological and productive characteristics were investigated: plant height (PH, spike length (SH, number of spikelets per spike (NSS, absolute weight (AW and grain weight per spike (GW, seed germination (G and grains yield (YG. Field micro-experiments were set on the carbonate chernozem soil type on loess plateau in 2011 and 2012. Hand wheat sowing was conducted in early March with drill row spacing of 12 cm. The experiment was established as complete randomized block system with four replications. Tending crops measures were not applied during the growing season. Plants were grown without usage of NPK mineral nutrients. Chemical crop protection measures were not applied, although powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis was appeared before plants spike formation in a small extent. The results showed that both populations have a genetic yield potential. In general, both populations manifested a satisfactory tolerance on lodging and there was no seed dispersal. Plants from bright awns population were higher, had longer spikes and larger number of spikelet’s per spike. However, plants from dark awns population had higher absolute weight and grains weight per spike, as well as grain yield per plant. Strong correlation connections were identified among the investigated characteristics. The determination of correlations, as well as direct and indirect affects, enabled easier understanding of the mutual relationships and their balancing in order to improve the yield per unit area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31078 i br. TR 31022

  14. A selective medium for the enumeration and differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwamaioha, Nwadiuto O; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2018-06-01

    Modified reinforced clostridial medium (mRCM) was developed and evaluated for the differential enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, an important species of lactic acid bacteria with health benefits, is used in the production of yogurt and other fermented foods. Our results showed that supplementing reinforced clostridial medium with 0.025% CaCl 2 , 0.01% uracil, and 0.2% Tween 80 (mRCM) significantly enhanced the growth rate of L. bulgaricus RR and ATCC 11842 strains as measured by the optical densities of these strains after 12 h of incubation at 42°C. The bacterial populations (plate count) of the RR and ATCC 11842 strains were 0.76 and 0.77 log cfu/g higher in mRCM than in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe and reinforced clostridial medium media, respectively. Conversely, the population counts for other bacterial species (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus reuteri) were significantly inhibited in the mRCM medium. The addition of aniline blue dye to mRCM (mRCM-blue) improved the selectivity of L. bulgaricus in mixed lactic bacterial cultures compared with de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium and lactic agar with regard to colony appearance and morphology. The mRCM-blue performed better than the conventional medium in culturing, enumerating, and differentiating L. bulgaricus. Therefore, mRCM-blue could be used as a selective medium to enhance the growth and differentiation of L. bulgaricus in order to meet the increasing demand for this beneficial species of bacteria. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural characterization and antioxidant property of released exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus SRFM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhi; Dong, Mingsheng; Wang, Weilu; Han, Shuo; Rui, Xin; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Wu, Junjun; Li, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Three released exopolysaccharide fractions (r-EPS1, r-EPS2 and r-EPS3) were isolated from the fermented milk of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus SRFM-1 and purified by anion exchange chromatography, and characterizations of the structures were conducted. The r-EPS1 and r-EPS2 were homogenous with the average molecular weights of 3.97×10 5 Da and 3.86×10 5 Da, respectively. Three r-EPS fractions were composed of galactose and glucose with a molar ratio of 1.23: 1.00, 1.33: 1.00 and 1.00: 1.34, respectively. Structural characterization indicated that the r-EPS1 contained a backbone of →6-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→6)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→4)-α-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, and had three branching points which existed in terminal with D-Glcp residues with α/β-d-(1→6) linkages. The r-EPS2 was composed of →6-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1→6)-α-d-Galp-(1→ as the backbone chain with a branching point which also existed in terminal D-Glcp residue with β-(1→6) linkage. In addition, three r-EPS fractions exhibited strong scavenging activities on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and chelating activity on ferrous ion, and their antioxidant activities decreased in the order of r-EPS1>r-EPS2>r-EPS3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  17. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SSP-9) derived from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that expresses type I ifn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Saint-Jean, S; González, C; Monrás, M; Romero, A; Ballesteros, N; Enríquez, R; Perez-Prieto, S

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, the establishment and biological characterization of a new cell line, SSP-9, derived from the pronephros of the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, are reported. These cells grew well in Leibovitz's (L15) medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum at temperatures from 15 to 25° C, and they have been sub-cultured over 100 passages to produce a continuous cell line with an epithelial-like morphology. The SSP-9 cells attached and spread efficiently at different plating densities, retaining 80% of cell viability after storage in liquid nitrogen. When karyotyped, the cells had 40-52 chromosomes, with a modal number of 48. Viral susceptibility tests showed that SSP-9 cells were susceptible to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, producing infectious virus and regular cytopathic effects. Moreover, these cells could be stimulated by poly I:C, showing significant up-regulation in the expression of the genes that regulate immune responses, such as ifn and mx-1. SSP-9 cells constitutively express genes characteristic of macrophages, such as major histocompatibility complex (mhc-II) and interleukin 12b (il-12b), and flow cytometry assays confirmed that SSP-9 cells can be permanently transfected with plasmids expressing a reporter gene. Accordingly, this new cell line is apparently suitable for transgenic manipulation, and to study host cell-virus interactions and immune processes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias; Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2013-01-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m 3 of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m -3 ). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r 2 >0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ -1 ) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  19. Exploring MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Comparison of virulence of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica genotypes B.12 and B.FTNF002-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Fabbi, Massimo; Sulyok, Kinga M; Magyar, Tibor; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-02-10

    Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is any difference in the virulence of the strains belonging to the B.FTNF002-00 and B.12 genetic clades. Experimental infection of Fischer 344 rats was performed by intra-peritoneal injection of three dilutions of a Hungarian (B.12 genotype) and an Italian (B.FTNF002-00 genotype) F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strain. Moderate difference was observed in the virulence of the two genotypes. Significant differences were observed in total weight loss values and scores of clinical signs between the two genotypes with more rats succumbing to tularemia in groups infected with the B.FTNF002-00 genotype. Results of the experimental infection are consistent with previous clinical observations and pathological studies suggesting that F. tularensis ssp. holarctica genotype B.FTNF002-00 has higher pathogenic potential than the B.12 genotype.

  1. Intestinal antispasmodic effects of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum and chemical identification of the active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, Daniela; Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Piacente, Sonia; Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo A

    2013-12-12

    In the Mediterranean Area, the flowers of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum are a traditional remedy for the treatment of intestinal complaints and are used as herbal tea for curing digestive, stomachic and intestinal diseases. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant, the effect of an ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures, active component(s) were identified. Contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with acetylcholine and barium chloride; motility in vivo was evaluated by measuring upper gastrointestinal transit, both in control mice and in mice with experimental intestinal inflammation induced by croton oil. Chromatographic separation techniques such as HPLC and silica gel columns have yielded the active principles of Helichrysum italicum. We found that the ethanolic extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers elicited antispasmodic actions in the isolated mouse ileum and inhibited transit preferentially in the inflamed gut. A bioassay guided fractionation of the extract yielded the known compounds 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2). Present study supported the traditional use of Helichrysum italicum ssp. italicum flowers for intestinal complaints and through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures from the crude extract we showed that 12-acetoxytremetone (1) and 2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(hydroxymethyl)ethenyl]-5-benzofuranyl]-ethanone (2) acted in a synergistic way to produce an intestinal antispasmodic effect. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 Restores Gut Barrier Permeability in Chronically Low-Grade Inflamed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.

  3. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  4. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  5. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. [= Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love...Festuca rubra L., in part] Festuca saximontana Rydb. *Festuca vivipara (L.) Smith [= “Festuca vivipara”] Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ssp. glauca...tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung] Alnus viridis Vill. ssp. crispa (Ait.) A. Love & D. Love [= Alnus crispa (Ait.) Pursh ssp. crispa] Betula glandulosa Michx. Betula

  6. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro storage characteristics of platelet concentrates suspended in 70% SSP+(TM) additive solution versus plasma over a 14-day storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C; Rowe, G; Wilkins, K; Holme, S; Collins, P

    2011-08-01

    The non-paired two-arm study compared the in vitro storage characteristics of platelets suspended as concentrates in either 100% plasma or a mixture of additive solution (SSP+™, MacoPharma, Mouveaux, France) and autologous plasma in a 70:30 ratio over a 14-day storage period. The buffy coat-derived pooled platelet concentrates were sampled on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10 and 14 and tests performed to determine platelet morphology, function, metabolism, activation and apoptosis-like activity. Swirling remained strong (score=3) in SSP+™, whilst scores of 1 and 0 were noted for plasma units by end of storage. In contrast to units in plasma, pH levels remained above seven in SSP+™ units, increasing after day 10. Percent positive expression of CD62P was similar in both groups on day 1 (median of 54% and 56% for plasma (n=13) and SSP+™ (n=12), respectively), with SSP+™ units showing a more moderate increase in activation after day 10. A progressive decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was evident in both groups from day 1, whilst annexin V binding was relatively stable from days 1 to 3, with median values remaining below 6%. Subsequent to this, the percentage of platelets binding annexin V increased to approximately 30% by day 14. Platelets suspended in a medium of 70:30 SSP+™ to plasma ratio performed at least as well as platelets in 100% autologous plasma for up to 10 days of storage. Further, results are suggestive of an apoptosis-like process being involved in the platelet storage lesion. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  10. Comparison of fecal pooling strategies for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S L B; Ritter, C; Dohoo, I; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W

    2018-05-23

    In herds with typical moderate to low within-herd prevalence, testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the infectious agent of Johne's disease, will be more cost-effective if individual fecal samples are cultured in composite pools. However, sensitivity to classify a pool containing 1 or more positive individual samples as positive may depend on pool size and number of individual positive samples within a pool. Fecal samples collected from 994 dairy cows sampled at slaughter were cultured to detect MAP. Culturing was done both individually and as composite pooled samples using the TREK ESP Culture System II broth medium (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH). Composite samples consisted of pools containing feces from 3, 5, 8, 10, or 15 cows. The number of individual fecal culture-positive cows within each pool ranged from 0 to 4. Culture of individual fecal samples detected MAP in 36 (3.6%) of the 994 cows. Individual samples that were detected within the first 50 d by TREK ESP Culture System II were more likely to lead to a positive pool result. In total, 840 pooled fecal samples were examined for presence of MAP, and of those, 272 pools actually contained feces from fecal culture-positive cows. The crude sensitivity (proportion of pools that contained at least 1 fecal-positive cow that tested positive) for pools of 3, 5, 8, 10, and 15 was 47, 67, 44, 59, and 39%, respectively. Across pools, an increase of the number of fecal culture-positive samples from 1 to 2 enhanced overall crude sensitivity from 44 to 71%. However, sensitivity did not further increase for pools with 3 or 4 fecal culture-positive samples (63 and 60%, respectively). Additionally, a simulation analysis assessing probability of pooled fecal samples being positive in herds of 50 and 100 cows was conducted. The simulation assumed that 1, 2, or 5 cows per herd were MAP fecal culture-positive and that pools of 5 and 10 were used. This low

  11. The immunomodulatory properties of viable Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Belén; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Perán, Laura; Camuesco, Desirée; Comalada, Mònica; Bailón, Elvira; Olivares, Mónica; Xaus, Jordi; Kruidenier, Laurens; Sanderson, Ian R; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to better characterise the biological effects of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713, a probiotic with immunomodulatory properties. Live or dead probiotic was assayed in the TNBS model of rat colitis to determine whether viability was a requisite to exert the beneficial effects. In vitro studies were also performed in Caco-2 cells to evaluate its effects on epithelial cell recovery and IL-8 production. Finally, the probiotic was assayed in the LPS model of septic shock in mice to establish its effects when there is an altered systemic immune response. The viability of the probiotic was required for its anti-inflammatory activity. The probiotic inhibited IL-8 production in stimulated Caco-2 cells and facilitated the recovery of damaged intestinal epithelium. In LPS-treated mice, the probiotic inhibited the production of TNFα in plasma and lungs and increased the hepatic glutathione content. These effects were associated with an improvement in the altered production of the T-cell cytokines in splenocytes, by reducing IL-2 and IL-5 and by increasing IL-10. Finally, it reduced the increased plasma IgG production in LPS-treated mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of viable L. salivarius ssp. salivarius CECT5713 are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Application of a Simple In-House PCR-SSP Technique for HLA-B* 27 Typing in Spondyloarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devraj J. Parasannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCT and flowcytometry (FC are the conventional serological methods to detect HLA-B* 27. Due to some disadvantages in these methods, most of the HLA laboratories have now switched over to molecular methods. Molecular techniques based on commercial kits are expensive; as such many laboratories with limited funds in developing countries cannot afford these techniques. Aims. Our main aim was to standardize a simple inexpensive in-house PCR-SSP technique for HLA-B* 27 typing. Materials and Methods. Sequence Specific primers were designed to amplify all the subtypes of B* 27 using IMGT-HLA sequence database. Accuracy was checked by retyping of 90 PCR-SSOP typed controls. Results. The presence of 149 bp specific band with control band on 2% agarose gel showed B* 27 positivity. No discrepancies were found when compared with PCR-SSOP results. The frequency of HLA-B* 27 was found to be significantly increased (68.75% versus 4.40%, O.R 46.909: P value 6.62E-32 among 700 SpA patients as compared to controls. Clinically, 54% of patients had polyarticular arthritis with SI joints involvement (68% and restricted spine flexion (60%. Conclusion. In-house PCR-SSP technique is very simple and inexpensive technique to detect B* 27 allele, which was strongly associated with SpA patients from Western India.

  13. Production of antihypertensive peptides by enzymatic zein hydrolysate from maize-zea mays ssp. mexicana introgression line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Qu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teosintes are essential gene reservoir for maize breeding improvement, among which Zea mays ssp. mexicana has many valuable traits deserved to be transferred into maize genetic background. In this study, one maize-teosinte introgression line SD00100 was selected from the population of Zea mays ssp. mexicana as wild parent. This introgression line manifested the outstanding agricultural traits similar to maize parent Ye 515 and alien genetic material was identified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). To produce bioactive peptides with potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, zein extracted from endosperm meal was then undergone enzymatic hydrolysis with thermolysin and the hydrolysate was then filtered through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane. ACE inhibitory activity of permeate from Ye 515 and SD00100 was evaluated by RP-HPLC. The IC50 values of the peptides obtained from maize parent and the introgression line were 96.9 micro g/ml and 22.9 micro g/ml, respectively, with significant difference between them. Our results showed that an outstanding inbred maize line was obtained for production of antihypertensive peptides as well as for further development of functional food. (author)

  14. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  15. A SNP and SSR Based Genetic Map of Asparagus Bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and Comparison with the Broader Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D.; Close, Timothy J.; Roberts, Philip A.; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as ‘long beans’ or ‘asparagus beans’. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level. PMID:21253606

  16. A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  18. In vivo antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum capitulums in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yesilada, Erdem

    2007-01-03

    Helichrysum species (Asteraceae) are widely found in Anatolia. Decoction prepared from the capitulums of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum was evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats. After the oral administration of water and ethanolic extracts at doses of 500mg/kg body weight prepared from the capitulums of plant, blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data indicated that water and ethanol extracts of capitulums demonstrate significant antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced rats which confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to assess the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined in terms of total phenols: 113.5+/-8.6mg (gallic acid equivalent/1g extract) and total flavanoids 50.5+/-1.9mg (quercetin equivalent/1g extract) for ethanol extract, total phenols: 75.9+/-3.7, flavonoids: 31.5+/-2.3 for water extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

  19. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  20. Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldaş, Serkan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ozen, Tevfik; Demirci, Mehmet Ali; Behçet, Lütfi

    2015-03-15

    A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS-GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Machine-learning-based real-bogus system for the HSC-SSP moving object detection pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Ying-Tung; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yoshida, Fumi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques are widely applied in many modern optical sky surveys, e.g., Pan-STARRS1, PTF/iPTF, and the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey, to reduce human intervention in data verification. In this study, we have established a machine-learning-based real-bogus system to reject false detections in the Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP) source catalog. Therefore, the HSC-SSP moving object detection pipeline can operate more effectively due to the reduction of false positives. To train the real-bogus system, we use stationary sources as the real training set and "flagged" data as the bogus set. The training set contains 47 features, most of which are photometric measurements and shape moments generated from the HSC image reduction pipeline (hscPipe). Our system can reach a true positive rate (tpr) ˜96% with a false positive rate (fpr) ˜1% or tpr ˜99% at fpr ˜5%. Therefore, we conclude that stationary sources are decent real training samples, and using photometry measurements and shape moments can reject false positives effectively.

  2. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  3. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  4. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Falqueto,Aloísio; Grimaldi Júnior,Gabriel; Sessa,Paulo Augusto; Varejão,José Benedito Malta; Deane,Leonidas M.

    1985-01-01

    Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  5. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk or dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Veldman, E.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410

  6. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  7. To be or not to be a subspecies: description of Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) developing in downy willow (Salix lapponum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein; Bergsten, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept. PMID:29187784

  8. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the tesosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot resistance. We identified...

  9. Nucleotide Sequence and Analysis of an orotate transporter-containing plasmid isolated from the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan

    A new lactococcal plasmid, pDBORO, was isolated from the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410 responsible for the sensitivity of DB0410 towards the pyrimidine-analog 5´-fluoroorotate. The plasmid pDBORO amounts to 16404 bp and its complete nucleotide sequence has been...

  10. Rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis laboratory strains by IS900-Nested polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Mosavari, Nader; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Tadayon, Keyvan; Keshavarz, Rouholah; Pajoohi, Reza Aref; Soleimani, Kioomars; Pour, Shojaat Dashti

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants. As a species, M. avium comprises M. avium subsp. hominissuis and a number of clones that are known to have evolved from this subspecies, namely M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum, and MAP. Despite the very high genomic similarity of MAP and MAA, the insertion sequence IS900, which is 1,451-bp long, is now understood to be exclusively present in 10-20 copies in the genome of MAP. In the present study, a multidiscipline polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based algorithm targeting16SrRNA, IS6110, IS901, IS1245, and IS900 markers has been employed to differentiate between six laboratory strains of M. avium complex (including MAP 316F, III&V, and 2e plus MAA D4), Mycobacterium tuberculosis DT, and Mycobacterium bovis AN5 strains used at the Razi Institute (Tehran, Iran) for the preparation of paratuberculin, avian, human, and bovine tuberculin, respectively. Three laboratory strains of III&V, 2e, and 316F were subcultured on Herrold's egg yolk medium, whereas the MAA strain of D4 along with M. bovis AN5 and M. tuberculosis DT were subcultured on Lowenstein-Jensen slopes. All the inoculated culture tubes were incubated for 8weeks at 37°C. Eventually, their genomic DNA was extracted according to the method of van Soolingen. Five individual PCRs were conducted on these templates to amplify 16SrRNA (genus-specific marker shared by all mycobacteria), IS900 (MAP-specific marker), IS901 (MAA-specific marker), IS1245 (M. avium complex (MAC)-specific marker), and IS6110 (M. tuberculosis complex (MTC)-specific marker) loci. Consequently, a 543-bp amplicon was amplified by all the six strains in PCR against 16SrRNA, an indication of their identity as members of Mycobacterium genus. A 245-bp fragment was detected in only IS6110-PCR with M. bovis AN5 as well as M. tuberculosis DT. In the IS1245 assessment, the MAA strain of D4 produced a 427-bp amplicon, whereas

  11. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus rubra amended with low and high metal content biosolids Crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio por Alnus rubra cultivado sob fertilização com biosólidos com altos e baixos teores de metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest application of biosolids offers a potential environmentally friendly alternative to landfilling. This two-year investigation was designed to analyze the effects of elevated soil metal concentration resulting from the land application of biosolids on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. High metal biosolids and a modern-day composted biosolid applied at high loading rates of 250, 500, and 1000 Mg ha-1, were used to represent a worst-case scenario for metal contamination. The high metal biosolids were obtained before the current regulations were formulated and had been lagooned prior to use in this study. Total cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in the high metal biosolids were 45, 958, and 2623 mg kg-1 respectively. These metal concentrations are above current regulatory limits in the US. The compost was made using biosolids that are currently produced and had Cd, Pb and Zn of 0.8, 20 and 160 mg kg-1 respectively. Trees were harvested and analyzed for rate of N fixation (as measured by acetylene reduction activity, biomass, and foliar metals. Soils were analyzed for available N, total carbon and N, pH and total Cd, Pb and Zn. Rates of N fixation were not affected by soil amendment. In year 2, shoot biomass of trees grown in both the compost and high metal amendments were higher than the control. Shoot biomass increased with increasing amount of compost amendments, but decreased with increasing amount of high metal amendments. There was no relationship between soil metal concentration and plant biomass. Foliar Cd and Pb were below detection for all trees and foliar Zn increased with increasing amount of both compost and high metal amendment, with concentrations of 249 mg kg-1 for trees grown in the compost amendment and 279 mg kg-1 for the high metal amendment. The results from this study indicate that the growth of A. rubra benefited from both types of biosolids used in the study

  12. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  13. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  14. Molecular diversity of α-gliadin expressed genes in genetically contrasted spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) accessions and comparison with bread wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum) and related diploid Triticum and Aegilops species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Mingeot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat. Genotyping data from 85 spelt accessions obtained with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to select 11 contrasted accessions, from which 446 full open reading frame α-gliadin genes were cloned and sequenced, which revealed a high allelic diversity. High variations among the accessions were highlighted, in terms of the proportion of α-gliadin sequences from each of the three genomes (A, B and D), and their composition in the four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. An accession from Tajikistan stood out, having a particularly high proportion of α-gliadins from the B genome and a low immunogenic content. Even if no clear separation between spelt and bread wheat sequences was shown, spelt α-gliadins displayed specific features concerning e.g. the frequencies of some amino acid substitutions. Given this observation and the variations in toxicity revealed in the spelt accessions in this study, the high genetic diversity held in spelt germplasm collections could be a valuable resource in the development of safer varieties for CD patients.

  15. Development of TaqMan probes targeting the four major celiac disease epitopes found in α-gliadin sequences of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Muhovski, Yordan; Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Mingeot, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is caused by specific sequences of gluten proteins found in cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ). Among them, the α-gliadins display the highest immunogenicity, with four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. The toxicity of each epitope sequence can be reduced or even suppressed according to the allelic form of each sequence. One way to address the CD problem would be to make use of this allelic variability in breeding programs to develop safe varieties, but tools to track the presence of toxic epitopes are required. The objective of this study was to develop a tool to accurately detect and quantify the immunogenic content of expressed α-gliadins of spelt and bread wheat. Four TaqMan probes that only hybridize to the canonical-i.e. toxic-form of each of the four epitopes were developed and their specificity was demonstrated. Six TaqMan probes targeting stable reference genes were also developed and constitute a tool to normalize qPCR data. The probes were used to measure the epitope expression levels of 11 contrasted spelt accessions and three ancestral diploid accessions of bread wheat and spelt. A high expression variability was highlighted among epitopes and among accessions, especially in Asian spelts, which showed lower epitope expression levels than the other spelts. Some discrepancies were identified between the canonical epitope expression level and the global amount of expressed α-gliadins, which makes the designed TaqMan probes a useful tool to quantify the immunogenic potential independently of the global amount of expressed α-gliadins. The results obtained in this study provide useful tools to study the immunogenic potential of expressed α-gliadin sequences from Triticeae accessions such as spelt and bread wheat. The application of the designed probes to contrasted spelt accessions revealed a high variability and interesting low canonical epitope expression levels in the

  16. Recobrimentos e períodos de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de estacas de cordiline (Cordyline rubra Hügel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mamoru Sakamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui grande potencial exportador de flores e plantas ornamentais, e o emprego de técnicas simples de armazenamento poderia viabilizar o transporte por modais que não o aéreo, reduzindo custos, podendo prolongar a vida útil dos produtos. Este trabalho compara cinco tipos de recobrimento em estacas de Cordyline rubra Hügel (película amilácea, pasta de parafina no ápice, pasta de parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, saco plástico ou sem recobrimento e diferentes períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias, a fim de reduzir sua atividade biológica, perda de água e ataque de patógenos. Foi escolhida esta espécie por ser muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas folhas e exportada na forma de estacas de diferentes tamanhos. O experimento foi conduzido nas dependências do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 300 estacas com 30 cm de comprimento por 3 cm de diâmetro. Cada tratamento foi composto por 15 estacas pré-tratadas (tipos de recobrimento, submetidas a períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias sob refrigeração e temperatura ambiente, totalizando 60 estacas. Após o armazenamento, foram cortados 3 cm da base de cada estaca, em seguida, tratadas com ácido indolbutírico a 10.000 mg/L e colocadas em leito de enraizamento de areia grossa. Após 90 dias, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de desenvolvimento, número e massa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Observou-se que os menores períodos de armazenamento proporcionam melhor desenvolvimento das estacas. Os tipos de recobrimento que melhor conservaram as estacas, em ordem decrescente de resultados, foram o saco plástico, parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, parafina no ápice, película de amido e sem recobrimento. Conclui-se que o m

  17. Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus caused by infected pressure ulcer: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldera, Jonathan; Nedel, Wagner Luis; Cardoso, Paulo Ricardo Cerveira; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Coagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections. CASE REPORT The case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin. CONCLUSIONS The reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Investigation on the distribution of tritium and carbon-14 in the amino acids of labelled green algae (Scenedesmus Quadricauda ssp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Clausen, E.; Kistner, G.

    1982-01-01

    Green algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda ssp. subspicatus), labelled twice tritium and carbon-14, showed an incorporation of nuclides into the cell mass of 0.02% and 95%, respectively. The distribution of radioactivity in the individual amino acids was examined in a protein fraction with special emphasis on the essential amino acids in view of their following incorporation into the next link of the aquatic food chain (Daphnia). The highest values were found in glutamine and asparagine acids as well as in the essential amino acids leucine and arginine, which are amino acids with a relatively high amount of non exchangeable H-positions per molecule and, therefore, a relatively high and stable labelling. (author)

  20. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC_InvE Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last”, supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested...... in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risø load, where 80% Risø load corresponds to 100...... stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risø load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile...

  1. Effects of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine, secoiridoids from gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Oztürk, Yusuf; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2006-03-01

    Wound healing properties of Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra) extract and its main constituents, gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarine (compounds 1-3, respectively) were evaluated by comparison with dexpanthenol on cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts. The extract was also analyzed by HPLC to quantify its constituents. Chicken embryonic fibroblasts from fertilized eggs were incubated with the plant extract and its constituents, compounds 1-3. Using microscopy, mitotic ability, morphological changes and collagen production in the cultured fibroblasts were evaluated as parameters. Wound healing activity of Gentian seems to be mainly due to the increase in the stimulation of collagen production and the mitotic activity by compounds 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005 in all cases). All three compounds also exhibited cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian. The findings demonstrated the wound healing activity of Gentian, which has previously been based only on ethnomedical data.

  2. Kinetics of Batch Fermentation in the Cultivation of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Ssp. Bulgaricus B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goranov Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of kinetic models to describe the dynamics of the fermentation process of culturing of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B1 was performed. The models of Monod, Aiba, Tiessier, Hinshelwood and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were used. It has been found that the different models described the observed fermentation dynamics differently. The conducted comparative study demonstrated that the models of Monod and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were suitable for the description of the fermentation dynamics. The mathematical models showed no significant product and/or substrate inhibition. The culture developed with a low specific growth rate, but nevertheless it accumulated 1012-1013 viable cells. The substrate was absorbed primarily from cells in the stationary growth phase rather than cells in the exponential growth phase

  3. Metabolite profiling approach reveals the interface of primary and secondary metabolism in colored cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Yun; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Yeo, Yunsoo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2013-07-17

    In the present study, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids of cauliflowers ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis) with various colored florets (white, yellow, green, and purple) were characterized to determine their phytochemical diversity. Additionally, 48 metabolites comprising amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were identified using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Carotenoid content was considerably higher in green cauliflower; anthocyanins were detected only in purple cauliflower. Phenolic acids were higher in both green and purple cauliflower. Results of partial least-squares discriminant, Pearson correlation, and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that green cauliflower is distinct on the basis of the high levels of amino acids and clusters derived from common or closely related biochemical pathways. These results suggest that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, combined with chemometrics, is a useful tool for determining phenotypic variation and identifying metabolic networks connecting primary and secondary metabolism.

  4. Evaluating the protective efficacy of antigen combinations against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infections in cobia, Rachycentron canadum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, L-P; Chang, C-J; Liu, H-C; Yang, H-L; Lin, J H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., is a very important aquatic fish that faces the risk of infection with the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, and there are few protective approaches available that use multiple antigens. In the present study, potent bivalent antigens from P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed more efficient protection than did single antigens used in isolation. In preparations of three antigens that included recombinant heat shock protein 60 (rHSP60), recombinant α-enolase (rENOLASE) and recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rGAPDH), we analysed the doses that elicited the best immune responses and found that this occurred at a total of 30 μg of antigen per fish. Subsequently, vaccination of fish with rHSP60, rENOLASE and rGAPDH achieved 46.9, 52 and 25% relative per cent survival (RPS), respectively. In addition, bivalent subunit vaccines--combination I (rHSP60 + rENOLASE), combination II (rENOLASE + rGAPDH) and combination III (rHSP60 + rGAPDH)--were administered and the RPS in these groups (65.6, 64.0 and 48.4%, respectively), was higher than that achieved with single-antigen administration. Finally, in combination IV, the trivalent vaccine rHSP60 + rENOLASE + rGAPDH, the RPS was 1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that combinations of two antigens may achieve a better efficiency than monovalent or trivalent antigens, and this may provide new insights into pathogen prevention strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiernan, B.D.; Hurd, T.M.; Raynal, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, influences the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in surface waters in the Adirondack Mountain region of northern New York. - The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged ∼7000 stems ha -1 and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO 3 - and NH 4 + in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO 3 - and NH 4 + concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH 4 + accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH 4 + concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO 3 - accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO 3 - concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems

  6. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  7. Applying the global RCP-SSP-SPA scenario framework at sub-national scale: A multi-scale and participatory scenario approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Abiy S; Nicholls, Robert J; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Iñaki; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Fernandes, Jose A; Hill, Chris T; Hutton, Craig W; Kay, Susan; Lázár, Attila N; Macadam, Ian; Palmer, Matthew; Suckall, Natalie; Tompkins, Emma L; Vincent, Katharine; Whitehead, Paul W

    2018-09-01

    To better anticipate potential impacts of climate change, diverse information about the future is required, including climate, society and economy, and adaptation and mitigation. To address this need, a global RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways), SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathways), and SPA (Shared climate Policy Assumptions) (RCP-SSP-SPA) scenario framework has been developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5). Application of this full global framework at sub-national scales introduces two key challenges: added complexity in capturing the multiple dimensions of change, and issues of scale. Perhaps for this reason, there are few such applications of this new framework. Here, we present an integrated multi-scale hybrid scenario approach that combines both expert-based and participatory methods. The framework has been developed and applied within the DECCMA 1 project with the purpose of exploring migration and adaptation in three deltas across West Africa and South Asia: (i) the Volta delta (Ghana), (ii) the Mahanadi delta (India), and (iii) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta (Bangladesh/India). Using a climate scenario that encompasses a wide range of impacts (RCP8.5) combined with three SSP-based socio-economic scenarios (SSP2, SSP3, SSP5), we generate highly divergent and challenging scenario contexts across multiple scales against which robustness of the human and natural systems within the deltas are tested. In addition, we consider four distinct adaptation policy trajectories: Minimum intervention, Economic capacity expansion, System efficiency enhancement, and System restructuring, which describe alternative future bundles of adaptation actions/measures under different socio-economic trajectories. The paper highlights the importance of multi-scale (combined top-down and bottom-up) and participatory (joint expert-stakeholder) scenario methods for addressing uncertainty in adaptation decision

  8. Adjunct use of 3D-SSP analysis improves the ability to discriminate Alzheimer's disease from controls in visual inspection of brain SPECT. Examined by 16 inspectors belonging to 9 institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Matsumoto, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen physicians interpreted 99m Tc-ECD SPECT images in two sessions with or without 3D stereotactic surface projections (SSP) for 50 studies of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients and 40 studies of healthy volunteers. Mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for visual interpretation of SPECT with 3D-SSP (0.778±0.060) was significantly greater than that for visual interpretation of SPECT alone (0.679±0.058). (author)

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Three Chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart Growing Wild in Campania (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Senatore

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from inflorescences of three Origanum vulgare L.ssp. hirtum (Link Ietswaart samples, growing wild in different locations in Campania (Southern Italy, were analysed. Three chemotypes were found: the first, with a prevalence of carvacrol/thymol; the second, characterized by the prevalence of thymol/α-terpineol; the third, featuring a prevalence of linalyl acetate and linalool. This chemical study attempts to provide a contribution in shedding light on the relationship between chemical composition and biotypes and/or chemotypes in Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future view to use the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  11. Biotypes of scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) resistant to tribenuron methyl, in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczewski Kazimierz; Kierzek Roman; Matysiak Kinga

    2014-01-01

    Scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima (L.) ssp. inodora (L.) Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas (L.) are species which very often infest winter cereal and winter rape crops. Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS) are commonly used for control of these weeds. The herbicides are characterised by a single site of action in the plant, which has an influence on selection of the weed population and may result in a rapid development of resistance. In 2012, five seed samples of scen...

  12. Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

    2014-11-01

    Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Falqueto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  14. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  15. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-12-24

    The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimize the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yogurt, and Swiss or Italian hard type cheeses, which typically use thermophilic lactic acid bacteria starter cultures containing L. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarizes the present data concerning (i) the special features, particle structure, and components of phage LL-H and (ii) the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), which are the phage LL-H receptor components of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed.

  16. The extracellular phage-host interactions involved in the bacteriophage LL-H infection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eMunsch-Alatossava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bacteriophage LL-H was determined in 1996. Accordingly, LL-H has been used as a model phage for the infection of dairy Lactobacillus, specifically for thermophilic Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains, such as ATCC 15808. One of the major goals of phage LL-H research consisted of the characterization of the the first phage-host interactions at the level of phage adsorption and phage DNA injection steps to determine effective and practical methods to minimise the risks associated with the appearance and attack of phages in the manufacture of yoghurt, and Swiss or Italian type hard cheeses, which typically use thermophilic LAB starter cultures containing Lb. delbrueckii strains among others. This mini review article summarises the present data concerning (i the special features, particle structure and components of phage LL-H and (ii the structure and properties of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs, which are the phage LL-H receptor components of Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis host strains. Moreover, a model of the first, extracellular, phage-host interactions for the infection of Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis ATCC 15808 by phage LL-H is presented and further discussed.

  17. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Douarre, Pierre E; Soulimane, Tewfik; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; MacSharry, John; Coffey, Aidan; Sleator, Roy D; O'Mahony, Jim

    2013-06-01

    Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus caused by infected pressure ulcer: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Soldera

    Full Text Available CONTEXTCoagulase-negative staphylococci are common colonizers of the human skin and have become increasingly recognized as agents of clinically significant nosocomial infections.CASE REPORTThe case of a 79-year-old male patient with multi-infarct dementia who presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome is reported. This was attributed to bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. urealyticus, which was grown on blood cultures originating from an infected pressure ulcer. The few cases of Staphylococcus cohnii infection reported in the literature consist of bacteremia relating to catheters, surgical prostheses, acute cholecystitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and septic arthritis, generally presenting a multiresistant profile, with nearly 90% resistance to methicillin.CONCLUSIONSThe reported case is, to our knowledge, the first case of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus caused by an infected pressure ulcer. It shows that this species may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for community-acquired skin infections.

  20. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining ability and heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits in brassica rapa (l.) ssp. dichotoma (roxb.) hanelt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, A.; Farhatullah, A.; Khan, N.U.; Afzal, M.; Azam, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for yield and yield contributing traits in 5 * 5 diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, pod length, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 were significantly different. Heritability and genetic advance estimates were moderate for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 100 seed weight whereas were high for seed yield plant-1. Parental line G-909 for primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1 and seed yield plant-1, genotype G-902 for pod length and genotype G-403 for 100-seed weight were the best general combiners. Based on combing ability and heterosis, the F1 hybrids G-909 * G-265 (for primary branches plant-1), G-265 * G- 403, G-1500 * G-909 (for pods main raceme-1), G-403 * G-909 (for pod length), G-265 * G-1500 (for 100-seed weight) and G-1500 * G-902, G-909 * G-902 (for seed yield plant-1) can be utilized in future breeding endeavors. Non-additive genetic control, as predominant mechanism, for all the traits necessitates the use of schemes like bi-parental mating design, diallel selective mating followed by recurrent or reciprocal recurrent selection. (author)

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  3. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  4. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre

    2007-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  5. Prediction of human gait trajectories during the SSP using a neuromusculoskeletal modeling: A challenge for parametric optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, Mohammadali Rahmati; Mostafa, Rostami; Borhan, Beigzadeh

    2018-04-27

    The parametric optimization techniques have been widely employed to predict human gait trajectories; however, their applications to reveal the other aspects of gait are questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not the gait prediction model is able to justify the movement trajectories for the higher average velocities. A planar, seven-segment model with sixteen muscle groups was used to represent human neuro-musculoskeletal dynamics. At first, the joint angles, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activations were predicted and validated for normal average velocity (1.55 m/s) in the single support phase (SSP) by minimizing energy expenditure, which is subject to the non-linear constraints of the gait. The unconstrained system dynamics of extended inverse dynamics (USDEID) approach was used to estimate muscle activations. Then by scaling time and applying the same procedure, the movement trajectories were predicted for higher average velocities (from 2.07 m/s to 4.07 m/s) and compared to the pattern of movement with fast walking speed. The comparison indicated a high level of compatibility between the experimental and predicted results, except for the vertical position of the center of gravity (COG). It was concluded that the gait prediction model can be effectively used to predict gait trajectories for higher average velocities.

  6. Arzanol, an anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV-1 phloroglucinol alpha-Pyrone from Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Ottino, Michela; Marquez, Nieves; Bianchi, Federica; Giana, Anna; Ballero, Mauro; Sterner, Olov; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    An acetone extract of Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum afforded the phloroglucinol alpha-pyrone arzanol (1a) as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor. Arzanol is identical with homoarenol (2a), whose structure should be revised. The phloroglucinol-type structure of arzanol and the 1,2,4-trihydroxyphenyl-type structure of the base-induced fragmentation product of homoarenol could be reconciled in light of a retro-Fries-type fragmentation that triggers a change of the hydroxylation pattern of the aromatic moiety. On the basis of these findings, the structure of arenol, the major constituent of the clinically useful antibiotic arenarin, should be revised from 2b to 1b, solving a long-standing puzzle over its biogenetic derivation. An alpha-pyrone (micropyrone, 7), the monoterpene rac-E-omega-oleoyloxylinalol (10), four known tremetones (9a-d), and the dimeric pyrone helipyrone (8) were also obtained. Arzanol inhibited HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated primary monocytes, qualifying as a novel plant-derived anti-inflammatory and antiviral chemotype worth further investigation.

  7. The fate of W chromosomes in hybrids between wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.: no role in sex determination and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshido, A; Marec, F; Sahara, K

    2016-05-01

    Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) have sex chromosome systems with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ or derived variants). The maternally inherited W chromosome is known to determine female sex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, little is known about the role of W chromosome in other lepidopteran species. Here we describe two forms of the W chromosome, W and neo-W, that are transmitted to both sexes in offspring of hybrids from reciprocal crosses between subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia. We performed crosses between S. c. pryeri (2n=28, WZ/ZZ) and S. c. walkeri (2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z) and examined fitness and sex chromosome constitution in their hybrids. The F1 hybrids of both reciprocal crosses had reduced fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed not only the expected sex chromosome constitutions in the backcross and F2 hybrids of both sexes but also females without the W (or neo-W) chromosome and males carrying the W (or neo-W) chromosome. Furthermore, crosses between the F2 hybrids revealed no association between the presence or absence of W (or neo-W) chromosome and variations in the hatchability of their eggs. Our results clearly suggest that the W (or neo-W) chromosome of S. cynthia ssp. plays no role in sex determination and reproduction, and thus does not contribute to the formation of reproductive barriers between different subspecies.

  8. Virulent and Vaccine Strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus Have Different Influences on Phagocytosis and Cytokine Secretion of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Peng; Zhe, Ma; Chengwei, Hua; Huixing, Lin; Hui, Zhang; Chengping, Lu; Hongjie, Fan

    2017-01-06

    Swine streptococcosis is a significant threat to the Chinese pig industry, and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is one of the major pathogens. SEZ ATCC35246 is a classical virulent strain, while SEZ ST171 is a Chinese attenuated vaccine strain. In this study, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine the differential response of macrophages to infection by these two strains. Eighty-seven upregulated proteins and 135 downregulated proteins were identified. The proteomic results were verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction for 10 chosen genes and Western blotting for three proteins. All differentially abundant proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Certain downregulated proteins were associated with immunity functions, and the upregulated proteins were related to cytomembrane and cytoskeleton regulation. The phagocytosis rate and cytokine genes transcription in Raw264.7 cells during SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection were detected to confirm the bioinformatics results. These results showed that different effects on macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine expression might explain the different phenotypes of SEZ ATCC35246 and ST171 infection. This research provided clues to the mechanisms of host immunity responses to SEZ ST171and SEZ ATCC35246, which could identify potential therapy and vaccine development targets.

  9. Experimental weed control of Najas marina ssp. intermedia and Elodea nuttallii in lakes using biodegradable jute matting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hoffmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of jute matting in managing the invasive aquatic macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii (Planch. H. St. John and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski Casper (Najas intermedia was studied in laboratory experiments and field trials. Four German lakes with predominant population of Najas intermedia or Elodea nuttalli were chosen for the experiment and areas between 150 and 300 m² were covered with jute textile. The effect of the matting on the growth of invasive and non-invasive macrophytes was determined through comparison with control transects. Biodegradable jute matting successfully suppressed the invasive macrophyte Najas intermedia and significantly reduced the growth of Elodea nuttalli in lakes. The results indicate that the capability of the matting to inhibit the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia depends on the mesh size of the jute weaving and that environmental conditions can affect its efficiency. Various indigenous species like Charales or Potamogeton pusillus L. were able to grow through the jute fabric and populate the treated areas. Until the end of the vegetation period, none of the invasive species were able to penetrate the covering and establish a stable population; in fact, in the subsequent year the jute matting affected only the spread of Najas intermedia. Jute matting proved to be an easy-to-use and cheap method to control the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of allelopathic plants Adonis vernalis L. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vanya; Dragoeva, Asya; Stoyanova, Zheni; Yordanova, Zhenia; Ali, Selime; Uzunov, Nikolay M.; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio; Enchev, Dobromir D.

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants produce various secondary metabolites as a part of their chemical defence and survival in nature. These compounds have a wide range of biological activities. Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as source of allelochemicals and new effective anticancer agents. Our previous studies revealed allelopathic potential of water extracts of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae), Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda (Lamiaceae). Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the same extracts in vitro on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Cell proliferation/viability was assessed using Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent. Adonis water extract (1.83mg/ml) had notable negative influence on cancer cell line tested. Oregano (3.5 mg/ml) also exerted negative effect, but to a lesser degree. On the contrary, nepeta water extract (6.59 mg/ml) had an opposite effect, stimulating cell proliferation. One possible explanation could be the type of extraction: after treatment with nepeta methanol extract (6.59 mg/ml) cell viability was significantly reduced. In conclusion, Adonis vernalis and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda possess metabolites with growth inhibitory effect on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Further research is needed to clarify biological activity of lower concentrations which are appropriate to enable the design of new anticancer drugs.

  11. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CMS-G from Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima is maintained in natural populations despite containing an atypical cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Etienne H; Lehmann, Caroline; Boivin, Stéphane; Brings, Lea; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Bock, Ralph; Kühn, Kristina; Touzet, Pascal

    2018-02-23

    While mitochondrial mutants of the respiratory machinery are rare and often lethal, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), a mitochondrially inherited trait that results in pollen abortion, is frequently encountered in wild populations. It generates a breeding system called gynodioecy. In Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima , a gynodioecious species, we found CMS-G to be widespread across the distribution range of the species. Despite the sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of CMS-G, the mitochondrial sterilizing factor causing CMS-G is still unknown. By characterizing biochemically CMS-G, we found that the expression of several mitochondrial proteins is altered in CMS-G plants. In particular, Cox1, a core subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), is larger but can still assemble into complex IV. However, the CMS-G-specific complex IV was only detected as a stabilized dimer. We did not observe any alteration of the affinity of complex IV for cytochrome c ; however, in CMS-G, complex IV capacity is reduced. Our results show that CMS-G is maintained in many natural populations despite being associated with an atypical complex IV. We suggest that the modified complex IV could incur the associated cost predicted by theoretical models to maintain gynodioecy in wild populations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri requires the outer membrane porin OprB for maximal virulence and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficarra, Florencia A; Grandellis, Carolina; Galván, Estela M; Ielpi, Luis; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2017-06-01

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) causes canker disease in citrus, and biofilm formation is critical for the disease cycle. OprB (Outer membrane protein B) has been shown previously to be more abundant in Xcc biofilms compared with the planktonic state. In this work, we showed that the loss of OprB in an oprB mutant abolishes bacterial biofilm formation and adherence to the host, and also compromises virulence and efficient epiphytic survival of the bacteria. Moreover, the oprB mutant is impaired in bacterial stress resistance. OprB belongs to a family of carbohydrate transport proteins, and the uptake of glucose is decreased in the mutant strain, indicating that OprB transports glucose. Loss of OprB leads to increased production of xanthan exopolysaccharide, and the carbohydrate intermediates of xanthan biosynthesis are also elevated in the mutant. The xanthan produced by the mutant has a higher viscosity and, unlike wild-type xanthan, completely lacks pyruvylation. Overall, these results suggest that Xcc reprogrammes its carbon metabolism when it senses a shortage of glucose input. The participation of OprB in the process of biofilm formation and virulence, as well as in metabolic changes to redirect the carbon flux, is discussed. Our results demonstrate the importance of environmental nutrient supply and glucose uptake via OprB for Xcc virulence. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells

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    Banerjee Pratik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI, is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892 on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048. In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16 on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin

  15. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Merkel, Glenn J; Bhunia, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI), is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892) on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS) from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048). In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16) on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin preparation (CFT) of

  16. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

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    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  17. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  18. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Élida A. Stefanello

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, espécie empregada na medicina popular contra doenças respiratórias. Folhas, cascas do tronco e ramos foram extraídos com hexano, diclorometano e etanol, sucessivamente, sendo obtidos os respectivos extratos brutos. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar utilizando-se bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. A avaliação da citotoxicidade foi realizada empregando-se o ensaio de letalidade contra Artemia salina. Nenhum dos extratos mostrou atividade citotóxica. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram uma fraca atividade antimicrobiana frente a algumas cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto o extrato em diclorometano dos ramos e o extrato em etanol das cascas foram ativos contra Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus e S. epidermidis. A maior atividade antimicrobiana foi observada para o extrato em diclorometano das cascas, que inibiu o crescimento de Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis e Candida albicans. Esta atividade parece estar relacionada à presença de diterpenos no extrato. Nenhum dos extratos estudados (a 5,0 mg/mL mostrou atividade frente a cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial dessa planta como fonte de compostos antibacterianos e justificam, parcialmente, seu uso popular.

  19. Inhibition of Fusarium solani Infection in Murine Keratocytes by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 Culture Filtrate In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhang; Chen, Fang; Kan, Tong; Zhuang, Hua; Zhang, Jingjin; Han, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    To explore the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 (L. salivarius JCM1231) culture filtrate against Fusarium solani (F. solani) and its effects on murine keratocytes (MKs) infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 was cultured in an anaerobic incubator for 24 h, and the L. salivarius culture filtrate (LSCF) was prepared .The antifungal activity of L. salivarius JCM1231 against F. solani was determined with a plate overlay assay, agar diffusion assay, and conidial germination inhibition test. The effects of temperature, pH, and proteolytic enzymes on the antifungal activity of LSCF were detected with microtiter plate-well assay and conidial germination inhibition assay. Furthermore, the effects of LSCF on MKs infected with F. solani were detected. Cell activity and apoptosis were measured using methylthiazoletetrazolium assays and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokines were measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and mycotoxin production was detected with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Conidial germination and mycelia growth of F. solani were significantly inhibited by LSCF. The antifungal substances produced by L. salivarius JCM1231 were heat unstable, proteinaceous, and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and were active within a narrow acidic pH range between 2.0 and 4.0. In the presence of 15 µg/ml of LSCF, cell activity was significantly increased, and cell apoptosis, the level of IL-6 and TNF-α expressions, and mycotoxin (zearalenone and fumonisin B1) productions were decreased significantly in MKs infected with F. solani. L. salivarius JCM1231 culture filtrate can effectively inhibit F. solani growth and protect MKs against F. solani infection.

  20. Effects of dietary Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) supplementation on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevakis, N

    2017-10-14

    This study was conducted to examine in vivo long-term effects of dietary dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) whole plant on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities. For this purpose, eight healthy, adult, non-lactating Alpine goats were kept in tie stalls equipped for individual feeding and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: one fed 0.6 kg of a concentrate mixture and 0.6 kg of wheat straw without any supplementation and served as control group (CON) while the other group (OR) fed the same diet of CON but supplemented with 20 g of dried oregano plants (OPs) to provide daily dosage of 1 ml of essential oil (EO) per animal. The experimental period lasted 69 days and individual rumen fluid samples were obtained every 2 weeks at 0 and 4 hr after feeding. The results showed that dietary supplementation with OPs increased the protease activity (p < .001) and ammonia concentration (p < .05) in the rumen. Among the studied microbial populations, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (p = .028) and Clostridium sticklandii (p < .001) were found to be the most sensitive to oregano at the current dosage. Furthermore, the total methanogen population significantly decreased (p < .05). It is concluded that a long-term dietary administration of OPs can suppress specific rumen micro-organisms and modify rumen fermentation favourably at least by means of suppressing methanogens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Dickson, Gillian; Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  2. Novel Tn916-like elements confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2018-02-09

    Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides. However, the underlying antibiotic resistance mobilome of Sgg remains poorly understood. To investigate the mobile genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in multiresistant clinical Sgg. Isolate NTS31106099 was recovered from a patient with IE and CRC at Nantes University Hospital, France and studied by Illumina WGS and comparative genomics. Molecular epidemiology of the identified mobile element(s) was performed using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), PCR, PFGE and WGS. Mobility was investigated by PCR and filter mating. Two novel conjugative transposons, Tn6263 and Tn6331, confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical Sgg. They display classical family Tn916/Tn1545 modular architecture and harbour an aph(3')-III→sat4→ant(6)-Ia→erm(B) multiresistance gene cluster, related to pRE25 of Enterococcus faecium. These and/or closely related elements are highly prevalent among genetically heterogeneous clinical isolates of Sgg. Previously unknown Tn916-like mobile genetic elements conferring aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance make Sgg, collectively with other gut Firmicutes such as enterococci and eubacteria, a potential laterally active reservoir of these antibiotic resistance determinants among the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.: Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murray-Dickson

    Full Text Available As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp. are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1 prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%; (2 Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3 individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  4. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status

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    Kelton David F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.

  5. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteogenomic Analysis Greatly Expands the Identification of Proteins Related to Reproduction in the Apogamous Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Jonas; Fernández, Helena; Chaubey, Pururawa M; Valdés, Ana E; Gagliardini, Valeria; Cañal, María J; Russo, Giancarlo; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Performing proteomic studies on non-model organisms with little or no genomic information is still difficult. However, many specific processes and biochemical pathways occur only in species that are poorly characterized at the genomic level. For example, many plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually, the first one allowing the generation of new genotypes and the latter their fixation. Thus, both modes of reproduction are of great agronomic value. However, the molecular basis of asexual reproduction is not well understood in any plant. In ferns, it combines the production of unreduced spores (diplospory) and the formation of sporophytes from somatic cells (apogamy). To set the basis to study these processes, we performed transcriptomics by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and shotgun proteomics by tandem mass spectrometry in the apogamous fern D. affinis ssp. affinis . For protein identification we used the public viridiplantae database (VPDB) to identify orthologous proteins from other plant species and new transcriptomics data to generate a "species-specific transcriptome database" (SSTDB). In total 1,397 protein clusters with 5,865 unique peptide sequences were identified (13 decoy proteins out of 1,410, protFDR 0.93% on protein cluster level). We show that using the SSTDB for protein identification increases the number of identified peptides almost four times compared to using only the publically available VPDB. We identified homologs of proteins involved in reproduction of higher plants, including proteins with a potential role in apogamy. With the increasing availability of genomic data from non-model species, similar proteogenomics approaches will improve the sensitivity in protein identification for species only distantly related to models.

  7. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  8. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the physical quality of plantain (Musa ssp., group AAB) employing airflow reversal drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, J; Martínez-Sánchez, C E; Hernández-Santos, B; Juárez-Barrientos, J M; Ventura-Báez, E G; Herman-Lara, E

    2018-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the color and texture of plantain ( Musa ssp., group AAB) dried by airflow reversal drying. Plantain slices 1.0 cm thick were used. Pretreatment with two commercial enzymes, Pectinex Ultra SPL ( Aspergillus aculeatus ) and Pectinex 3XL ( Aspergillus niger ), was performed. Drying kinetics were determined with and without pretreatment at temperatures of 50, 65 and 80 °C using a fixed bed convective dryer. An air speed of 6 m/s, a bed height of 5 cm and either unidirectional flow or airflow reversal (every 15 min) were used for drying. Color and texture were analyzed, and consumer acceptance of the results of the best treatments was determined. Pretreatment with the enzyme A. niger and airflow reversal gave the best drying kinetics and showed the greatest reduction in drying time (59.0%) at 80 °C. The best hardness results were found at 80 °C with A. niger enzymatic pretreatment with both types of air flow. Brightness and hue angle showed that samples pretreated with enzymes and dried at 65 °C had a lighter yellow color compared to non-pretreated samples. Plantain samples enzymatically pretreated and dried at 65 and 80 °C were the most accepted by consumers. This kind of enzymatic pretreatment on plantain could allow the conservation of some physical properties and reduction of drying times relative to the current methodology.

  9. In vitro bioassessment of the immunomodulatory activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae components using bovine macrophages and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Kang, H; You, Q; Ossa, F; Mead, P; Quinton, M; Karrow, N A

    2018-04-11

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are used for the prevention and treatment of enteric disease in different species; therefore, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The objective of this study was to identify potential immunomodulatory S. cerevisiae components using a bovine macrophage cell line (BOMAC). The BOMAC phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species production, and immune-related gene (IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL13, IL23), transforming growth factor β, ARG1, CASP1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were investigated when BOMAC were cocultured with cell wall components from 4 different strains (A, B, C, and D) and 2 forms of dead yeast from strain A. The BOMAC phagocytosis of mCherry-labeled MAP was concentration-dependently attenuated when BOMAC were cocultured with yeast components for 6 h. Each yeast derivative also induced a concentration-dependent increase in BOMAC reactive oxygen species production after a 6-h exposure. In addition, BOMAC mRNA expression of the immune-related genes was investigated after 6 and 24 h of exposure to yeast components. All yeast components were found to regulate the immunomodulatory genes of BOMAC; however, the response varied among components and over time. The in vitro bioassessment studies reported here suggest that dead yeast and its cell wall components may be useful for modulating macrophage function before or during MAP infection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the relative sensitivity of milk ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Emilie L; Sanchez, Javier; Chaffer, Marcelo; McKenna, Shawn L B; Keefe, Greg P

    2017-01-01

    Milk ELISA are commonly used for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in dairy cows, due to low cost and quick processing for large numbers of samples. However, low sensitivity and variations from host and environmental factors can impede detection of MAP antibodies at early disease stages. The objectives of our study were to assess the sensitivity of milk ELISA in comparison with fecal tests and to evaluate how detectable antibody concentrations in milk vary with changes in fecal shedding of MAP, cow age, cow parity, days in milk, and time of year. To compare the sensitivity of a commercial milk ELISA with solid and broth fecal culture and with fecal real-time PCR, a longitudinal study was performed for the identification of MAP-infectious animals as determined by prior fecal testing for MAP shedding. In addition, associations between variation in milk MAP ELISA score and changes in fecal MAP shedding, host age, days in milk, and season were evaluated. Monthly milk and fecal samples were collected over 1 yr from 46 cows that were previously shedding MAP in their feces. Sensitivity of milk ELISA was 29.9% (95% CI: 24.8 to 35.1%), compared with 46.7% (40.7 to 52.7%) for fecal solid culture, 55.0% (49.3 to 60.7%) for fecal broth culture, and 78.4% (73.3 to 83.1%) for fecal direct real-time PCR. The effect of stage of lactation could not be separated from the effect of season, with increased milk ELISA scores at greater days in milk in winter. However, unpredictable monthly variations in results were observed among the 3 assays for individual cow testing, which highlights the importance of identifying patterns in pathogen and antibody detection over time in MAP-positive herds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10 6 to 10 5 cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of BrrTCP Transcription Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that the same clade genes have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of 39 TCP genes were determined through quantitative real-time PCR. Most CIN-type BrrTCP genes were highly expressed in leaf. The members of CYC/TB1 subclade are highly expressed in flower bud and weakly expressed in root. By contrast, class I clade showed more widespread but less tissue-specific expression patterns. Yeast two-hybrid data show that BrrTCP proteins preferentially formed heterodimers. The function of BrrTCP2 was confirmed through ectopic expression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type and loss-of-function ortholog mutant of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the diminished leaf size. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in triple mutants of tcp2/4/10 restored the leaf phenotype of tcp2/4/10 to the phenotype of wild type. The comprehensive analysis of turnip TCP gene family provided the foundation to further study the roles of TCP genes in turnips.

  13. The novel virulence-related gene nlxA in the lipopolysaccharide cluster of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri is involved in the production of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide, motility, biofilm formation and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Hu, Xiufang; Wang, Nian

    2012-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence factor of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease. In this research, a novel gene, designated as nlxA (novel LPS cluster gene of X. citri ssp. citri), in the LPS cluster of X. citri ssp. citri 306, was characterized. Our results indicate that nlxA is required for O-polysaccharide biosynthesis by encoding a putative rhamnosyltransferase. This is supported by several lines of evidence: (i) NlxA shares 40.14% identity with WsaF, which acts as a rhamnosyltransferase; (ii) sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that four bands of the O-antigen part of LPS were missing in the LPS production of the nlxA mutant; this is also consistent with a previous report that the O-antigen moiety of LPS of X. citri ssp. citri is composed of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide; (iii) mutation of nlxA resulted in a significant reduction in the resistance of X. citri ssp. citri to different stresses, including sodium dodecylsulphate, polymyxin B, H(2)O(2), phenol, CuSO(4) and ZnSO(4). In addition, our results indicate that nlxA plays an important role in extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, stress resistance, motility on semi-solid plates, virulence and in planta growth in the host plant grapefruit. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing

  15. The predictive value of FDG-PET with 3D-SSP for surgical outcomes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Takuma; Sugano, Hidenori; Nakajima, Madoka; Karagiozov, Kostadin; Iimura, Yasushi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sato, Kiyoshi; Arai, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of (18)F-2-fluorodeoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) with statistical analysis for the foci detection and predictive utility for postsurgical seizure outcome of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). We evaluated 40 patients who were diagnosed mTLE and underwent selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in our institute. Preoperative interictal FDG-PET with statistical analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) was detected with several clinical data including seizure semiology, MRI, scalp electroencephalography, surgical procedure with SAH or ATL and postsurgical outcome. The region of interest (ROI) was defined on 'Hippocampus & Amygdala', 'Parahippocampal gyrus & Uncus', 'T1 & T2', and 'T3 & Fusiform gyrus'. We obtained the ratio of hypometabolism difference (RHD) by 3D-SSP, and evaluated the relation among hypometabolic extent, surgical outcome and surgical procedure. The RHD in each ROIs ipsilateral to operative side was significantly higher than that of contralateral side in good outcome group. Hypometabolism of 'Hippocampus & Amygdala' was most reliable prognostic factor. Patients of discordant with presurgical examinations hardly showed obvious lateralized hypometabolism. Nevertheless, when they have significantly high RHD in mesial temporal lobe, good surgical outcome was expected. There was not significant difference of RHD distribution between SAH and ATL in good outcome group. Significant hypometabolism in mesial temporal lobe on FDG-PET with 3D-SSP is useful to predict good surgical outcome for patients with mTLE, particularly in discordant patients with hypometabolism in mesial temporal structure. However, FDG-PET is not indicative of surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebral blood flow study with 3D-SSP and neuropsychological evaluation by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) before and after clipping of unruptured cerebral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hidekazu; Sasaki, Takehiko; Osato, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of surgery for unruptured aneurysms on cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological estimate. We evaluated the cases of 28 consecutive patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm treated with direct surgery accompanied by craniotomy. Before and after surgery, MRI, 123 I-IMP-SPECT with 3D-SSP analysis and MMSE were performed. There was not a significant decrease in MMSE. In 123 I-IMP-SPECT, it was recognized that the cerebral blood flow was decreased at the frontal operculum of operative site. These results indicate that careful neuropsychological evaluation is essential to make a favorable treatment plan for unruptured aneulysms. (author)

  17. Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-02-12

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity.

  18. Future Climate Prediction of Urban Atmosphere in A Tropical Megacity: Utilization of RCP/SSP Scenarios with an Urban Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanto, N. S.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.; Takakuwa, S.

    2016-12-01

    Economic development in Southeast Asia megacities leads to rapid transformation into more complicated urban configurations. These configurations, including building geometry, enhance aerodynamic drag thus reducing near-surface wind speeds. Roughness parameters representing building geometry, along with anthropogenic heat emissions, contribute to the formation of urban heat islands (UHI). All these have been reproduced successfully in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with an improved single-layer urban canopy model incorporating a realistic distribution of urban parameters and anthropogenic heat emission in the Jakarta Greater Area. We apply this technology to climate change studies by introducing future urbanization defined by urban sprawl, vertical rise in buildings, and increase anthropogenic heat emission (AHE) due to population changes, into futuristic climate modelling. To simulate 2050s future climate, pseudo-global warming method was used which relied on current and ensembles of 5 CMIP5 GCMs for 2 representative concentration pathways (RCP), 2.6 and 8.5. To determine future urbanization level, 2050 population growth and energy consumption were estimated from shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP). This allows the estimation of future urban sprawl, building geometry, and AHE using the SLEUTH urban growth model and spatial growth assumptions. Two cases representing combinations of RCP and SSP were simulated in WRF: RCP2.6-SSP1 and RCP8.5-SSP3. Each case corresponds to best and worst-case scenarios of implementing adaptation and mitigation strategies, respectively. It was found that 2-m temperature of Jakarta will increase by 0.62°C (RCP2.6) and 1.44°C (RCP8.5) solely from background climate change; almost on the same magnitude as the background temperature increase of RCP2.6 (0.5°C) and RCP8.5 (1.2°C). Compared with previous studies, the result indicates that the effect of climate change on UHI in tropical cities may be lesser than

  19. Snakebites by Crotalus durissus ssp in children in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Acidentes por serpentes Crotalus durisssus ssp em crianças em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio BUCARETCHI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From January, 1984 to March, 1999, 31 children under 15 y old (ages 1-14 y, median 8 y were admitted after being bitten by rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus ssp. One patient was classified as "dry-bite", 3 as mild envenoming, 9 as moderate envenoming and 18 as severe envenoming. Most patients had neuromuscular manifestations, such as palpebral ptosis (27/31, myalgia (23/31 and weakness (20/31. Laboratory tests suggesting rhabdomyolysis included an increase in total blood creatine kinase (CK, 28/29 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 25/25 levels and myoglobinuria (14/15. The main local signs and symptoms were slight edema (20/31 and erythema (19/31. Before antivenom (AV administration, blood coagulation disorders were observed in 20/25 children that received AV only at our hospital (incoagulable blood in 17/25. AV early reactions were observed in 20 of these 25 cases (9/9 patients not pretreated and 11/16 patients pretreated with hydrocortisone and histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. There were no significant differences in the frequency of patients with AV early reactions between the groups that were and were not pretreated (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.12. Patients admitted less than and more than 6 h after the bite showed the same risk of developing severe envenoming (Fisher's exact test, p = 1. No children of the first group (De janeiro de 1984 a março de 1999, 31 crianças com menos de 15 anos de idade (1 a 14 anos, mediana = 8 anos foram admitidas após terem sido picadas por Crotalus durissus ssp. Uma criança não apresentou manifestações clínicas de envenenamento, enquanto 3 foram classificadas como acidente leve, 9 como moderado e 18 como grave. A maioria das crianças apresentou envolvimento neuromuscular, tais como ptose palpebral (27/31, mialgia (23/31 e fraqueza (20/31. Alterações laboratoriais sugerindo rabdomiólise também foram observadas, como aumento das enzimas séricas CK (28/29 e LDH (25/25 e mioglobinúria (14/15. As

  20. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L . ssp. durum ). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum . The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis -regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots

  1. Growth and exopolysaccharide yield of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Susann; Krzyzanowski, Leona; Weber, Jost; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Some Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS) and are therefore highly important for the dairy industry as starter cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional requirements for growth and EPS production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081. A medium was developed from a semi-defined medium (SDM) in which glucose was replaced by lactose and different combinations of supplements (nucleobases, vitamins, salts, sodium formate and orotic acid) were added. Constant pH batch fermentation with the modified medium resulted in an EPS yield of approximately 210 mg glucose equivalents per liter medium. This was a 10-fold increase over flask cultivation of this strain in SDM. Although not affecting cell growth, the mixture of salts enhanced the EPS synthesis. Whereas EPS production was approximately 12 mg/g dry biomass without salt supplementation, a significantly higher yield (approximately 20 mg/g dry biomass) was observed after adding the salt mixture. In continuous fermentation, a maximal EPS concentration was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.31/h (80 mg EPS/L), which corresponded to a specific EPS production of 49 mg/g dry biomass. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  3. Short communication: Correlation between within-herd antibody-prevalence and bulk tank milk antibody levels to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis using 2 commercial immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, M N; Yus, E; Factor, C; Mato, I; Sanjuán, M L; Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Diéguez, F J

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the results obtained with the ELISA technique for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in serum and bulk tank milk at the herd level. For this purpose, 203 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed with 2 commercial ELISA from dairy herds with a prevalence of seropositive animals that was also determined. In regard to the reference test (results in blood serum), the sensitivity of the bulk tank milk test to detect high-positive herds (≥10% seroprevalence) ranged from 85.7 to 71.4%. The specificity to detect herds with no seropositive animals ranged from 70.5 to 53%. In a quantitative approach, Pearson correlation coefficients, reported as a measure of the linear association between herd seroprevalences and transformed optical density values recorded in bulk tank milk, were 0.39 and 0.54 for the studied ELISA. Although the test results were relatively fairly correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the practical utility of bulk tank milk testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seems limited, especially regarding specificity. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Population genetics of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia gives insight into past distribution of xeric vegetation in a postulated forest refugium area in northern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, Anne; Delêtre, Marc; De Granville, Jean-Jacques; McKey, Doyle

    2009-07-01

    The Guianas have often been proposed as a forest refugium; however, this view has received little testing. Studies of population genetics of forest taxa suggest that the central part of French Guiana remained forested, while the southern part (currently forested) may have harboured more open vegetation. Insights into the population structure of species restricted to non-forested habitats can help test this hypothesis. Using six microsatellite loci, we investigated the population genetics of French Guianan accessions of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia, a taxon restricted to coastal savannas and to rocky outcrops in the densely forested inland. Coastal populations were highly differentiated from one another, and our data suggest a recent colonization of these savannas by M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia in a west-to-east process. Coastal populations were strongly differentiated from inselberg populations, consistent with an ancient separation of these two groups, with no or low subsequent gene flow. This supports the hypothesis that the central part of the region may have remained forested since the Last Glacial Maximum, impeding the establishment of Manihot. Contrary to coastal populations, inselberg Manihot populations were strikingly homogeneous at a broad spatial scale. This suggests they were connected until recently, either by a large continuous savanna area or by smaller, temporary disturbed areas shifting in space.

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. ssp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso growing in La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. subsp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso (Asteraceae), previously known as Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman, is one of the many endemic species growing in Sardinia, Corsica and Balearic Islands. In the present work the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of H. microphyllum ssp. thyrrenicum growing in a littoral location of La Maddalena Archipelago was investigated by GC-FID and CG-MS. The major compounds of the oil were the monoterpene ester neryl acetate (18.2%), the oxygenated sesquiterpene 5-eudesmen-11-ol (rosifoliol, 11.3%), the sequiterpene hydrocarbons δ-cadinene (8.4%) and γ-cadinene (6.7%), showing a peculiar composition in comparison with other Sardinian populations. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity on three human tumor cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HCT116 and A375) by MTT assay showing a strong inhibitory activity on human malignant melanoma cells A375 (IC50 of 16 µg/ml). In addition the oil was assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assay.

  6. A method to discriminate between closely related bovine major histocompatibility complex class I alleles by combining established PCR-SSP assays with RFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitek, N; Nzau, B; Steinaa, L; Nene, V

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-SSP-RFLP) method to rapidly differentiate between the A18 and A18 variant (v) BoLA haplotypes and between A14 and A15/A15v BoLA haplotypes in Holstein/Friesian cattle. We used published SSP to PCR amplify BoLA alleles expressed in animals of known haplotype and exposed the amplicons to the restriction enzyme PvuII that was predicted to cut at a unique site in the middle of BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) and BoLA-1*00901 (A15) but not in BoLA-6*01301 (A18) or BoLA-1*02301 (A14) alleles. Whereas the method does not discriminate between the A15 and A15v haplotypes, as the BoLA-1*00902 allele associated with A15v also contains a PvuII site, we are interested in cattle of A18 and A14 haplotype for vaccine related studies. Our results also indicated that the BoLA-6*01302 (A18v) allele is much more abundant than BoLA-6*01301 (A18) in the cattle that we sampled. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-Term, Low-Frequency Cluster of a German-Imipenemase-1-Producing Enterobacter hormaechei ssp. steigerwaltii ST89 in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Andreas F; Meyer, Sebastian; Deenen, René; Köhrer, Karl; Kolbe-Busch, Susanne; Pfeffer, Klaus; Willmann, Matthias; Kaasch, Achim J; MacKenzie, Colin R

    2018-05-11

    Enterobacter cloacae complex is a common cause of hospital outbreaks. A retrospective and prospective molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates in a tertiary care center demonstrated an outbreak of a German-imipenemase-1 (GIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter hormaechei ssp. steigerwaltii affecting 23 patients between 2009 and 2016. Thirty-three isolates were sequence type 89 by conventional multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and displayed a maximum difference of 49 out of 3,643 targets in the ad-hoc core-genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme (SeqSphere+ software; Ridom, Münster, Germany). The relatedness of all isolates was confirmed by further maximum-likelihood phylogeny. One clonal complex of highly related isolates (≤15 allele difference in cgMLST) contained 17 patients, but epidemiological data only suggested five transmission events. The bla GIM-1 -gene was embedded in a class-1-integron (In770) and the Tn21-subgroup transposon Tn6216 (KC511628) on a 25-kb plasmid. Environmental screening detected one colonized sink trap in a service room. The outbreak was self-limited as no further bla GIM-1 -positive E. hormaechei has been isolated since 2016. Routine molecular screening of carbapenem-nonsusceptible gram-negative isolates detected a long-term, low-frequency outbreak of a GIM-1-producing E. hormaechei ssp. steigerwaltii clone. This highlights the necessity of molecular surveillance.

  8. Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus enhances non specific protection against Plasmodium chabaudi AS in mice Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus aumenta la protección no específica contra Plasmodium chabaudi AS en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martínez-Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus to enhance resistance against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NIH mice were IP injected with viable lactobacillus casei seven days (LC1 group or 7 and 14 days (LC2 group before the challenge (day 0 with Plasmodium chabaudi parasitized red blood cells (pRBC. Control mice were inoculated with pRBC only. When parasitaemia was resolved, naive mice were injected with spleen cells from each group. The parasitaemia was measured. Nitric oxide (NO. in serum was determined. RESULTS: Mice from the LC1 group presented a reduction in parasitaemia, with a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted 11 days, and the peak was (36.3 % pRBC on the 12th day post-infection. Mice from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted eight days, and the peak (30 % pRBC was of on the 11th day. In the control, the prepatent period was three days, the parasitaemia lasted 15 days, and the peak (51% pRBC was on day nine. Mice inoculated with spleen cells from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of 21 days, parasitaemia lasted seven days, and the peak (13.5% pRBC was on the 26th day. CONCLUSION: L. casei enhanced nonspecific resistance to P. chabaudi, as indicated by longer prepatent periods, reduced parasitaemia, and reduction in the viability of the parasites recovered from the spleen of infected mice, along with high concentrations of NO. in serum.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de Lactobacillus casei de aumentar la resistencia a la infección con Plasmodium chabaudi en ratones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ratones NIH fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con L. casei viable 7 días (grupo LC1 o 7 y 14 días (grupo LC2 antes del reto (día 0 con glóbulos rojos parasitados (GRP con P. chabaudi. Los testigos fueron inoculados con GRP solamente. Cuando la parasitemia se resolvió, se inocularon ratones limpios con células de bazo de cada grupo. Se

  9. A new mountain lizard from Montes de León (NW Iberian Peninsula): Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov. (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar J; Galán, Pedro; Remón, Núria; Naveira, Horacio

    2014-05-19

    Iberolacerta populations from the Northern Montes de Leon (NML) were studied by means of external morphology (scalation and biometry), osteology and genetics (mtDNA and microsatellites), searching for their homogeneity ("intrazonalanalysis") and, once verified, comparing them with Iberolacerta monticola s. str. (from Central Cantabrian Mountains)and/. gal ani (from Southern Montes de Leon) ("extrazonal analysis") from neighboring areas.Our "intrazonal analysis" revealed discordances between the different approaches, especially the patterns of variation of nuclear microsatellites (congruent with external morphology) and mtDNA, namely a very low nuclear differentiation between relatively highly differentiated mtDNA lineages. The morphological approach was unable to discriminate any of the populations as significantly different from the others in the NML. Mitochondrial DNA revealed a haplotype lineage closely related to I. galani (MNL-II in our text) in some specimens of Sierra de Villabandfn and Suspiron, but these populations are morphologically indistinguishable from the main part of the other populations that belong to lineage NML-1,phylogenetically closer to/. monticola. After a separation from I. manti cola ca. 1.8 Mya, the populations in this geographic region must have suffered at least two different waves of gene flow from I. gal ani, the second one not much later than 0.5 Mya. Microsatellite results indicate that all the NML populations are genetically similar in terms of their nuclear genomes,independently of their mitochondrial differentiation (NML-I vs. NML-II haplotype groups). Since all the morphological and microsatellite evidences point towards the fact that, independently of the mitochondrial haplotypes that they bear (NML-1 or NML-II), there is only one taxon in the area, we describe it as: Iberolacerta monticola astur ssp. nov.Concerning the relationships of I. m. astur ssp. nov. with I. monticola s. str. and I. gal ani ("extra zonal analysis"), in

  10. Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín

    OpenAIRE

    MAYO SANZ, ELOY

    2012-01-01

    Mayo Sanz, E. (2011). Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14231. Archivo delegado

  11. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  12. ISSR markers for gender identification and genetic diagnosis of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica growing at high altitudes in Ladakh region (Jammu and Kashmir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamal; Ganie, Showkat Hussain; Mangla, Yash; Dar, Tanvir-Ul-Hassan; Chaudhary, Manju; Thakur, Rakesh Kumar; Tandon, Rajesh; Raina, S N; Goel, Shailendra

    2017-03-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica (Elaeagnaceae) is a predominantly dioecious and wind-pollinated medicinal plant species. The mature fruits of the species possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancerous, and antistimulatory properties that are believed to improve the immune system. The identification of male and female plants in H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica is quite difficult until flowering which usually takes 3-4 years or more. A sex-linked marker can be helpful in establishing the orchards through identification of genders at an early stage of development. Therefore, we studied the genetic diversity of populations in Ladakh with the aim to identify a gender-specific marker using ISSR markers. Fifty-eight ISSR primers were used to characterize the genome of H. rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica, of which eight primers generated 12 sex-specific fragments specific to one or more populations. The ISSR primer (P-45) produced a fragment which faithfully segregates all the males from the female plants across all the three valleys surveyed. This male-specific locus was converted into a SCAR. Forward and reverse primers designed from this fragment amplified a 750-bp sequence in males only, thus specifying it as an informative male-specific sex-linked marker. This SCAR marker was further validated for its capability to differentiate gender on an additional collection of plants, representing three geographically isolated valleys (Nubra, Suru, and Indus) from Ladakh region of India. The results confirmed sex-linked specificity of the marker suggesting that this conserved sequence at the Y chromosome is well preserved through the populations in Ladakh region. At present, there are no reliable markers which can differentiate male from female plants across all the three valleys of Ladakh region at an early stage of plant development. It is therefore envisaged that the developed SCAR marker shall provide a reliable molecular tool for early

  13. Direct comparison study between FDG-PET and IMP-SPECT for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease using 3D-SSP analysis in the same patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihashi, Takashi; Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic ability of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and N-isopropyl-p- 123 I iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). FDG-PET and IMP-SPECT were performed within 3 months in 14 patients with probable moderate AD. Z-score maps of FDG-PET and IMP-SPECT images of a patient were obtained by comparison with data obtained from control subjects. Four expert physicians evaluated and graded the glucose hypometabolism and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), focusing in particular on the posterior cingulate gyri/precunei and parietotemporal regions, and determined the reliability for AD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to the results for clarification. To evaluate the correlation between two modalities, the regions of interest (ROIs) were set in the posterior cingulate gyri/precunei and parietotemporal region on 3D-SSP images, and mean Z-values were calculated. No significant difference was observed in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) between FDG-PET and IMP-SPECT images (FDG-PET 0.95, IMP-SPECT 0.94). However, a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the AUC for the posterior cingulate gyri/precuneus (FDG-PET 0.94, IMP-SPECT 0.81). The sensitivity and specificity of each modality were 86%, and 97% for FDG-PET and 70% and 100% for IMP-SPECT. We could find no significant difference between FDG-PET and IMP-SPECT in terms of diagnosing moderate AD using 3D-SSP. There was a high correlation between the two modalities in the parietotemporal region (Spearman's r=0.82, P<0.001). The correlation in the posterior cingulate gyri/precunei region was lower than that in the parietotemporal region (Spearman's r=0.63, P<0.016). (author)

  14. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinye; Yang, Qin; Rucker, Elizabeth; Thomason, Wade; Balint-Kurti, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In this study we mapped the QTL Qgls8 for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance in maize to a ~130 kb region on chromosome 8 including five predicted genes. In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance. We identified alternate teosinte alleles at this QTL, one conferring increased GLS resistance and one increased susceptibility relative to the B73 allele. Using segregating populations derived from NIL parents carrying these contrasting alleles, we were able to delimit the QTL region to a ~130 kb (based on the B73 genome) which encompassed five predicted genes.

  15. Organogenesis from in vitro-derived leaf and internode explants of Hoya wightii ssp. palniensis -a vulnerable species of Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbaiah Revathi Lakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient system was developed for indirect plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf and internode explants of Hoya wightii ssp. palniensis. Maximum percentage of the organogenic callus was obtained on MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l and 2,4-D (2.0 mg/l. The best shoot bud induction was observed on MS medium with BA (1.0 mg/l +IBA (0.5 mg/l. The coconut water (15% was better, resulting in a differentiation of the shoot initials in to well-developed shoots. The elongated shoots (› 3cm long were rooted on a full strength MS basal medium, supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA. Finally, the rooted plants were transferred to the soil with 80% success rate. This protocol was utilized for the in vitro propagation of this endangered plant species.

  16. Chemical Composition, Nutritive and Energetic Value of Plantain (Musa ssp. Hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21and Orishele Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics as well as contents in main components such as dry matter, sugars, lipids proteins and some minerals were determined in four banana hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21 and Orishele variety (used as control. Titrable acidity, pH, and calorific energy of these various cultivars of banana (Musa ssp. were also determined. The results indicated that Orishele variety had the highest content of dry matter, total carbohydrate and potassium. On the other hand, CRBP 39 hybrid which had the highest total acidity was the richest in total sugars and was the most energetic. Concerning FHIA 17, it contained the highest amount of proteins, lipids, magnesium, calcium and iron.

  17. Optimized PCR with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP for fast and efficient determination of Interleukin-6 Promoter -597/-572/-174Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugert Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6 promoter polymorphisms at positions -597(G→A, -572(G→C and -174(G→C were shown to have a clinical impact on different major diseases. At present PCR-SSP protocols for IL-6 -597/-572/-174haplotyping are elaborate and require large amounts of genomic DNA. Findings We describe an improved typing technique requiring a decreased number of PCR-reactions and a reduced PCR-runtime due to optimized PCR-conditions. Conclusion This enables a fast and efficient determination of IL-6 -597/-572/-174haplotypes in clinical diagnosis and further evaluation of IL-6 promoter polymorphisms in larger patient cohorts.

  18. Profiling of the Terpene Metabolome in Carrot Fruits of Wild ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) Accessions and Characterization of a Geraniol Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ibdah, Muhammad; Marzouk, Sally; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2018-03-14

    Fruits from wild carrot ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1. Recombinant WtDcTPS1 protein produces mainly geraniol, the predominant monoterpene in carrot seeds of wild accession 23727. The results suggest a role for the WtDcTPS1 gene in the biosynthesis of carrot fruit aroma and flavor compounds.

  19. Description of Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae), parasite of Gallotia stehlini, lacertid of Grand Canary Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero, C; Castaño, C; Zapatero, L M

    1999-03-01

    Pharyngodonid nematodes (Oxyuroidea) belonging to the genus Alaeuris Thapar, 1925, were collected from the posterior gut of Gallotia stehlini (Lacertidae) from Grand Canary Island. Two species Alaeuris stehlini n. sp. and Alaeuris numidica canariensis n. ssp. were identified. The new species is described in which the long thin males are characterized by narrow caudal alae, a rounded first pair of adanal papillae non pedunculate, the second pair attached and elongate, the three pair teated; a short narrow V plate and a relatively long caudal appendage. The females are also long and thin with a slightly salient vulva, a conical pointed caudal appendage, oesophageal length approximately one third of body, excretory pore below the oesophageal bulb. The new subspecies most closely resembles Alaeuris numidica numidica. (Seurat, 1918) Petter, 1966 and Alaeuris numidica madagascariensis Petter, 1966.

  20. Amino Acids Sequence Based in Silico Analysis of RuBisCO (Ribulose-1,5 Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase Proteins in Some Carthamus L. ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RuBisCO is an important enzyme for plants to photosynthesize and balance carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study aimed to perform sequence, physicochemical, phylogenetic and 3D (three-dimensional comparative analyses of RuBisCO proteins in the Carthamus ssp. using various bioinformatics tools. The sequence lengths of the RuBisCO proteins were between 166 and 477 amino acids, with an average length of 411.8 amino acids. Their molecular weights (Mw ranged from 18711.47 to 52843.09 Da; the most acidic and basic protein sequences were detected in C. tinctorius (pI = 5.99 and in C. tenuis (pI = 6.92, respectively. The extinction coefficients of RuBisCO proteins at 280 nm ranged from 17,670 to 69,830 M-1 cm-1, the instability index (II values for RuBisCO proteins ranged from 33.31 to 39.39, while the GRAVY values of RuBisCO proteins ranged from -0.313 to -0.250. The most abundant amino acid in the RuBisCO protein was Gly (9.7%, while the least amino acid ratio was Trp (1.6 %. The putative phosphorylation sites of RuBisCO proteins were determined by NetPhos 2.0. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RuBisCO proteins formed two main clades. A RAMPAGE analysis revealed that 96.3%-97.6% of residues were located in the favoured region of RuBisCO proteins. To predict the three dimensional (3D structure of the RuBisCO proteins PyMOL was used. The results of the current study provide insights into fundamental characteristic of RuBisCO proteins in Carthamus ssp.

  1. Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3−5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

  2. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE NON-UNIVERSALITY OF THE LOW-MASS END OF THE IMF IS ROBUST AGAINST THE CHOICE OF SSP MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patterns or solar metallicity, too restrictive if one aims to disentangle elemental enhancements, metallicity changes, and IMF variations in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) with star formation histories different from those in the solar neighborhood. We define response functions (to metallicity and α-abundance) to extend the parameter space for each set of models. We compare these extended models with a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ETG spectra with varying velocity dispersions. We measure equivalent widths of optical IMF-sensitive stellar features to examine the effect of the underlying model assumptions and ingredients, such as stellar libraries or isochrones, on the inference of the IMF slope down to ∼0.1 M ⊙ . We demonstrate that the steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF based on a non-degenerate set of spectroscopic optical indicators is robust against the choice of the stellar population model. Although the models agree in a relative sense (i.e., both imply more bottom-heavy IMFs for more massive systems), we find non-negligible differences in the absolute values of the IMF slope inferred at each velocity dispersion by using the two different models. In particular, we find large inconsistencies in the quantitative predictions of the IMF slope variations and abundance patterns when sodium lines are used. We investigate the possible reasons for these inconsistencies

  4. Haematophageous vector monitoring in Djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of Culex pipiens ssp. torridus (IGLISCH), and Anopheles sergentii (theobald).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2010-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using CDC light traps without an additional CO2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in Djibouti City, from August 2008 until December 2009. An overall of 620 haematophageous Diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes, 10 (1.6%) were sand flies, and 7 (1.1%) were biting midges, respectively. Genus distribution of mosquitoes revealed that 600 (99.5%) were Culex spp., 2 (0.3%) were Anopheles sergentii, and 1 (0.2%) was Aedes aegypti. Culex species were represented by Cx. quinquefasciatus (78.5%), and Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus (21.5%). The later species was first detected focally in early December 2009 showing a strongly increasing population density resulting in a maximum trap rate of 25 mosquitoes per trap night. Sand flies were all Sergentomyia antennata, and biting midges of the genus Culicoides were represented by C. nubeculosus (71.4%) and C. vexans (28.6 %). The findings included the first records for Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus and An. sergentii in Djibouti. However, none of the captured female Culex spp, the known vector for West Nile Virus, showed positive results for viral nucleic acids using WNV RT-real time PCR system. Also, females An. sergentii were Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite protein negative.

  5. Whole Genome Sequences of Three Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue Strains: Yaws and Syphilis Treponemes Differ in Less than 0.2% of the Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pospíšilová, Petra; Strouhal, Michal; Qin, Xiang; Mikalová, Lenka; Norris, Steven J.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The yaws treponemes, Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE) strains, are closely related to syphilis causing strains of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA). Both yaws and syphilis are distinguished on the basis of epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, and several genetic signatures of the corresponding causative agents. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between TPA and TPE, high-quality whole genome sequences of three TPE strains (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier) were determined using next-generation sequencing techniques. TPE genome sequences were compared to four genomes of TPA strains (Nichols, DAL-1, SS14, Chicago). The genome structure was identical in all three TPE strains with similar length ranging between 1,139,330 bp and 1,139,744 bp. No major genome rearrangements were found when compared to the four TPA genomes. The whole genome nucleotide divergence (dA) between TPA and TPE subspecies was 4.7 and 4.8 times higher than the observed nucleotide diversity (π) among TPA and TPE strains, respectively, corresponding to 99.8% identity between TPA and TPE genomes. A set of 97 (9.9%) TPE genes encoded proteins containing two or more amino acid replacements or other major sequence changes. The TPE divergent genes were mostly from the group encoding potential virulence factors and genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Conclusions/Significance Hypothetical genes, with genetic differences, consistently found between TPE and TPA strains are candidates for syphilitic treponemes virulence factors. Seventeen TPE genes were predicted under positive selection, and eleven of them coded either for predicted exported proteins or membrane proteins suggesting their possible association with the cell surface. Sequence changes between TPE and TPA strains and changes specific to individual strains represent suitable targets for subspecies- and strain-specific molecular diagnostics. PMID:22292095

  6. A novel Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. MYC-type ICE-like transcription factor gene ZmmICE1, enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Yu, Mengyuan; Lai, Jianbin; Wang, Chao; McNeil, David; Zhou, Meixue; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L., a member of the teosinte group, is a close wild relative of maize and thus can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, an ICE-like gene, ZmmICE1, was isolated from a cDNA library of RNA-Seq from cold-treated seedling tissues of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. The deduced protein of ZmmICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE-like proteins. The ZmmICE1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows sumoylation when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. In addition, yeast one hybrid assays indicated that ZmmICE1 has transactivation activities. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmmICE1 in the Arabidopsis ice1-2 mutant increased freezing tolerance. The ZmmICE1 overexpressed plants showed lower electrolyte leakage (EL), reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression of downstream cold related genes of Arabidopsis C-repeat-binding factors (AtCBF1, AtCBF2 and AtCBF3), cold-responsive genes (AtCOR15A and AtCOR47), kinesin-1 member gene (AtKIN1) and responsive to desiccation gene (AtRD29A) was significantly induced when compared with wild type under low temperature treatment. Taken together, these results indicated that ZmmICE1 is the homolog of Arabidopsis inducer of CBF expression genes (AtICE1/2) and plays an important role in the regulation of freezing stress response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. THE NON-UNIVERSALITY OF THE LOW-MASS END OF THE IMF IS ROBUST AGAINST THE CHOICE OF SSP MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiniello, C. [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-8l740 Garching (Germany); Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-04-20

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patterns or solar metallicity, too restrictive if one aims to disentangle elemental enhancements, metallicity changes, and IMF variations in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) with star formation histories different from those in the solar neighborhood. We define response functions (to metallicity and α-abundance) to extend the parameter space for each set of models. We compare these extended models with a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ETG spectra with varying velocity dispersions. We measure equivalent widths of optical IMF-sensitive stellar features to examine the effect of the underlying model assumptions and ingredients, such as stellar libraries or isochrones, on the inference of the IMF slope down to ∼0.1 M{sub ⊙}. We demonstrate that the steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF based on a non-degenerate set of spectroscopic optical indicators is robust against the choice of the stellar population model. Although the models agree in a relative sense (i.e., both imply more bottom-heavy IMFs for more massive systems), we find non-negligible differences in the absolute values of the IMF slope inferred at each velocity dispersion by using the two different models. In particular, we find large inconsistencies in the quantitative predictions of the IMF slope variations and abundance patterns when sodium lines are used. We investigate the possible reasons for these inconsistencies.

  9. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  10. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  11. Efficient production of native lunasin with correct N-terminal processing by using the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein system in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setrerrahmane, Sarra; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Guangzhi; Lv, Jing; Tan, Shuhua

    2014-09-01

    To develop an efficient and cost-effective approach for the production of small preventive peptide lunasin with correct natural N terminus, a synthetic gene was designed by OPTIMIZER & Gene Designer and cloned into pTWIN1 vector at SapI and PstI sites. Thus, lunasin was N-terminally fused to the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein linked to a chitin binding domain (CBD) with no extra residues. The resultant fusion protein was highly expressed by lactose induction in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in a 7-l bioreactor and bound to a chitin affinity column. After washing the impurities, the Ssp DnaB intein mediated on-column self-cleavage was easily triggered by shifting pH and temperature to allow the native lunasin released. The final purified lunasin yielded up to 75 mg/l medium. Tricine/SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)/mass spectrometry (MS) verified the structural authenticity of the product, implying the correct cleavage at the junction between Ssp DnaB intein and lunasin. MTT assay confirmed its potent proliferation inhibitory activity to human cancer cells HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231; however, no cytotoxicity to normal human lens epithelial cell SRA01/04 and hepatoma HepG2. Taken together, we provide a novel strategy to produce recombinant native lunasin with correct N-terminal processing by using the pH-induced self-cleavable Ssp DnaB mini-intein.

  12. Mechanism of action of relaxant effect of Agastache mexicana ssp.mexicana essential oil in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Andrés; Ávila-Rosas, Natalia; Majín-León, Mateo; Balderas-López, José Luis; Alfaro-Romero, Alejandro; Tavares-Carvalho, José Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Lamiaceae), popularly known as 'toronjil morado', is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, anxiety and respiratory disorders. This study investigates the relaxant action mechanism of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana essential oil (AMEO) in guinea-pig isolated trachea model. AMEO was analyzed by GC/MS. The relaxant effect of AMEO (5-50 μg/mL) was tested in guinea-pig trachea pre-contracted with carbachol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or histamine (3 × 10  -   5  M) in the presence or absence of glibenclamide (10  -   5  M), propranolol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (10  -   5  M). The antagonist effect of AMEO (10-300 μg/mL) against contractions elicited by carbachol (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M), histamine (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M) or calcium (10-300 μg/mL) was evaluated. Essential oil composition was estragole, d-limonene and linalyl anthranilate. AMEO relaxed the carbachol (EC 50  =   18.25 ± 1.03 μg/mL) and histamine (EC 50  =   13.3 ± 1.02 μg/mL)-induced contractions. The relaxant effect of AMEO was not modified by the presence of propranolol, glibenclamide or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, suggesting that effect of AMEO is not related to β 2 -adrenergic receptors, ATP-sensitive potassium channels or adenylate cyclase activation. AMEO was more potent to antagonize histamine (pA 2 ' = -1.507 ± 0.122) than carbachol (pA 2 ' = -2.180 ± 0.357). Also, AMEO antagonized the calcium chloride-induced contractions. The results suggest that relaxant effect of AMEO might be due to blockade of calcium influx in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle. It is possible that estragole and d-limonene could contribute majority in the relaxant effect of AMEO.

  13. Cucumis melo ssp. Agrestis var. Agrestis Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Kripa; Singh, Sumit K; Kumar, Durgesh; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Rajan, Sujith; Srivastava, Ankita; Beg, Muheeb; Srivastava, Anurag Kumar; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Mishra, Dipak K; Gaikwad, Anil N

    2015-10-01

    Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA) is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE), male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg). Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF) and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF). Phytochemical screening was done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC- (MS)/MS and direct analysis in real time-MS to detect active compounds in the fractions. Further, high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters were treated with CMWF and CMHF at 50 mg/kg for 7 days. Oral administration of CMFE and both fractions (CMWF and CMHF) reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed dyslipidemic hamsters. CMHF also modulated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and reverse cholesterol transport. Standard biochemical diagnostic tests suggested that neither of fractions causes any toxicity to hamster liver or kidneys. CMFE and CMHF also decreased oil-red-O accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Based on these results, it is concluded that CMA possesses anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity along with the anti-adipogenic activity. The oral administration of Cucumis melo agrestis fruit extract (CMFE) and its fractions (CMWF and CMHF) improved serum lipid profile in HFD fed dyslipidemic hamsters.CMFE, CMWF and CMHF significantly attenuated body weight gain and eWAT hypertrophy.The CMHF decreased lipogenesis in both liver and adipose tissue.CMFE and CMHF also inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Abbreviation used: CMA: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis, CMFE: CMA fruit extract, CMWF: CMA water fraction, CMHF: CMA hexane fraction, FAS: Fatty acid

  14. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  15. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide Investigation of microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Root with Plasmodiophora brassicae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to pathogens in plants. However, there is little information available about the expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis under Plasmodiophora brassicae stress. In the present study, using deep sequencing and degradome analysis, a genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their targets during P. brassicae stress was performed. A total of 221 known and 93 potentially novel miRNAs were successfully identified from two root libraries of one control (635-10CK and P. brassicae-treated Chinese cabbage samples (635-10T. Of these, 14 known and 10 potentially novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after P. brassicae treatment. Degradome analysis revealed that the 223 target genes of the 75 miRNAs could be potentially cleaved. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the putative target genes of the miRNAs were predominately involved in selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Then the expression of 12 miRNAs was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks underlying the stress response to the plant pathogen P. brassicae.

  17. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  18. The effects of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 on gastrointestinal wellness in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, Zainab; Miller, Jennifer L; Sandoval, Mariana Y; MacPherson, Chad W; Nagulesapillai, Varuni; Dahl, Wendy J

    2018-04-27

    Constipation is a frequent problem in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Certain probiotics have been shown to improve transit and gastrointestinal symptoms of adults with functional constipation. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of daily consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 (B. lactis B94) on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (18-75 years old, n = 36) will be recruited and enrolled in a 20-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study subjects will be randomized to B. lactis B94 or placebo each for a 4-week period, preceded by a 4-week baseline and followed by 4-week washouts. Subjects will complete daily records of stool frequency and stool form (a proxy of transit time). Dietary intake data also will be collected. Stools, one in each period, will be collected for exploratory microbiota analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of B. lactis in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. The results of this study will provide evidence of efficacy for future clinical trials in patient populations with constipation. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03277157 ). Registered on 08 September 2017.

  19. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  20. Diversidad genética de levaduras aisladas a partir de uvas de Vitis vinifera ssp. Sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi en el área Euroasiática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero-Bueso Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sylvestris(Gmelin Hegi is recognized as the dioecious parental generation of today's cultivars. Climatic change and the arrival in Europe of pathogens and pests have led it to be included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1997. At best of our knowledge, no studies on microbial populations of grape-berry surfaces have been done. The present work has been focused on the study of yeast occurrence and diversity on grape-berries collected from wild vines. Final outputs have allowed: ito obtain precise information about yeast communities; ii to provide an objective framework for the classification of the broadest range of species according to their extinction risk; iii to select attractive yeast strains for their biotechnological potential, offering new opportunities to winemakers. Sampling plan was performed in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In all, 3180 yeast colonies were isolated and identified as belonging to 50 species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and ITS region sequencing. Isolates of S. cerevisiaewere also analysed by SSR-PCR obtaining 163 different genotypes. This study highlights the biodiversity potential of pristine environments that still represent a fascinating source to face common problems in winemaking.

  1. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare ) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis . The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  2. Lactobacillus casei ssp.casei induced Th1 cytokine profile and natural killer cells activity in invasive ductal carcinoma bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Holakuyee, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria which are used as probiotics have ability to modulate immune responses and modify immune mechanisms. It has also been indicated that some strains of this family can affect the immune responses against solid tumors. In the present work, we proposed to study the effects of oral administration of L.cacesi ssp casei on the NK cells cytotoxicity and also production of cytokines in spleen cells culture of BALB/c mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma. 30 female In-bred BALB/c mice, were used and divided in two groups of test and control each containing 15 mice. Every day from 2 weeks before tumor transplantation 0.5 ml of PBS containing 2.7×108 CFU/ml of L.casei spp casei was orally administered to the test mice and it was followed 3 weeks after transplantation as well with 3 days interval between each week. Control mice received an equal volume of PBS in a same manner. Results showed that oral administration of L. casei significantly increased the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ (Psurvival was significantly prolonged in comparison to the controls. Our findings suggest that daily intake of L.casei can improve immune responses in mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma, but further studies are needed to investigate the other involving mechanisms in this case.

  3. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  4. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC{sub I}nvE Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, A.; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project 'Experimental blade research: Structural mechanisms in current and future large blades under combined loading', supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risoe load, where 80% Risoe load corresponds to 100% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risoe load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risoe DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risoe load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile deformation. (Author)

  5. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeereh, David; Thaiyah, Andrew; Muchemi, Gerald; Miyunga, Antoinette A

    2017-01-30

    Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human-wildlife-livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5%) animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5%) in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela). This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  6. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ndeereh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human–wildlife–livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5% animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5% in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela. This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  7. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  8. Degradation kinetics of peroxidase enzyme, phenolic content, and physical and sensorial characteristics in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) during blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M; Pinheiro, Joaquina; Alegria, Carla; Abreu, Marta; Brandão, Teresa R S; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-06-24

    The effects of water blanching treatment on peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content, color parameters [-a*/b* and hue (h degrees*)], texture (maximum shear force), and sensory attributes (color and texture, evaluated by a trained panel) of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Italica) were studied at five temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C). Experimental results showed that all studied broccoli quality parameters suffered significative changes due to blanching treatments. The vegetal total phenolic content showed a marked decline. Degradation on objective color and texture measurements and alterations in sensorial attributes were detected. Correlations between sensory and instrumental measurements have been found. Under the conditions 70 degrees C and 6.5 min or 90 degrees C and 0.4 min, 90% of the initial peroxidase activity was reduced. At these conditions, no significant alterations were detected by panelists, and a small amount of phenolic content was lost (ca. 16 and 10%, respectively). The peroxidase inactivation and phenolic content degradation were found to follow first-order reaction models. The zero-order reaction model showed a good fit to the broccoli color (-a*/b* and h degrees*), texture, and sensory parameters changes. The temperature effect was well-described by the Arrhenius law.

  9. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  11. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on proanthocyanidins in berries of Finnish wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Laaksonen, Oskar; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-02-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) of varieties 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' and one of wild origin were cultivated in southern and northern Finland, harvested during 2007-2013. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were analyzed with HILIC UPLC-ESI-MS. The southern and northern samples were separated in the partial least squares discriminant analysis model (four factors, R(2) 0.75, Q(2) 0.70). The total PAs were more abundant in berries from the north (610-970mg/100gDW) than in those from the south (340-450mg/100gDW) (p<0.05). In northern Finland, the length of the growth season as well as the temperature sum and radiation sum of the growth season until harvest were negatively correlated with the total PAs in all the samples but positively with PA oligomers in 'Tytti' and 'Terhi'. In southern Finland no respective correlations were seen. 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' had different trends in the content of total PA and oligomers in overripe stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic diversity and structure of Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum in California vineyards and orchards indicate potential for spread of herbicide resistance via gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Elizabeth; Jasieniuk, Marie

    2017-07-01

    Management of agroecosystems with herbicides imposes strong selection pressures on weedy plants leading to the evolution of resistance against those herbicides. Resistance to glyphosate in populations of Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum is increasingly common in California, USA, causing economic losses and the loss of effective management tools. To gain insights into the recent evolution of glyphosate resistance in L. perenne in perennial cropping systems of northwest California and to inform management, we investigated the frequency of glyphosate resistance and the genetic diversity and structure of 14 populations. The sampled populations contained frequencies of resistant plants ranging from 10% to 89%. Analyses of neutral genetic variation using microsatellite markers indicated very high genetic diversity within all populations regardless of resistance frequency. Genetic variation was distributed predominantly among individuals within populations rather than among populations or sampled counties, as would be expected for a wide-ranging outcrossing weed species. Bayesian clustering analysis provided evidence of population structuring with extensive admixture between two genetic clusters or gene pools. High genetic diversity and admixture, and low differentiation between populations, strongly suggest the potential for spread of resistance through gene flow and the need for management that limits seed and pollen dispersal in L. perenne .

  13. Fate of nuclear material during subsequent steps of the kinetin-induced PCD in apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Soboska, Kamila

    2018-07-01

    In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far. To study kinetin-induced PCD (Kin-PCD) in the context of nuclear material faith, 2-cm apical parts of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedling roots were used. Applied assays involving spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and white light microscopy allowed to examine metabolic and cytomorphologic hallmarks such as changes in DNA content, ssDNA formation and activity of acidic and basic nucleases (DNases and RNases) as well as malformations and fragmentation of nucleoli and nuclei. The obtained results concerning the PCD hallmarks and influence of ZnSO 4 on Kin-PCD allowed us to confirmed presence of specification/signaling, killing and execution/degradation phases of the process and broaden the knowledge about processes affecting nuclei during PCD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An SSP-PCR method for the rapid detection of disease-associated alleles HLA-A*29 and HLA-B*51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, U; Schaerer, D; Andrey, G; Wirthmueller, U; Largiadèr, C R

    2018-05-15

    HLA-A*29 and HLA-B*51 are associated with birdshot uveitis and Behçet's disease, respectively, and are used as a diagnostic criterion in patients with suspected disease, requiring their detection in diagnostic laboratories. While commercial tests for individual HLA alleles are available for other disease-associated HLA variants, no similar allele-specific assays are available for HLA-A*29 and -B*51. Here, we report SSP-PCR methods for the detection of HLA-A*29 and -B*51 using a single PCR reaction per allele. The assays were tested in 30 and 32 previously HLA-typed samples, respectively, representing >97% of HLA-A alleles and >93% of HLA-B alleles in a European population. A concordance of 100% was observed with previous typing results, validating these methods for use in a diagnostic or research context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  17. Induced Production of 1-Methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl Glucosinolate by Jasmonic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate in Sprouts and Leaves of Pak Choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansruedi Glatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pak choi plants (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis were treated with different signaling molecules methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, linolenic acid, and methyl salicylate and were analyzed for specific changes in their glucosinolate profile. Glucosinolate levels were quantified using HPLC-DAD-UV, with focus on induction of indole glucosinolates and special emphasis on 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate. Furthermore, the effects of the different signaling molecules on indole glucosinolate accumulation were analyzed on the level of gene expression using semi-quantitative realtime RT-PCR of selected genes. The treatments with signaling molecules were performed on sprouts and mature leaves to determine ontogenetic differences in glucosinolate accumulation and related gene expression. The highest increase of indole glucosinolate levels, with considerable enhancement of the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate content, was achieved with treatments of sprouts and mature leaves with methyl jasmonate and jasmonic acid. This increase was accompanied by increased expression of genes putatively involved in the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The high levels of indole glucosinolates enabled the plant to preferentially produce the respective breakdown products after tissue damage. Thus, pak choi plants treated with methyl jasmonate or jasmonic acid, are a valuable tool to analyze the specific protection functions of 1-methoxy-indole-3-carbinole in the plants defense strategy in the future.

  18. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  19. Antilisterial Activity of Bacteriocin Isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in the Production of Sremska Sausages: Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolation, Bacteriocin Identification and Meat Application Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Škrinjar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an essential role in the production of fermented meat products. The metabolic activity of LAB affects the ripening process, leading to the formation of the desired sensory characteristics of the products, while inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are extracellular peptides or protein molecules, produced by some LAB, which possess bactericidal properties against specific species or genera of microorganisms, usually related bacteria. Bacteriocin production by LAB can act in a selective and competitive way against the surrounding microbiota, which may contain spoilage bacteria or pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. This pathogen is widely distributed in raw products, it survives in different production areas, and human infections have a high mortality rate, all of which makes the control of this microorganism important in food production. The aim of this work is to determine the possibilities of utilizing a novel bacteriocin isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in order to prevent the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in the production of traditional Serbian Sremska sausages. The bacteriocin-producing strain of Leuconostoc originated from the same sausage, which had been produced in the traditional manner. Bacteriocin was isolated using precipitation procedures with ammonium sulphate, and then its properties (strength and range of activities, relationship to high temperatures and proteolytic enzymes were determined under laboratory conditions. Also, based on the obtained laboratory results, the antilisterial effect of bacteriocin, included as an additive, was examined in the production of traditional Sremska sausages. Expressed antilisterial activity of bacteriocin has an interesting food safety potential which can be used in the meat industry in the production of fermented sausages. Further research will contribute to a better

  20. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  1. Genome-wide association mapping reveals a rich genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance loci in emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhen; Maccaferri, Marco; Chen, Xianming; Laghetti, Gaetano; Pignone, Domenico; Pumphrey, Michael; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    SNP-based genome scanning in worldwide domesticated emmer germplasm showed high genetic diversity, rapid linkage disequilibrium decay and 51 loci for stripe rust resistance, a large proportion of which were novel. Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, is a potentially rich reservoir of variation for improvement of resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in wheat. Resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in emmer wheat has been under-investigated. Here, we employed genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping with a mixed linear model to dissect effective stripe rust resistance loci in a worldwide collection of 176 cultivated emmer wheat accessions. Adult plants were tested in six environments and seedlings were evaluated with five races from the United States and one from Italy under greenhouse conditions. Five accessions were resistant across all experiments. The panel was genotyped with the wheat 90,000 Illumina iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and 5106 polymorphic SNP markers with mapped positions were obtained. A high level of genetic diversity and fast linkage disequilibrium decay were observed. In total, we identified 14 loci associated with field resistance in multiple environments. Thirty-seven loci were significantly associated with all-stage (seedling) resistance and six of them were effective against multiple races. Of the 51 total loci, 29 were mapped distantly from previously reported stripe rust resistance genes or quantitative trait loci and represent newly discovered resistance loci. Our results suggest that GWAS is an effective method for characterizing genes in cultivated emmer wheat and confirm that emmer wheat is a rich source of stripe rust resistance loci that can be used for wheat improvement.

  2. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  3. Ability of Rf5 and Rf6 to Restore Fertility of Chinsurah Boro II-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Oryza Sativa (ssp. Japonica) Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggen; Che, Jianlan; Ge, Yongshen; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Qiaoquan; Gu, Minghong; Tang, Shuzhu

    2017-12-01

    Three-line Oryza sativa (ssp. japonica) hybrids have been developed mainly using Chinsurah Boro II (BT)-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). The Rf1 gene restores the fertility of BT-type CMS lines, and is the only fertility restorer gene (Rf) that has been used to produce three-line japonica hybrids. Using more Rf genes to breed BT-type restorer lines may broaden the genetic diversity of the restorer lines, and represents a viable approach to improve the heterosis level of BT-type japonica hybrids. We identified two major Rf genes from '93-11' that are involved in restoring the fertility of BT-type CMS plants. These genes were identified from resequenced chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between the japonica variety 'Nipponbare' and the indica variety '93-11'. Molecular mapping results revealed that these genes were Rf5 and Rf6, which are the Rf genes that restore fertility to Honglian-type CMS lines. The BT-type F 1 hybrids with either Rf5 or Rf6 exhibited normal seed setting rates, but F 1 plants carrying Rf6 showed more stable seed setting rates than those of plants carrying Rf5 under heat-stress conditions. Furthermore, the seed setting rates of F 1 hybrids carrying both Rf5 and Rf6 were more stable than that of F 1 plants carrying only one Rf gene. Rf6 is an important genetic resource for the breeding of BT-type japonica restorer lines. Our findings may be useful for breeders interested in developing BT-type japonica hybrids.

  4. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  5. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  6. Soil water effect on crop growth, leaf gas exchange, water and radiation use efficiency of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel in semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been placed to identify the most suited bioenergy crop under different environments and management practices, however, there is still need to find new genetic resources for constrained areas. For instance, South Mediterranean area is strongly affected by prolonged drought, high vapour pressure deficit (VPD and extremely high temperatures during summertime. In the present work we investigated the soil water effect on crop growth and leaf gas exchange of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel, a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous grass. Furthermore, the net increase of biomass production per unit light intercepted [radiation use efficiency (RUE] and per unit water transpired [water use efficiency (WUE] was also studied. To this end a field trial was carried out imposing three levels of soil water availability (I100, I50 and I0, corresponding to 100%, 50% and 0% of ETm restutition under a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Leaf area index (LAI, stem height, biomass dry matter yield, CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate resulted significantly affected by measurement time and irrigation treatment, with the highest values in I100 and the lowest in I0. RUE was the highest in I100 followed by I50 and I0; on the other hand, WUE was higher in I0 than I50 and I100. At LAI values greater than 2.0, 85% photosynthetically active radiation was intercepted by the Saccharum stand, irrespective of the irrigation treatment. Saccharum spontaneum spp. aegyptiacum is a potential species for biomass production in environment characterized by drought stress, high temperatures and high VPD, as those of Southern Europe and similar semi-arid areas.

  7. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/expoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured surface deformation. A prediction was made on the location of the failure of the girder. At this location the majority of the measuring equipment was concentrated. The prediction was proved to be correct and valuable information of the behaviour of the box girder prior to failure was obtained. The experimental investigation consisted of the following load configurations: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after the test the box girder. This was done to investigate whether the girder was damaged by the load or imperfection (productions defects) growth. (au)

  8. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  10. Effect of the absence of the CcpA gene on growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Sun, J W; Zhang, G F; Liu, L B

    2016-01-01

    The catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a kind of multi-effect regulatory protein. In the study, the effect of the inactivation of CcpA and aerobic conditions on the growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance to heat, oxidative, and cold stresses in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Results showed that inactivation of CcpA distinctly hindered growth. Total lactic acid concentration was significantly lower in aerobiosis for both strains and was lower for the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. Acetic acid production from the mutant strain was higher than L. bulgaricus in aerobiosis compared with anaerobiosis. Enzyme activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate fructose kinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and pyruvic dehydrogenase (PDH), were significantly lower in the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. The diameters of inhibition zone were 13.59 ± 0.02 mm and 9.76 ± 0.02 mm for L. bulgaricus in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively; and 8.12 ± 0.02 mm and 7.38 ± 0.02 mm for the mutant in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively. For both strains, cells grown under aerobic environment possess more stress tolerance. This is the first study in which the CcpA-negative mutant of L. bulgaricus is constructed and the effect of aerobic growth on stress tolerance of L. bulgaricus is evaluated. Although aerobic cultivation does not significantly improve growth, it does improve stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  12. Genetic diversity in populations of Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. ssp. from Central Anatolia in Turkey, as revealed by AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Özlem; Görgülü, Elçin; Yıldırımlı, Şinasi

    2013-12-01

    Isatidae L. is a complex and systematically difficult genus in Brassicaceae. The genus displays great morphological polymorphism, which makes the classification of species and subspecies difficult as it is observed in Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. The aim of this study is characterization of the genetic diversity in subspecies of Isatis glauca Aucher ex Boiss. distributed widely in Central Anatolia, in Turkey by using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Eight different Eco RI-Mse I primer combinations produced 805 AFLP loci, 793 (98.5%) of which were polymorphic in 67 accessions representing nine different populations. The data obtained by AFLP was computed with using GDA (Genetic Data Analysis) and STRUCTURE (version 2.3.3) software programs for population genetics. The mean proportion of the polymorphic locus (P), the mean number of alleles (A), the number of unique alleles (U) and the mean value of gene diversity (He) were 0.59, 1.59, 20, and 0.23 respectively. The coancestry coefficient (ϴ) was 0.24. The optimal number of K was identified as seven. The principal component analysis (PCA) explained 85.61% of the total genetic variation. Isatis glauca ssp. populations showed a high level of genetic diversity, and the AFLP analysis revealed that high polymorphism and differentiated subspecies could be used conveniently for population genetic studies. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on the dissimilarity matrix, the dendrogram drawn with UPGMA method and STRUCTURE cluster analysis distinguished the accessions successfully. The accessions formed distinctive population structures for populations AA, AB, E, K, and S. Populations AG1 and AG2 seemed to have similar genetic content, in addition, in both populations several hybrid individuals were observed. The accessions did not formed distinctive population structures for both populations AI and ANP. Consequently, Ankara province might be the area, where species Isatis glauca Aucher

  13. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-10-01

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri periplasmic proteins reveals changes in cellular envelope metabolism during in vitro pathogenicity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artier, Juliana; da Silva Zandonadi, Flávia; de Souza Carvalho, Flávia Maria; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Carnielli, Carolina Moretto; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Belasque Júnior, José; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Novo-Mansur, Maria Teresa Marques

    2018-01-01

    Citrus canker is a plant disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria from the genus Xanthomonas. The most virulent species is Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (XAC), which attacks a wide range of citrus hosts. Differential proteomic analysis of the periplasm-enriched fraction was performed for XAC cells grown in pathogenicity-inducing (XAM-M) and pathogenicity-non-inducing (nutrient broth) media using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Amongst the 40 proteins identified, transglycosylase was detected in a highly abundant spot in XAC cells grown under inducing condition. Additional up-regulated proteins related to cellular envelope metabolism included glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase, dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose-3,5-epimerase and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase. Phosphoglucomutase and superoxide dismutase proteins, known to be involved in pathogenicity in other Xanthomonas species or organisms, were also detected. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses for transglycosylase and superoxide dismutase confirmed that these proteins were up-regulated under inducing condition, consistent with the proteomic results. Multiple spots for the 60-kDa chaperonin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified, suggesting the presence of post-translational modifications. We propose that substantial alterations in cellular envelope metabolism occur during the XAC infectious process, which are related to several aspects, from defence against reactive oxygen species to exopolysaccharide synthesis. Our results provide new candidates for virulence-related proteins, whose abundance correlates with the induction of pathogenicity and virulence genes, such as hrpD6, hrpG, hrpB7, hpa1 and hrpX. The results present new potential targets against XAC to be investigated in further functional studies. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng

    2018-03-01

    Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science

  16. Otimização de metodologia PCR-SSP para identificação de polimorfismos genéticos de TNF e IL2 Optimization of the PCR-SSP methodology in the identification of TNF and IL2 genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo A. S. Franceschi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A análise de polimorfismos únicos de nucleotídeos (SNPs de citocinas pode ser útil em estudos de frequências alélicas e genotípicas em populações saudáveis de diversas regiões, em estudos de associação com doenças infecciosas ou autoimunes, em estudos antropológicos e na evolução pós-transplante. Estes SNPs podem ser avaliados por diferentes métodos moleculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi aperfeiçoar uma metodologia PCR-SSP simples e rápida para a genotipagem de três SNPs de citocinas usando um único teste laboratorial. Para a identificação de IL2-330T/G e IL2+166G/T foram utilizados dois procedimentos na mesma genotipagem, cada um baseado no uso de quatro iniciadores. Para a detecção de TNF-238G/A foram utilizados dois iniciadores que amplificam a guanina e adenina na posição -238. Este estudo permitiu aperfeiçoar um método simples e rápido para identificar três SNPs de citocinas num único teste, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer laboratório de biologia molecular, como alternativa ao uso de kits de alto custo.The analysis of cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be useful in studies of allelic and genotypic frequencies in healthy populations from different regions of Brazil, in association studies of infectious or auto-immune diseases, in anthropological studies and in studies on post-transplant evolution. These SNPs can be assessed by different molecular methods. The objective of this study was to improve a simple and fast methodology, PCR-SSP, for the genotyping of three cytokine SNPs using a single laboratorial test. To identify IL2-330T/G and IL2+166G/T, two procedures were used in the same genotyping assay, each one based on the use of 4 primers. To detect TNF-238G/A, two primers were used that amplify guanine and adenine at position -238. This study enabled the improvement of a simple and fast method for identifying three cytokine SNPs in a single test, which can be adopted in any Molecular

  17. La población de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n. ssp. de Troskaeta'ko-Kobea (Ataun - Gipuzkoa (Campañas de excavación de 1987 y 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad de Torres Perezhidalgo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia una abundante colección de restos óseos de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n.ssp. procedente de dos campañas de excavación paleontológica (1987 y 1988 llevadas a cabo en la cueva de Troskaeta (Gipuzkoa. El material es analizado métrica, taxonómica, morfológica y tafonómicamente. El trabajo incluye datos geomorfológicos sobre la cavidad.

  18. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP): Identificação água e fatores de risco para a presença em amostras de biópsias intestinais

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, Isis de Freitas Espeschit

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) é o agente etiológico da doença de Johne ou paratuberculose, enterite granulomatosa crônica caracterizada por diarreia persistente e perda de peso progressiva que acomete ruminantes. Pode também ser isolado a partir de amostras intestinais de pacientes humanos, com doenças intestinais, principalmente portadores da doença de Crohn. Essa é uma doença de etiologia desconhecida, que se caracteriza por inflamação crônica, focal, assimétrica transmura...

  19. Manejo y síndromes de domesticación del capulín (Prunus serotina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh) en comunidades del estado de Tlaxcala

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño-Gómez, Aidé; Lira-Saade, Rafael; Madrigal-Calle, Beatriz; García-Moya, Edmundo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Romo de Vivar-Romo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Existen alrededor de 5000 a 7000 especies de plantas en México en estados evolutivos tempranos e intermedios hasta llegar a los domesticados y un ejemplo es el capulín (Prunus serótina Ehrh ssp. capuli (Cav.) Mc Vaugh) clasificado como domesticado, pero sin estudios sobre los mecanismos de selección e intervención que lo llevaron a este grado de manejo. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir aspectos etnobotánicos relacionados con el uso, reconocimiento de la variación y el m...

  20. Effects of synbiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on the fecal microbiota of adults with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovič Matijašić, Bojana; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Sernel, Tjaša; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja; Šmid, Alenka; Rogelj, Irena

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentric study to investigate the influence of a synbiotic fermented milk on the fecal microbiota composition of 30 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, Streptococcus thermophilus, and dietary fiber (90% inulin, 10% oligofructose), and a heat-treated fermented milk without probiotic bacteria or dietary fiber served as placebo. Stool samples were collected after a run-in period, a 4-wk consumption period, and a 1-wk follow-up period, and were subjected to real-time PCR and 16S rDNA profiling by next-generation sequencing. After 4wk of synbiotic (11 subjects) or placebo (19 subjects) consumption, a greater increase in DNA specific for L. acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis was detected in the feces of the synbiotic group compared with the placebo group by quantitative real-time PCR. After 1wk of follow-up, the content of L. acidophilus La-5 and B. animalis ssp. lactis decreased to levels close to initial levels. No significant changes with time or differences between the groups were observed for Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacterium, or all bacteria. The presence of viable BB-12- and La-5-like bacteria in the feces resulting from the intake of synbiotic product was confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. At the end of consumption period, the feces of all subjects assigned to the synbiotic group contained viable bacteria with a BB-12-like RAPD profile, and after 1wk of follow-up, BB-12-like bacteria remained in the feces of 87.5% of these subjects. The presence of La-5-like colonies was observed less frequently (37.5 and 25% of subjects, respectively). Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons revealed that only the percentage of sequences assigned to Strep. thermophilus was temporarily increased in both groups, whereas the

  1. Характеристика водного обмена листьев Quercus robur L. и Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия КРИВОРУЧКО

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of water metabolism of the leaves of English oak (Quercus robur L. and red oak (Quercus rubra L. in pure and mixed groups were examined. Twelve-year-old forest plantations of both species on an area of 1.6 ha were the object of study. It was found that in both pure and mixed groups the leaves of Q. robur are characterized by more intense transpiration than Q. rubra. The joint growth of these species, on the whole, leads to a more active evaporation of water by Q. robur leaves than in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra in two-species groups lose less or the same amount of water in the transpiration process as in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra having a higher water storage capacity in both variants are characterized by a more uniform and stable daily course of transpiration. As a result of the joint growth, the water deficit in the leaves of Q. rubra increased in July and September compared to the pure groups. The differences in the leaves of Q. robur between the two studied sites are unreliable. The obtained data indicate the absence of an explicit negative mutual influence between the species on the water metabolism indices of their leaves. Реферат. Изучены особенности водного обмена листьев дуба обыкновенного (Quercus robur L. и дуба красного (Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах. Объектами исследования были 12-летние лесные культуры обоих видов, площадью 1,6 га. Установлено, что как в чистых, так и в смешанных группах листья Q. robur характеризуются более интенсивной транспирацией в сравнении с Q. rubra. Совместный рост этих видов приводит, в целом, к более

  2. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...... (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used...

  3. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settypalli, T.B.K.; Lamien, C.; Spergser, J.; Lelenta, M.; Wade, A.; Gelaye, E.; Loitsch, A.; Minoungou, G.; Thiaucourt, F.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  4. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp. capripneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV, Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV, Pasteurella multocida (PM and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%-4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in

  5. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358, in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Maria Velinova,3 Stuart Hossack,4 Mieke Hoppenbrouwers,5 Patrick Martin,21Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Zuidlaren, the Netherlands; 4Covance, Leeds, UK; 5Shire-Movetis NV, Turnhout, BelgiumBackground: About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358 is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment.Methods: In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored.Results: In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years, 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞ was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL, and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least

  6. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358), in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David; Corcoran, Mary; Velinova, Maria; Hossack, Stuart; Hoppenbrouwers, Mieke; Martin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358) is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored. Results In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years), 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL) versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL), and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL) and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL) in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least-squares means (with:without omeprazole) were fully contained within the pre-defined equivalence limits of 0.80–1.25. Mean apparent terminal phase half-life was 9.95 hours (SD: 2.06 hours) without omeprazole, and 11.0 hours (SD: 3.25 hours) with omeprazole. Conclusion

  7. Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds

  8. Desempeño del crecimiento y sobrevivencia de larvas de Oreochromis ssp. utilizando un probiótico en el alimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de un bio-preparado con características probióticas como promotor del crecimiento y sobrevivencia de la tilapia roja Oreochromis ssp. durante la inversión sexual. A través de cuatro tratamientos, bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado, fueron sembradas cuatro larvas L-1 en acuarios de 20 L, a las cuales se les suministró, durante 45 días, alimento comercial hormonado de 45% de PB, más la adición del bio-preparado compuesto por caldo extracto de malta y una levadura del género Saccharomyces en concentraciones de: 104 (T1, 106 (T2, 108 UFC ml-1 (T3 y un control (T4 sin la adición del bio-preparado. Al inicio y al final del experimento se pesaron (mg, midieron (cm y contaron las larvas. Los parámetros físicos y químicos monitoreados del agua, se mantuvieron dentro de rangos considerados normales para la piscicultura de la especie. Los mayores valores para las variables de crecimiento de las larvas se registraron en el T2 y T3; Peso final (Pf (305.9±113.2 y 326.1 ±79.5mg, Ganancia en peso (Gp (299.2±113.2 y 319.4±79.5mg Longitud final (Lf (2.5±0.3 y 2.5±0.2cm, Ganancia en longitud (Gl (1.7±0.3 y 1.7±0.2cm y Tasa especifica de crecimiento (G (12.5±0.7 y 12,7±0.5%/día, así mismo, los mayores valores de sobrevivencia (S de las larvas se registraron en el T3 (68.1±6.8% y T2 (59.4±20.2%. Por tanto los mejores resultados se presentaron en larvas de  T2 y T3, a los cuáles se les suministró el bio-preparado, demostrando que las larvas de tilapia roja presentan mejor crecimiento y sobrevivencia con la implementación de un bio-preparado probiótico.

  9. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  10. Computer-assisted system for diagnosing degenerative dementia using cerebral blood flow SPECT and 3D-SSP. A multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Ito, Kengo; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with dementia, more physicians who do not specialize in brain nuclear medicine are being asked to interpret SPECT images of cerebral blood flow. We conducted a multicenter study to determine whether a computer-assisted diagnostic system Z-score summation analysis method (ZSAM) using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) can differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and non-AD/DLB in institutions using various types of gamma cameras. We determined the normal thresholds of Z-sum (summed Z-score) within a template region of interest for each single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) device and then compared them with the Z-sums of patients and calculated the accuracy of the differential diagnosis by ZSAM. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between ZSAM and visual assessment. We enrolled 202 patients with AD (mean age, 76.8 years), 40 with DLB (mean age 76.3 years) and 36 with non-AD/DLB (progressive supranuclear palsy, n=10; frontotemporal dementia, n=20; slowly progressive aphasia, n=2 and one each with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease) who underwent N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow SPECT imaging at each participating institution. The ZSAM sensitivity to differentiate between AD/DLB and non-AD/DLB in all patients, as well as those with mini-mental state examination scores of ≥24 and 20-23 points were 88.0, 78.0 and 88.4%, respectively, with specificity of 50.0, 44.4 and 60.0%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 83.1, 72.9 and 84.2%, respectively. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves for visual inspection by four expert raters were 0.74-0.84, 0.66-0.85 and 0.81-0.93, respectively, in the same patient groups. The diagnostic accuracy rates were 70.9-89.2%, 50.9-84.8% and 76.2-93.1%, respectively. The diagnostic

  11. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  12. Bioaugmentation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus TISTR 895 to enhance bio-hydrogen production of Rhodobacter sphaeroides KKU-PS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laocharoen, Sucheera; Reungsang, Alissara; Plangklang, Pensri

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation or an addition of the desired microorganisms or specialized microbial strains into the anaerobic digesters can enhance the performance of microbial community in the hydrogen production process. Most of the studies focused on a bioaugmentation of native microorganisms capable of producing hydrogen with the dark-fermentative hydrogen producers while information on bioaugmentation of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria (PNSB) with lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) is still limited. In our study, bioaugmentation of Rhodobacter sphaeroides KKU-PS5 with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus TISTR 895 was conducted as a method to produce hydrogen. Unfortunately, even though well-characterized microorganisms were used in the fermentation system, a cultivation of two different organisms in the same bioreactor was still difficult because of the differences in their metabolic types, optimal conditions, and nutritional requirements. Therefore, evaluation of the physical and chemical factors affecting hydrogen production of PNSB augmented with LAB was conducted using a full factorial design followed by response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD). A suitable LAB/PNSB ratio and initial cell concentration were found to be 1/12 (w/w) and 0.15 g/L, respectively. The optimal initial pH, light intensity, and Mo concentration obtained from RSM with CCD were 7.92, 8.37 klux and 0.44 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, a cumulative hydrogen production of 3396 ± 66 mL H2/L, a hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 9.1 ± 0.2 mL H2/L h, and a hydrogen yield (HY) of 9.65 ± 0.23 mol H2/mol glucose were obtained. KKU-PS5 augmented with TISTR 895 produced hydrogen from glucose at a relatively high HY, 9.65 ± 0.23 mol H2/mol glucose, i.e., 80 % of the theoretical yield. The ratio of the strains TISTR 895/KKU-PS5 and their initial cell concentrations affected the rate of lactic acid production and its

  13. Reduction of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in colostrum: Development and validation of 2 methods, one based on curdling and one based on centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhegghe, M; Rasschaert, G; Herman, L; Goosse