WorldWideScience

Sample records for sarothroides gray growing

  1. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honce, Justin Morris

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of gray matter atrophy. Gray matter demyelination (both focal and diffuse) and gray matter atrophy are found in the very earliest stages of multiple sclerosis and are progressive over time. Accumulation of gray matter damage has substantial impact on the lives of multiple sclerosis patients; a growing body of the literature demonstrates correlations between gray matter pathology and various measures of both clinical disability and cognitive impairment. The effect of disease modifying therapies on the rate accumulation of gray matter pathology in MS has been investigated. This review focuses on the neuroimaging of gray matter pathology in MS, the effect of the accumulation of gray matter pathology on clinical and cognitive disability, and the effect of disease-modifying agents on various measures of gray matter damage. PMID:23878736

  2. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Premature graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

    2013-01-01

    Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  4. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  5. Confronting the Gray Market Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Peggy E Chaudhry

    2014-01-01

    Gray markets involve the sales of legitimate products by way of channels of distribution that are not authorized by the brand owners. Gray markets may benefit consumers and even brand owners under certain circumstances. On balance, however, gray markets are detrimental to brand owners because gray market traders access genuine product in both physical and virtual markets and reap profits stemming from the resale of goods owing to price differentiation between markets, thus depriving brand own...

  6. Cyber Gray Space Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    use their militaries to test U.S. resolve through innovative methods designed to bypass deterrent threats and avoid direct chal-lenges.1 These “gray...would not, for instance, be a great innovation for the United States to threaten economic sanctions against a state attacking through cyberspace. Thus...developments have increased the importance of this type of vulnerability. First, the overall commercial value of secret information has increased

  7. Wave-splitting in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.E.; Mazin, W.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator...

  8. Gray matter heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, A J; Kuzniecky, R I

    2000-12-12

    Gray matter heterotopia are common malformations of cortical development. From a clinical perspective, affected patients are best divided into three groups: subependymal, subcortical, and band heterotopia (also called double cortex). Symptomatic women with subependymal heterotopia typically present with partial epilepsy during the second decade of life; development and neurologic examinations up to that point are typically normal. Symptoms in men with subependymal heterotopia vary, depending on whether they have the X-linked or autosomal form. Men with the X-linked form more commonly have associated CNS and visceral anomalies; their development is typically abnormal. Symptomatic men with the autosomal variety have clinical courses similar to symptomatic women. Both men and women with subcortical heterotopia typically have congenital fixed neurologic deficits and develop partial epilepsy during the second half of the first decade of life. The more extensive the subcortical heterotopia, the greater the deficit; bilateral heterotopia are almost invariably associated with severe developmental delay or mental retardation. In general, band heterotopia are seen exclusively in women; men with a mutation of the related gene (called XLIS or DCX) usually die in utero or have a much more severe brain anomaly. Symptoms in affected women vary from normal to severe developmental delay or mental retardation; the severity of the syndrome is related to the thickness of the band of arrested neurons. Nearly all affected patients that come to medical attention have epilepsy, with partial complex and atypical absence epilepsy being the most common syndromes. Some of the more severely affected patients develop attacks.

  9. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  10. Gray Whale Population Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale abundance is estimated from data collected during the southbound migration from feeding grounds in the Arctic to breeding grounds in the lagoons of...

  11. The Gray whale: Eschrichtius robustus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Mary Lou; Leatherwood, Stephen; Swartz, Steven L

    1984-01-01

    .... Section II documents historical aspects of gray whale exploitation and the economic importance of these whales to humans, beginning with aboriginal societies in Asia and North America, and leading...

  12. Cambomba caroliniana Gray (Cabombaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabomba, or water fanwort, is a fast-growing submerged aquatic plant that has the potential to infest permanent water bodies in a range of regions – from tropical to cool temperate – throughout the world. It is considered a serious pest in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Japan, India, Ch...

  13. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  14. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  15. Tsenseerimata Dorian Gray? / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus üllitas 2011. a. kevadel Oscar Wilde'i ainsaks jäänud romaani "Dorian Gray portree" esialgse versiooni, mis on varustatud toimetaja Nicholas Frankeli põhjalike kommentaaridega ja kus eessõna manifesteerib jõuliselt autori esteetilisi vaateid

  16. Gray Markets and Multinational Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Romana L. Autrey; Francesco Bova

    2009-01-01

    Gray markets arise when a manufacturer's products are sold outside of its authorized channels, for instance when goods designated for a foreign market are resold domestically. One method multinationals use to combat gray markets is to increase internal transfer prices to foreign subsidiaries in order to increase the gray market's cost base. We illustrate that, when a gray market competitor is present, the optimal price for internal transfers not only exceeds marginal cost, but is also a funct...

  17. Automatic identification of gray matter structures from MRI to improve the segmentation of white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, S; Dengler, J; Zaers, J; Guttmann, C R; Wells, W M; Ettinger, G J; Hiller, J; Kikinis, R

    1995-01-01

    The segmentation of MRI scans of patients with white matter lesions (WML) is difficult because the MRI characteristics of WML are similar to those of gray matter. Intensity-based statistical classification techniques misclassify some WML as gray matter and some gray matter as WML. We developed a fast elastic matching algorithm that warps a reference data set containing information about the location of the gray matter into the approximate shape of the patient's brain. The region of white matter was segmented after segmenting the cortex and deep gray matter structures. The cortex was identified by using a three-dimensional, region-growing algorithm that was constrained by anatomical, intensity gradient, and tissue class parameters. White matter and WML were then segmented without interference from gray matter by using a two-class minimum-distance classifier. Analysis of double-echo spin-echo MRI scans of 16 patients with clinically determined multiple sclerosis (MS) was carried out. The segmentation of the cortex and deep gray matter structures provided anatomical context. This was found to improve the segmentation of MS lesions by allowing correct classification of the white matter region despite the overlapping tissue class distributions of gray matter and MS lesion.

  18. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: gray platelet syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the autosomal dominant form of gray platelet syndrome . Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my ... Hemophilia Federation of America Platelet Disorder Support Association World Federation of Hemophilia ... GRAY PLATELET SYNDROME Sources for This Page Albers CA, Cvejic A, ...

  20. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  1. Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a petite member of the family Canidae in the order Carnivora with a long muzzle and pointed ears (Samuel and Nelson 1982). The coat of the gray fox is silver gray across the back with significant amounts of rufus along the sides. This characteristic is often confused by people who see the flash of red and assume that the fox is a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The gray fox has a black tipped tail with a dorsal black stripe that differentiates this species from the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). The red fox has a white tipped tail. The gray fox weighs between 3-5 kg, occasionally to 7 kg. TL 800-1125, T 275-443, HF 100-150. (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  2. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  3. Periaqueductal gray control of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Holstege, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and for speech in humans) an important mechanism for survival, respiration has to be changed. The caudal brainstem premotor respiratory centers need input from higher brain centers in order to change respiration according to the surrounding circumstances. One of the most important of such a higher brain centers is the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG co-ordinates motor output, including respiratory changes based on input from limbic, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex regions. These areas integrate visual, auditory and somatosensory information in the context of basic survival mechanisms and relay the result to the PAG, which has access to respiratory control centers in the caudal brainstem. Through these pathways the PAG can change eupneic respiratory rhythm into the behavior necessary for that specific situation. We present data obtained from the cat and propose a functional framework for the breathing control pathways.

  4. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  5. Gray matter pathology and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Christiane; Stadelmann, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Gray matter demyelination is frequent and extensive in most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and has recently received much attention in neuropathologic and imaging studies. Gray matter lesions show distinct pathologic features that make their detection difficult with conventional imaging techniques. Thus, despite their high prevalence, their impact on clinical symptoms has not been defined well so far. This review focuses on recent information from pathologic and imaging studies and summarizes our current knowledge on cortical pathology derived from human and experimental studies.

  6. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  7. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts.

  8. Gray matter heterotopias: MR and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Myung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To evaluate types of gray matter heterotopias, associated brain anomalies, and its correlation with the patterns of seizure. We evaluated retrospectively 19 patients (male:female=10:9, mean age 21 years) with gray matter heterotopias on brain MRI. Using 1.0T superconducting MR unit, spin echo T1-, proton -density and T2-weighted images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were obtained. Types of gray matter heterotopias were single subependymal in four patients, multiple subependymal in one, focal subcortical in eight, diffuse subcortical in two, mixed multiple subependymal and focal subcortical in four. Associated anomalies were seen in 11 patients: other neuronal migration anomalies in eight patients, corpus callosum agenesis in two, and combined holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation in one. Fifteen patients had seizure. The patterns of seizure were not correlated with the types of heterotopias. In addition to subependymal, focal subcortical, and diffuse subcortical types, gray matter heterotopias included mixed variant of multiple subependymal and subcortical type. Schizencephaly was the most common form of accompanying anomalies, and patterns of seizure were not correlated with types of gray matter heterotopias, even though main clinical manifestation was seizure.

  9. Gray solitons in a strongly interacting superfluid Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuntarelli, Andrea; Pieri, Pierbiagio; Strinati, Giancarlo C [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Carr, Lincoln D, E-mail: pierbiagio.pieri@unicam.it [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover problem is solved for stationary gray solitons via the Boguliubov-de Gennes equations at zero temperature. These crossover solitons exhibit a localized notch in the gap and a characteristic phase difference across the notch for all interaction strengths, from BEC to BCS regimes. However, they do not follow the well-known Josephson-like sinusoidal relationship between velocity and phase difference except in the far BEC limit: at unitarity, the velocity has a nearly linear dependence on phase difference over an extended range. For a fixed phase difference, the soliton is of nearly constant depth from the BEC limit to unitarity and then grows progressively shallower into the BCS limit, and on the BCS side, Friedel oscillations are apparent in both gap amplitude and phase. The crossover soliton appears fundamentally in the gap; we show, however, that the density closely follows the gap, and the soliton is therefore observable. We develop an approximate power-law relationship to express this fact: the density of gray crossover solitons varies as the square of the gap amplitude in the BEC limit and as a power of about 1.5 at unitarity.

  10. Color to gray: visual cue preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Li, Xuelong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2010-09-01

    Both commercial and scientific applications often need to transform color images into gray-scale images, e.g., to reduce the publication cost in printing color images or to help color blind people see visual cues of color images. However, conventional color to gray algorithms are not ready for practical applications because they encounter the following problems: 1) Visual cues are not well defined so it is unclear how to preserve important cues in the transformed gray-scale images; 2) some algorithms have extremely high time cost for computation; and 3) some require human-computer interactions to have a reasonable transformation. To solve or at least reduce these problems, we propose a new algorithm based on a probabilistic graphical model with the assumption that the image is defined over a Markov random field. Thus, color to gray procedure can be regarded as a labeling process to preserve the newly well--defined visual cues of a color image in the transformed gray-scale image. Visual cues are measurements that can be extracted from a color image by a perceiver. They indicate the state of some properties of the image that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. Different people may perceive different cues from the same color image and three cues are defined in this paper, namely, color spatial consistency, image structure information, and color channel perception priority. We cast color to gray as a visual cue preservation procedure based on a probabilistic graphical model and optimize the model based on an integral minimization problem. We apply the new algorithm to both natural color images and artificial pictures, and demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms representative conventional algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, it requires no human-computer interactions.

  11. An Ambition to Grow

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kemp; Hakkert, R.

    2006-01-01

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? To examine the ambition to grow an economic and a psychological perspective is given in this study.

  12. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transistors act as a switch to charge and hold the desired voltage across a pixel. Passive matrix LCDs are easy to fabricate and cost less as compared to the active matrix LCDs. Current trend demands gray scale and colour capa- bilities even for the displays in mobile phones. Passive matrix LCDs will be preferred as.

  13. Norma Gray: Leading the Way for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Founded by Norma Gray in 1972 as an early-childhood demonstration center, River Valley Child Development Services now operates various programs related to young children in nine southern West Virginia counties and a statewide apprenticeship program for child-development specialists. Programs provide child care, after-school programs,…

  14. The Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Control of Respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Balnave, Ron J.; Holstege, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) organizes basic survival behavior, which includes respiration. How the PAG controls respiration is not known. We studied the PAG control of respiration by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid in the PAG in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats. Injections

  15. Can Video Game Playing Cost You Gray Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167642.html Can Video Game Playing Cost You Gray Matter? Style of playing ... doesn't prove -- that certain players of action video games may lose gray matter in a part of ...

  16. Smokers? hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Ayman A.; Shahait, Awni D.; Ayoub, Musa N.; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and meas...

  17. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). Version 8.7, Revision 3 of the CPD for MQ-1C Gray Eagle defines an operational requirement for Improved Gray...extended range, multi-purpose unmanned aircraft system capable of executing reconnaissance, security , attack, and intelligence collection missions in...Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Critical Design Review Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Milestone C Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 IOT &E

  18. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah E; Meier, Thomas J.; Geffen, Eli; Mech, L. David; Burch, John W.; Adams, Layne G.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves is often short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measured relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs, and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and its offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  19. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Gray Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Libdeh, Amal; Goodkin, Howard P; Ramirez-Montealegre, Denia; Brenton, J Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated, inflammatory acquired demyelinating syndrome predominantly affecting the white matter of the central nervous system. We describe a three-year-old boy whose clinical presentation was suspicious for ADEM but whose initial imaging abnormalities were confined to the deep gray matter (without evidence of white matter involvement). His clinical course was fluctuating and repeat imaging one week after presentation demonstrated interval development of characteristic white matter lesions. Treatment with adjunctive intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose corticosteroids resulted in significant clinical improvement. Isolated deep gray matter involvement can precede the appearance of white matter abnormalities of ADEM, suggesting that repeat imaging is indicated in individuals whose findings are clinically suspicious for ADEM but who lack characteristic imaging findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An extension of the weighted sum of gray gases non-gray gas radiation model to a two phase mixture of non-gray gas with particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myoung Jong Yu; Seung Wook Baek; Jae Hyun Park [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Department of Aerospace Engineering

    2000-05-01

    A great deal of effort has been exercised to date to accurately model the non-gray behavior of the gases. Among others, the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM), which replaces the non-gray gas behavior by an equivalent finite number of gray gases, is a simplified model yielding reasonable results. However, a discussion on the weighting factors required for an estimation of radiation in a mixture of non-gray gas/gray particulate is not yet established for WSGGM. since they are dependent on the particle number density, particle size distribution, local temperature and partial pressure. Consequently, the relation between the weighting factors used in the WSGGM for a mixture of non-gray gas and gray particles with scattering in the thermal non-equilibrium has been discussed here, which has not been done before to the author's best knowledge. Weighting factors for the particles, of which temperature is different from that of the gas, were evaluated analytically for the WSGGM. The results were then validated for the problem of isothermal gas containing soot particulates between two parallel slab walls. For further application, the approach derived here was implemented to examine the non-gray radiative effects of the two phase mixture in an axisymmetric cylinder by changing such various parameters as the particle temperature, non-gray gas composition and particle concentration. The effects of thermal non-equilibrium in a mixture of gas and particles were also discussed in parallel with scattering effects by particles. Parametric study showed that a variation in the gas concentration yielded a noticeable change in the radiative heat transfer when the suspended particle temperature was different from the gas temperature. New contribution of this study consisted in an extension of applicability of the WSGGM non-gray model to two phase radiation. (author)

  1. Melting ice, growing trade?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sami Bensassi; Julienne C. Stroeve; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Andrew P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR...

  2. Graying: gerontobiology of the hair follicle pigmentary unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, D J; Paus, R

    2001-01-01

    dilution is due to a reduction in tyrosinase activity of hair bulbar melanocytes, sub-optimal melanocyte-cortical keratinocyte interactions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upper outer root sheath to the pigment-permitting microenvironment close to the dermal papilla of the hair bulb. Animal models with mutations in apoptotic survival factors (e.g. bcl-2) and in melanogenic enzymes (TRP-1) are providing valuable insights into the aging hair pigmentary unit. It is from these and other advances, including our ability to grow hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, that the possibility of reversing canities has been raised. Indeed, it is not too uncommon to see spontaneous repigmentation along the same individual hair shaft in early canities. Moreover, melanocytes taken from gray and white hair follicles can be induced to pigment in vitro. One of the surprising results of pigment loss in canities is the alteration in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, providing the tantalizing suggestion that melanocytes in the hair follicle contribute far more that packages of melanin alone. Furthermore, there have been some unconfirmed reports in the literature suggesting that canities may link (although not causally) with more systemic alterations in homeostasis e.g. osteoporosis. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the development, regulation and control of the human hair follicle pigmentary unit during life.

  3. Information fusion for the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) recently published a white paper describing the "Gray Zone", security challenges characterized by "ambiguity about the nature of the conflict, opacity of the parties involved…competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality."1 Ambiguity and related uncertainty about actors, situations, relationships, and intent require new approaches to information collection, processing and fusion. General Votel, the current SOCOM commander, during a recent speech on "Operating in the Gray Zone" emphasized that it would be important to get left of the next crises and stated emphatically, "to do that we must understand the Human Domain."2 This understanding of the human domain must come from making meaning based on different perspectives, including the "emic" or first person/participant and "etic" or third person/observer perspectives. Much of the information currently collected and processed is etic. Incorporation and fusion with the emic perspective enables forecasting of behaviors/events and provides context for etic information (e.g., video).3 Gray zone challenges are perspective-dependent; for example, the conflict in Ukraine is interpreted quite differently by Russia, the US and Ukraine. Russia views it as war, necessitating aggressive action, the US views it as a security issue best dealt with by economic sanctions and diplomacy and the Ukraine views it as a threat to its sovereignty.4 General Otto in the Air Force ISR 2023 vision document stated that Air Force ISR is needed to anticipate strategic surprise.5 Anticipatory analysis enabling getting left of a crisis inherently requires a greater focus on information sources that elucidate the human environment as well as new methods that elucidate not only the "who's" and "what's", but the "how's and "why's," extracting features and/or patterns and subtle cues useful for forecasting behaviors and

  4. Multiwavelength pyrometer for gray and non-gray surfaces in the presence of interfering radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel L. P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting the temperature of gray and non-gray bodies in the presence of interfering radiation are presented. A gray body has a constant emissivity less than 1 and a non-gray body has an emissivity which varies with wavelength. The emissivity and reflectivity of the surface is determined over a range of wavelengths. Spectra are also measured of the extraneous interference radiation source and the surface of the object to be measured in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source. An auxiliary radiation source is used to determine the reflectivity of the surface and also the emissivity. The measured spectrum of the surfaces in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source is set equal to the emissivity of the surface multiplied by a Planck function containing a temperature term T plus the surface reflectivity multiplied by the spectrum of the extraneous interference radiation source. The equation is then solved for T to determine the temperature of the surface.

  5. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  6. Frequency of gray coat color in native Chinese horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, K X; Chen, N B; Liu, W J; Li, R; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Dang, R H

    2015-10-30

    Gray horses are born colored, and they then gradually lose their hair pigmentation. Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for graying with age in horses in recent years. Results show that gray coat color in horses is caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of the syntaxin 17 gene (STX17), which constitutes a cis-acting-regulatory mutation. However, little is known about the gray phenotype in native Chinese horses. This study was conducted to explore the frequency distribution of the gray mutation in native Chinese horse breeds. A total of 489 samples from 14 native Chinese horse breeds were genotyped for the STX17 duplication using a simplified conventional PCR-based method. The results show that the gray mutation was present in 12 native Chinese horse breeds, except the Balikun and Guanzhong breeds. The Chakouyi and Hequ breeds had the highest frequency of the gray mutation (P(G) = 0.367 and P(G) = 0.274, respectively). There was no significant geographical difference in the distribution of gray coat color across native Chinese horse breeds. Our results suggest that gray is a common coat color in Chinese horses.

  7. Gray Matter Changes in Demyelinating Disease: Correlations with Clinical Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Mihaela; Aroceanu, Adina; Ferastraoaru, Victor; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    Recent MR studies have shown that, in multiple sclerosis, selective regional, but not global gray matter atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to identify specific areas of gray matter volume changes and explore the relationship between atrophy and clinical motor outcomes. Nine patients with relapsing remitting MS and 9 matched healthy controls were recruited. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite was administered. For MR acquisitions, a GE- Genesis- Signa, 1.5T MR system, was used. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM), subcortical structures segmentation (FIRST) and volumetric (SIENAx) FSL tools were used in the study. Group comparison showed atrophy for several gray matter regions. The most important volume reductions were found for subcortical deep gray matter areas. Correlations with clinical scores were checked and specific gray matter areas showed significant volume reductions associated with motor scores (9-hole peg time and 25-feet walk time) and EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale). We performed a voxelwise analysis of gray matter changes in MS and found a more prominent atrophy for the subcortical structures than for cortical gray matter. Using an additional analysis (FIRST and SIENAx segmentation/volumetry) we were able to confirm the VBM results and to quantify the degree of atrophy in specific structures. Specific gray matter regions which volume reductions correlate with 25-feet walk, 9-hole peg times and EDSS suggest that 25-feet walk time is the best predictor of disease progression in terms of gray matter reduction.

  8. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  9. Growing Up with "1984."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  10. Growing through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  11. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi

    2017-01-01

    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues of re...

  12. Bringing CLARITY to Gray Matter Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Rory D.; Kurth, Florian; Itoh, Noriko; Mongerson, Chandler R.L.; Wailes, Shannon H.; Peng, Mavis S.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Gray matter atrophy has been shown to be a strong correlate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its most commonly used animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the relationship between gray mater atrophy and the spinal cord pathology often observed in EAE has never been established. Here EAE was induced in Thy1.1-YFP mice and their brains imaged using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brains and spinal cords were subsequently optically cleared using Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel (CLARITY). Axons were followed 5 mm longitudinally in three dimensions in intact spinal cords revealing that 61% of the axons exhibited a mean of 22 axonal ovoids and 8% of the axons terminating in axonal end bulbs. In the cerebral cortex, we observed a decrease in the mean number of layer V pyramidal neurons and a decrease in the mean length of the apical dendrites of the remaining neurons, compared to healthy controls. MRI analysis demonstrated decreased cortical volumes in EAE. Cross-modality correlations revealed a direct relationship between cortical volume loss and axonal end bulb number in the spinal cord, but not ovoid number. This is the first report of the use of CLARITY in an animal model of disease and the first report of the use of both CLARITY and MRI. PMID:25038439

  13. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Premature graying of hair as a risk marker among young smokers has a potential of identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) at a very early stage. There is absence of literature that assesses premature graying of hair as an independent marker of CAD in smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present ...

  14. The National Writing Project: A Best Idea from James Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how James Gray, founder of the Bay Area Writing Project and later the National Writing Project, began with a simple idea--successful teachers are the best teachers of teachers. Describes how James Gray laid a foundation for what has become a national network with 175 sites across the nation, providing a professional home for thousands of…

  15. Decreased gray matter diffusivity: a potential early Alzheimer disease biomarker?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gray matter atrophy, an important biomarker for early Alzheimer's disease, might be due to white matter changes within gray matter. Methods: Twenty older participants with significant memory decline over a 12-year period (T12) were matched to 20 nondeclining participants. All

  16. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) death by stick impalement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Schmidt, Lori; Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    Although Canis lupus L. (Gray Wolf) individuals are sometimes impaled by sticks, we could find no documentation of natural impalement by sticks as a cause of death for wild Wolves. Here we report on a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota that died due to stick puncture of its thorax and abdomen.

  17. Rapid recovery of Dutch gray seal colonies fueled by immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Polanen Petel, van T.; Gerrodette, T.; Meesters, E.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Aarts, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gray seals were first observed breeding in the Dutch Wadden Sea in 1985, after centuries of absence. The breeding colony there is now the largest on the European continent. We describe the changes in gray seal numbers and their geographical expansion, and estimate how these processes were influenced

  18. Smokers′ hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Zayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Results: Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2% had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group while the other 103 (49.8% were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031. Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4 vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6, P = 0.034. Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 more prone to develop PHG. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  19. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-05-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  20. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  1. Smokers' hair: Does smoking cause premature hair graying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Shahait, Awni D; Ayoub, Musa N; Yousef, Al-Motassem

    2013-04-01

    To determine if there is a significant association between premature hair graying and cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a nonclinical setting on 207 participants on August 24 until 25, 2010. Participants were classified into two groups [premature hair graying (PHG) and normal hair graying]. PHG was defined as the first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Collected data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16, Chicago, IL. Of the 207 subjects, 104 (50.2%) had first appearance of gray hair before the age of 30 (PHG group) while the other 103 (49.8%) were considered normal hair graying group. The prevalence of smokers in the "PHG" group was higher (40.2% vs. 24.7%, P = 0.031). Smokers had earlier onset of hair graying (smokers: 31 (7.4) vs. nonsmokers: 34 (8.6), P = 0.034). Using multiple logistic regression with conditional likelihood, smokers were two and half times (95% CI: 1.5-4.6) more prone to develop PHG. This study suggests that there is a significant relation (with adjusted odds ratio of two and half) between onset of gray hair before the age of 30 and cigarette smoking.

  2. Prospects for Mexican gray wolf recovery in the Sky Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    [First paragraph] On November 1, 1917, the first Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) of many to follow was killed by the Federal government in Arizona. The female animal was one of a pair of the diminutive subspecies of the much more widely distributed gray wolf (Canis lupus). Typical of their kind, and of the arid and less...

  3. The midbrain periaqueductal gray control of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Balnave, Ron J; Holstege, Gert

    2008-11-19

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) organizes basic survival behavior, which includes respiration. How the PAG controls respiration is not known. We studied the PAG control of respiration by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid in the PAG in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats. Injections in different parts of the PAG caused different respiratory effects. Stimulation in the dorsomedial PAG induced slow and deep breathing and dyspnea. Stimulation in the dorsolateral PAG resulted in active breathing and tachypnea consistent with the respiratory changes during fright and flight. Stimulation in the medial part of lateral PAG caused inspiratory apneusis. Stimulation in lateral parts of the lateral and ventrolateral PAG produced respiratory changes associated with vocalization (mews, alternating mews and hisses, or hisses). D,L-homocysteic acid injections in the caudal ventrolateral PAG induced irregular breathing. These results demonstrate that the PAG exerts a strong influence on respiration, suggesting that it serves as the behavioral modulator of breathing.

  4. COMPLEX MODIFICATION OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the complex modifier by chemical – active and surface-active additives of gray cast iron on the size of chill and on the width of molted iron zone was researched. The width of a chill zone and molted iron zones were measured at chank ends of various diameter cores. The cores were casted on a massive steel plate and also in standard chill tests. It was established that additional adding of surface-active bismuth in structure of various graphitizing modifiers promoted to reduce the width a chill zone and molted iron zones. It was established that the complex modifiers consisting of chemical – active and surfaceactive components are effective in fight with chill in cast iron castings and can be recommended for application in foundry shops of the entities of a machine-building profile for production of high-quality castings. 

  5. Characterization of Directionally Solidified Gray Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Elis A.; Christiansen, Tyler; Genau, Amber L.; Catalina, Adrian

    Even with decades of study, the complex development of solidification microstructures in cast iron is incompletely understood. Because Fe-C eutectic can produce different morphologies, and even different phases, depending on growth velocities and composition, understanding the conditions under which each forms is important. Directional solidification was used to investigate the effects of alloying additions and solidification velocity on graphite spacing in gray iron. Average and minimum spacing for five compositions, containing varied amounts of Si and Mn, and velocities from 0.5 to 5 µm/s are reported. A critical velocity of around 1 µm/s was observed, above which the graphite structure loses directionality and austenite dendrites appear. A semi-automated MATLAB code was developed for quickly and objectively measuring graphite spacing. The automated results compare favorably with traditional manual measurements, and will allow for more robust measurement of eutectic spacing in systems where the spacing is highly irregular.

  6. Gray Zone Legislation and Activities: Evaluating the Orchestration of Convergence Within the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response,” 6. 54 The Obama Administration took a more overt military tone in response to ISIL’s...intelligence, combined with the Ugandan military , came together in a variety of ways to accomplish the CT strategy outlined by the Obama Administration ... military and intelligence activities within the Gray Zone and what directs their convergence. More specifically, the author analyzes the

  7. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  8. Antecedents of Gray Divorce: A Life Course Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Wright, Matthew R; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2016-12-16

    Increasingly, older adults are experiencing divorce, yet little is known about the risk factors associated with divorce after age 50 (termed "gray divorce"). Guided by a life course perspective, our study examined whether key later life turning points are related to gray divorce. We used data from the 1998-2012 Health and Retirement Study to conduct a prospective, couple-level discrete-time event history analysis of the antecedents of gray divorce. Our models incorporated key turning points (empty nest, retirement, and poor health) as well as demographic characteristics and economic resources. Contrary to our expectations, the onset of an empty nest, the wife's or husband's retirement, and the wife's or husband's chronic conditions were unrelated to the likelihood of gray divorce. Rather, factors traditionally associated with divorce among younger adults were also salient for older adults. Marital duration, marital quality, home ownership, and wealth were negatively related to the risk of gray divorce. Gray divorce is especially likely to occur among couples who are socially and economically disadvantaged, raising new questions about the consequences of gray divorce for individual health and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  10. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Getz, Wayne M

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  11. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  12. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growing for different ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. GrayStarServer: Stellar atmospheric modeling and spectrum synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C. Ian

    2017-01-01

    GrayStarServer is a stellar atmospheric modeling and spectrum synthesis code of pedagogical accuracy that is accessible in any web browser on commonplace computational devices and that runs on a timescale of a few seconds.

  15. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo' ; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  16. INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF MODIFIERS FOR GRAY CAST-IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that for the purpose of increase of modifying efficiency of the melt from gray cast iron it is possible to use mechanically alloyed aluminum powder with superdispersed particles of aluminum and graphite oxide.

  17. Can tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl). A. Gray, a pantropic invasive weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Gray, a pantropic invasive weed species, cleanup spent lubricating oil polluted soils? ... Global Journal of Environmental Sciences ... Two pot trials were conducted in the crop garden of the Department of Crop Protection and Environmental ...

  18. Gray matter is targeted in first-attack multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS, its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups compared to established relapsing remitting (RR MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse. Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  19. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  20. Cognitive Radios Exploiting Gray Spaces via Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieruch, Dennis; Jung, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Dekorsy, Armin; Haustein, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We suggest an interweave cognitive radio system with a gray space detector, which is properly identifying a small fraction of unused resources within an active band of a primary user system like 3GPP LTE. Therefore, the gray space detector can cope with frequency fading holes and distinguish them from inactive resources. Different approaches of the gray space detector are investigated, the conventional reduced-rank least squares method as well as the compressed sensing-based orthogonal matching pursuit and basis pursuit denoising algorithm. In addition, the gray space detector is compared with the classical energy detector. Simulation results present the receiver operating characteristic at several SNRs and the detection performance over further aspects like base station system load for practical false alarm rates. The results show, that especially for practical false alarm rates the compressed sensing algorithm are more suitable than the classical energy detector and reduced-rank least squares approach.

  1. Accelerated Gray and White Matter Deterioration With Age in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Klauser, Paul; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Bruggemann, Jason; Sundram, Suresh; Bousman, Chad; Pereira, Avril; Di Biase, Maria A; Weickert, Thomas W; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years. Polynomial regression was used to model the influence of age on gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy at a whole-brain and voxel level. Between-group differences in gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were regionally localized across the lifespan using permutation testing and cluster-based inference. Significant loss of gray matter volume was evident in schizophrenia, progressively worsening with age to a maximal loss of 8% in the seventh decade of life. The inferred rate of gray matter volume loss was significantly accelerated in schizophrenia up to middle age and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, significant reductions in fractional anisotropy emerged in schizophrenia only after age 35, and the rate of fractional anisotropy deterioration with age was constant and best modeled with a straight line. The slope of this line was 60% steeper in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects, indicating a significantly faster rate of white matter deterioration with age. The rates of reduction of gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were significantly faster in males than in females, but an interaction between sex and diagnosis was not evident. The findings suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by an initial, rapid rate of gray matter loss that slows in middle life, followed by the emergence of a deficit in white matter that progressively worsens with age at a constant rate.

  2. Comparison of Cox and Gray's survival models in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasal, Jan; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Clermont, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate.......Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate....

  3. Effectiveness of predator odors as gray squirrel repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) to discriminate between different predator odors and the use of predator odors to deter gray squirrels from foraging on plants have not been previously investigated. To test the hypothesis that predator scent decreases foraging, I investigated the effect of such scent on consumption of butternuts (Juglans cinerea) in the field. Results showed that (i) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent was significantly more effective than either a control or hu...

  4. 19 CFR 133.23 - Restrictions on importation of gray market articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on importation of gray market... market articles. (a) Restricted gray market articles defined. “Restricted gray market articles” are.... “Restricted gray market goods” include goods bearing a genuine trademark or trade name which is: (1...

  5. Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Noh, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jeong-Sik; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Mi Rim; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the structural changes in patients with chronic primary insomnia and the relationships with clinical features of insomnia. Statistical parametric mapping 8-based voxel-based morphometry was used to identify differences in regional gray and white matter between patients with chronic primary insomnia and normal controls. University hospital. Twenty-seven patients and 27 age/sex-matched controls. Regional differences were compared using two-sample t-tests with age, sex, and intracranial volume as covariates. The patients were a mean age of 52.3 y and had a mean history of insomnia of 7.6 y. Patients displayed cognitive deficits in attention, frontal/executive function, and nonverbal memory. Patients also displayed significantly reduced gray matter concentrations (GMCs) in dorsolateral prefrontal and pericentral cortices, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum and decreased gray matter volumes in medial frontal and middle temporal gyri compared with control patients with the cluster threshold ≥ 50 voxels at the level of uncorrected P matter deficits in multiple brain regions including bilateral frontal lobes in patients with psychophysiologic insomnia. Gray matter deficit of the pericentral and lateral temporal areas may be associated with the difficulties in sleep initiation and maintenance. It is still unclear whether gray matter reductions are a preexisting abnormality or a consequence of insomnia. Joo EY; Noh HJ; Kim JS; Koo DL; Kim D; Hwang KJ; Kim JY; Kim ST; Kim MR; Hong SB. Brain gray matter deficits in patients with chronic primary insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(7):999-1007.

  6. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  7. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls (P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy (P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline (R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  9. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  10. Study of gray image pseudo-color processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Peng, Xianrong; Xu, Zhiyong

    In gray images which contain abundant information, if the differences between adjacent pixels' intensity are small, the required information can not be extracted by humans, since humans are more sensitive to color images than gray images. If gray images are transformed to pseudo-color images, the details of images will be more explicit, and the target will be recognized more easily. There are two methods (in frequency field and in spatial field) to realize pseudo-color enhancement of gray images. The first method is mainly the filtering in frequency field, and the second is the equal density pseudo-color coding methods which mainly include density segmentation coding, function transformation and complementary pseudo-color coding. Moreover, there are many other methods to realize pseudo-color enhancement, such as pixel's self-transformation based on RGB tri-primary, pseudo-color coding from phase-modulated image based on RGB color model, pseudo-color coding of high gray-resolution image, et al. However, above methods are tailored to a particular situation and transformations are based on RGB color space. In order to improve the visual effect, the method based on RGB color space and pixels' self-transformation is improved in this paper, which is based on HIS color space. Compared with other methods, some gray images with ordinary formats can be processed, and many gray images can be transformed to pseudo-color images with 24 bits. The experiment shows that the processed image has abundant levels, which is consistent with human's perception.

  11. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  12. Gray cases of child abuse: Investigating factors associated with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Asnes, Andrea G; Moles, Rebecca L; Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M

    2016-01-01

    Research in child abuse pediatrics has advanced clinicians' abilities to discriminate abusive from accidental injuries. Less attention, however, has been paid to cases with uncertain diagnoses. These uncertain cases - the "gray" cases between decisions of abuse and not abuse - represent a meaningful challenge in the practice of child abuse pediatricians. In this study, we describe a series of gray cases, representing 17% of 134 consecutive children who were hospitalized at a single pediatric hospital and referred to a child abuse pediatrician for concerns of possible abuse. Gray cases were defined by scores of 3, 4, or 5 on a 7-point clinical judgment scale of the likelihood of abuse. We evaluated details of the case presentation, including incident history, patient medical and developmental histories, family social histories, medical studies, and injuries from the medical record and sought to identify unique and shared characteristics compared with abuse and accidental cases. Overall, the gray cases had incident histories that were ambiguous, medical and social histories that were more similar to abuse cases, and injuries that were similar to accidental injuries. Thus, the lack of clarity in these cases was not attributable to any single element of the incident, history, or injury. Gray cases represent a clinical challenge in child abuse pediatrics and deserve continued attention in research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The pattern of hair dyeing in koreans with gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, Ohsang

    2013-11-01

    Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (phair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (pHair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

  14. Assessment of gray matter heterotopia by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkol, Ragab H; Moghazy, Khaled M; Abolenin, Alaeddin

    2012-03-28

    To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of different types of gray matter heterotopia. Between June 2005 and December 2009, the medical records and MRI studies of patients with gray matter heterotopia were reviewed. The MRI morphologic findings of heterotopia were recorded along with the presence and type of associated cranial malformations. Available clinical and electrophysiological data were also recorded. 20 patients were included in the study. Their ages ranged from 9 mo to 39 years with a mean age of 15 years. All patients suffered from epileptic seizures. According to the location of heterotopia, patients were classified into three groups: subependymal (12), subcortical (5) and band (3) heterotopia. MRI was useful in diagnosing and differentiating between various types of gray matter heterotopia. The severity of clinical manifestations of heterotopia was related to the location and pattern of heterotopia. Determination of heterotopia type and its extent is useful for management planning and predicting prognosis.

  15. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase against hair graying in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerit, I; Filipe, P; Freitas, J; Vassy, J

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals play a role in the aging process, and the protective effect of various antioxidants has been intensively studied, in particular for cutaneous aging. Besides hereditary factors, free radical-mediated damage to melanocytes of the hair follicle has been considered as a mechanism for aging of the hair. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the role of photosensitization reactions for hair graying and to demonstrate potential protective effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mice with black hair were depilated with the fingertips on a surface of 6 x 2.5 cm on both sides of the dorsum. The right side received five applications of a SOD-containing gel before exposure to psoralen (concentration 0.5 mg/mL) plus UV-A (365 nm, 4 J/cm2). The left side was pretreated in the same way with a gel free of SOD. When the hair started growing again, the SOD-protected side was covered with black hair, whereas the hair on the vehicle-treated side was gray or white in 27 of the 30 animals studied. The 0.01% SOD concentration was as protective as the 0.1% concentration. Heat-inactivated SOD, applied in another five animals, was not protective. Using fluorescent labeling of the SOD with fluorescein isothiocyanate, epifluorescence microscopy and digital imaging processing, we show that SOD applied to the skin surface penetrates through the follicular appendages, as well as through the unbroken stratum corneum. Our findings suggest that superoxide radicals, generated by interaction of UV-A light with the sensitizer, initiated the formation of secondary products with well-known DNA-damaging effects, such as lipid peroxidation products and tumor necrosis factor alpha. SOD prevented the damage to melanocyte DNA by dismutating superoxide. Photosensitization may be another mechanism for hair graying, which can be influenced by antioxidants. Given the large number of exogenous and endogenous sensitizers, this mechanism deserves further study for human hair graying.

  16. Modified Gray-Level Coding Method for Absolute Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangcheng; Chen, Shunping; Luo, Jie; Wang, Yuwei; Wang, Yajun; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Fringe projection systems have been widely applied in three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements. One of the important issues is how to retrieve the absolute phase. This paper presents a modified gray-level coding method for absolute phase retrieval. Specifically, two groups of fringe patterns are projected onto the measured objects, including three phase-shift patterns for the wrapped phase, and three n-ary gray-level (nGL) patterns for the fringe order. Compared with the binary gray-level (bGL) method which just uses two intensity values, the nGL method can generate many more unique codewords with multiple intensity values. With assistance from the average intensity and modulation of phase-shift patterns, the intensities of nGL patterns are normalized to deal with ambient light and surface contrast. To reduce the codeword detection errors caused by camera/projector defocus, nGL patterns are designed as n-ary gray-code (nGC) patterns to ensure that at most, one code changes at each point. Experiments verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method to measure isolated objects with complex surfaces. PMID:29048341

  17. James N Gray – An eScience Visionary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    transaction which violates the integrity constraints must be aborted. In other words, a transaction must not lead to an inconsistent. DBMS state. Jim Gray proposed that all activities invo ving a Data Base. Management System should be broken up into units of work called transactions. He defined four important properties of.

  18. Dance and music share gray matter structural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2017-02-15

    Intensive practise of sensorimotor skills, such as music and dance, is associated with brain structural plasticity. While the neural correlates of music have been well-investigated, less is known about the neural correlates of dance. Additionally, the gray matter structural correlates of dance versus music training have not yet been directly compared. The objectives of the present study were to compare gray matter structure as measured by surface- and voxel-based morphometry between expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls, as well as to correlate gray matter structure with performance on dance- and music-related tasks. Dancers and musicians were found to have increased cortical thickness compared to controls in superior temporal regions. Gray matter structure in the superior temporal gyrus was also correlated with performance on dance imitation, rhythm synchronization and melody discrimination tasks. These results suggest that superior temporal regions are important in both dance- and music-related skills and may be affected similarly by both types of long-term intensive training. This work advances knowledge of the neural correlates of dance and music, as well as training-associated brain plasticity in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of seed attributes in eastern gray squirrel foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Mekala

    2016-01-01

    Seed attributes are important predictors of rodent foraging behaviors. I examined the role of seed attributes in eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) foraging behavior from an evolutionary, economic, ecological and biochemical perspective. From an evolutionary perspective (chapter 2), I found that squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily labile seed traits, which supports a diffuse coevolutionary relationship between ...

  20. Modeling Disjunct Gray Wolf Populations in Semi-Wild Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; David J. Mladenoff; Adrian P. Wydeven

    1998-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in parts of the United States and Europe live in networks of disjunct populations, many of which are close to human settlement. Because wolf management goals include sustaining disjunct populations, it is important to ask what types of areas and protections are needed for population survival. To predict the effects of different levels of human...

  1. Squamata, Scincidae, Eutropis trivittata (Hardwicke and Gray, 1827): distribution extension

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharamaraju, Midathala; Srinivasulu,Chelmala; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi; Sreekar, Rachakonda

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of the three-banded skink Eutropis trivittata (Hardwicke and Gray, 1827) (Reptilia: Scincidae) for Andhra Pradesh, India, based on a specimen from Araku, Vishakapatnam district. This report also helps in understanding the distribution of this species in South East India.

  2. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of an...

  3. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  4. Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lidianne N; Salgado, Breno S; Grandi, Fabrizio; Fernandes, Thaís R; Miranda, Bruna S; Teixeira, Carlos R; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2011-05-01

    An ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is described in a gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoupira). The tumor was histologically characterized by the presence of cysts and proliferation of papillae, both lined by single- or multi-layered pleomorphic epithelial cells that contained alcian blue-positive mucins. © 2011 The Author(s)

  5. Ultraviolet damage on natural gray hair and its photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, T; Bedell, A

    2001-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of natural gray hair obtained from the heads of individuals and as well as commercial samples were investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of their central maximum diameter, central cross-sectional area, central ellipticity, average tensile strength, and average extent of transverse swelling between gray and black hair. The correlation between the elongation and the contraction of the cross-sectional area of hair fibers during extension was established as a statistically linear function, with a coefficient of 0.758. The damage on natural gray hair from ultraviolet (UV) irradiation were assessed by measuring the following parameters: hair color, Young's modulus, stress-to-break, wet combing force, dynamic advancing contact angle, tryptophan damage, cuticle abrasion, and transverse swelling of hair fiber in 0.1 N NaOH solution. It has been found that gray hair undergoes more severe UV damage and needs more UV protection than dark brown hair. Experimental results indicate that the quaternized UV absorber, cinnamidopropyltrimonium chloride (CATC), delivered from a simple shampoo system, is more substantive on hair and more effective in protecting hair from UV damage than a conventional UV filter. CATC also provided an additional conditioning benefit on hair.

  6. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Klop, EM; Broman, J; Zhang, ML; Holstege, G; Zhang, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on

  7. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur ( Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) activity period in a disturbed forest in southwestern Madagascar. K Fish ... lemur activity period in the unfenced forest may be due to differences in forest composition resulting in higher travel costs or a loss of canopy cover which may limit their use of torpor.

  8. Microstructural abnormalities in white and gray matter in obese adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Nouwen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion/interpretation: Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities.

  9. Growing Concerns With Workplace Incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Natasha Renee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-11-01

    Workplace incivility (WPI) is a growing issue across all public and private sectors. Occupational and environmental health nurses can educate employees and management about WPI, its risk factors and characteristics, and ways to reduce incidents of WPI.

  10. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    No. DODIG-2016-080 A P R I L 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE...Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement Objective The objective of the audit was to determine whether the Department of the Army (Army...effectively managed MQ-1C Gray Eagle (Gray Eagle) spare parts . Specifically, we determined whether the Army effectively managed its spare - parts

  11. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented h...

  12. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  13. "Mr. Database" : Jim Gray and the History of Database Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwahr, Nils C

    2017-12-01

    Although the widespread use of the term "Big Data" is comparatively recent, it invokes a phenomenon in the developments of database technology with distinct historical contexts. The database engineer Jim Gray, known as "Mr. Database" in Silicon Valley before his disappearance at sea in 2007, was involved in many of the crucial developments since the 1970s that constitute the foundation of exceedingly large and distributed databases. Jim Gray was involved in the development of relational database systems based on the concepts of Edgar F. Codd at IBM in the 1970s before he went on to develop principles of Transaction Processing that enable the parallel and highly distributed performance of databases today. He was also involved in creating forums for discourse between academia and industry, which influenced industry performance standards as well as database research agendas. As a co-founder of the San Francisco branch of Microsoft Research, Gray increasingly turned toward scientific applications of database technologies, e. g. leading the TerraServer project, an online database of satellite images. Inspired by Vannevar Bush's idea of the memex, Gray laid out his vision of a Personal Memex as well as a World Memex, eventually postulating a new era of data-based scientific discovery termed "Fourth Paradigm Science". This article gives an overview of Gray's contributions to the development of database technology as well as his research agendas and shows that central notions of Big Data have been occupying database engineers for much longer than the actual term has been in use.

  14. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the... International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and...

  15. Prevention of hair graying by factors that promote the growth and differentiation of melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endou, Mariko; Aoki, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal melanocyte precursors migrate into developing hair follicles to form the melanocyte stem cell system required to supply pigmented melanocytes necessary for hair pigmentation in repetitive hair cycles. Hair graying is caused by irreversible defects in the self-renewal and/or development of follicular melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicles. To investigate the mechanism(s) of hair graying during the normal aging process, we established a hair graying model in mice by repeatedly plucking or shaving trunk hairs. We repeatedly plucked or shaved trunk hairs to induce and accelerate the hair graying and counted the gray hairs. By using this functional model of hair graying in mice, we assessed the effects of genes known to affect melanocyte development, such as Kitl, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and endotheline 3 (ET3). After increasing the total numbers of cumulative hair cycles by plucking or shaving, we observed a significant increase in the gray hair of C57BL/6 mice. Kitl expression in the skin was the most effective for preventing hair graying and a significant effect was also confirmed for HGF and ET3 expression. The repeated hair plucking or shaving led to hair graying without any genetic lesion. Kitl is a more effective factor for prevention of hair graying than HGF or ET3. Our simple model of hair graying may provide a basic tool for screening the molecules or reagents preventing the progression of hair graying. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  17. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  18. Some morphological and physiological aspects and cultivation of Coprinus comatus (O. F. Mull. Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Some morphological and physiological aspects and cultivation of Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull. Gray were investigated. Malt extract agar turned out to be the best in supporting the mycelial growth of C.comatus. Mannose and maltose were the best carbon sources in supporting mycelial growth. C. comatus utilized peptone and NH4NO3 better than other nitrogen sources. The optimum temperature and pH on maltextract agar were 25oC and 6, respectively. Light retarded mycelial growth of C. comatus. For cultivation, the method of growing mushroom in autoclavable plastic bags was applied. Three different combinations of agricultural products were used for growing C. comatus. The combination ofpararubber sawdust : kapok waste : boiled sorghum seeds (3:3:1 by volume supported higher yields of basidiocarps. Time required for full colonization of the mycelia on 500 gm substrate at room temperature(28-30oC was 20.3 days. After casing with the mixed soil (loam soil : rice husk : cow manure, 2:2:1 the cultivating bags were incubated in the growth chamber at 20oC and 65% relative humidity. Fructificationbegan after 20.6 days of watering, and the average yield obtained was 165.6 g/bag.

  19. Three-dimensional CT image segmentation by volume growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongping; Conners, Richard W.; Araman, Philip A.

    1991-11-01

    The research reported in this paper is aimed at locating, identifying, and quantifying internal (anatomical or physiological) structures, by 3-D image segmentation. Computerized tomography (CT) images of an object are first processed on a slice-by-slice basis, generating a stack of image slices that have been smoothed and pre-segmented. The image smoothing operation is executed by a spatially adaptive filter, and the 2-D pre-segmentation is achieved by a thresholding process whereby each individual pixel in the input image space is consistently assigned a label, according to its CT number, i.e., the gray-level value. Given a sequence of pre-segmented images as 3-D input scene (a stack of image slices), the spatial connectivity that exists among neighboring image pixels is utilized in a volume growing process which generates a number of well-defined volumetric regions or image solides, each representing an individual anatomical or physiological structure in the input scene. The 3-D segmentation is implemented using a volume growing process so that the aspect of pixel spatial connectivity is incorporated into the image segmentation procedure. To initialize the volume growing process for each volumetric region in the input 3-D scene, a seed location for a region is defined and loaded into a queue data structure called seed queue. The volume growing process consists of a set of procedures that perform different operations on the volumetric data of a CT image sequence. Examples of experiment of the described system with CT image data of several hardwood logs are given to demonstrate usefulness and flexibility of this approach. This allows solutions to industrial web inspection, as well as to several problems in medical image analysis where low-level image segmentation plays an important role toward successful image interpretation tasks.

  20. Outplayed: Regaining Strategic Initiative in the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    insights for this study. Additionally, Cap- tain (Promotable) John Chambers , U.S. Army was both a master’s degree candidate at the Harvard Kennedy...School of Government, a study team expert, and a working group participant. The report by Captain Chambers , Posturing the U.S. Army for Hy- brid Gray Zone...battlefields for one or the other to bloody their competitor without engendering the very high cost of direct confrontation. The United States is now a

  1. Antiaversive Effects of Cannabinoids: Is the Periaqueductal Gray Involved?

    OpenAIRE

    F. S. Guimarães; L. B. Resstel; A. L. Terzian; S. F. Lisboa; A. C. Campos; D. C. Aguiar; F. A. Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoids play an important role in activity-dependent changes in synaptic activity and can interfere in several brain functions, including responses to aversive stimuli. The regions responsible for their effects, however, are still unclear. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain structure closely involved in responses related to aversive states. Accordingly, exposure to stressful ...

  2. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  3. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  4. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; Pamela A. McCombe; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each und...

  5. Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.

  6. Composition and optical microstructure of good gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Nithyadevi; Veeravazhuthi, V.

    2013-02-01

    In this Project work, the microstructure and percentage composition of gray cast iron were studied for the given specimen. In microstructure analysis, the formations of structure after and before etching were analyzed and with the use of Optical emission spectrometer, the percentage of carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorous, sulphur, chromium, copper and titanium are about 3.55%,2.17%,0.097%,0.085%,0.15%,0.462% and 0.021%.

  7. GrayStar: Web-based pedagogical stellar modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C. Ian

    2017-01-01

    GrayStar is a web-based pedagogical stellar model. It approximates stellar atmospheric and spectral line modeling in JavaScript with visualization in HTML. It is suitable for a wide range of education and public outreach levels depending on which optional plots and print-outs are turned on. All plots and renderings are pure basic HTML and the plotting module contains original HTML procedures for automatically scaling and graduating x- and y-axes.

  8. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  9. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  10. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  11. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  12. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  13. Decrease of thalamic gray matter following limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganski, B; Moser, T; Lummel, N; Gänssbauer, S; Bogdahn, U; Haas, F; May, A

    2006-07-01

    Modern neuroscience has elucidated general mechanisms underlying the functional plasticity of the adult mammalian brain after limb deafferentation. However, little is known about possible structural alterations following amputation and chronic loss of afferent input in humans. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), based on high-resolution magnetic resonance images, we investigated the brain structure of 28 volunteers with unilateral limb amputation and compared them to healthy controls. Subjects with limb amputation exhibited a decrease in gray matter of the posterolateral thalamus contralateral to the side of the amputation. The thalamic gray matter differences were positively correlated with the time span after the amputation but not with the frequency or magnitude of coexisting phantom pain. Phantom limb pain was unrelated to thalamic structural variations, but was positively correlated to a decrease in brain areas related to the processing of pain. No gray matter increase was detected. The unilateral thalamic differences may reflect a structural correlate of the loss of afferent input as a secondary change following deafferentation.

  14. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gray bats and pollution in Missouri and northern Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.; Cromartie, E.; LaVal, R.K.; Tuttle, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Gray bats died with lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin and rising levels of heptachlor epoxide in 1976, 1977, and 1978 at Bat Caves No. 2-3, Franklin County, Missouri. The colony disappeared in 1979. Dieldrin was banned in 1974 and 1981 was the last year for heptachlor use in Missouri. The State is recommendiing three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos or Dursban, dyfonate or Fonophos, and ethoprop or Mocap) as substitutes for heptachlor. All three compounds have excellent records in the environment. Analyses of insects collected where bats of this colony fed showed beetles, particularly rove beetles (Staphylinidae), to be the most heavily contaminated part of the bat's diet. Lactation concentrated these residues so that levels in milk were approximately 30 times those in the insect diet. Gray bats found dead in caves in northern Alabama showed DDD (a DDT derivative) contamination. Bats from the colony at Cave Springs Cave on the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge contained up to 29 ppm DDD in their brains, but this is probably less than one-half the lethal level. Bats from other colonies contained less. The DDD contamination enters the Terinessee River just above the Wheeler Refuge and is seen in gray bat colonies as far as 60 miles downriver.

  16. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in gray wolves in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, C; Jakubek, E-B; Arnemo, J M; Malmsten, J

    2010-10-11

    Transmission of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. Because of the close relationship between gray wolf (Canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in Scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. The investigation was based on blood samples collected from 109 wolves between 1998 and 2009 within the Scandinavian wolf project Skandulv. They were analysed by N. caninum iscom ELISA and those with absorbance values exceeding 0.20 were also analysed by immunoblotting. Samples that were positive in both tests were deemed positive. Four (3.7%) wolves were positive at the first sampling. They were all sampled 2005 at different locations, and were both females and males. From one male wolf three samples were collected over a 7-year period. No antibodies were detected at the first sampling in 1998 when he was approximately 8 months old but when he was sampled again 5 and 7 years later the ELISA and immunoblotting were positive. The results indicate that N. caninum infection is present in Scandinavian wolves. It is unclear how the wolves acquired the infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiro Ichinose

    Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  19. Risk Factors for Premature Hair Graying in Young Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Belli, Asli; Etgu, Fatma; Ozbas Gok, Seyran; Kara, Bilge; Dogan, Gursoy

    2016-07-01

    Premature hair graying (PHG) is a common condition resulting in loss of self-esteem. Studies investigating PHG risk factors for both sexes with a large number of patients are scarce. We sought to investigate the socioclinical risk factors for PHG in young Turkish men and women and the differences between the sexes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,119 participants who answered a survey about PHG and some socioclinical characteristics between February and July 2015. The number of gray hairs, onset age of hair graying, and family history of PHG were asked about, as well as demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports life, diet, medical history, educational status, occupation, marital status, monthly income, and Fitzpatrick skin type. Of 1,119 participants, 315 (28.1%) had PHG and 804 did not. Maternal and paternal PHG, alcohol consumption, presence of chronic disease, educational status, hair loss, perceived stress scale (PSS) score, age, and height were significantly higher in subjects with PHG. Rates of maternal and paternal PHG were high in women with PHG, and the rate of paternal PHG was high in men with PHG. According to the multivariate ordinal regression analysis, PSS score, age, hair loss, and family history of PHG were correlated with the severity of PHG. PHG is closely related to factors causing oxidative stress, such as emotional stress, alcohol consumption, and chronic diseases in genetically predisposed men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Gaser, Christian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Gender identity—one's sense of being a man or a woman—is a fundamental perception experienced by all individuals that extends beyond biological sex. Yet, what contributes to our sense of gender remains uncertain. Since individuals who identify as transsexual report strong feelings of being the opposite sex and a belief that their sexual characteristics do not reflect their true gender, they constitute an invaluable model to understand the biological underpinnings of gender identity. We analyzed MRI data of 24 male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals not yet treated with cross-sex hormones in order to determine whether gray matter volumes in MTF transsexuals more closely resemble people who share their biological sex (30 control men), or people who share their gender identity (30 control women). Results revealed that regional gray matter variation in MTF transsexuals is more similar to the pattern found in men than in women. However, MTF transsexuals show a significantly larger volume of regional gray matter in the right putamen compared to men. These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in gender identity. PMID:19341803

  1. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J; Gaser, Christian; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Hamilton, Liberty S; Vilain, Eric

    2009-07-15

    Gender identity-one's sense of being a man or a woman-is a fundamental perception experienced by all individuals that extends beyond biological sex. Yet, what contributes to our sense of gender remains uncertain. Since individuals who identify as transsexual report strong feelings of being the opposite sex and a belief that their sexual characteristics do not reflect their true gender, they constitute an invaluable model to understand the biological underpinnings of gender identity. We analyzed MRI data of 24 male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals not yet treated with cross-sex hormones in order to determine whether gray matter volumes in MTF transsexuals more closely resemble people who share their biological sex (30 control men), or people who share their gender identity (30 control women). Results revealed that regional gray matter variation in MTF transsexuals is more similar to the pattern found in men than in women. However, MTF transsexuals show a significantly larger volume of regional gray matter in the right putamen compared to men. These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in gender identity.

  2. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  3. 78 FR 64181 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the Commercial Harvest of Gray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; reopening. SUMMARY: NMFS reopens the 2013 commercial sector for gray... annual catch limit (ACL) for gray triggerfish had been reached, and closed the commercial sector for gray... commercial sector for gray triggerfish in the South Atlantic EEZ at 12:01 a.m., local time, on October 28...

  4. Gray mold populations in german strawberry fields are resistant to multiple fungicides and dominated by a novel clade closely related to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroch, Michaela; Plesken, Cecilia; Weber, Roland W S; Kauff, Frank; Scalliet, Gabriel; Hahn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to fruit and vegetable production. Strawberry fields usually receive several fungicide treatments against Botrytis per season. Gray mold isolates from several German strawberry-growing regions were analyzed to determine their sensitivity against botryticides. Fungicide resistance was commonly observed, with many isolates possessing resistance to multiple (up to six) fungicides. A stronger variant of the previously described multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype MDR1, called MDR1h, was found to be widely distributed, conferring increased partial resistance to two important botryticides, cyprodinil and fludioxonil. A 3-bp deletion mutation in a transcription factor-encoding gene, mrr1, was found to be correlated with MDR1h. All MDR1h isolates and the majority of isolates with resistance to multiple fungicides were found to be genetically distinct. Multiple-gene sequencing confirmed that they belong to a novel clade, called Botrytis group S, which is closely related to B. cinerea and the host-specific species B. fabae. Isolates of Botrytis group S genotypes were found to be widespread in all German strawberry-growing regions but almost absent from vineyards. Our data indicate a clear subdivision of gray mold populations, which are differentially distributed according to their host preference and adaptation to chemical treatments.

  5. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  6. Neural-like growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Vitaliy A.

    2000-03-01

    On the basis of the analysis of scientific ideas reflecting the law in the structure and functioning the biological structures of a brain, and analysis and synthesis of knowledge, developed by various directions in Computer Science, also there were developed the bases of the theory of a new class neural-like growing networks, not having the analogue in world practice. In a base of neural-like growing networks the synthesis of knowledge developed by classical theories - semantic and neural of networks is. The first of them enable to form sense, as objects and connections between them in accordance with construction of the network. With thus each sense gets a separate a component of a network as top, connected to other tops. In common it quite corresponds to structure reflected in a brain, where each obvious concept is presented by certain structure and has designating symbol. Secondly, this network gets increased semantic clearness at the expense owing to formation not only connections between neural by elements, but also themselves of elements as such, i.e. here has a place not simply construction of a network by accommodation sense structures in environment neural of elements, and purely creation of most this environment, as of an equivalent of environment of memory. Thus neural-like growing networks are represented by the convenient apparatus for modeling of mechanisms of teleological thinking, as a fulfillment of certain psychophysiological of functions.

  7. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  8. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  10. Gray-Box Approach for Thermal Modelling of Buildings for Applications in District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurav, Kumar; Chandan, Vikas

    2017-05-19

    District-heating-and-cooling (DHC) systems are a proven energy solution that has been deployed for many years in a growing number of urban areas worldwide. They comprise a variety of technologies that seek to develop synergies between the production and supply of heat, cooling, domestic hot water and electricity. Although the benefits of DHC systems are significant and have been widely acclaimed, yet the full potential of modern DHC systems remains largely untapped. There are several opportunities for development of energy efficient DHC systems, which will enable the effective exploitation of alternative renewable resources, waste heat recovery, etc., in order to increase the overall efficiency and facilitate the transition towards the next generation of DHC systems. This motivated the need for modelling these complex systems. Large-scale modelling of DHC-networks is challenging, as it has several components such as buildings, pipes, valves, heating source, etc., interacting with each other. In this paper, we focus on building modelling. In particular, we present a gray-box methodology for thermal modelling of buildings. Gray-box modelling is a hybrid of data driven and physics based models where, coefficients of the equations from physics based models are learned using data. This approach allows us to capture the dynamics of the buildings more effectively as compared to pure data driven approach. Additionally, this approach results in a simpler models as compared to pure physics based models. We first develop the individual components of the building such as temperature evolution, flow controller, etc. These individual models are then integrated in to the complete gray-box model for the building. The model is validated using data collected from one of the buildings at Lule{\\aa}, a city on the coast of northern Sweden.

  11. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  12. Accessory carpal bone luxation in two gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Ellison, Michelle; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S

    2012-09-01

    Two sibling male castrated gray wolves (Canis lupus) developed acute onset right forelimb lameness, one at 8 and the other at 11 yr of age. In both cases, the right carpus was swollen, carpal hyperextension was notable, and the wolves exhibited significant intermittent lameness of the affected limb. Radiographs revealed right accessory carpal bone luxation in both cases, with type III fracture of the accessory carpal bone in one wolf. Although carpal bone luxation in domestic dogs is frequently treated surgically, conservative medical management resolved the lameness in both wolves with no further complications.

  13. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhenxin; Serres Armero, Aitor; Ramírez, Óscar; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Wayne, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs...

  14. Gray Matter Volumes in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-wei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue with uncertain pathologic mechanism. Neuroimage may be an important key to unveil the central nervous system (CNS mechanism in CFS. Although most of the studies found gray matter (GM volumes reduced in some brain regions in CFS, there are many factors that could affect GM volumes in CFS, including chronic pain, stress, psychiatric disorder, physical activity, and insomnia, which may bias the results. In this paper, through reviewing recent literatures, we discussed these interferential factors, which overlap with the symptoms of CFS.

  15. Improved Methods For Generating Quasi-Gray Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jansens, Dana; Carmi, Paz; Maheshwari, Anil; Morin, Pat; Smid, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Consider a sequence of bit strings of length d, such that each string differs from the next in a constant number of bits. We call this sequence a quasi-Gray code. We examine the problem of efficiently generating such codes, by considering the number of bits read and written at each generating step, the average number of bits read while generating the entire code, and the number of strings generated in the code. Our results give a trade-off between these constraints, and present algorithms that do less work on average than previous results, and that increase the number of bit strings generated.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray short-tailed opossum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria.../Metatheria Monodelphis_domestica_L.png Monodelphis_domestica_NL.png Monodelphis_domestica_S.png Monodelphis_domestic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NS ...

  17. Study of properties of manual metal arc electrodes for gray cast iron defects repair works

    OpenAIRE

    A. Klimpel; D. Janicki; A.St. Klimpel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: of these researches was to determine influence of MMA technique and surfacing parameters of gray cast iron using CASTOLIN 27 coated electrodes on quality of deposits.Design/methodology/approach: single layer weave bead deposits and one layer overlapped multi weave bead deposits were MMA surfaced on gray cast iron type GG25. All deposits were surfaced on no preheated gray cast iron plate. To determine quality of deposits hardness HRC measurements on the cross section of deposits, macr...

  18. A Novel Microstrip Frequency Discriminator for IFM Based on Balanced Gray-code

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Elias M.F.; Pedrosa, Túlio L.; de Souza, S.R.O.; Melo, M. T. de; Oliveira, B. G. M. de; Llamas-Garro, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the design, simulation, fabrication and measurement of a novel set of microstrip filters to perform the task of frequency discriminators. These filters’ frequency responses are based on the balanced Gray-code. Results show that the use of the balanced Gray-code, as opposed to the traditional Gray-code, allowed 20% circuit size reduction by using 60% less resonators due to a change in the resonators’ orientation.

  19. Migratory behavior of eastern North Pacific gray whales tracked using a hydrophone array

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzo, Regina A.; Helble, Tyler A.; D’Spain, Gerald L.; Weller, David W.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales b...

  20. Gray matter changes in patients with deficit schizophrenia and non-deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Halil İbrahim; Eker, Mehmet Çağdaş; Zengin, Burçak; Yılmaz, Dinçer Akaydın; İşman Haznedaroğlu, Damla; Çınar, Cem; Kitiş, Ömer; Akay, Ahmet; Gönül, Ali Saffet

    2012-01-01

    Reduced gray matter volume is a frequently reported finding in brain imaging studies performed with schizophrenia patients. Some studies suggest a probable link between the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and gray matter loss; however, some of the negative symptoms observed in schizophrenia patients are not primarily linked to the core of schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare gray matter volumes in patients with primary negative symptoms (deficit schizophrenia [DS]), non-DS (NDS) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 11 DS patients, 18 non-DS patients, and 17 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. The Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to determine which patients were DS and non-DS. MR images were compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Contrary to expectations, no evidence to support less gray matter in DS patients than in NDS patients was observed. Furthermore, NDS patients had less gray matter volume in several brain regions (frontal and temporal cortices) than did the DS patients. All patients had perisylvian gray matter volume deficits, though the NDS patients had more widespread volume deficiencies. No evidence to support the hypothesis that DS patients have less gray matter volume than those of NDS patients was observed. On the contrary, DS patients had more gray matter volume in some regions; the differences observed in gray matter volume in these brain regions between the 2 patient groups may be responsible for the differences in their clinical manifestations.

  1. Agonistic attacks on divers and submersibles by gray reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos: antipredatory or competitive?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Donald R; Johnson, Robert R; McKibben, James N; Pittenger, Gregory G

    1986-01-01

    .... melanopterus; or reef whitetip sharks, Triaenodon obesus. Gray reef sharks attacked in both baited and unbaited situations, but apparently more readily in the latter. Lone individuals (unbaited...

  2. Pesticide contamination of endangered gray bats and their food base in Boone County, Missouri, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, R.L.; Clark, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Gray bat guano from Devil's Icebox and Hunters Caves contained dieldrin at levels previously associated with gray bat mortality. Two of four gray bats found dead in Holton Cave had lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin. Twenty-five of 28 (86%) insect samples from bat foraging areas contained measurable dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide or both. Beetle samples were most heavily contaminated containing up to 2.2 ppm and 1.1 ppm heptachlor epoxide. The addition of Holton Cave brings to five the number of Missouri caves where gray bats have died of food chain pesticide poisoning.

  3. Foraging and reproductive behavior of Arizona gray squirrels (Sciurus arizonensis): impacts of climatic variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichole L. Cudworth; John L. Koprowski

    2013-01-01

    ...; however, no data are available on diet or reproduction. We investigated annual variation in foraging and reproductive habits of Arizona gray squirrels to assess responses to extreme seasonality...

  4. Increased cerebellar gray matter volume in head chefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarica, Alessia; Martino, Iolanda; Fabbricatore, Carmelo; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Rocca, Federico; Caracciolo, Manuela; Quattrone, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. Methods Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations. Results Voxel-based analysis performed with SUIT, as well as, automated volumetric measurement assessed with Freesurfer, revealed increased gray matter volume in the cerebellum in chefs compared to non-experts. The most significant changes were detected in the anterior vermis and the posterior cerebellar lobule. The magnitude of the brigade staff and the higher performance in the Tower of London test correlated with these specific gray matter increases, respectively. Conclusions We found that chefs are characterized by an anatomical variability involving the cerebellum. This confirms the role of this region in the development of similar expert brains characterized by learning dexterous skills, such as pianists, rock climbers and basketball players. However, the nature of the cellular events underlying the detected morphological differences remains an open question. PMID:28182712

  5. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  7. Changes in gray matter induced by learning--revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joenna Driemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help to elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to fast adapting cortical processes that may be relevant to learning. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 3 Tesla scanner and monitoring whole brain structure we repeated and extended our original study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, focussing on the temporal aspects of the structural changes and investigated whether these changes are performance or exercise dependant. The data confirmed our earlier observation using a mean effects analysis and in addition showed that learning to juggle can alter gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as after 7 days of training. Neither performance nor exercise alone could explain these changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task.

  8. Changes in gray matter induced by learning--revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemeyer, Joenna; Boyke, Janina; Gaser, Christian; Büchel, Christian; May, Arne

    2008-07-23

    Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help to elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to fast adapting cortical processes that may be relevant to learning. Using a 3 Tesla scanner and monitoring whole brain structure we repeated and extended our original study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, focussing on the temporal aspects of the structural changes and investigated whether these changes are performance or exercise dependant. The data confirmed our earlier observation using a mean effects analysis and in addition showed that learning to juggle can alter gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as after 7 days of training. Neither performance nor exercise alone could explain these changes. We suggest that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task) is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task.

  9. Remembering Freddie Gray: Medical Education for Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Aultman, Julie M; Chyatte, Michelle R; Kumagai, Arno K

    2017-03-01

    Recent attention to racial disparities in law enforcement, highlighted by the death of Freddie Gray, raises questions about whether medical education adequately prepares physicians to care for persons particularly affected by societal inequities and injustice who present to clinics, hospitals, and emergency rooms. In this Perspective, the authors propose that medical school curricula should address such concerns through an explicit pedagogical orientation. The authors detail two specific approaches-antiracist pedagogy and the concept of structural competency-to construct a curriculum oriented toward appropriate care for patients who are victimized by extremely challenging social and economic disadvantages and who present with health concerns that arise from these disadvantages. In memory of Freddie Gray, the authors describe a curriculum, outlining specific strategies for engaging learners and naming specific resources that can be brought to bear on these strategies. The fundamental aim of such a curriculum is to help trainees and faculty understand how equitable access to skilled and respectful health care is often denied; how we and the institutions where we learn, teach, and work can be complicit in this reality; and how we can work toward eliminating the societal injustices that interfere with the delivery of appropriate health care.

  10. [Repigmentation of gray hair after thyroid hormone treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, P; Guzmán, M; Marquina, M; Pretel, M; Aguado, L; Lloret, P; Gorrochategui, A

    2007-11-01

    Darkening of gray and white hairs occurred in 2 patients with increased exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) due to treatment of myxedema coma in one case and iatrogenic hyperthyroidism in the other. We hypothesized that thyroid hormone may affect the homeostasis of hair follicles. To test our hypothesis and investigate the influence of thyroid hormone on the hair cycle, we used an in vivo murine model and an in vitro model based on culture of follicular units. We used the standard C57BL/6 murine model of the hair cycle. T3 (0.5 microg) dissolved in ethanol was applied topically once daily for 10 days to a depilated area in the telogen phase on the backs of the mice. Follicular units, obtained from hair transplant interventions, were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of T3. On day 5, all T3-treated mice entered the anagen phase, whereas the anagen phase started spontaneously in control mice on day 9, and not until day 15 had all controls entered this phase. In the in vitro experiment, follicular units treated with 100 nmol/L T3 grew significantly larger compared to the control group. These data suggest that follicles in the telogen phase can be induced to enter the anagen phase by the topical application of T3. This thyroid hormone may reverse graying of the terminal hair. In the in vitro experiments, T3 stimulated hair shaft growth. Follicular melanocytes may be the target cell for these actions.

  11. Increased cerebellar gray matter volume in head chefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    Full Text Available Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated.Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations.Voxel-based analysis performed with SUIT, as well as, automated volumetric measurement assessed with Freesurfer, revealed increased gray matter volume in the cerebellum in chefs compared to non-experts. The most significant changes were detected in the anterior vermis and the posterior cerebellar lobule. The magnitude of the brigade staff and the higher performance in the Tower of London test correlated with these specific gray matter increases, respectively.We found that chefs are characterized by an anatomical variability involving the cerebellum. This confirms the role of this region in the development of similar expert brains characterized by learning dexterous skills, such as pianists, rock climbers and basketball players. However, the nature of the cellular events underlying the detected morphological differences remains an open question.

  12. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  13. Growing Vertical in the Flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A

    2016-01-26

    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  14. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  15. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  16. Morphogenesis of Growing Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ben Amar, Martine

    2008-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to a noteworthy property of some soft tissues: their ability to grow. Many attempts have been made to model this behavior in biology, chemistry, and physics. Using the theory of finite elasticity, Rodriguez has postulated a multiplicative decomposition of the geometric deformation gradient into a growth-induced part and an elastic one needed to ensure compatibility of the body. In order to fully explore the consequences of this hypothesis, the equations describing thin elastic objects under finite growth are derived. Under appropriate scaling assumptions for the growth rates, the proposed model is of the Föppl von Kármán type. As an illustration, the circumferential growth of a free hyperelastic disk is studied.

  17. Experimental Studies of Gray Cast Iron Solidification with Linear Variable Differential Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Abel; Fredriksson, Hasse

    Expansion during the solidification of gray cast iron was studied by the help of Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). The chemical composition of the samples was altered by adding two types of inoculant; Superseed® (50% Si, 1% Sr and 0.5% Al) and SMZ® (69% Si, 1.9% Ca, 0.7% Ba, 5% Zr, 4.5% Mn and 1.3% Al). During the solidification, the melt shows hardly no shrinkage in the primary austenite formation region, but the eutectic region shows higher expansion. The expansion during the eutectic growth increase, when the inoculant weight percentage escalates. At the same time, the eutectic cells get smaller and increases in cells number. The micrograph reveals undercooled and interdendritic graphite transformed to homogenized flake graphite. The inoculation process reduces the solidification rate along with different stable oxide and sulfide nuclei's created prior to the solidification, as a result eutectic cell gets more sites to grow. The change in micrograph and solidification rate was believed to modify the mechanical property of the cast.

  18. The Reduction of Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Gray Matter Volume Correlates with Loss of Economic Rationality in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Tymula, Agnieszka; Glimcher, Paul

    2017-12-06

    The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow, and there is mounting evidence that as humans age they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 years correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. All participants were functionally normal with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranging between 26 and 30. While our elders showed the previously reported decline in rationality compared with younger subjects, chronological age per se did not correlate with rationality measures within our population of elders. Instead, reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates tightly with irrational behavior. Interestingly, using a large fMRI sample and meta-analytic tool with Neurosynth, we found that this brain area shows strong coactivation patterns with nearly all of the value-associated regions identified in previous studies. These findings point toward a neuroanatomic locus for economic rationality in the aging brain and highlight the importance of understanding both anatomy and function in the study of aging, cognition, and decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age is a crucial factor in decision-making, with older individuals making more errors in choices. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis, we found that reduction of gray matter density in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex correlates with economic irrationality: reduced gray matter volume in this area correlates with the frequency and severity of violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference. Furthermore, this brain area strongly coactivates with other reward-associated regions identified with Neurosynth

  19. Association Between Use of Tobacco and Age on Graying of Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature hair graying has also been associated with autoimmune disorders, as they occur in vitiligo (e.g. pernicious anemia, autoimmune thyroid disease) and several rare syndromes with premature aging (e.g. Werner's syndrome).[2]. There is also some evidence that age is associated with increased graying in humans.

  20. 75 FR 13534 - Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization March 16, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership application for...

  1. Structural Gray Matter Differences During Childhood Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Multimetric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicholas E V; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy A R; Tryfon, Ana; Ouimet, Tia; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Evans, Alan C; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Lerch, Jason P; Lewis, John D; Hyde, Krista L

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. Gray matter differences linked to autism spectrum disorder have been studied using a variety of structural imaging methods, but yielded little consensus; the extent to which disparate results reflect differences in methodology or heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorder is not yet clear. Moreover, very few studies have examined gray matter changes as a function of age in autism spectrum disorder. A detailed investigation of gray matter structural development was performed via voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area analyses in 38 autism spectrum disorder versus 46 typically developing children. Relative to typically developing children, the autism spectrum disorder group showed gray matter increases most prominently in the frontal and temporal lobes (including regions such as medial frontal gyrus, Broca's area and posterior temporal cortex), as well as certain parietal and occipital subcortical regions. Gray matter decreases were found only near the temporoparietal junction. Subcortical gray matter increases were found in the putamen and caudate nucleus, while decreases were found in cerebellum. There were age-dependent GM differences in distributed regions including prefrontal cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex, and temporoparietal junction. The results underline the distributed nature of gray matter structural differences in autism spectrum disorder and provide a more comprehensive characterization of autism spectrum disorder-related cortical and subcortical gray matter structural differences during childhood and adolescent development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are federal sustained yield units equitable? A case study of the Grays Harbor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...

  4. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland Cement...

  5. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentti Alaja; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    An incomplete albino Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) was observed in Vesanto and Kajaani, Finland, 1994-1995. The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records. Thus six to seven incomplete...

  6. Different patterns of gray matter atrophy in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, C.; Vrenken, H.; Jiskoot, L.; Versteeg, A.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed patterns of gray matter atrophy according to-age-at-onset in a large sample of 215 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 129 control subjects with voxel-based morphometry using 3-Tesla 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Local gray matter amounts were compared between late- and

  7. On Globicephala sieboldii Gray, 1846, and other species of Pilot Whales (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Within the genus Globicephala Lesson, 1828, only two species can be recognized, namely: Globicephala melaena (Traill, 1809) and Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846. Globicephala sieboldii Gray, 1846, is a synonym of G. macrorhynchus. Synonymies of the two species as well as a key to both species

  8. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  9. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  10. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  11. Depletion of CD200+ hair follicle stem cells in human prematurely gray hair follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. Results: The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively ( P = 0.002. In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. Conclusion: CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  12. Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

    2013-04-01

    Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively (P = 0.002). In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20-22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

  13. Association Between Use of Tobacco and Age on Graying of Hair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to find the correlation between the mean percentage of individuals with gray hair, risk multiplication factor (RMF), and age of the individual. Results: Mean percentage of individual with gray hair and RMF (r = 0.6487) are found to be positively associated. A significant and ...

  14. Gray water recycle: Effect of pretreatment technologies on low pressure reverse osmosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray water can be a valuable source of water when properly treated to reduce the risks associated with chemical and microbial contamination to acceptable levels for the intended reuse application. In this study, the treatment of gray water using low pressure reverse osmosis (RO) filtration after pre...

  15. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. PMID:22277302

  16. Plant guide: Gray's biscuitroot (Lomatium grayi [J. M. Coult. & Rose.] J.M. Coult. & Rose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Gray's biscuitroot is grazed by deer, sheep, mice, rats, and rabbits (COSEWIC, 2008). Ogle and Brazee (2009) rate it as desirable spring and summer forage for cattle, sheep, horses, elk, deer and antelope. Gray's biscuitroot is one of the first species to green up and flower after snowmelt. This characteristic makes this an important species for early spring...

  17. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  18. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  19. Infection Dynamics on Growing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Zonghua; Ye, Nong

    We consider the entire spectrum of architectures for large, growing, and complex networks, ranging from being heterogeneous (scale-free) to homogeneous (random or small-world), and investigate the infection dynamics by using a realistic three-state epidemiological model. In this framework, a node can be in one of the three states: susceptible (S), infected (I), or refractory (R), and the populations in the three groups are approximately described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Our heuristic analysis predicts that, (1) regardless of the network architecture, there exists a substantial fraction of nodes that can never be infected, and (2) heterogeneous networks are relatively more robust against spread of infection as compared with homogeneous networks. These are confirmed numerically. We have also considered the problem of deliberate immunization for preventing wide spread of infection, with the result that targeted immunization can be quite effective for heterogeneous networks. We believe these results are important for a host of problems in many areas of natural science and engineering, and in social sciences as well.

  20. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  1. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  2. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.

  3. Pediatric Ovarian Growing Teratoma Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Rentea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian immature teratoma is a germ cell tumor that comprises less than 1% of ovarian cancers and is treated with surgical debulking and chemotherapy depending on stage. Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS is the phenomenon of the growth of mature teratoma elements with normal tumor markers during or following chemotherapy for treatment of a malignant germ cell tumor. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to invasive and compressive growth as well as potential for malignant transformation. Current treatment modality is surgical resection. We discuss a 12-year-old female who presented following resection of a pure ovarian immature teratoma (grade 3, FIGO stage IIIC. Following chemotherapy and resection of a pelvic/liver recurrence demonstrating mature teratoma, she underwent molecular genetics based chemotherapeutic treatment. No standardized management protocol has been established for the treatment of GTS. The effect of chemotherapeutic agents for decreasing the volume of and prevention of expansion is unknown. We review in detail the history, diagnostic algorithm, and previous reported pediatric cases as well as treatment options for pediatric patients with GTS.

  4. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives.

  5. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinder; Singh, S B

    2017-01-01

    A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior) equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal), and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance.

  6. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal, and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance.

  7. Regional gray matter volume of dopaminergic system associate with creativity: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-06-01

    Creativity has been essential to the development of human civilization and plays a crucial role in cultural life. However, despite a number of functional imaging studies on creativity, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and creativity has never been investigated in subcortical regions. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the gray matter correlates of individual creativity as measured by the divergent thinking test. We found positive correlations between regional gray matter volume and individual creativity in several regions such as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral striata and in an anatomical cluster which included areas such as the substantia nigra, tegmental ventral area and periaqueductal gray. These findings suggest that individual creativity, as measured by the divergent thinking test, is mainly related to the regional gray matter of brain regions known to be associated with the dopaminergic system, congruent with the idea that dopaminergic physiological mechanisms are associated with individual creativity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between use of tobacco and age on graying of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Robin; Gupta, Atul; Moon, Ninad; Mahendra, Ashish; Sargaiyan, Vinod; Gupta, Asheesh; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Gupta, Shivangi

    2014-07-01

    To determine the association between smoking, chewing tobacco (gutka), and age of individual on graying of hair. The present study was conducted on 120 patients attending the Outpatient Department of the DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, UP. The individuals were classified into four groups (group I, II, III, IV) on the basis of the form of tobacco use (smoking or chewing). The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to find the correlation between the mean percentage of individuals with gray hair, risk multiplication factor (RMF), and age of the individual. Mean percentage of individual with gray hair and RMF (r = 0.6487) are found to be positively associated. A significant and positive correlation was observed between the age of the individual and the frequency of individuals with gray hair. This study suggests that there is a significant association between tobacco use and aging on graying of hair.

  9. Association between use of tobacco and age on graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sabharwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the association between smoking, chewing tobacco (gutka, and age of individual on graying of hair. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 patients attending the Outpatient Department of the DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, UP. The individuals were classified into four groups (group I, II, III, IV on the basis of the form of tobacco use (smoking or chewing. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to find the correlation between the mean percentage of individuals with gray hair, risk multiplication factor (RMF, and age of the individual. Results: Mean percentage of individual with gray hair and RMF (r = 0.6487 are found to be positively associated. A significant and positive correlation was observed between the age of the individual and the frequency of individuals with gray hair. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant association between tobacco use and aging on graying of hair.

  10. 3-D shape measurement based on complementary Gray-code light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu; Xiang, Liqun; Sun, Xuezhen

    2012-04-01

    A combination of phase-shift with Gray-code light projection into a three-dimensional (3-D) measurement system has been exploited to digitalize 3-D shape information of a tested object, even with a discontinuous surface. Unfortunately, the phase unwrapping will fall into an error, when an improper value of Gray coding is caused by mistake at the partial boundary of two adjacent binary words. To this end, a new complementary Gray-code method is proposed in this paper as well as the corresponding phase-unwrapping method. This problem of phase unwrapping could be cleverly solved by projecting an additional Gray-code pattern to extend this code and using the different and complementary boundary locations of the traditional and additional codes. The results of computer simulation and experiment confirm that this proposed method based on complementary Gray-code can reliably reconstruct the nature phase distribution of the tested object with only one extra fringe pattern.

  11. A Modified Mean Gray Wolf Optimization Approach for Benchmark and Biomedical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinder; Singh, SB

    2017-01-01

    A modified variant of gray wolf optimization algorithm, namely, mean gray wolf optimization algorithm has been developed by modifying the position update (encircling behavior) equations of gray wolf optimization algorithm. The proposed variant has been tested on 23 standard benchmark well-known test functions (unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal), and the performance of modified variant has been compared with particle swarm optimization and gray wolf optimization. Proposed algorithm has also been applied to the classification of 5 data sets to check feasibility of the modified variant. The results obtained are compared with many other meta-heuristic approaches, ie, gray wolf optimization, particle swarm optimization, population-based incremental learning, ant colony optimization, etc. The results show that the performance of modified variant is able to find best solutions in terms of high level of accuracy in classification and improved local optima avoidance. PMID:28932103

  12. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  13. Back-reaction of perturbation wave packets on gray solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, P. B.; Anglin, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    Within the Bogoliubov-de Gennes linearization theory of quantum or classical perturbations around a background solution to the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we study the back-reaction of wave-packet perturbations on a gray-soliton background. From our recently published exact solutions, we determine that a wave packet effectively jumps ahead as it passes through a soliton, emerging with a wavelength-dependent forward translation in comparison to its motion in absence of the soliton. From this and from the full theory's exact momentum conservation, we deduce that post-Bogoliubov back-reaction must include a commensurate forward advance by the soliton itself. We quantify this effect with a simple theory, and confirm that it agrees with full numerical solution of the classical nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We briefly discuss the implications of this effect for quantum behavior of solitons in quasicondensed dilute gases at finite temperature.

  14. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  15. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  16. The Weighted Gray Situation Decision-Making Model Based on the Gray Theory of Decision-Making and Its Application -- An Example of Forest Health Park of Hainan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuailin; Bai, Zhiyong

    This paper analyses the complication of influence construction of eco-tourism park decision-making, through study on gray situation theory of decision making establishes an new model of decision-making, -- weighted gray situation decision-making model based on the gray situation theory of decision-making, and on the empirical analysis, it gives a new method of gray situation theory used in decision-making of construction.

  17. Can a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) generalize call classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Amanda L; de Freitas, Mafalda; Wu, Gi-Mick; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-11-01

    Past researchers have found that gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are capable of classifying vocal signals by call type using a trained set, but were unable to generalize to novel exemplars (Shapiro, Slater, & Janik, 2004). Given the importance of auditory categorization in communication, it would be surprising if the animals were unable to generalize acoustically similar calls into classes. Here, we trained a juvenile gray seal to discriminate novel calls into 2 classes, "growls" and "moans," by vocally matching call types (i.e., the seal moaned when played a moan and growled when played a growl). Our method differed from the previous study as we trained the animal using a comparatively large set of exemplars with standardized durations, consisting of both the seal's own calls and those of 2 other seals. The seal successfully discriminated growls and moans for both her own (94% correct choices) and the other seals' (87% correct choices) calls. We used a generalized linear model (GLM) and found that the seal's performance significantly improved across test sessions, and that accuracy was higher during the first presentation of a sound from her own repertoire but decreased after multiple exposures. This pattern was not found for calls from unknown seals. Factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) identified acoustic parameters that could be used to discriminate between call types and individuals. Growls and moans differed in noise, duration and frequency parameters, whereas individuals differed only in frequency. These data suggest that the seal could have gained information about both call type and caller identity using frequency cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  19. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven

    2015-06-01

    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  20. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Fornito, Alex; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) using voxel-based morphometry studies to help clarify the structural abnormalities underpinning this condition. A systematic review was conducted for voxel-based morphometry studies of patients with BD. Meta-analyses of gray matter differences between BD and control subjects were undertaken using "signed differential mapping," a novel method that, in contrast to previously used techniques, allows inclusion of negative findings and ensures that single studies do not exert undue influence on the results. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were used to examine the effect of moderator variables on gray matter abnormalities. A total of 21 studies comparing gray matter volumes of 660 BD patients and 770 healthy control subjects were included. Gray matter reduction in left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right fronto-insular cortex was associated with BD. Fronto-insular cortex abnormality was not evident in early phases of the illness. In chronic patients, longer duration of illness was associated with increased gray matter in a cluster that included basal ganglia, subgenual ACC, and amygdala. Lithium treatment was associated with enlargement of ACC gray matter volumes, which overlapped with the region where gray matter was reduced in BD. The most robust gray matter reductions in BD occur in anterior limbic regions, which may be related to the executive control and emotional processing abnormalities seen in this patient population. Clinical factors such as illness duration and lithium treatment also impact on case-control comparisons of gray matter volume. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal voxel size for measuring global gray and white matter proton metabolite concentrations using chemical shift imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Adalsteinsson, E; Pfefferbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    Quantification of gray and white matter levels of spectroscopically visible metabolites can provide important insights into brain development and pathological conditions. Chemical shift imaging offers a gain in efficiency for estimation of global gray and white matter metabolite concentrations co...

  2. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker from...

  3. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this... duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  4. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address...

  5. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western...-AX57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy requirements...

  6. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  7. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K.W.; Leslie, David M.; Payton, M.E.; Puckette, William L.; Hensley, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to climinate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

  8. Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Yang, Y; Narr, K L; Toga, A W

    2011-02-01

    Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder (APD) and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance/alcohol-dependent controls, axis I/II psychiatric controls and individuals with APD. An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior were assessed. APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for APD and as a partial explanation for sex differences in APD.

  9. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  10. Electroretinography in the western gray kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Hamor, Ralph E; Narfström, Kristina; Breaux, Carrie B

    2010-09-01

    To perform electroretinography on normal anesthetized western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). Animals studied  Six captive western gray kangaroos. The kangaroos were anesthetized using a combination of ketamine and medetomidine via a remote drug delivery system, then were maintained on isoflurane after endotracheal intubation and reversal of the medetomidine with atipamazole. After a minimum of 20 min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using a single flash protocol at three light intensities: 10 mcd.s/m(2), 3000 mcd.s/m(2), 10 000 mcd.s/m(2). At 10 mcd.s/m(2) the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 102.0 μV (SD ± 41.3 and 95% CI 68.9-135.1) and 78.4 ms (SD ± 8.3 and 95% CI 71.8-85.0). At 3000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 69.9 μV (SD ± 20.5 and 95% CI 53.5-86.3) and 17.6 ms (SD ± 1.5 and 95% CI 16.4-18.8) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 175.4 μV (SD ± 35.9 and 95% CI 146.7-204.1) and 74.1 ms (SD ± 3.5 and 95% CI 71.2-76.9). At 10 000 mcd.s/m(2) the mean a-wave amplitude and implicit time was 89.1 μV (SD ± 27.1 and 95% CI 67.5-110.8) and 16.8 ms (SD ± 1.0 and 95% CI 16.0-17.0) and the mean b-wave amplitude and implicit time was 203.7 μV (SD ± 41.4 and 95% CI 170.6-236.8) and 75.4 ms (SD ± 3.3 and 95% CI 72.8-78.1). Electroretinography outside of the typical clinical setting is feasible using a portable ERG system and allows for quick analysis of retinal function in exotic species.

  11. Gray hair and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like dermatitis: an unexpected presentation of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Buket; Egritas, Odul

    2011-10-01

    Presentation of cystic fibrosis (CF) with an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin rash, anemia, and hypoproteinemia without pulmonary disease is rarely reported before. We describe an 11-month-old boy with rash and edema as the presenting signs of cystic fibrosis. The interesting additional finding in our patient was the graying hair after 3 months of age. A reversal of the gray hair was observed by pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. In conclusion, acrodermatitis-like eruption and hypoproteinemia can be a presenting sign of CF. Graying hair has not been noticed so far as a sign of CF in these patients.

  12. Postcranial diversity and recent ecomorphic impoverishment of North American gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Meachen, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and palaeontology have begun to unravel the complex evolutionary history of the gray wolf, Canis lupus Still, much of their phenotypic variation across time and space remains to be documented. We examined the limb morphology of the fossil and modern North American gray wolves from the late Quaternary (Canis lupus nubilus) and Mexican wolves (C. l. baileyi) from much of the USA is an unprecedented loss of postcranial diversity through removal of short-legged forms. Conservation of these wolves is thus critical to restoration of the ecophenotypic diversity and evolutionary potential of gray wolves in North America. © 2018 The Author(s).

  13. Study on the Microstructure and Liquid Phase Formation in a Semisolid Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Davi Munhoz; Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Zoqui, Eugenio José

    2017-10-01

    The development of high-quality semisolid raw materials requires an understanding of the phase transformations that occur as the material is heated up to the semisolid state, i.e., its melting behavior. The microstructure of the material plays a very important role during semisolid processing as it determines the flow behavior of the material when it is formed, making a thorough understanding of the microstructural evolution essential. In this study, the phase transformations and microstructural evolution in Fe2.5C1.5Si gray cast iron specially designed for thixoforming processes as it was heated to the semisolid state were observed using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. At room temperature, the alloy has a matrix of pearlite and ferrite with fine interdendritic type D flake graphite. During heating, the main transformations observed were graphite precipitation inside the grains and at the austenite grain boundaries; graphite flakes and graphite precipitates growing and becoming coarser with the increasing temperature; and the beginning of melting at around 1413 K to 1423 K (1140 °C to 1150 °C). Melting begins with the eutectic phase ( i.e., the carbon-rich phase) and continues with the primary phase (primary austenite), which is consumed as the temperature increases. Melting of the eutectic phase composed by coarsened interdendritic graphite flakes produced a semi-continuous liquid network homogeneously surrounding and wetting the dendrites of the solid phase, causing grains to detach from each other and producing the intended solid globules immersed in liquid.

  14. Adrift in the Gray Zone: IRB Perspectives on Research in the Learning Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Kelley, Maureen; Cho, Mildred K; Kraft, Stephanie Alessi; James, Cyan; Constantine, Melissa; Meyer, Adrienne N; Diekema, Douglas; Capron, Alexander M; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Magnus, David

    2016-01-01

    Human subjects protection in healthcare contexts rests on the premise that a principled boundary distinguishes clinical research and clinical practice. However, growing use of evidence-based clinical practices by health systems makes it increasingly difficult to disentangle research from a wide range of clinical activities that are sometimes called "research on medical practice" (ROMP), including quality improvement activities and comparative effectiveness research. The recent growth of ROMP activities has created an ethical and regulatory gray zone with significant implications for the oversight of human subjects research. We conducted six semi-structured, open-ended focus group discussions with IRB members to understand their experiences and perspectives on ethical oversight of ROMP, including randomization of patients to standard treatments. Our study revealed that IRB members are unclear or divided on the central questions at stake in the current policy debate over ethical oversight of ROMP: IRB members struggle to make a clear distinction between clinical research and medical practice improvement, lack consensus on when ROMP requires IRB review and oversight, and are uncertain about what constitutes incremental risk when patients are randomized to different treatments, any of which may be offered in usual care. They characterized the central challenge as a balancing act, between, on the one hand, making information fully transparent to patients and providing adequate oversight, and on the other hand, avoiding a chilling effect on the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship. Evidence-based guidance that supports IRB members in providing adequate and effective oversight of ROMP without impeding the research process or harming the physician-patient relationship is necessary to realize the full benefits of the learning health system.

  15. Experienced Gray Wolf Optimization Through Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, E; Zawbaa, Hossam M; Grosan, Crina

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, a variant of gray wolf optimization (GWO) that uses reinforcement learning principles combined with neural networks to enhance the performance is proposed. The aim is to overcome, by reinforced learning, the common challenge of setting the right parameters for the algorithm. In GWO, a single parameter is used to control the exploration/exploitation rate, which influences the performance of the algorithm. Rather than using a global way to change this parameter for all the agents, we use reinforcement learning to set it on an individual basis. The adaptation of the exploration rate for each agent depends on the agent's own experience and the current terrain of the search space. In order to achieve this, experience repository is built based on the neural network to map a set of agents' states to a set of corresponding actions that specifically influence the exploration rate. The experience repository is updated by all the search agents to reflect experience and to enhance the future actions continuously. The resulted algorithm is called experienced GWO (EGWO) and its performance is assessed on solving feature selection problems and on finding optimal weights for neural networks algorithm. We use a set of performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency of the method. Results over various data sets demonstrate an advance of the EGWO over the original GWO and over other metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

  16. Antiaversive Effects of Cannabinoids: Is the Periaqueductal Gray Involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Guimarães

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids play an important role in activity-dependent changes in synaptic activity and can interfere in several brain functions, including responses to aversive stimuli. The regions responsible for their effects, however, are still unclear. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG, a midbrain structure closely involved in responses related to aversive states. Accordingly, exposure to stressful stimuli increases endocannabinoid (eCB levels in the PAG, and local administration of CB1 agonists or drugs that facilitate eCB-mediated neurotransmission produces antinociceptive and antiaversive effects. To investigate if these drugs would also interfere in animal models that are sensitive to anxiolytic drugs, we verified the responses to intra-PAG injection of CB1 agonists in rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze, the Vogel punished licking test, or contextual aversive conditioning model. The drugs induced anxiolytic-like effects in all tests. The same was observed with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and with cannabidiol, a nonpsychotomimetic phytocannabinoid that produces anxiolytic-like effects after systemic administration in humans and laboratory animals. These results, therefore, suggest that the PAG could be an important site for the antiaversive effects of cannabinoids.

  17. Antiaversive effects of cannabinoids: is the periaqueductal gray involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F A; Aguiar, D C; Campos, A C; Lisboa, S F; Terzian, A L; Resstel, L B; Guimarães, F S

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoids play an important role in activity-dependent changes in synaptic activity and can interfere in several brain functions, including responses to aversive stimuli. The regions responsible for their effects, however, are still unclear. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system and are present in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain structure closely involved in responses related to aversive states. Accordingly, exposure to stressful stimuli increases endocannabinoid (eCB) levels in the PAG, and local administration of CB1 agonists or drugs that facilitate eCB-mediated neurotransmission produces antinociceptive and antiaversive effects. To investigate if these drugs would also interfere in animal models that are sensitive to anxiolytic drugs, we verified the responses to intra-PAG injection of CB1 agonists in rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze, the Vogel punished licking test, or contextual aversive conditioning model. The drugs induced anxiolytic-like effects in all tests. The same was observed with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine and with cannabidiol, a nonpsychotomimetic phytocannabinoid that produces anxiolytic-like effects after systemic administration in humans and laboratory animals. These results, therefore, suggest that the PAG could be an important site for the antiaversive effects of cannabinoids.

  18. Gray matter volume changes following reading intervention in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Eden, Guinevere F

    2011-08-01

    Studies in children and adults with the reading disability developmental dyslexia have shown behavioral improvements after reading intervention. In another line of work, it has been shown that intensive training in a variety of cognitive and sensorimotor skills can result in changes in gray matter volume (GMV). This study examined changes in GMV following intensive reading intervention in children with dyslexia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Eleven dyslexic children underwent an eight week training focused on mental imagery, articulation and tracing of letters, groups of letters and words, which resulted in significant gains in reading skills. This was followed by an eight week null period (control) where no intervention was administered and no further significant gains in reading were observed. Structural scans were obtained before the intervention, after the intervention and after the null period. GMV increases between the first two time points were found in the left anterior fusiform gyrus/hippocampus, left precuneus, right hippocampus and right anterior cerebellum. However these areas did not change between time points two and three (control period), suggesting that the changes were specific to the intervention period. These results demonstrate for the first time that (1) training-induced changes in GMV can be observed in a pediatric sample and (2) reading improvements induced by intervention are accompanied by GMV changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optional strategies for reduced metabolism in gray mouse lemurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, J.; Ganzhorn, J. U.

    2009-06-01

    Among the order of primates, torpor has been described only for the small Malagasy cheirogaleids Microcebus and Cheirogaleus. The nocturnal, gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (approx. 60 g), is capable of entering into and spontaneously arousing from apparently daily torpor during the dry season in response to reduced temperatures and low food and water sources. Mark-recapture studies indicated that this primate species might also hibernate for several weeks, although physiological evidence is lacking. In the present study, we investigated patterns of body temperature in two free-ranging M. murinus during the austral winter using temperature-sensitive data loggers implanted subdermally. One lemur hibernated and remained inactive for 4 weeks. During this time, body temperature followed the ambient temperature passively with a minimum body temperature of 11.5°C, interrupted by irregular arousals to normothermic levels. Under the same conditions, the second individual displayed only short bouts of torpor in the early morning hours but maintained stable normothermic body temperatures throughout its nocturnal activity. Reduction of body temperature was less pronounced in the mouse lemur that utilized short bouts of torpor with a minimum value of 27°C. Despite the small sample size, our findings provide the first physiological confirmation that free-ranging individuals of M. murinus from the humid evergreen littoral rain forest have the option to utilize short torpor bouts or hibernation under the same conditions as two alternative energy-conserving physiological solutions to environmental constraints.

  20. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  1. Reduced gray to white matter tissue intensity contrast in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies revealed changes of brain volume or density, cortical thickness and fibre integrity in schizophrenia, the effect of tissue alterations on the contrast properties of neural structures has so far remained mostly unexplored. METHODS: Whole brain high-resolution MRI at 3 Tesla was used to investigate tissue contrast and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients showed significantly decreased gray to white matter contrast in large portions throughout the cortical mantle with preponderance in inferior, middle, superior and medial temporal areas as well as in lateral and medial frontal regions. The extent of these intensity contrast changes exceeded the extent of cortical thinning. Further, contrast changes remained significant after controlling for cortical thickness measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly emphasize the presence of schizophrenia related brain tissue changes that alter the imaging properties of brain structures. Intensity contrast measurements might not only serve as a highly sensitive metric but also as a potential indicator of a distinct pathological process that might be independent from volume or thickness alterations.

  2. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Leonora J; Klop, Esther-Marije; Broman, Jonas; Zhang, Mengliang; Holstege, Gert

    2004-04-12

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on strong input from more rostrally located limbic structures, as well as from afferent input from the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Mouton and Holstege (2000, J Comp Neurol 428:389-410) showed that there exist at least five different groups of spino-PAG neurons, each of which is thought to subserve a specific function. The lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in the upper cervical cord is not among these five groups. The LCN relays information from hair receptors and noxious information and projects strongly to the contralateral ventroposterior and posterior regions of thalamus and to intermediate and deep tectal layers. The question is whether the LCN also projects to the PAG. The present study in cat, using retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques, showed that neurons located in the lateral two-thirds of the LCN send fibers to the lateral part of the PAG, predominantly at rostrocaudal levels A0.6-P0.2. This part of the PAG is known to be involved in flight behavior. A concept is put forward according to which the LCN-PAG pathway alerts the animal about the presence of cutaneous stimuli that might represent danger, necessitating flight. J. Comp. Neurol. 471:434-445, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The periaqueductal gray controls brainstem emotional motor systems including respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Respiration is a motor system essential for the survival of the individual and of the species. Because of its vital significance, studies on respiration often assume that breathing takes place independent of other motor systems. However, motor systems generating vocalization, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, as well as parturition, ejaculation, and defecation encompass abdominal pressure control, which involves changes in the respiratory pattern. The mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) controls all these motor systems. It determines the level setting of the whole body by means of its very strong projections to the ventromedial medullary tegmentum, but it also controls the cell groups that generate vocalization, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, as well as respiration. For this control, the PAG maintains very strong connections with the nucleus retroambiguus, which enables it to control abdominal and intrathoracic pressure. In this same context, the PAG also runs the pelvic organs, bladder, uterus, prostate, seminal vesicles, and the distal colon and rectum via its projections to the pelvic organ stimulating center and the pelvic floor stimulating center. These cell groups, via long descending projections, have direct control of the parasympathetic motoneurons in the sacral cord as well as of the somatic motoneurons in the nucleus of Onuf, innervating the pelvic floor. Respiration, therefore, is not a motor system that functions by itself, but is strongly regulated by the same systems that also control the other motor output systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-02-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter-gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. © 2016 Fan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  6. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01). Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  7. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Obtaining Martensitic Structures during Thixoforming of Hypoeutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bertolino Ragazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of parameters such as liquid fraction, holding time, and cooling rate during thixoforming can help control the final microstructure of the thixoformed part, thus improving its mechanical properties. This study intended to investigate conditions required to obtain martensite in hypoeutectic gray cast iron at 3.1% CE (carbon equivalent deformed in the semisolid state. Samples heated up to 1130, 1135, and 1145°C (liquid fractions of 10, 30, and 45% were compressed into platens without any holding time (0 s. If a sample presented a martensitic structure for 0 s holding time, new samples were retested at the same temperature for 30, 60, and 90 s holding times. The die casting process was simulated by allowing the platens to become locked after hot compression. Samples that cooled in the locked platens were submitted to higher cooling rates than samples that cooled with the platens open and presented martensite instead of the conventional ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the factor that had the greatest influence on the formation of martensite was the cooling rate rather than stress. The thixoforming process presented good morphological stability, which is highly desirable for industrial applications.

  9. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  10. Effect of Trace Elements (Boron and Lead) on the Properties of Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankamma, Kandula

    2014-04-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to correlate the "Effect of trace elements (B and Pb) on the tensile strength, hardness and microstructure of gray cast iron". These elements have a significant effect on the properties and microstructure of gray cast iron. These elements are deliberately added to study their effect on properties and microstructure. Boron up to 0.02 % in gray cast iron showed an improvement in tensile strength and hardness values. While beyond this amount it shows a decreasing trend, due to the formation of type B and type D graphitic structure. Lead in gray cast iron shows a decreasing trend in tensile strength and hardness values, even if present in trace amount, due to the formation of spiky or mesh type graphite.

  11. [Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston and Best, 1942 (Acanthocephala) in Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus entropia Gray, 1846 (Cetacea: Delphinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, L; Puga, S

    1990-01-01

    The finding of Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston and Best 1942, as a parasite of Cephalorhynchus eutropia Gray, 1846, is reported. This constitutes the first record of this acanthocephala in a new host, as well a new geographic distribution.

  12. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  13. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANNEALED AND GRAY CAST IRON WORKSHOP AT GAG “MZGG”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vershinin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of moulding system DISA 230F (Denmark are given. It is shown that enterprise gets economic effect from reduction of net cost of 1 tone casting of annealed and gray cast iron.

  14. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  15. Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tovi M. Anderson; Bridgett M. vonHoldt; Sophie I. Candille; Marco Musiani; Claudia Greco; Daniel R. Stahler; Douglas W. Smith; Badri Padhukasahasram; Ettore Randi; Jennifer A. Leonard; Carlos D. Bustamante; Elaine A. Ostrander; Hua Tang; Robert K. Wayne; Gregory S. Barsh

    2009-01-01

    ... signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans , and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.

  16. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic +

  17. Thermal Microstructural Multiscale Simulation of Solidification and Eutectoid Transformation of Hypereutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Alejandro; Celentano, Diego J.; Gunasegaram, Dayalan R.; Deeva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Although the gray cast iron solidification process has been the subject of several modeling studies, almost all available models appear to deal with only the more widely used hypoeutectic compositions. Models related to hypereutectic gray iron compositions with lamellar (or flake) graphite, and in particular for the proeutectic and eutectoid zones, are hard to find in the open literature. Hence, in the present work, a thermal microstructural multiscale model is proposed to describe the solidification and eutectoid transformation of a slightly hypereutectic composition leading to lamellar graphite gray iron morphology. The main predictions were: (a) temperature evolutions; (b) fractions of graphite, ferrite, and pearlite; (c) density; and (d) size of ferrite, pearlite, and gray eutectic grains; (e) average interlamellar graphite spacing; and (f) its thickness. The predicted cooling curves and fractions for castings with two different compositions and two different pouring temperatures were validated using experimental data. The differences between this model and existing models for hypoeutectic compositions are discussed.

  18. Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop: Improving Access to Foreign Gray Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop was the acquisition of and access to foreign (non-U.S.) gray literature. Individual presentations addressed general topics related to the value and scope of gray literature, specialized and foreign gray-literature sources, intellectual property issues, and U.S. Federal Agency activities. Additional topics focused on electronic access and evaluation techniques and the current and potential uses of networking technology. The workshop papers are presented in their entirety or in abstract or outline form. Appendices include a listing of databases that include foreign gray literature, a bibliography, and a report on U.S.-Japan cooperation in the use of scientific and technical information.

  19. Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special Operations in Phases 0-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    construct is best suited for these types of engagement campaigns occurring in the gray zone of international competition . The following recommendations...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Special Operations Command and Control in Special Warfare...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Leading in the Gray Zone: Command and Control of Special Operations in Phases 0-1 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. Cortical gray matter changes in primary blepharospasm: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Di Giorgio, Annabella; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Popolizio, Teresa; Macerollo, Antonella; Livrea, Paolo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Defazio, Giovanni

    2011-08-15

    Previous voxel-based morphometry studies of patients with primary blepharospasm documented gray matter volumetric differences of the striatum, cerebellum, thalamus, and parietal lobe areas. However, these results were inconsistent across studies, which recruited relatively small samples and did not always provide detailed clinical information on patients with blepharospasm. The objective of this study was to analyze whole-brain gray matter volume in a larger sample of patients with blepharospasm and to expand on previous works by evaluating whether clinical features of blepharospasm correlate to whole-brain gray matter changes. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on 25 patients with primary adult-onset blepharospasm and 24 healthy subjects (controls) matched for age, sex, and handedness. Clinical data were collected through a standardized interview. Severity of blepharospasm was measured using the Jankovic Rating Scale. Patients with blepharospasm had greater gray matter volume than controls in the right middle frontal gyrus, whereas patients with blepharospasm had smaller gray matter volume than controls in the left postcentral gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Spearman correlation analysis with Bonferroni correction failed to show significant correlations between gray matter volume and the explored clinical variables, comprising age at onset, disease duration, blepharospasm severity, presence of an effective geste antagoniste, and dose and duration of botulinum toxin treatment. Patients with blepharospasm exhibited gray matter volume differences exclusively in cortical regions highly relevant to sensory processing and cognitive modulation of motor behavior. Gray matter changes in the primary sensory cortex may represent a common trait of primary dystonias, including blepharospasm. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. TLR4 Methylation Moderates the Relationship Between Alcohol Use Severity and Gray Matter Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Hollis C; Thayer, Rachel E; Hagerty, Sarah L; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with decreased gray matter, and neuroinflammation is one mechanism through which alcohol may confer such damage, given that heavy alcohol use may promote neural damage via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signaling cascades. We previously demonstrated that TLR4 is differentially methylated in AUD compared with control subjects, and the present study aims to extend this work by examining whether TLR4 methylation moderates the relationship between alcohol use and gray matter. We examined TLR4 methylation and gray matter thickness in a large sample (N = 707; 441 males) of adults (ages 18-56) reporting a range of AUD severity (mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score = 13.18; SD = 8.02). We used a series of ordinary least squares multiple regression equations to regress gray matter in four bilateral brain regions (precuneus, lateral orbitofrontal, inferior parietal, and superior temporal) on alcohol use, TLR4 methylation, and their interaction, controlling for demographic, psychological, and other substance use variables. After we corrected for multiple tests, a significant Alcohol × TLR4 Methylation interaction emerged in the equations modeling left precuneus and right inferior parietal gray matter. Follow-up analyses examining the nature of these interactions demonstrated a significant negative association between alcohol and precuneus and inferior parietal gray matter in individuals with low TLR4 methylation, but no relationship between alcohol and gray matter in the high methylation group. These findings suggest that TLR4 methylation may be protective against the damage conferred by alcohol on precuneus and inferior parietal gray matter, thereby implicating TLR4 for further investigation as a possible AUD treatment target.

  2. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    OpenAIRE

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Lora R. Ballweber; Moses, Sara K.; Craig A. Stricker; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signat...

  3. Migratory behavior of eastern North Pacific gray whales tracked using a hydrophone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzo, Regina A; Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Weller, David W; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2017-01-01

    Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales behave and use sound while migrating. We detected, localized, and tracked whales for one full migration season, a first for gray whales. We verified and localized 10,644 gray whale M3 calls and grouped them into 280 tracks. Results confirm that gray whales are acoustically active while migrating and their swimming and acoustic behavior changes on daily and seasonal time scales. The seasonal timing of the calls verifies the gray whale migration timing determined using other methods such as counts conducted by visual observers. The total number of calls and the percentage of calls that were part of a track changed significantly over both seasonal and daily time scales. An average calling rate of 5.7 calls/whale/day was observed, which is significantly greater than previously reported migration calling rates. We measured a mean speed of 1.6 m/s and quantified heading, direction, and water depth where tracks were located. Mean speed and water depth remained constant between night and day, but these quantities had greater variation at night. Gray whales produce M3 calls with a root mean square source level of 156.9 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. Quantities describing call characteristics were variable and dependent on site-specific propagation characteristics.

  4. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Mate, Bruce R.; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu.; Bradford, Amanda L.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Tsidulko, Grigory A.; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V.; Irvine, Ladd M.

    2015-01-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to S...

  5. Migratory behavior of eastern North Pacific gray whales tracked using a hydrophone array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A Guazzo

    Full Text Available Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales behave and use sound while migrating. We detected, localized, and tracked whales for one full migration season, a first for gray whales. We verified and localized 10,644 gray whale M3 calls and grouped them into 280 tracks. Results confirm that gray whales are acoustically active while migrating and their swimming and acoustic behavior changes on daily and seasonal time scales. The seasonal timing of the calls verifies the gray whale migration timing determined using other methods such as counts conducted by visual observers. The total number of calls and the percentage of calls that were part of a track changed significantly over both seasonal and daily time scales. An average calling rate of 5.7 calls/whale/day was observed, which is significantly greater than previously reported migration calling rates. We measured a mean speed of 1.6 m/s and quantified heading, direction, and water depth where tracks were located. Mean speed and water depth remained constant between night and day, but these quantities had greater variation at night. Gray whales produce M3 calls with a root mean square source level of 156.9 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. Quantities describing call characteristics were variable and dependent on site-specific propagation characteristics.

  6. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pmatter in the anterior cingulate cortex (p=.04). Poor executive shifting attention was associated with reduced gray matter in the right superior temporal cortex (p=.04) and bilateral thalami (p=.05). Poorer executive divided attention was associated with reduced gray matter in the occipital (p=.001), posterior cingulate (p=.02), and left temporal (p=.01) cortices; and increased gray matter in the anterior cingulate cortex (p=.001). Disturbances in regional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  7. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-04-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  9. (GrOW) Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    How many applications will be shortlisted at the end of the first stage? GrOW envisages that up to 4 selected teams will be asked to submit a full research proposal for review and funding consideration. How is the review process conducted? Upon receiving complete applications, a review process begins by the GrOW team, ...

  10. Cannabis, Cigarettes, and Their Co-Occurring Use: Disentangling Differences in Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Rao, Hengyi; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques are powerful tools for examining the effects of drug use on the brain. The nicotine and cannabis literature has demonstrated differences between nicotine cigarette smokers and cannabis users compared to controls in brain structure; however, less is known about the effects of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry to examine gray matter volume differences between four groups: (1) cannabis-dependent individuals who do not smoke tobacco (Cs); (2) cannabis-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (CTs); (3) cannabis-naïve, nicotine-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (Ts); and (4) healthy controls (HCs). We also explored associations between gray matter volume and measures of cannabis and tobacco use. Results: A significant group effect was observed in the left putamen, thalamus, right precentral gyrus, and left cerebellum. Compared to HCs, the Cs, CTs, and Ts exhibited larger gray matter volumes in the left putamen. Cs also had larger gray matter volume than HCs in the right precentral gyrus. Cs and CTs exhibited smaller gray matter volume than HCs in the thalamus, and CTs and Ts had smaller left cerebellar gray matter volume than HCs. Conclusions: This study extends previous research that independently examined the effects of cannabis or tobacco use on brain structure by including an examination of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use, and provides evidence that cannabis and tobacco exposure are associated with alterations in brain regions associated with addiction. PMID:26045474

  11. Gray economy in Serbia in light of tendencies in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gray economy presents the sum of all economic activities over which the modern state has no control, that is, which are on the edge of the law in the so-called grey zone. It is also the part of the economy not covered by official statistics. Therefore, the gray economy is not subject to taxation and does not contribute to the gross domestic product (GDP of the country. The aim of this paper is to present a detailed analysis of the causes and effects of this phenomenon. The paper also emphasizes the great importance of its suppression and control in modern economies. Illegal and partially legal forms of the gray economy cause tax evasion and avoiding the social security contribution payment, disrespect of valid labor standards, avoiding legal business as well as the emergence of market and structural distortions. In this paper, the problem of assessment of the gray economy is viewed through the direct and indirect measurement methods. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages, the causes of this phenomenon are set out in detail. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of ten year data on the gray economy in European countries, with concrete measures to deal with this phenomenon. The unfavorable situation of Serbian gray economy, which is worse than the European and regional average, is presented at the end of this paper.

  12. Gray whale distribution relative to benthic invertebrate biomass and abundance: Northeastern Chukchi Sea 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Amelia A.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Schonberg, Susan V.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Clarke, Janet T.

    2017-10-01

    The shallow continental shelf waters of the Bering and Chukchi seas are the northernmost foraging grounds of North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Benthic amphipods are considered the primary prey of gray whales in these waters, although no comprehensive quantitative analysis has been performed to support this assumption. Gray whale relative abundance, distribution, and behavior in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (69°-72°N, 155-169°W) were documented during aerial surveys in June-October 2009-2012. Concurrently, vessel-based benthic infaunal sampling was conducted in the area in July-August 2009-10, September 2011, and August 2012. Gray whales were seen in the study area each month that surveys were conducted, with the majority of whales feeding. Statistical analyses confirm that the highest densities of feeding gray whales were associated with high benthic amphipod abundance, primarily within 70 km of shore from Point Barrow to Icy Cape, in water whales were not seen in 40-km×40-km cells containing benthic sampling stations with 85 m-2 or fewer amphipods. Continuing broad-scale aerial surveys in the Chukchi Sea and prey sampling near feeding gray whales will be an important means to monitor and document ongoing and predicted ecosystem changes.

  13. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elizabeth A; Boness, Daryl J; Insley, Stephen J

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.

  14. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  15. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and Hounsfield Unit (HU in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  16. Polygonum multiflorum root extract as a potential candidate for treatment of early graying hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Thang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been experiencely used as a drug to treat early graying hair phenomenon in Asian countries for a long time, there is limited study examined the real biological effects of PM on hair graying in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM root extract (PM-RE on melanin synthesis in human melanoma SKMEL-28 cells and embryos/larvae of wild-type strain AB zebrafish. We also preliminary revealed the molecular mechanism of early hair graying phenomenon in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that PM-RE significantly induced melanin synthesis in melanin-producing SKMEL-28 melanoma cells and also in zebrafish embryos/larvae at 4-day postfertilization through activation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase-signaling pathway. We also investigated the differences in genotype between graying hair follicle and black hair follicle of young peoples and found that early hair graying phenomenon may be related to downregulation of MC1R/MITF/tyrosinase pathway. Taken together, we suggested that PM-RE at safe doses could be used as a potential agent for the treatment of early hair graying and other loss pigmentation-related diseases.

  17. Fast retrieval of calcification from sequential intravascular ultrasound gray-scale images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Bing-Ru, Liu

    2016-08-12

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization is invaluable for the computer-aided diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiac vessel diseases. Although the analysis of raw backscattered signals allows more accurate plaque characterization than gray-scale images, its applications are limited due to its nature of electrocardiogram-gated acquisition. Images acquired by IVUS devices that do not allow the acquisition of raw signals cannot be characterized. To address these limitations, we developed a method for fast frame-by-frame retrieval and location of calcification according to the jump features of radial gray-level variation curves from sequential IVUS gray-scale images. The proposed method consists of three main steps: (1) radial gray-level variation curves are extracted from each filtered polar view, (2) sequential images are preliminarily queried according to the maximal slopes of radial gray-level variation curves, and finally, (3) key frames that include calcification are selected through checking the gray-level features of successive pixel columns in the preliminary results. Experimental results with clinically acquired in vivo data sets indicate key frames that include calcification can be retrieved with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and accuracy. Recognition results correlate well with manual characterization results obtained by experienced physicians and through virtual histology.

  18. Nesting ecology of waterbirds at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Montane wetlands provide valuable habitat for nesting waterfowl and other waterbirds in the western United States, but relatively little information is available about the nesting ecology of their waterbird communities. We describe the general nesting ecology of breeding waterbirds at a large, shallow montane wetland in southeast Idaho during 1997-2000. Habitats included upland grasslands and intermittently to semipermanently flooded wetland habitats. We located a total of 1207 nests of 23 bird species: eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), American wigeon (A. americana), green-winged teal (A. crecca), blue-winged teal (A. discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), northern pintail (A. acuta), redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), ruddy duck (Oxyuris jamaicensis), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), American coot (Fulica americana), Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida), American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus), Wilsons snipe (Gallinago delicta), Wilsons phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Most nests were initiated in May-early June and were terminated (hatched or destroyed) by the third week of June. Mean daily survival rate (DSR) for Canada goose nests was 0.954 0.005 (SE) (n = 127 nests), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 21%. Mean DSR for dabbling duck nests over all four years was 0.938 0.006 (n = 141), equivalent to Mayfield nest success of 11%. For all other species where we found >10 nests each year (eared grebe, redhead, canvasback, coot, sandhill crane, American avocet, and Wilsons snipe), >50% of nests found hatched at least one young. Success rates for geese, cranes, and ducks were lower than reported for Grays Lake during 1949-1951 and lower than most other wetlands in

  19. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  20. Pathology of Gray Wolf Shoulders: Lessons in Species and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Dennis; Becker, Julia; Reetz, Jennifer; Goodmann, Pat; Evans, Richard; Rubin, David; Tangredi, Basil; Widga, Christopher; Sackman, Jill; Martin, Terrence; Kohn, Luci; Smith, Gail

    2016-10-01

    We examined scapula glenoids (n = 14) and proximal articular humeri (n = 14) of seven gray wolves that were maintained in a sanctuary park setting. Immediately after death, observations were made visually in situ and by radiography. Further observations were made in a museum laboratory setting, prior to and following clearing of soft tissues. Selected dry bone specimens were evaluated using computed tomography. Significant cartilage erosion and osteoarthropathy were identified in all shoulder joints. No single evaluation method yielded maximal information. Plain film radiography revealed only more severe changes. Computed tomography yielded more detail and clarity than standard radiography. Direct examination of articular cartilage informed about joint soft tissue, and dry bone informed about externally visible bone pathology. These data provide a basis for biological, biomedical, ecological, and archaeological scientists to improve retrospective interpretations of bone lesions. They further support developing plausible differential diagnoses for features of ancient and modern animal bones. We noted a dog-like capacity for wolf longevity in a non-free-roaming environment. However, aged wolves' life spans far exceeded those of similar-sized domestic dogs and breeds, suggesting the possibility of an important species difference that should be explored. We suggest also a hypothesis that the driving force for joint pathology in sheltered non-domestic species may relate significantly to achieving the longevity that is possible biologically, but is uncommon in the wild because of differential stochastic influences. Anat Rec, 299:1338-1347, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Influence of cooling rates and addition of Equex pasta on cooled and frozen-thawed semen of generic gray (Canis lupus) and Mexican gray wolves (C. l. baileyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindl, C; Asa, C S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2006-10-01

    A current priority for the preservation of the endangered Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is the development of a sperm-based genome resource bank for subsequent use in artificial insemination. To optimize the quality of cryopreserved sperm, the procedures involved in processing semen before and during freezing need to be improved. The aim of this study were to examine the effects of: (i) different cooling periods before freezing and (ii) addition of Equex pasta (Minitüb, Tübingen, Germany) on the characteristics of sperm from the generic gray wolf and the Mexican gray wolf after cooling and cryopreservation. For Mexican wolf sperm, cooling for 0.5 and 1.0 h had a less detrimental effect on cell morphology than cooling for 2.5 h, whereas the slower cooling rate (2.5 h) had a less detrimental effect on functional parameters and seemed to cause less damage to plasma membrane and acrosome integrity than 0.5 and 1.0 h. For the generic gray wolf, cooling semen for 2.5 h had less detrimental effect on plasma membrane integrity and viability; together with the 0.5 h cooling time, it yielded the highest percentages of intact acrosomes. As previously shown in the domestic dog, Equex pasta had no beneficial effect on sperm characteristics in either wolf species.

  2. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  3. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  4. Method of all-optical frequency encoded decimal to binary and binary coded decimal, binary to gray, and gray to binary data conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Conversion of optical data from decimal to binary format is very important in optical computing and optical signal processing. There are many binary code systems to represent decimal numbers, the most common being the binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code system. There are a wide choice of BCD codes, one of which is a natural BCD having a weighted code of 8421, by means of which it is possible to represent a decimal number from 0 to 9 with a combination of 4bit binary digits. The reflected binary code, also known as the Gray code, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only 1bit. The Gray code is very important in digital optical communication as it is used to prevent spurious output from optical switches as well as to facilitate error correction in digital communications in an optical domain. Here in this communication, the author proposes an all-optical frequency encoded method of ``:decimal to binary, BCD,'' ``binary to gray,'' and ``gray to binary'' data conversion using the high-speed switching actions of semiconductor optical amplifiers. To convert decimal numbers to a binary form, a frequency encoding technique is adopted to represent two binary bits, 0 and 1. The frequency encoding technique offers advantages over conventional encoding techniques in terms of less probability of bit errors and greater reliability. Here the author has exploited the polarization switch made of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a property of nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in SOA for frequency conversion to develop the method of frequency encoded data conversion.

  5. Prefrontal gray matter and motivation for treatment in cocaine dependent individuals with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMoreno-Lopez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction treatment is a long-term goal and therefore prefrontal-striatal regions regulating goal-directed behaviour are to be associated with individual differences on treatment motivation. We aimed at examining the association between gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortices and striatum and readiness to change at treatment onset in cocaine users with and without personality disorders. Participants included 17 cocaine users without psychiatric comorbidities, 17 cocaine users with Cluster B disorders and 12 cocaine users with Cluster C disorders. They completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, which measures four stages of treatment change (precontemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance and overall readiness to change, and were scanned in a 3T MRI scanner. We defined three regions-of-interest (ROIs: the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (including medial orbitofrontal cortex and subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (i.e., superior medial frontal cortex and the neostriatum (caudate and putamen. We found that readiness to change correlated with different aspects of ventromedial prefrontal gray matter as a function of diagnosis. In cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, readiness to change positively correlated with gyrus rectus gray matter, whereas in cocaine users without comorbidities it negatively correlated with rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter. Moreover, maintenance scores positively correlated with dorsomedial prefrontal gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, but negatively correlated with this region in cocaine users with Cluster B and cocaine users without comorbidities. Maintenance scores also negatively correlated with dorsal striatum gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities. We conclude that the link between prefrontal-striatal gray matter and treatment motivation is modulated by co-existence of

  6. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  7. Coat color genotypes and risk and severity of melanoma in gray quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R B C; Rendahl, A K; Anderson, S M; Mickelson, J R; Sigler, D; Buchanan, B R; Coleman, R J; McCue, M E

    2013-01-01

    Both graying and melanoma formation in horses have recently been linked to a duplication in the STX17 gene. This duplication, as well as a mutation in the ASIP gene that increases MC1R pathway signaling, affects melanoma risk and severity in gray horses. To determine if melanoma susceptibility in gray Quarter Horses (QH) is lower than gray horses from other breeds because of decreased MC1R signaling resulting from a high incidence of the MC1R chestnut coat color allele in the QH population. A total of 335 gray QH with and without dermal melanomas. Blood or hair root samples were collected from all horses for DNA extraction and genotyping for STX17, ASIP, and MC1R genotypes. Age, sex, and external melanoma presence and grade were recorded. The effect of age and genotype on melanoma presence and severity was evaluated by candidate gene association. Melanoma prevalence (16%) and grade (0.35) in this QH cohort was lower than that reported in other breeds. Age was significantly associated with melanoma prevalence (P = 5.28 × 10(-11)) and severity (P = 2.2 × 10(-13)). No significant effect of MC1R genotype on melanoma prevalence or severity was identified. An effect of ASIP genotype on melanoma risk was not detected. Low STX17 homozygosity precluded evaluation of the gray allele effect. Melanoma prevalence and severity is lower in this population of gray QH than what is reported in other breeds. This could be because of the infrequent STX17 homozygosity, a mitigating effect of the MC1R mutation on ASIP potentiation of melanoma, other genes in the MC1R signaling pathway, or differences in breed genetic background. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish S; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Young, Susan E; Regner, Michael F; Raymond, Kristen M; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody L; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at pbrain cluster-level threshold. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation of outcomes, decision-making, reward, risk-taking, and rule

  9. Gray matter abnormalities in pediatric autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis with signed differential mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieke; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wenjing; Xiao, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Gao, Xin; Shah, Chandan; Li, Siyi; Tao, Bo; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su

    2017-08-01

    The gray matter abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging are inconsistent, especially in pediatric individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (age matter abnormalities in pediatric ASD individuals thereby exploring the potential effects of clinical and demographic characteristics of these gray matter changes. A systematic search was conducted to identify voxel-based morphometry studies in pediatric individuals with ASD. The effect-size signed differential mapping method was used to quantitatively estimate the regional gray matter abnormalities in pediatric ASD individuals. Meta-regression was used to examine the associations among age, gender, intelligence quotient, symptom severity and gray matter changes. Fifteen studies including 364 pediatric individuals with ASD (male = 282, age = 10.3 ± 4.4 years) and 377 healthy controls (male = 289, age = 10.5 ± 4.2 years) were included. Pediatric ASD individuals showed significant gray matter increases in the right angular gyrus, left superior and middle frontal gyrus, left precuneus, left inferior occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus, most of which involving the default mode network, and decreases in the left cerebellum and left postcentral gyrus. The meta-regression analysis showed that the repetitive behavior scores of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were positively associated with increased gray matter volumes in the right angular gyrus. Increased rather than decreased gray matter volume, especially involving the angular gyrus and prefrontal cortex may be the core pathophysiology in the early course of ASD.

  10. Orbitofrontal gray matter deficits as marker of Internet gaming disorder: converging evidence from a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Montag, Christian; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Trautner, Peter; Kendrick, Keith M; Markett, Sebastian; Becker, Benjamin

    2017-10-23

    Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in individuals with excessive Internet use. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of these studies, it remains unknown whether the observed brain structural deficits preceded the onset of excessive Internet use. Against this background, the present study combined a cross-sectional and longitudinal design to determine the consequences of excessive online video gaming. Forty-one subjects with a history of excessive Internet gaming and 78 gaming-naive subjects were enrolled in the present study. To determine effects of Internet gaming on brain structure, gaming-naive subjects were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of daily Internet gaming (training group) or a non-gaming condition (training control group). At study inclusion, excessive Internet gamers demonstrated lower right orbitofrontal gray matter volume compared with Internet gaming-naive subjects. Within the Internet gamers, a lower gray matter volume in this region was associated with higher online video gaming addiction severity. Longitudinal analysis revealed initial evidence that left orbitofrontal gray matter volume decreased during the training period in the training group as well as in the group of excessive gamers. Together, the present findings suggest an important role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the development of Internet addiction with a direct association between excessive engagement in online gaming and structural deficits in this brain region. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  12. In the Gray Zone in the Fragile X Gene: What are the Key Unanswered Clinical and Biological Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Hall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smaller expansions (41–54 CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene are termed "gray zone" alleles. Only recently has interest in these expansions increased due to reporting of phenotypes unique to gray zone carriers or similar to those seen in individuals with larger expansions. As minimal research has focused on gray zone expansions, this paper asks several questions related to this topic. These include the following: What is the definition of the gray zone? Is there a risk of developing neurological signs in these carriers? Are there secondary gene effects that impact gray zone alleles or a biologic advantage to carrying these repeats? How do we counsel patients with gray zone expansions? The answers to these questions will help to determine the significance of these expansions and provide needed information to the research community and clinicians.

  13. Age Estimation Based on Appearance of Gray Hair in Different Body Sites of Sri Lankan Autopsy Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Harshana Mahendra Kumara; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the scanty evidence on usefulness of information of appearance of gray hair for age estimation, this study was conducted to estimate age based on the appearance of gray hair on different body sites in a sample of autopsy cases in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Teaching Hospital-Kurunegala during 2011 to 2013. Based on the pattern of the presence of gray hair in different body sites, six stages of gray hair were computed. The analysis 1155 autopsy cases revealed strong, positive correlations between age and appearance of gray hair in head, mustache, beard, and pubic area among males and strong, positive correlations between age and the appearance of gray hair in head and pubic area among females (p hair for age estimation in the field of forensic science. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  15. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods...

  17. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is known about the history of Atlantic gray whales or their relationship to the extant Pacific population, the extirpation of the Atlantic population during historical times has been attributed to whaling. We used a combination of ancient and modern DNA, radiocarbon dating and predictive habitat modelling to better understand the distribution of gray whales during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that dispersal between the Pacific and Atlantic was climate dependent and occurred both during the Pleistocene prior to the last glacial period and the early Holocene immediately following the opening of the Bering Strait. Genetic diversity in the Atlantic declined over an extended interval that predates the period of intensive commercial whaling, indicating this decline may have been precipitated by Holocene climate or other ecological causes. These first genetic data for Atlantic gray whales, particularly when combined with predictive habitat models for the year 2100, suggest that two recent sightings of gray whales in the Atlantic may represent the beginning of the expansion of this species' habitat beyond its currently realized range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Controlling gray-level variation in contrast-enhanced digital mammography: design of a calibration procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunehomme, Fanny; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge L.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2003-06-01

    Ideally, the gray level changes in a Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography (CEDM) sequence reflect the uptake and wash-out of contrast medium in the breast. While insignificant in standard mammography, gray level variations with time caused both by patient and system related factors, have been observed in clinical CEDM sequences. We have acquired phantom image series on digital mammography systems using a Mo/Cu anode-filter combination and a tube voltage between 45 and 49 kVp, in order to derive a model for gray level change with time as a function of system parameters. The gray level variation exhibits a fair degree of inter-series repeatability, and strongly depends on the dose received by the detector and timing of the image acquisition series. Moreover, for tissue-equivalent compositions, the relative gray level change with respect to the first image does not depend on the composition. We designed a calibration procedure that can be used to compensate for the tiny system-dependent signal variation that has been observed. A global reduction of 80-93% of the variation has been demonstrated in sequences acquired on a breast shaped phantom. Local improvement is effective across the whole field of view. When imaging iodine inserts (0.5-2 mg/cm2 concentration), the calibration increases the constancy with time of iodine signal on subtracted sequences by a factor of 4 (median value).

  19. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gray matter changes following limb amputation with high and low intensities of phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Sandra; Feiler, Johanna; Dietrich, Caroline; Hofmann, Gunther O; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Limb amputation and chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) are both associated with neural alterations at all levels of the neuraxis. We investigated gray matter volume of 21 upper limb amputees and 14 healthy control subjects. Results demonstrate that amputation is associated with reduced gray matter in areas in the motor cortex representing the amputated limb. Additionally, patients show an increase in gray matter in brain regions that belong to the dorsal and ventral visual stream. We subdivided the patient group into patients with medium to high PLP (HPLP; N = 11) and those with slight PLP (SPLP; N = 10). HPLP patients showed reduced gray matter in brain areas involved in pain processing. SPLP patients showed a significant gray matter increase in regions of the visual stream. Results indicate that all patients may have an enhanced need for visual control to compensate the lack of sensory feedback of the missing limb. As we found these alterations primarily in the SPLP patient group, successful compensation may have an impact on PLP development. Therefore, we hypothesize that visual adaptation mechanisms may compensate for the lack of sensorimotor feedback and may therefore function as a protection mechanism against high PLP development.

  1. Gray matter atrophy in narcolepsy: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Wu, Chih-Ying; Lee, Meng; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-12-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on the use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in narcolepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies via the use of a meta-analysis of neuroimaging to identify concordant and specific structural deficits in patients with narcolepsy as compared with healthy subjects. We used PubMed to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and March 2014. The authors included all VBM research on narcolepsy and compared the findings of the studies by using gray matter volume (GMV) or gray matter concentration (GMC) to index differences in gray matter. Stereotactic data were extracted from 8 VBM studies of 149 narcoleptic patients and 162 control subjects. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique and found significant regional gray matter reduction in the bilateral hypothalamus, thalamus, globus pallidus, extending to nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left mid orbital and rectal gyri (BAs 10 and 11), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), and the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in patients with narcolepsy. The significant gray matter deficits in narcoleptic patients occurred in the bilateral hypothalamus and frontotemporal regions, which may be related to the emotional processing abnormalities and orexin/hypocretin pathway common among populations of patients with narcolepsy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Impairments of gray matter in MRI-negative epileptic patients with different seizure types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, W; Xu, Q; Yang, F; Chen, G H; Lin, Z X; Zhang, Q R; Xiao, J H; Lu, G M; Zhang, Z Q

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms. The three-dimensional high-resolution T1 structural MRI data was obtained for the voxel-based morphometry. Data of gray matter structure from four groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). An independent-sample t test was performed in order to compare gray matter volume of the three patient groups with controls respectively. According the results of ANOVA, impaired brain regions were selected as regions of interest in order to carry out correlation analysis between gray matter volume and disease duration. Results: ANOVA showed significant differences in gray matter structure of bilateral thalamus and frontal lobe between four groups (alphasim correction, P structure, especially in thalamus and frontal lobe. The impairments of thalamus and frontal lobe in patients with different seizure types are different with the progression of disease, which suggests that influences of different epilepsy seizures on the thalamo-cortical network are different.

  3. Microstructural Abnormalities Were Found in Brain Gray Matter from Patients with Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Qin, Bangyong; Song, Ganjun; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Song; Yu, Jin; Wu, Jianjiang; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Tijiang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Tian; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain, presented as myofascial trigger points (MTrPs)-related pain, is a common, chronic disease involving skeletal muscle, but its underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed that chronic pain can induce microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter. However, it remains unclear whether the brain gray matters of patients with chronic MTrPs-related pain undergo alteration. In this study, we employed the Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) technique, which is particularly sensitive to brain microstructural perturbation, to monitor the MTrPs-related microstructural alterations in brain gray matter of patients with chronic pain. Our results revealed that, in comparison with the healthy controls, patients with chronic myofascial pain exhibited microstructural abnormalities in the cerebral gray matter and these lesions were mainly distributed in the limbic system and the brain areas involved in the pain matrix. In addition, we showed that microstructural abnormalities in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) had a significant negative correlation with the course of disease and pain intensity. The results of this study demonstrated for the first time that there are microstructural abnormalities in the brain gray matter of patients with MTrPs-related chronic pain. Our findings may provide new insights into the future development of appropriate therapeutic strategies to this disease. PMID:28066193

  4. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G.; Nakamura, Motoaki; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J.; Newell, Dominick T.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS) test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. Hierarchical regression indicated that Trails B response time specifically explained 15.13% to 19.18% of the variation in IQ and WCS perseverative errors accounted for an additional 8.12% to 11.29% of the variance. Full-scale IQ correlated very strongly with right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r = 0.610, p = 0.002), as did Trails B response time with left middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r = −0.608, p = 0.003). Trails B response time and right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume jointly accounted for approximately 32.95% to 54.82% of the variance in IQ scores. These results provided evidence of the unique contributions of attentional control and OFC gray matter to intelligence. PMID:26101457

  5. Use of nearshore and estuarine areas by gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Hall, John D.

    1983-01-01

    During spring aerial surveys of the coast of the southeastern Bering Sea significant numbers of gray whales were seen in nearshore waters along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula. Many (50-80%) of these animals were observed surfacing with mud trails or lying on their sides, characteristics both associated with feeding. A migration route close to shore (within 1-2 km) was used until whales neared Egegik Bay, where they began to head west 5-8 km offshore, across northern Bristol Bay. Smaller numbers of gray whales were present throughout summer in nearshore waters and estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula. At Nelson Lagoon gray whales normally used the lagoon in spring, were absent during early summer, returned in mid-summer, and then were present until late November when they departed for the wintering grounds. Gray whales were present in the lagoon most often during periods of peak tidal flow; those that appeared to be feeding were oriented into the current. Three behaviors that appeared to be associated with feeding were observed: side-feeding from a stationary position within shallow waters of lagoon channels, diving within the lagoon and in nearshore waters, and elliptical side-feeding in the surf zone along the outer coast. Large crustaceans of the genus Crangon were available to and probably eaten by gray whales at Nelson Lagoon.

  6. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  7. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Nestor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III, and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. Hierarchical regression indicated that Trails B response time specifically explained 15.13% to 19.18% of the variation in IQ and WCS perseverative errors accounted for an additional 8.12% to 11.29% of the variance. Full-scale IQ correlated very strongly with right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=0.610, p=0.002, as did Trails B response time with left middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=-0.608, p=0.003. Trails B response time and right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume jointly accounted for approximately 32.95% to 54.82% of the variance in IQ scores. These results provided evidence of the unique contributions of attentional control and OFC gray matter to intelligence.

  8. Evaluation of a formula that categorizes female gray wolf breeding status by nipple size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    The proportion by age class of wild Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) females that reproduce in any given year remains unclear; thus, we evaluated the applicability to our long-term (1972–2013) data set of the Mech et al. (1993) formula that categorizes female Gray Wolf breeding status by nipple size and time of year. We used the formula to classify Gray Wolves from 68 capture events into 4 categories (yearling, adult non-breeder, former breeder, current breeder). To address issues with small sample size and variance, we created an ambiguity index to allow some Gray Wolves to be classed into 2 categories. We classified 20 nipple measurements ambiguously: 16 current or former breeder, 3 former or adult non-breeder, and 1 yearling or adult non-breeder. The formula unambiguously classified 48 (71%) of the nipple measurements; based on supplemental field evidence, at least 5 (10%) of these were incorrect. When used in conjunction with an ambiguity index we developed and with corrections made for classifications involving very large nipples, and supplemented with available field evidence, the Mech et al. (1993) formula provided reasonably reliable classification of breeding status in wild female Gray Wolves.

  9. Tensile strained gray tin: Dirac semimetal for observing negative magnetoresistance with Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Liu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The extremely stringent requirement on material quality has hindered the investigation and potential applications of exotic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals. Here, we propose that gray tin is a perfect candidate for observing the chiral anomaly effect and Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillation at relatively low magnetic field. Based on effective k .p analysis and first-principles calculations, we discover that gray tin becomes a Dirac semimetal under tensile uniaxial strain, in contrast to a topological insulator under compressive uniaxial strain as known before. In this newly found Dirac semimetal state, two Dirac points which are tunable by tensile [001] strains lie in the kz axis and Fermi arcs appear in the (010) surface. Due to the low carrier concentration and high mobility of gray tin, a large chiral anomaly induced negative magnetoresistance and a strong SdH oscillation are anticipated in this half of the strain spectrum. Comparing to other Dirac semimetals, the proposed Dirac semimetal state in the nontoxic elemental gray tin can be more easily manipulated and accurately controlled. We envision that gray tin provides a perfect platform for strain engineering of chiral magnetic effects by sweeping through the strain spectrum from positive to negative and vice versa.

  10. Ecotoxicity of Concretes with Granulated Slag from Gray Iron Pilot Production as Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hybská

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on research concerning the ecotoxicological properties of granulated slag from the pilot production of gray iron with red mud addition and concrete composites with the application of this slag. Red mud is a hazardous waste generated in the production of aluminium oxide. Negative ecotoxicological tests are, therefore, one of the basic prerequisites for the ability to use granulated slag from gray iron pilot production. Granulated slag and concrete composite samples with various ratios of granulated slag have been subject to ecotoxicity tests: determining root growth inhibition in the highly-cultivated plant Sinapis alba, and determining acute toxicity in Daphnia magna. The results of ecotoxicological testing of granulated slag from gray iron standard production and gray iron pilot production with the additive were, according to the standard (STN 83 8303, negative. Additionally, the results of ecotoxicological tests of concrete composites were negative, with the exception of a 50% substitution of fine aggregate with slag from gray iron pilot production.

  11. Regional Neocortical Gray Matter Structure and Sleep Fragmentation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Fleischman, Debra A; Dawe, Robert J; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that greater sleep fragmentation is associated with regionally decreased cortical gray matter volume in older community-dwelling adults without cognitive impairment. We studied 141 community-dwelling older adults (median age 82.9; 73% female) without cognitive impairment or stroke, and not using sedative/ hypnotic medications, participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. We quantified sleep fragmentation from 7 d of actigraphy using the metric kRA and related this to total cortical gray matter volume, and regional gray matter volume in 34 cortical regions quantified by automated segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging data. We determined statistical significance and accounted for multiple comparisons by empirically estimating the false discovery rate by permutation. Lower total cortical gray matter volume was associated with higher sleep fragmentation (coefficient +0.23, standard error [SE] 0.11, P = 0.037). Lower gray matter volumes in four cortical regions were accompanied by higher sleep fragmentation with a false discovery rate fragmentation in older community-dwelling adults. Further work is needed to clarify whether this is a consequence of or contributor to sleep fragmentation. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 15. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Is gray water the key to unlocking water for resource-poor areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and other arid regions of the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-10-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight the need for cost reduction strategies and epidemiological evidence on the use of household-level gray water and treated gray water. Such actions are likely to increase the application of treated gray water in water-deprived areas of the Middle East and North Africa.

  13. Multipass gray printing for the new MEBES 4500S mask lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Dean, Robert L.; Doering, Janine J.; Eckes, W.; Gesley, Mark A.; Hofmann, Ulrich; Mulera, Terry; Naber, Robert J.; Pastor, M.; Phillips, Wayne; Raphael, John; Raymond, Frederick, III; Sauer, Charles A.

    1997-07-01

    Etec Systems, Inc. has developed a new e-beam mask lithography system, the MEBES 4500S, featuring a higher productivity writing strategy called multipass gray and a number of mechanical and electrical improvements. This new system, based on the proven technologies introduced in the MEBES 4500 system, provides improved throughput and accuracy. The MEBES 4500S system with multipass gray supports smaller mask design addresses needed for high resolution masks, while providing higher dose for high contrast processes with low sensitivity and improved CD linearity. Improved print performance is achieved by the introduction of several system design changes that work in conjunction with the multipass gray writing mode. These changes include improved column deflection system temperature control, enhanced TFE current control, improved work chamber thermal management, and improved stage drive vibration damping. Details of these features are presented along with first performance data for the new system.

  14. Development of High Sensitivity Humidity Sensor Based on Gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Shunhang; Ren, Wei; Wu, Rong

    2017-06-07

    A gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ composite nanocrystalline sensor with narrow band-gap was successfully prepared through a facile wet chemical method. The precursor was calcined in N₂ flow under atmospheric pressure and thereafter, a humidity sensor based on the composite was fabricated. The sensor showed high resistive sensitivity and varied by more than four orders of magnitude with an increase in relative humidity (RH) from 11% to 95%. The response and recovery time were about 3.1 s and 76 s, respectively with maximum hysteresis at 1% RH. In comparison with pure SrTiO₃ and black TiO₂, the gray composite based device exhibits a higher sensitivity. These results demonstrate the potential of gray TiO₂/SrTiO₃ for humidity sensing applications.

  15. DNA methylation patterns of behavior-related gene promoter regions dissect the gray wolf from domestic dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Cimarelli, Giulia; Viranyi, Zsofia; Kubinyi, Eniko; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf. Altogether, 79 CpG sites constituting the 65 so-called CpG units located in the promoter regions of genes affecting behavioral and temperamental traits (COMT, HTR1A, MAOA, OXTR, SLC6A4, TPH1, WFS1)-regions putatively targeted during domestication and breed selection. Methylation status of buccal cells was assessed using EpiTYPER technology. Significant inter-population methylation differences were found in 52.3% of all CpG units investigated. DNA methylation profile-based hierarchical cluster analysis indicated an unambiguous segregation of wolf from domestic dog. In addition, one of the three dog breeds (Golden Retriever) investigated also formed a separate, autonomous group. The findings support that population segregation is interrelated with shifts in DNA methylation patterns, at least in putative selection target regions, and also imply that epigenetic profiles could provide a sufficient basis for population assignment of individuals.

  16. Cognition and gray and white matter characteristics of presymptomatic C9orf72 repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; Jiskoot, Lize C; Panman, Jessica L; Dopper, Elise G; den Heijer, Tom; Donker Kaat, Laura; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Meeter, Lieke H; van Minkelen, Rick; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Swieten, John C

    2017-09-19

    To investigate cognitive function, gray matter volume, and white matter integrity in the presymptomatic stage of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 repeat expansion (C9orf72RE). Presymptomatic C9orf72RE carriers (n = 18) and first-degree family members without a pathogenic expansion (healthy controls [HC], n = 15) underwent a standardized protocol of neuropsychological tests, T1-weighted MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging within our cohort study of autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We investigated group differences in cognitive function, gray matter volume through voxel-based morphometry, and white matter integrity by means of tract-based spatial statistics. We correlated cognitive change with underlying gray or white matter. Our data demonstrate lower scores on letter fluency, Stroop card I, and Stroop card III, accompanied by white matter integrity loss in tracts connecting the frontal lobe, the thalamic radiation, and tracts associated with motor functioning in presymptomatic C9orf72RE compared with HC. In a subgroup of C9orf72RE carriers above 40 years of age, we found gray matter volume loss in the thalamus, cerebellum, and parietal and temporal cortex. We found no significant relationship between subtle cognitive decline and underlying gray or white matter. This study demonstrates that a decline in cognitive functioning, white matter integrity, and gray matter volumes are present in presymptomatic C9orf72RE carriers. These findings suggest that neuropsychological assessment, T1-weighted MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging might be useful to identify early biomarkers in the presymptomatic stage of FTD or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  18. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  19. Deployment and post-deployment experiences in OEF/OIF veterans: relationship to gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Aupperle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combat-related PTSD has been associated with reduced gray matter volume in regions of the prefrontal and temporal cortex, hippocampus, insula, and amygdala. However, the relationship between gray matter volume and specific deployment and post-deployment experiences has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to delineate how such experiences may contribute to structural brain changes for combat veterans. METHODS: Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans (N = 32 completed magnetic resonance imaging, the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Clinical Administered PTSD Scale. Voxel-wise Huber robust multiple regressions were used to quantify the relationship between gray matter volume and deployment experiences (combat experiences, military social support and post-deployment symptoms (PTSD, alcohol use. RESULTS: There was an interaction between severity of combat experiences and military social support for orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume. Specifically, individuals with more orbitofrontal gyrus gray matter volume reported less combat experiences and higher unit support. Individuals with more severe PTSD symptoms showed reduced gray matter volume within a large temporal region (inferior temporal and parahippocampal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: The identified association between unit support and orbitofrontal gyrus volume supports two potential resilience mechanisms to be delineated with future longitudinal studies. First, individuals with larger orbitofrontal gyrus may engage in greater quality of social interactions and thus experience combat as less stressful. Second, individuals who experience greater unit support may preserve a larger orbitofrontal gyrus, serving to "protect" them from aversive consequences of combat.

  20. The SGIA and the Common Growing Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu CIOVICA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human or virtual agents are presented in our lives daily. They serve our purposes and represent us in different many situations. Nowadays the number of virtual agents is increasing daily because they are cheaper, faster and more accurate than human agents. Our aim in this article is to define a new type of intelligent agent called SGIA – Self Growing Intelligent Agent and a new defining language for it. The SGIA agent is an intelligent agent with all the common agents’ characteristics and with other special one: that to learn and grow by itself in knowledge and size.

  1. Growing pioneer plants for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Lutvynenko, T. L.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kononuchenko, O.; Zaetz, I.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A precursory scenario of cultivating the first plants in a lunar greenhouse was elaborated in frames of a conceptual study to grow plants for a permanently manned lunar base. A prototype plant growth system represents an ornamental plant Tagetes patula L. for growing in a lunar rock anorthosite as a substrate. Microbial community anticipated to be in use to support a growth and development of the plant in a substrate of low bioavailability and provide an acceptable growth and blossoming of T. patula under growth limiting conditions.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY OF GRAY CAST IRON GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY DISPERSION-FILLED CONSUMABLE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nebozhak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key criteria of the process of graphitizing modification of matrix melt silicon concentration and silicon assimilation evaluated were on samples of gray cast iron grade СЧ20 State Standard 1412-85. These criteria of evaluation on the structure and properties of casting ingots proved an efficiency of intra-mold modification of molten gray cast iron by dispersed ferrosilicon grade ФС75 State Standard 1415-93 (ISO 5445-80 using lost-foam casting (LFC-process.

  3. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-01-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate (R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling...... rate. More trials were carried out to find a good correlation between the hardness and phase composition. New proposed formulas show that the hardness of gray cast iron decreases as the amount of graphite phase increases, and increases as the amount of cementite increases. These formulas are developed...

  4. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  5. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)] e-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2006-02-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data.

  6. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  7. Growing up Female: As Six become One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Karen; Balto, Sylvia

    1971-01-01

    Growing up Female: As Six Become One" is an excellent film for people of any age and appropriate for any group. The film explores the lives of six American women showing how they are socialized and what their roles in society are. (Author)

  8. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    simultaneously on multiple parse trees at once. The result is a highly flexible mechanism for growing new language constructs without resorting to compile-time programming. In fact, whole new languages can be defined at surprisingly low cost.This work is fully implemented as part of the bigwig system...

  9. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  10. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: June 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Have Pain? How Do Pain Relievers Work? Growth Disorders I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and What They Do Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  11. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  12. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  13. Determination of responses of growing pigs to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-09

    Mar 9, 1998 ... The responses in growing pigs to balanced diets at different dietary energy levels are estimated from published data after recalculation of digestible energy (DE) iev- els using standard tables. Although responses in live weight gain (ADG), food intake (Fl), digestible energy intake (DEI) and food conversion ...

  14. How fast to northern hardwoods grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapheal Zon; H.F. Scholz

    1929-01-01

    The knowledge of the rate at which trees grow in virgin forests, after clear cutting and under selective logging, is indispensable in any forest calculations or forest practice. The enactment of the Forest Crop Law, which brought under its operation about 175,000 acres of cut-over land during the first year, the example set by several progressive lumbermen in selective...

  15. Growing Up in an Alcoholic Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses problems faced by children growing up in an alcoholic family. Reviews four survivor roles of children of alcoholics (COAs): super-coper, scapegoat, lost child, and family mascot. Describes alcoholism as a disease of denial. Reviews the Children of Alcoholics movement begun by adult COAs to become advocates for COAs. (NB)

  16. Growing up as a Young Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    "Growing Up as a Young Artist" is an illustrated book assignment that involves researching family scrapbooks, photo albums and films, and inquiring about family anecdotes for clues to one's artistic roots. Students creatively reflect on their early memories of imaginative events, as each page is filled with memories of creative activities they…

  17. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  18. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that...

  19. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  20. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  1. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  2. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  3. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  4. Biology and management of the western gray squirrel and Oregon white oak woodlands: with emphasis on the Puget Trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.A. Ryan; A.B. Carey

    1995-01-01

    The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus Ord, 1818) has been accorded "threatened species" status by the state of Washington. populations are small, scattered, and declining primarily due to the loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat. Western gray squirrels are closely associated with Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana...

  5. Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russias New Generation Warfare and Implications for the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-18

    boundaries to achieve strategic objectives epitomizes gray-zone conflict. Multi-national organizations such as the UN and NATO are...which aggressors use ambiguity and leverage non- attribution to achieve strategic objectives while limiting counter-actions by other nation...states. Inside the gray zone, aggressors use hybrid tactics to achieve their strategic objectives. While hybrid threats have historically been

  6. Interactions of brown bears, Ursus arctos, and gray wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tom S.; Partridge, Steven T.; Schoen, John W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  7. 77 FR 55529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... lupus) are the largest wild members of the dog family (Canidae). Adult gray wolves range from 18-80... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Removal of the Wyoming Wolf Population's Status as an Experimental...

  8. Accelerometer Physical Activity is Associated with Greater Gray Matter Volumes in Older Adults without Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloway, Shannon; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E; Pressler, Susan J

    2018-02-08

    Physical activity (PA) is a modifiable health behavior that can protect against age-related gray matter atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Current studies of PA and gray matter failed to utilize device measures of PA and do not focus on adults >80 years. Thus, the purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations between accelerometer lifestyle PA and (a) gray matter volumes and (b) cognitive function, controlling for demographics and health status. Participants were 262 older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment from Rush Memory and Aging Project, an epidemiological cohort study. Participants wore an accelerometer to assess total daily lifestyle PA, and completed anatomical magnetic resonance imaging to assess gray matter volumes and a neurocognitive test battery to assess cognitive function. Multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of total daily lifestyle PA was significantly related to larger gray matter volumes, F(2, 215) = 3.61, p = .027, including subcortical gray matter (β = .17, p = .007) and total gray matter (β = .11, p = .049), with no significant associations between lifestyle PA and cognitive function. These findings may inform future lifestyle PA interventions in order to attenuate age-related gray matter atrophy.

  9. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-05-01

    Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm(2) in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm(2) in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (phair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair.

  11. Differential microstructural and morphological abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from cortical and deep gray matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Chan, Chun-Chung; Leung, Lam-Ming; Wong, Chun-Sing; Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-05-01

    One aim of this study is to use non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for capturing microstructural abnormalities in gray matter of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The other aim is to compare DKI metrics against thickness of cortical gray matter and volume of deep gray matter, respectively. A cohort of 18 patients with AD, 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 18 normal controls underwent morphological and DKI MR imaging. Images were investigated using regions-of-interest-based analyses for deep gray matter and vertex-wise analyses for cortical gray matter. In deep gray matter, more regions showed DKI parametric abnormalities than atrophies at the early MCI stage. Mean kurtosis (MK) exhibited the largest number of significant abnormalities among all DKI metrics. At the later AD stage, diffusional abnormalities were observed in fewer regions than atrophies. In cortical gray matter, abnormalities in thickness were mainly in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, which fit the locations of known early pathological changes. Microstructural abnormalities were predominantly in the parietal and even frontal lobes, which fit the locations of known late pathological changes. In conclusion, MK can complement conventional diffusion metrics for detecting microstructural changes, especially in deep gray matter. This study also provides evidence supporting the notion that microstructural changes predate morphological changes. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2495-2508, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  13. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises

  14. Gray Zone Warfare: German and Russian Political Warfare, 1935-1939, and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Irregular Warfare, Unconventional Warfare, Hybrid, and 107 John Chambers , Countering Gray-Zone...111 Chambers , 5. Diplomatic, Information, Military, and Economic variables refers to the U.S. Army analytical framework. 112 Dickey et al. 113...media under German control reported, “ bloody terror, unleashed mobs, massacre and looting,” with reports of widespread murder of Sudeten Germans.193

  15. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to gray leaf spot and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gray leaf spot and common rust diseases can greatly reduce grain yield of maize in susceptible genotypes by between 10 and 70% on average. Control of these diseases through conventional measures has been quite ineffective and difficult to sustain. The most feasible way to control them is by breeding and deploying ...

  16. Wilderness discount on livestock compensation costs for imperiled gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Christopher Haney; Timm Kroeger; Frank Casey; Alysa Quarforth; Gina Schrader; Suzanne Asha Stone

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that Wilderness reduces costs for livestock depredations caused by the endangered and threatened gray wolf (Canis lupus) in the northern Rockies and upper Midwest, U.S.A. From 1995 to 2004, direct costs for compensation in the northern Rockies came to only 47 to 78 percent of losses anticipated at wolf reintroduction and projected...

  17. Uterine arteriovenous malformations: gray-scale and Doppler US features with MR imaging correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M W; Muradali, D; Thurston, W A; Burns, P N; Wilson, S R

    1998-01-01

    To describe the gray-scale and color and duplex Doppler ultrasound (US) and the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs in 10 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent gray-scale US and color and duplex Doppler US. Nine underwent angiography with therapeutic embolization; four, MR imaging. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and peak systolic velocities (PSVs) were evaluated. At gray-scale US, uterine AVMs were nonspecific and manifested as subtle myometrial inhomogeneity, tubular spaces within the myometrium, intramural uterine mass, endometrial mass, or cervical mass or sometimes as prominent parametrial vessels. Color Doppler features were consistent and included intense juxtaposed signals with aliasing and apparent flow reversals. Spectral Doppler US revealed low-resistance flow (RI, 0.25-0.55; PI, 0.3-0.6) and PSVs greater than 96 cm/sec, which suggests arteriovenous shunting. MR imaging showed a bulky uterus, a focal uterine mass, disruption of the junctional zones, serpiginous flow-related signal voids, and prominent parametrial vessels. Gray-scale morphology and Doppler US features should allow noninvasive diagnosis of uterine AVMs. Doppler and MR imaging features of uterine AVMs may overlap with other causes of arteriovenous shunting, including abnormal placentation and gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). These can be differentiated with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin test results (negative with AVM, positive with GTD).

  18. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  19. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Patterns of gray and white matter changes in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.; Williams, V.J.; Burgmans, S.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural brain changes precede cognitive and clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to examine the gray and white matter tissue changes in individuals with memory decline over a 12-year period, who might be at risk for AD. The participants were selected from the longitudinal

  1. Gray matter in the brain : Differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    Tinnitus, usually associated with hearing loss, is characterized by the perception of sound without an external sound source. The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood. In the present study, voxel-based morphometiy (VBM) was employed to identify gray matter differences related to hearing

  2. 76 FR 7875 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the Lolo Elk Management Zone of Idaho; Draft Environmental Assessment... environmental assessment (EA) of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game's (IDFG) proposal to lethally take wolves...

  3. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit of Montana; Draft Environmental... take wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit (EMU) in western Montana in response to impacts on elk...

  4. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  5. Sex and age composition of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa), winter 1995/1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Nero; Herbert W. R. Copland

    1997-01-01

    In winter 1995/1996, a nearly continent-wide movement of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) occurred. A sample of 126 owls examined during this period, mainly from northeast of Winnipeg, included a large number from the 1994 hatch-year. If our assumptions regarding molt are correct, 51 birds were from this age class. An inhibited molt condition found...

  6. 76 FR 63824 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., ecological, historical, research, educational, or aesthetic value; and the types of activities subject to... proposed research area also may provide opportunities to advance scientific understanding and management of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's...

  7. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism in emergency room: gray-scale versus color doppler ultrasound evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Maha Kamel; Makhlouf, Hoda Ahmed; Hasan, Ali Abdel-Azeem; Alkarn, Ahmed Atef

    2018-02-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) remains under-diagnosed fatal disease at emergency units suggesting the need for alternative, easy, and noninvasive bedside diagnostic approaches. To determine the diagnostic role of gray-scale and color Doppler transthoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in patients with PTE. Blinded to 64 multi-detectors CT pulmonary angiography (MDCTPA) examination as a gold standard, 60 patients with clinically suspected PTE underwent gray-scale and then color Doppler TUS examination. Results were compared and diagnostic accuracy of TUS was assessed. Forty patients proved to have PTE by MDCTPA. TUS showed typical lesions in 33 patients with the mean of 2 lesions per patient. Most lesions were hypoechoic, wedge- shaped, and pleural- based and the majority (80%) was located in the lower lobes. Consolidation with little perfusion was detected by Color Doppler ultrasound in 97% of lesions. Isolated central PTE was significantly higher in TUS negative patients. For gray -scale TUS, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were 82%, 90%, 94%, 72%, and 85%. Meanwhile the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of color Doppler TUS were 80%, 95%, 97%, 70% and 87%, respectively. TUS is a reliable diagnostic bedside test for PTE in critically ill and immobile patients. Adding color Doppler to gray-scale TUS increases the specificity and accuracy and consequently the confidence in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary infarctions and differentiates them from other pulmonary lesions that allow initiation of anticoagulants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Lithographic analysis of multipass gray writing strategy for electron-beam pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabala, Jan M.; Abboud, Frank E.; Dean, Robert L.; Weaver, Suzanne; Cole, Damon M.; Sauer, Charles A.; Raymond, Frederick, III; Hofmann, Ulrich

    1999-06-01

    Gray-level printing is an efficient strategy to create small-address patterns on photomasks. This work provides a technical description of the multipass gray (MPG) raster- scan writing technique as implemented on the MEBES 4500S and MEBES 5000 electron-beam pattern generation tools. The differences between single-pass printing (SPP) and MPG are reviewed. The factors that allow increase in throughput and dose with MPG are explained. Aerial image simulations of edge placement and corner rounding verify the MPG model. Multipass writing with offset scan voting, which reduces random and systematic errors, is explained. Because MPG is a gray-level printing technique, the dose distribution across feature edges is necessarily broader than that derived from SPP writing. Simulations and experimental results indicate that, using ZEP 7000 resist and dry etch, edges can be placed without loss of accuracy, despite the width of this 'gray' profile. The spot size necessary to obtain optimal critical dimension quality is also determined by simulation and empirically. The lithographic quality of MPG writing/processing is confirmed by composite metrology test that sample the whole quality area of the mask. We conclude that MPG is a viable technique for writing advanced masks.

  9. Single application prophylaxis against gray mold in pot rose and pelargonium with Ulocladium atrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohalem, D S; Paaske, K; Kristensen, K

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to clarify the optimal dose and timing of single applications of Ulocladium atrum for control of gray mold on pot rose and pelargonium under conditions similar to those found in commercial greenhouses. In general, application of the antagonist 1-d prior to infestation...

  10. Biological control of gray mold with ulocladium atrum in annual strawberry crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Köhl, J.; Jansen, M.L.E.; Horsten, P.J.F.M.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Gerlagh, de M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum to control gray mold in annual strawberry crops using waiting-bed transplants under field conditions was investigated. Seven field experiments were conducted with strawberry cv. Elsanta during the summer seasons of 1996-99 in the Netherlands.

  11. Paul Gray's narrowing scope: a "developmental lag" in his theory and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2006-01-01

    A cental thesis of Paul Gray's work is that a "developmental lag" pervades modern psychoanalysis in its failure to assimilate and apply knowledge gained about the role of the unconscious ego in intrapsychic life. But Gray himself, it is proposed, has become a victim of a new "developmental lag," of his own construction. As he somewhat single-mindedly pursued the ramifications of his "developmental lag" concept, Gray may have foreclosed on some noteworthy ideas developing around him. The most important example is his claim--herein refuted--that proper interpretive technique can avoid being infused with transference. He also seems to have rejected the theoretical importance of the internalization of the analyst and the clinical usefulness of countertransference. While emphasizing defense analysis, he ignores defenses such as splitting, denial, and disavowal as substantive problems for his technique of close-process attention. Gray's "undoing" of the rapprochement between "ego analysis" and "id analysis" by viewing the matter as an either-or proposition undermines the very real value of his contribution to the field.

  12. Gray matter correlates of cognitive ability tests used for vocational guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Cheuk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences in cognitive abilities provide information that is valuable for vocational guidance, but there is an ongoing debate about the role of ability factors, including general intelligence (g, compared to individual tests. Neuroimaging can help identify brain parameters that may account for individual differences in both factors and tests. Here we investigate how eight tests used in vocational guidance correlate to regional gray matter. We compare brain networks identified by using scores for ability factors (general and specific to those identified by using individual tests to determine whether these relatively broad and narrow approaches yield similar results. Findings Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we correlated gray matter with independent ability factors (general intelligence, speed of reasoning, numerical, spatial, memory and individual test scores from a battery of cognitive tests completed by 40 individuals seeking vocational guidance. Patterns of gray matter correlations differed between group ability factors and individual tests. Moreover, tests within the same factor showed qualitatively different brain correlates to some degree. Conclusions The psychometric factor structure of cognitive tests can help identify brain networks related to cognitive abilities beyond a general intelligence factor (g. Correlates of individual ability tests with gray matter, however, appear to have some differences from the correlates for group factors.

  13. Combined effect of natural convection and non-gray gas radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper reports numerical results of combined effects of non-gray gas radiation and natural convection between two vertical plates with partial heating at walls. The plates are symmetrical and made of two equal zones alternately isotherm and insulated. The idea is to predict that thermal radiation will attenuate the ...

  14. Dieldrin-induced mortality in an endangered species, the gray bat (Myotis grisescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D R; LaVal, R K; Swineford, D M

    1978-03-24

    Brains of juvenile gray bats, Myotis grisescens, found dead beneath maternity roosts in two Missouri caves contained lethal concentrations of dieldrin. One colony appeared to be abnormally small, and more dead bats were found a year after the juvenile bats had been collected. This is the first report to link the field mortality of bats directly to insecticide residues acquired through the food chain.

  15. On skulls of Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828) from the eastern Atlantic (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of skulls of Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828) from South Africa, the Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sénégal are published along with some other particulars. According to the author the dolphins from near the Goto Islands, Japan, described by Mizue et al. (1964) probably do not belong to

  16. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic

  17. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Job; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature.

  18. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joé L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature.

  19. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  20. Chapter 15. Dynamics of forest communities used by great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Habeck

    1994-01-01

    Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) inhabit forests, but not all forests possess identical characteristics. To understand the owl, we must understand the dynamics of the vegetation communities that support them. Those dynamics operate differently in the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Cascade-Sierra Nevada complex, both of which are inhabited by great...

  1. Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae), information on a little known taxon from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kippenhan, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Two specimens of Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) in the Field Museum of Natural History offer additional information on the morphology and distribution of this rare species. One of the specimens, a female, is considered to be the first known specimen of this species.

  2. Lambdapapillomavirus 2 in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota with oral papillomatosis and sarcoptic mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Susan N.; Windels, Steve K.; Adams, Marie; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Oral papillomatosis was diagnosed in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) with sarcoptic mange from Minnesota, USA found dead in February 2015. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident histologically, and papillomaviral antigens were confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Sequencing of the L1 papillomavirus gene showed closest similarity to Lambdapapillomavirus 2.

  3. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...

  5. B-Cell Depletion Attenuates White and Gray Matter Pathology in Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kap, Yolanda S.; Bauer, Jan; van Driel, Nikki; Bleeker, Wim K.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Geurts, Jeroen J. G.; Laman, Jon D.; Craigen, Jenny L.; Blezer, Erwin; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CD20-positive B-cell depletion on central nervous system (CNS) white and gray matter pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets, a relevant preclinical model of multiple sclerosis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was

  6. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray of the adult ovariectomized female cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Meijer, Ellie; Schasfoort, Fabienne C.; Leeuwen, Fred van; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies in rodent and cat have shown that distinct parts of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (FAG) are important for the estrogen dependent, female reproductive behavior. The present study gives a detailed overview of the estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive (ER-IR)

  7. The mathematical model reduces the effect of distance to the scatter images gray level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-na

    2013-09-01

    In x-ray scanning system, scatter images are obtained to provide information on material density. The forward and backward scatter is related to solid angle. Scatter is therefore dependent on the distance of the scanned object from the x-ray source. In the real world, an object may be placed anywhere on the conveyer belt, so the measured intensity will contain errors relative to the ideal intensity. This makes classification results less reliable. Extraction of characteristic values L associated with the density; need to know the gray levels of scatter images, so how to base on forward scatter and back scatter images to determine the scatter image gray level is first necessary to solve the problem. The author combined with the forward scatter and backscatter images,then established higher order gray-level mathematical model of scattering images, to eliminate the impact of distance on the scatter images, to obtain more accurate gray level of scatter image. Then compare the error use of LMS algorithm and the LS algorithm to solving mathematical model parameters, LS algorithm ultimately prove less error and experimental validation of the superiority of the LS algorithm.

  8. 77 FR 27719 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: sport fishing, conservation and charter... the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area... advisory council was established in August 1999 to provide advice and recommendations on management and...

  9. 77 FR 8810 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Sport diving and charter/commercial fishing... management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected by the sanctuary... 1999 to provide advice and recommendations on management and protection of the sanctuary. The advisory...

  10. Gray-scale reversal for the detection of pulmonary nodules on a PACS workstation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boo, Diederick W.; Uffmann, Martin; Bipat, Shandra; Boorsma, Eelco F. A.; Scheerder, Maeke J.; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of gray-scale reversal on the detection of small pulmonary nodules in two-view chest radiography. One hundred twenty-eight patients (mean age, 62 years) who underwent CT and chest radiography within 6 weeks were retrospectively selected for this

  11. Gray-scale reversal for the detection of pulmonary nodules on a PACS workstation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boo, D.W. De; Uffmann, M.; Bipat, S.; Boorsma, E.F.; Scheerder, M.J.; Weber, M.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of gray-scale reversal on the detection of small pulmonary nodules in two-view chest radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight patients (mean age, 62 years) who underwent CT and chest radiography within 6 weeks were

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  13. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  14. Gray-scale moment invariants for airborne mine detection, discrimination and false alarm mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Pradeep; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Mitchell, O. Robert

    2002-08-01

    Shape features based on gray-scale moment invariants are presented for airborne mine detection and discrimination. Eleven shape features are obtained by translation, rotation and contrast normalization of the fourth-order gray-scale moments. Mahalanobis distance between an observed and true (average) shape feature vector is used as a shape metric. Covariance matrix corresponding to the average shape feature vector is obtained analytically using an additive and multiplicative noise model for the MWIR image. Effectiveness of gray scale moment invariant shape features for mine discrimination and false alarm mitigation is shown using MWIR imagery collected for LAMD-I program in May 2000. Successful implementation of the features in an airborne detection depends on the consistency of these shape features over time with change in factors such as solar illumination, ageing, clouds and environmental conditions. A study of the variability of gray-scale moment invariant-based shape features with time is conducted using MWIR time-sequenced imagery acquired in June-July 1998 by E-OIR.

  15. Single and interactive effects of malathion, overwintered green frog tadpoles, and cyanobacteria on gray treefrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Mark J; Boone, Michelle D

    2009-03-01

    Amphibian population declines around the world are associated with invasive species, pesticides, pathogens, habitat destruction, or a combination of factors. Because contamination is widespread, it represents a relevant environmental stress that can affect the ability of organisms to deal with other factors present in the environment. We examined the effects of the insecticide malathion, larger tadpole competitors (green frogs, Rana clamitans), and a toxic cyanobacteria (Anabaena spp.) on tadpoles of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) reared from hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms. The response of mass at metamorphosis and time to metamorphosis was significantly affected by exposure to malathion and presence of overwintered green frog tadpoles. Malathion generally led to increased mass at metamorphosis, earlier time to metamorphosis, and increased activity during larval development. These results likely stem from short-term increases in periphyton associated with malathion exposure (although these effects were nonsignificant). Exposure of gray treefrogs to overwintered green frog tadpoles led to an earlier time to metamorphosis without differences in mass at metamorphosis and was associated with increased activity in gray treefrogs. Survival of gray treefrogs was significantly affected by an interaction of green frog and malathion, indicating nonadditive effects of these treatments. Exposure to cyanobacteria had a significant negative effect on green frogs but no effect on treefrogs. Malathion had the strongest effect on the community, but our results indicated that some factors can interact in ways not predicted by single factors alone.

  16. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the degree of knee joint osteoarthritis in patients with early gray hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Behrooz; Ashraf, Alireza; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Zarei, Fariba; Foruzi, Shima

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the causes of pain and disability. The hair graying characteristic correlates strictly with chronological aging and take places to varying degrees in all individuals, disregarding gender or race. Comparison of the degrees of clinical and radiologic severity of the knee OA in individuals with early hair graying compared to ordinary individuals. A total of 60 patients with knee OA and similar demographic characteristics were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified in to 3 age subgroups in each of the case and control groups (30-40 year, 41-50 year, 51-60 year). In the case group, the patients must had early hair graying, too. Knee OA were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was applied to assess clinical severity of the knee OA. The mean ± SD of WOMAC index in the case group was 60.7 ± 15.9 and in the control group was 55.3 ± 15.3 (P = 0.1). The mean rank of KL scale in case group was 35.3 and in the control group was 25.6 (P = 0.02). Even at the same age of OA onset, the rate of progression of radiological findings and the grade of joint destruction in individuals with early hair graying are greater than normal individuals. However, clinical and functional relevant remain unclear.

  18. Repigmentation of gray hair in lesions of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Manjon, Jose A

    2015-07-01

    Hair pigmentation is a complex phenomenon that involves many hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, eicosanoids, cyclic nucleotides, nutrients, and a physicochemical milieu. We report a case of repigmentation of gray hairs in lesions of annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) on the scalp of a 67-year-old man.

  19. Numerical modeling of coupled heat transfer and phase transformation for solidification of the gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Azin

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the numerical model in 2D is used to study the solidification bahavior of the gray cast iron. The conventional heat transfer is coupled with the proposed micro-model to predict the amount of different phases, i.e. total austenite (c) phase, graphite (G) and cementite (C...

  20. Flammulated, boreal, and great gray owls in the United States: A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. D. Hayward; J. Verner

    1994-01-01

    Flammulated (Otus flammeolus), boreal (Aegolius funereus), and great gray (Strix nebulosa) owls occur over a broad portion of North America and each is designated as a "sensitive species" in four or more USDA Forest Service regions. The insectivorous flammulated owl is a neotropical migrant requiring...

  1. Cortical Gray and Adjacent White Matter Demonstrate Synchronous Maturation in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Tara A; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Gillespie, Sarah K; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Spatial and functional gradients of development have been described for the maturation of cerebral gray and white matter using histological and radiological approaches. We evaluated these patterns in very preterm (VPT) infants using diffusion tensor imaging. Data were obtained from 3 groups: 1) 22 VPT infants without white matter injury (WMI), of whom all had serial MRI studies during the neonatal period, 2) 19 VPT infants with WMI, of whom 3 had serial MRI studies and 3) 12 healthy, term-born infants. Regions of interest were placed in the cortical gray and adjacent white matter in primary motor, primary visual, visual association, and prefrontal regions. From the MRI data at term-equivalent postmenstrual age, differences in mean diffusivity were found in all areas between VPT infants with WMI and the other 2 groups. In contrast, minimal differences in fractional anisotropy were found between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that cortical maturation is delayed in VPT infants with WMI when compared with term control infants and VPT infants without WMI. From the serial MRI data from VPT infants, synchronous development between gray and white matter was evident in all areas and all groups, with maturation in primary motor and sensory regions preceding that of association areas. This finding highlights the regionally varying but locally synchronous nature of the development of cortical gray matter and its adjacent white matter. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Generation of 2.1 μm wavelength from degenerate high gray track ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... This paper presents the experimental results of degenerate optical parametric generation using a high gray track resistant potassium titanyl phosphate (HGTR KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). An average output power of 7 W at 10 kHz has been achieved that includes both signal and idler powers ...

  3. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight...

  4. Learning Topologies with the Growing Neural Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Esteban José; López-Rubio, Ezequiel

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel self-organizing model called growing neural forest (GNF) is presented. It is based on the growing neural gas (GNG), which learns a general graph with no special provisions for datasets with separated clusters. On the contrary, the proposed GNF learns a set of trees so that each tree represents a connected cluster of data. High dimensional datasets often contain large empty regions among clusters, so this proposal is better suited to them than other self-organizing models because it represents these separated clusters as connected components made of neurons. Experimental results are reported which show the self-organization capabilities of the model. Moreover, its suitability for unsupervised clustering and foreground detection applications is demonstrated. In particular, the GNF is shown to correctly discover the connected component structure of some datasets. Moreover, it outperforms some well-known foreground detectors both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

  5. Primary Biliary Cholangitis Alters Functional Connections of the Brain's Deep Gray Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Victoria A L; Swain, Mark G; Pang, Jack X Q; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Sharkey, Keith A; MacQueen, Glenda M; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2017-07-27

    Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of deep gray matter brain structures (putamen, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus) was compared between groups. Fatigue, itch, mood, cognitive performance, and clinical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were assessed, and their association with rsFC was determined. Relative to controls, PBC patients exhibited significantly increased rsFC between the putamen, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, as well as with frontal and parietal regions. Reduced rsFC of the putamen and hippocampus with motor and sensory regions of the brain were also observed. Fatigue, itch, complete response to UDCA, and verbal working memory performance were also associated with altered rsFC of deep gray matter. These rsFC changes were independent of biochemical disease severity. PBC patients have objective evidence of altered rsFC of the brain's deep gray matter that is in part linked to fatigue severity, itch, response to UDCA therapy, and cognitive performance. These results may guide future approaches to define how PBC leads to altered brain connectivity and provide insight into novel targets for treating PBC-associated brain dysfunction and behavioral symptoms.

  6. Multimodal MEMPRAGE, FLAIR, and R2* Segmentation to Resolve Dura and Vessels from Cortical Gray Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viviani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While widely in use in automated segmentation approaches for the detection of group differences or of changes associated with continuous predictors in gray matter volume, T1-weighted images are known to represent dura and cortical vessels with signal intensities similar to those of gray matter. By considering multiple signal sources at once, multimodal segmentation approaches may be able to resolve these different tissue classes and address this potential confound. We explored here the simultaneous use of FLAIR and apparent transverse relaxation rates (a signal related to T2* relaxation maps and having similar contrast with T1-weighted images. Relative to T1-weighted images alone, multimodal segmentation had marked positive effects on 1. the separation of gray matter from dura, 2. the exclusion of vessels from the gray matter compartment, and 3. the contrast with extracerebral connective tissue. While obtainable together with the T1-weighted images without increasing scanning times, apparent transverse relaxation rates were less effective than added FLAIR images in providing the above mentioned advantages. FLAIR images also improved the detection of cortical matter in areas prone to susceptibility artifacts in standard MPRAGE T1-weighted images, while the addition of transverse relaxation maps exacerbated the effect of these artifacts on segmentation. Our results confirm that standard MPRAGE segmentation may overestimate gray matter volume by wrongly assigning vessels and dura to this compartment and show that multimodal approaches may greatly improve the specificity of cortical segmentation. Since multimodal segmentation is easily implemented, these benefits are immediately available to studies focusing on translational applications of structural imaging.

  7. Fetal Testosterone Influences Sexually Dimorphic Gray Matter in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Michael V.; Ashwin, Emma; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Taylor, Kevin; Hackett, Gerald; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In non-human species, testosterone is known to have permanent ‘organizing’ effects early in life that predict later expression of sex differences in brain and behavior. However, in humans it is still unknown if such mechanisms have organizing effects on neural sexual dimorphism. In human males, we show that variation in fetal testosterone (FT) predicts later local gray matter volume of specific brain regions in a direction that is congruent with sexual dimorphism observed in a large independent sample of age-matched males and females from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository. Right temporo-parietal junction/posterior superior temporal sulcus (RTPJ/pSTS), planum temporale/parietal operculum (PT/PO), and posterior lateral orbitofrontal cortex (plOFC) had local gray matter volume that was both sexually dimorphic and predicted in a congruent direction by FT. That is, gray matter volume in RTPJ/pSTS was greater for males compared to females and was positively predicted by FT. Conversely, gray matter volume in PT/PO and plOFC was greater in females compared to males and was negatively predicted by FT. Subregions of both amygdala and hypothalamus were also sexually dimorphic in the direction of Male>Female, but were not predicted by FT. However, FT positively predicted gray matter volume of a non-sexually dimorphic subregion of the amygdala. These results bridge a longstanding gap between human and non-human species in showing that FT acts as an organizing mechanism for the development of regional sexual dimorphism in the human brain. PMID:22238103

  8. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Andreia V; Ratnanather, J Tilak; Tward, Daniel J; Lee, David Soobin; van den Noort, Frieda; Wu, Dan; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i) regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii) tractography-based analysis, and using (iii) whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores), and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be targeted to delay

  9. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii tractography-based analysis, and using (iii whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores, and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be

  10. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Matsudaira

    Full Text Available A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old. We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between

  11. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  12. Generalizing the mean intercept length tensor for gray-level images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Borga, Magnus; Smedby, Orjan

    2012-07-01

    The mean intercept length tensor is the most used technique to estimate microstructure orientation and anisotropy of trabecular bone. This paper proposes an efficient extension of this technique to gray-scale images based on a closed formulation of the mean intercept length tensor and a generalization using different angular convolution kernels. First, the extended Gaussian image is computed for the binary or gray-scale image. Second, the intercepts are computed for all possible orientations through an angular convolution with the half-cosine function. Finally, the tensor is computed by means of the covariance matrix. The complexity of the method is O(n + m) in contrast with O(nm) of traditional implementations, where n is the number of voxels in the image and m is the number of orientations used in the computations. The method is generalized by applying other angular convolution kernels instead of the half-cosine function. As a result, the anisotropy of the tensor can be controlled while keeping the eigenvectors intact. The proposed extension to gray-scale yields accurate results for reliable computations of the extended Gaussian image and, unlike the traditional methodology, is not affected by artifacts generated by discretizations during the sampling of different orientations. Experiments show that the computations on both binary and gray-scale images are correlated, and that computations in gray-scale are more robust, enabling the use of the mean intercept length tensor to clinical examinations of trabecular bone. The use of kernels based on the von Mises-Fisher distribution is promising as the anisotropy can be adjusted with a parameter in order to improve its power to predict mechanical properties of trabecular bone.

  13. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  14. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  15. Efficient Communication Management in a Growing Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Alakotila, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the importance of organisational communication and to explain how communication should be managed for it to be effective. Two fast-growing companies were interviewed for the thesis, who give entail on how they have managed communication regarding the organisational changes. Organisational communication is divided into external, stakeholder and internal communication in this study. With the help of interviews from two case companies, researcher offers r...

  16. Transformational Leadership Which Can Grow Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Betty Yuliani

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis consist of 45 studies from 20 articles and 20860 subjects evaluated the correlation between Transformational leadership and Organizational commitment. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that transformational leadership has a correlation on organizational commitment. The purpose of the study is to analyzed the data from the primer study and to support the hypothesis or refuse from the studies. Result indicated that transformational leadership can grow organiza...

  17. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  18. Economic Gardening and the Grow Kentucky Program

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Lynn W.; Allen, James E. IV

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Community and Economic Development Initiative of Kentucky (CEDIK) and the Kentucky Small Business Development Center (KSBDC), launched Grow Kentucky, Kentucky’s only certified Economic Gardening program. The program helps second-stage entrepreneurial growth companies penetrate existing markets, identify new markets, monitor competitors, track industry trends, locate customer clusters, use search engine optimization/social media for marketing and various other customized research....

  19. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  20. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  1. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  2. Lesion of the Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Reduces Conditioned Fear but Does Not Change Freezing Induced by Stimulation of the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Daniel M.L.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Brandão, Marcus L.

    2001-01-01

    Previously-reported evidence showed that freezing to a context previously associated with footshock is impaired by lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). It has also been shown that stepwise increase in the intensity of the electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces alertness, then freezing, and finally escape. These aversive responses are mimicked by microinjections of GABA receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline, or blockers of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), such as semicarbazide, into the dPAG. In this work, we examined whether the expression of these defensive responses could be the result of activation of ventral portion of the periaqueductal gray. Sham- or vPAG electrolytic–lesioned rats were implanted with an electrode in the dPAG for the determination of the thresholds of freezing and escape responses. The vPAG electrolytic lesions were behaviorally verified through a context-conditioned fear paradigm. Results indicated that lesion of the vPAG disrupted conditioned freezing response to contextual cues associated with footshocks but did not change the dPAG electrical stimulation for freezing and escape responses. In a second experiment, lesion of the vPAG also did not change the amount of freezing and escape behavior produced by microinjections of semicarbazide into the dPAG. These findings indicate that freezing and escape defensive responses induced by dPAG stimulation do not depend on the integrity of the vPAG. A discussion on different neural circuitries that might underlie different inhibitory and active defensive behavioral patterns that animals display during threatening situations is presented. PMID:11390636

  3. In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen; Marquand, Andre; Murphy, Clodagh M; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; The Mrc Aims Consortium; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Ecker, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast. More specifically, we examined contrast as a percentage between gray and white matter tissue signal intensities (GWPC) sampled at the gray-white matter boundary, and across different cortical layers. We found that individuals with ASD had significantly reduced GWPC in several clusters throughout the cortex (cluster, P < 0.05). As expected, these reductions were greatest when tissue intensities were sampled close to gray-white matter interface, which indicates a less distinct gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Our in vivo findings of reduced GWPC in ASD are therefore consistent with prior postmortem findings of a less well-defined gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Taken together, these results indicate that GWPC might be utilized as an in vivo proxy measure of atypical cortical microstructural organization in future studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Eye, nose, hair, and throat: external anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gray matter morphological anomalies in the cerebellar vermis in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjuan; Zhou, Li; Cui, Chunlei; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Jie

    2017-11-22

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance. The three groups were well matched for age, gender, and education, and the two patient groups were also further matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to estimate changes in gray matter density in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits. The relationships between gray matter density and clinical outcomes were explored. Patients with cognitive deficits were found to have reduced gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum compared with patients without cognitive deficits and healthy controls, decreased gray matter density in left supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus compared with patients without cognitive deficits. Classifier results showed GMD in cerebellar vermis tonsil cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from controls, left supplementary motor area cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from SZ-NCD. Gray matter density values of the cerebellar vermis cluster in patients groups were positively correlated with cognitive severity. Decreased gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum may underlie early psychosis and serve as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia with cognitive deficits.

  6. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Reduced Gray Matter Volume Is Associated With Poorer Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Performance in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Brickman, Adam M; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients require assistance with instrumental activities of daily living in part because of the high rates of cognitive impairment in this population. Structural brain insult (eg, reduced gray matter volume) is theorized to underlie cognitive dysfunction in heart failure, although no study has examined the association among gray matter, cognition, and instrumental activities of daily living in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among gray matter volume, cognitive function, and functional ability in heart failure. A total of 81 heart failure patients completed a cognitive test battery and the Lawton-Brody self-report questionnaire to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify total gray matter and subcortical gray matter volume. Impairments in instrumental activities of daily living were common in this sample of HF patients. Regression analyses controlling for demographic and medical confounders showed that smaller total gray matter volume predicted decreased scores on the instrumental activities of daily living composite, with specific associations noted for medication management and independence in driving. Interaction analyses showed that reduced total gray matter volume interacted with worse attention/executive function and memory to negatively impact instrumental activities of daily living. Smaller gray matter volume is associated with greater impairment in instrumental activities of daily living in persons with heart failure, possibly via cognitive dysfunction. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the utility of clinical correlates of gray matter volume (eg, cognitive dysfunction) in identifying heart failure patients at risk for functional decline and determine whether interventions that target improved brain and cognitive function can preserve functional independence in this high-risk population.

  8. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  9. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  10. Growing Quality in Qualitative Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Macdonald PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methodologies are growing in popularity in health research; however, the integration of these methodologies into the clinical context is not always straightforward. In this article the author discusses some of the paradigmatic and methodological tensions that characterize the use of qualitative methodologies in clinical health research and showcase one solution to these tensions. The McGill Qualitative Health Research Group is a scholarly group of qualitative health researchers working together to advance a qualitative research agenda in clinical disciplines.

  11. Mapping Nutrients Crucial to a Growing Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowski, J. R.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Over two billion people worldwide suffer from inadequate levels of micronutrients, mainly in the form of iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. With a growing population, producing crops that contain high amounts of these micronutrients is of increased importance. Addressing these deficiencies sustainably requires a detailed examination of the agricultural production of the micronutrients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not enough of these important nutrients are produced to meet the nutritional needs of the global population, and to determine where nutrients are most deficient. We used area specific crop production data to map where and how much iron and vitamin A are produced from major crops.

  12. Growing in darkness: The etiolated lupin hypocotyls

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinus albus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces ...

  13. Fine-grained Goethite as a Precursor for Martian Gray Hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotch, T. D.; Morris, R. V.; Sharp, T. G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Several isolated deposits of gray, crystalline hematite on Mars were discovered using data returned from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Christensen et al. provided five testable hypotheses regarding the formation of crystalline hematite on Mars: 1) low-temperature precipitation of Fe oxides/hydroxides from standing, oxygenated, Fe-rich water, followed by subsequent alteration to gray hematite, 2) low-temperature leaching of iron-bearing silicates and other materials leaving a Fe-rich residue laterite-style weathering) which is subsequently altered to gray hematite, 3) direct precipitation of gray hematite from Fe-rich circulating fluids of hydrothermal or other origin, 4) formation of gray hematitic surface coatings during weathering, and 5) thermal oxidation of magnetite-rich lavas. Since this initial work, several authors have examined the hematite deposits to determine their formation mechanism. Lane et al. cited the absence of a 390/ cm absorption in the martian hematite spectrum as evidence for platy hematite grains. Their model for the formation of the deposits includes deposition of any of a variety of iron oxides or oxyhydroxides by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids, burial and metamorphosis to gray platy hematite grains, and exhumation in recent times. Based on a detailed geomorphic examination of the Sinus Meridiani region, Hynek et al. conclude that the most likely method of hematite formation was either emplacement by a hydrothermal fluid or oxidation of a magnetite-rich pyroclastic deposit. Similarly, Arvidson et al., favor a model involving the alteration of pyroclastic deposits by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids. Finally, based on geochemical modeling and an examination of Aram Chaos, Catling and Moore favor emplacement by hydrothermal fluids with a minimum temperature of 100 C. Comparison of the average martian hematite spectrum measured by TES to hematite emissivity spectra for a variety

  14. The High Intensity g-ray Source (HIgS) based on the OK-5/Duke storage ring FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir

    2001-10-01

    We report on the progress with the High Intensity g-ray Source (HIgS) facility and the plans. The OK-5/Duke electron storage ring free electron laser (FEL) is in operation since 1996 and generates coherent radiation in 193-730 nm (1.7 6.4 eV). The OK-4 FEL generates intense beams of g-ray via intra-cavity Compton back-scattering of FEL photons on ultra-relativistic electrons [1]. The HIgS facility, based on this source, provides the g-ray beams with tunable energy from 1.8 MeV to 58 MeV and total flux up to 5 108 g-rays per second for the extensive user program. A dedicated 100 m2 shielded g-ray vault for nuclear physics experiments and a 35-m long the g-ray beam-line were commissioned two years ago. A special shielded collimator hut is located at the end of the g-ray beam-line for reduction of the background in the g-ray vault. The generated g-ray beams are 100polarized. The high quality of the electron and FEL beam provides for high degree of correlation between the angle and the energy of g-rays. It allows monochromatizing the g-rays using simple on-axis collimators. The energy spread as low as 0.2Up-to-date, more than 2,000 hours of the beam time from the HIgS facility was provided for nuclear physics experiments. Within next four years, the HIgS facility will undergo major up-grades which will extend the available g-ray energy range to about 200 MeV and will We report on the present performance of the HIgS facility, its experimental program for next two years and the plans for HIgS facility up-grades. [1] V.N.Litvinenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. V. 78, N. 24 (1997) 4569. V.N. Litvinenko and J.M.J.Madey, SPIE vol. 2521 (1995) 55 [2] S.H.Park, Thesis, Duke University, January 2000

  15. Surface-based reconstruction and diffusion MRI in the assessment of gray and white matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffini, Matteo; Bergsland, Niels; LaganÃ, Marcella; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Tortorella, Paola; Rovaris, Marco; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in the application of nonconventional MRI techniques in furthering the understanding of multiple sclerosis pathogenic mechanisms, there are still many unanswered questions, such as the relationship between gray and white matter damage. We applied a combination of advanced surface-based reconstruction and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to address this issue. We found significant relationships between white matter tract integrity indices and corresponding cortical structures. Our results suggest a direct link between damage in white and gray matter and contribute to the notion of gray matter loss relating to clinical disability.

  16. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  17. Biofilm-growing intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Vuotto, Claudia; Cardines, Rita; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2012-07-01

    Sessile growth of anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract has been poorly investigated, so far. We recently reported data on the close association existing between biliary stent clogging and polymicrobial biofilm development in its lumen. By exploiting the explanted stents as a rich source of anaerobic bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Finegoldia, Prevotella, and Veillonella, the present study focused on their ability to adhere, to grow in sessile mode and to form in vitro mono- or dual-species biofilms. Experiments on dual-species biofilm formation were planned on the basis of the anaerobic strains isolated from each clogged biliary stent, by selecting those in which a couple of anaerobic strains belonging to different species contributed to the polymicrobial biofilm development. Then, strains were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal if they are able to grow as mono- and/or dual-species biofilms. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability to adhere and form mono/dual-species biofilms exhibited by strains belonging to the species Bacteroides oralis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium baratii, Clostridium fallax, Clostridium bifermentans, Finegoldia magna, and Fusobacterium necrophorum. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracheotomy in growing rats: histological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Mônica Cecília Bochetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare morphologically three different types of tracheotomy in growing rats, applying microsurgical technique. METHODS: EPM-1 Wistar growing rats (n=57 weighing 88gm and aged 35 days were randomized in four groups, according tracheotomy incision type (longitudinal, transverse and tracheal segment excision, and sham group. Following intramuscular anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the trachea was exposed and incised, according to the group, and a hand-made endotracheal cannula was inserted into the organ, under sterile conditions. This cannula was removed after 7 days, and animals have been sacrificed 30 days later. Tracheas samples were submitted to histological study, stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome, evaluating fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and epidermoid metaplasia. RESULTS: There was more frequency of inflammatory infiltrate at the tracheal epithelium in the tracheal segment excision group (87% compared to the longitudinal (40% and transverse (36% incision groups (p=0.009. Evaluating epidermoid metaplasia, tracheal segment excision and the longitudinal groups presented 33% and 40%, respectively, compared to 0% of the transverse group (p=0.03. Concerning to fibrosis, in a global comparison (p=0.1 among the three groups there was no difference, however, compared to the longitudinal group the transverse group showed lower level of fibrosis (p=0.04. Sham group did not present any relevant morphologic alterations and it was used as reference pattern. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data show that tracheal segment excision promotes more epithelium aggression and transverse tracheal incision shows less morphologic alterations.

  19. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R B; Elissalde, M H; Kubena, L F; Weaver, E A; Corrier, D E; Clement, B A

    1992-10-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) was incorporated in the diets of growing gilts (mean body weight, 20.1 kg) at a concentration of 2.5 mg of OA/kg of feed and was fed continuously for 35 days. Humoral and cell-mediated immunologic measurements were evaluated to determine the effects of OA on immune function in swine. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, interleukin-2 production, total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, antibody response to chicken RBC, and macrophage activation were used to evaluate immune function. Gilts treated with OA had reduced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to PHA, reduced delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin, decreased stimulation index for lymphoblastogenesis, decreased interleukin-2 production when lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, and decreased number and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Differences were not observed for total and isotype immunoglobulin concentrations, or humoral hemagglutination (chicken RBC) titer. These data indicate that OA may suppress cell-mediated immune response in growing swine.

  20. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  1. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  2. Trichome morphology as an indicator of high rubber bearing guayule (Parthenium argentatum gray) plants in native populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, I.J.; Dhillon, S.P.; Hanson, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Parthenium argentatum Gray (guayule) and P. incanum (mariola) grow in close asociations in their native habitat of Mexico. Variation in rubber concentration and morphology of guayule has been known for a long time. Studies of over 75 native guayule plants indicated the presence of at least three prominent forms of guayule plants. Group I guayule plants have oblanceolate leaves and leaf margins are entire to two-toothed. T-shaped leaf trichomes are with centrally attached stalk and cap cell with two blunt ends. Plants in this group are high in rubber, containing on the average 17% rubber. Group II guayule plants have narrow elliptic leaves and leaf margins are entire to four-toothed. T-shaped trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and straight. Rubber content in these plants averages 10%. Group III guayule plants have ovate leaves and leaf margins are four- to eight-toothed. T-trichomes have an acentrally attached stalk and a cap cell with short end blunt, long end pointed and wavy or curved. These plants on the average contain 6% rubber. Morphological as well as biochemical data indicate the presence of mariola genes in the last two groups of plants and this has resulted in an increase in trichome length and a decrease in the rubber content. Group II guayule plants are of more common occurrence than the others. Based on the data presented here, high rubber bearing guayule plants in native stands can be easily selected by analyzing trichome morphology. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter; Hinchcliff, Ken; Demma, Nick; Callahan, Margaret; Dale, Bruce W.; Fox, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Wack, Ray; Kramer, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n=11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n=20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise activity level and therefore lifestyle affects physiologic variables in wild animals. An immediate consequence of this finding is that physiologic measurements obtained from a captive wild-animal population with reduced exercise activity level may not accurately reflect the normal physiologic state for free-ranging members of the same species.

  4. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.

  6. Voxel based morphometry reveals specific gray matter changes in primary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Karl; Mueller, Joerg; Schocke, Michael; Brenneis, Christian; Rinnerthaler, Martina; Seppi, Klaus; Trieb, Thomas; Wenning, Gregor K; Hallett, Mark; Poewe, Werner

    2007-08-15

    The present study assessed patterns of brain tissue alterations in different types of primary dystonia using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Nine patients with primary generalized dystonia (GD), 11 patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), and 11 patients with primary focal hand dystonia (FHD) as well as 31 age and gender-matched controls were included. When compared with healthy controls, patients with primary dystonia (n=31) showed gray matter volume increase bilaterally in the globus pallidus internus, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, as well as unilaterally in the left inferior parietal lobe. This is the first study using VBM in patients with different types of primary dystonia, showing a common pattern of gray matter changes. Copyright (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication.

  8. Production of large $^{41}$K Bose-Einstein condensates using D1 gray molasses

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We use D1 gray molasses to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation of a large number of $^{41}$K atoms in an optical dipole trap. By combining a new configuration of compressed-MOT with D1 gray molasses, we obtain a cold sample of $2.4\\times10^9$ atoms with a temperature as low as 42 $\\mu$K. After magnetically transferring the atoms into the final glass cell, we perform a two-stage evaporative cooling. A condensate with up to $1.2\\times10^6$ atoms in the lowest Zeeman state $|F=1,m_F=1\\rangle$ is achieved in the optical dipole trap. Furthermore, we observe two narrow Feshbach resonances in the lowest hyperfine channel, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... with frequent side-locked MA, i.e. visual aura consistently occurring in the same hemifield. METHODS: We applied a highly sensitive within-patient design to assess anatomical differences with both voxel-based morphometry and surface-based morphometry on a whole-hemisphere level and for specific anatomical...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...

  10. Gray Mold on Saintpaulia ionantha Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Moo Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea occurred on Saintpaulia ionantha in flower shop of the Jeonju city in Korea. Typical symptoms with brown water-soaked and rotting lesions were appeared on the flowers, leaves and petiole of infected plants. Many conidia spores appeared on the lesions under humid conditions. Colonies were grayish brown and sclerotial formation on potato dextrose agar. Conidia were one celled, mostly ellipsoidal or ovoid in shape, and were colorless to pale brown in color. The conidia were 7~14×5~9 μm in size. Based on pathogenicity and morphological characteristics of the isolated fungus, the causal fungus was identified as B. cinerea Persoon: Fries. Gray mold of S. ionantha was proposed to the name of this disease.

  11. Facebook usage on smartphones and gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Markowetz, Alexander; Blaszkiewicz, Konrad; Andone, Ionut; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Trendafilov, Boris; Eibes, Mark; Kolb, Julia; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2017-06-30

    A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebook usage of N=62 participants on their smartphones over the course of five weeks and correlated summary measures of Facebook use with gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens. It appeared, that in particular higher daily frequency of checking Facebook on the smartphone was robustly linked with smaller gray matter volumes of the nucleus accumbens. The present study gives additional support for the rewarding aspects of Facebook usage. Moreover, it shows the feasibility to include real life behavior variables in human neuroscientific research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and evolutionary history of melanism in North American gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tovi M; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Candille, Sophie I; Musiani, Marco; Greco, Claudia; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Randi, Ettore; Leonard, Jennifer A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A; Tang, Hua; Wayne, Robert K; Barsh, Gregory S

    2009-03-06

    Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.

  13. Serum biochemistry of captive and free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-12-01

    Normal serum biochemistry values are frequently obtained from studies of captive sedentary (zoo) or free-ranging (wild) animals. It is frequently assumed that values obtained from these two populations are directly referable to each other. We tested this assumption using 20 captive gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, and 11 free-ranging gray wolves in Alaska, USA. Free-ranging wolves had significantly (P wolves. Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of stress in domestic dogs) was detected in 3 of 11 free-ranging wolves and in 0 of 20 captive wolves (P = 0.037). This study provides clear evidence that serum biochemical differences can exist between captive and free-ranging populations of one species. Accordingly, evaluation of the health status of an animal should incorporate an understanding of the potential confounding effect that nutrition, activity level, and environmental stress could have on the factor(s) being measured.

  14. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P; Hinchcliff, K; Demma, N; Callahan, M; Dale, B; Fox, K; Adams, L; Wack, R; Kramer, L

    1998-07-01

    Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n = 11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n = 20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise activity level and therefore lifestyle affects physiologic variables in wild animals. An immediate consequence of this finding is that physiologic measurements obtained from a captive wild-animal population with reduced exercise activity level may not accurately reflect the normal physiologic state for free-ranging members of the same species.

  15. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, E.H. (INEEL POC); Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  16. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-10-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate ( R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling rate. More trials were carried out to find a good correlation between the hardness and phase composition. New proposed formulas show that the hardness of gray cast iron decreases as the amount of graphite phase increases, and increases as the amount of cementite increases. These formulas are developed to correlate the phase volume fraction to hardness. The results are compared with experimental data and show reasonable agreement.

  17. Fabrication of High-Strength Gray Cast Iron Using Permanent Magnet Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seung-Yeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed the manufacturing technology for high strength gray cast irons by using the spent permanent magnet scraps. The cast specimen inoculated by using a spent magnet scraps showed the excellent tensile strength up to 306MPa. This tensile strength value is 50MPa higher than that of the specimen cast without inoculation, and is similar to that of the specimen inoculated by using the expensive misch-metal. These superior mechanical properties are attributed to complex sulfides created during solidification that promote the formation and growth of Type-A graphite. It is therefore concluded that spent magnets scrap can provide an efficient and cost-effective inoculation agent for the fabrication of high-performance gray cast iron.

  18. [Cutaneous manifestations of cystic fibrosis in an infant: acrodermatitis enteropathica and gray hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmuch, G Paula; Chaparro, R Ximena; Fischer, S Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous manifestations at the time of CF diagnosis are rare. To describe the case of an infant with an unusual cutaneous presentation of cystic fibrosis. The case is presented of an infant with delayed physical growth at two months, and at the age of four months, presented with a skin rash and gray hair. Tests revealed the presence of hypoproteinemia and anemia, with the diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis being confirmed by genetic testing. The rash was completely resolved after pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. This is the second gray hair case reported in children with this disease. Metabolic diseases such as cystic fibrosis should be suspected in malnourished children who develop skin disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Hair repigmentation associated with the use of lenalidomide: graying may not be an irreversible process!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanu, Constantin A; Mitsis, Demytra; Alexandrescu, Doru T

    2013-06-01

    We report the first case of progressive hair repigmentation associated with the use of lenalidomide in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma. The influence of lenalidomide on follicular melanogenesis may involve removing the inhibitory influences of some cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, certain endocrine effects of lenalidomide on the hypophyseal-adrenal axis could explain its action on hair pigmentation. We further hypothesize that lenalidomide may be capable of stimulating migration and/or differentiation of melanocytes to promote repigmentation of gray hair follicles. Pending the clarification of how hair repigmentation occurs with lenalidomide, our observation materializes the concept that hair graying may not be an irreversible process, which opens avenues for targeted therapeutics in the fields of cosmetics and anti-aging medicine.

  20. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  1. Selection of halophilic bacteria for biological control of tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BERRADA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. is a serious threat for postharvest storage of tomatoes. Fifteen halophilic bacteria were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against B. cinerea: 11 Gram positive strains assigned to the genera Bacillus (9, Jeotgalibacillus (1 and Planococcus (1 and four Gram negative strains assigned to the genera Salinivibrio (1, Vibrio (2 and Photobacterium (1. In in vitro screening, 12 antifungal isolates secreted diffusible compounds, hydrolytic enzymes or volatile compounds. In vivo screening of the isolates, Bacillus safensis CCMM B582 and Bacillus oceanisediminis CCMM B584 showed permanent antagonistic activity on tomato fruits, with 100% inhibition of B. cinerea after 7 days. These two strains may offer potential for biological control of tomato gray mould.

  2. Differentiating Patients with Parkinson's Disease from Normal Controls Using Gray Matter in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Xie, Liang; Shen, Hui; Luo, Zhiguo; Fang, Peng; Hou, Yanan; Tang, Beisha; Wu, Tao; Hu, Dewen

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the world. Previous studies have focused on the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. To date, the cerebellum has not been systematically investigated in patients with PD. In the current study, 45 probable PD patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we used support vector machines combining with voxel-based morphometry to explore the cerebellar structural changes in the probable PD patients relative to healthy controls. The results revealed that the gray matter alterations were primarily located within the cerebellar Crus I, implying a possible important role of this region in PD. Furthermore, the gray matter alterations in the cerebellum could differentiate the probable PD patients from healthy controls with accuracies of more than 95 % (p cerebellum in the clinical diagnosis of PD.

  3. A novel quantum LSB-based steganography method using the Gray code for colored quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Farzadnia, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    As one of the prevalent data-hiding techniques, steganography is defined as the act of concealing secret information in a cover multimedia encompassing text, image, video and audio, imperceptibly, in order to perform interaction between the sender and the receiver in which nobody except the receiver can figure out the secret data. In this approach a quantum LSB-based steganography method utilizing the Gray code for quantum RGB images is investigated. This method uses the Gray code to accommodate two secret qubits in 3 LSBs of each pixel simultaneously according to reference tables. Experimental consequences which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the present schema shows good performance and also it is more secure and applicable than the previous one currently found in the literature.

  4. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  5. The correct use of the vernacular names for South American dolphins genus Sotalia Gray (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae O uso correto de nomes vernaculares dos botos sul-americanos do gênero Sotalia Gray (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Geise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the vernacular names for South American dolphins genus Sotalia Gray, 1866 is discussed in accordance to geographic characteristics of local people identification.O uso de nomes vernaculares para os botos sul-americanos do gênero Sotalia Gray, 1866 são discutidos de acordo com as características geográficas das identificações feitas pelas populações litorâneas.

  6. The correct use of the vernacular names for South American dolphins genus Sotalia Gray (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae) O uso correto de nomes vernaculares dos botos sul-americanos do gênero Sotalia Gray (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Geise

    2006-01-01

    The usage of the vernacular names for South American dolphins genus Sotalia Gray, 1866 is discussed in accordance to geographic characteristics of local people identification.O uso de nomes vernaculares para os botos sul-americanos do gênero Sotalia Gray, 1866 são discutidos de acordo com as características geográficas das identificações feitas pelas populações litorâneas.

  7. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidents of Gray Market Activity Among U.S. Exporters: Occurrences, Characteristics, and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew B Myers

    1999-01-01

    Each year, the value of gray market products sold throughout the world runs into the billions of dollars. Past research has stated that exporters of manufactured goods can hardly afford to ignore the possibility of this phenomenon due to the often severe effects on their sales volume, margins, and relationships with distributors and end-users. Through a survey of export managers of manufacturing firms, coupled with a series of qualitative interviews, this study investigates how organizational...

  9. Genetic Kinship Analyses Reveal That Gray's Beaked Whales Strand in Unrelated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Selina; Thompson, Kirsten F; Santure, Anna W; Constantine, Rochelle; Millar, Craig D

    2017-06-01

    Some marine mammals are so rarely seen that their life history and social structure remain a mystery. Around New Zealand, Gray's beaked whales (Mesoplodon grayi) are almost never seen alive, yet they are a commonly stranded species. Gray's are unique among the beaked whales in that they frequently strand in groups, providing an opportunity to investigate their social organization. We examined group composition and genetic kinship in 113 Gray's beaked whales with samples collected over a 20-year period. Fifty-six individuals stranded in 19 groups (2 or more individuals), and 57 whales stranded individually. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes (16 loci) were obtained for 103 whales. We estimated pairwise relatedness between all pairs of individuals and average relatedness within, and between, groups. We identified 6 mother-calf pairs and 2 half-siblings, including 2 whales in different strandings 17 years and 1500 km apart. Surprisingly, none of the adults stranding together were related suggesting that groups are not formed through the retention of kin. These data suggest that both sexes may disperse from their mothers, and groups consisting of unrelated subadults are common. We also found no instances of paternity within the groups. Our results provide the first insights into dispersal, social organization, and the mating system in this rarely sighted species. Why whales strand is still unknown but, in Gray's beaked whales, the dead can tell us much about the living. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; Mech, L David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n=534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent's size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits related

  11. Statistical analysis of human visual impressions on morphological image manipulation of gray scale textures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liang; Asano, Akira; Asano-Muraki, Chie

    2010-01-01

    A method of evaluating human visual impressions of gray scale textures using morphological manipulation is proposed. To study the effects of textural features on human Kansei, we introduced a texture analysis method based on mathematical morphology. Kansei is a Japanese word for sensibility or emotion. Kansei engineering is an approach to connect human sensibility with engineering applications. The proposed method allows us to manipulate global and local properties of a texture separately. Va...

  12. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine.

  13. Exercise boosts hippocampal volume by preventing early age-related gray matter loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Auer, Matthias K; Zheng, Lei; Steinle, Jörg; Hörner, Felix; Sartorius, Alexander; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Recently, a larger hippocampus was found in exercising mice and men. Here we studied the morphological underpinnings in wheel running mice by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that running increases hippocampal volume by inhibiting an early age-related gray matter loss. Disruption of neurogenesis-related neuroplasticity by focalized irradiation is sufficient to block positive effects of exercise on macroscopic brain morphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigation of lithography performance using multipass gray (MPG) with MEBES 5000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.; Alexander, David W.; Chabala, Jan M.; Coleman, Thomas P.; Hartglass, Caryn; Lu, Maiying; Sauer, Charles A.; Weaver, Suzanne

    1999-04-01

    Leading edge technologies require continually shrinking design grids due to the demands of decreasing minimum feature size and higher resolution. Using conventional raster-scanned exposure tools to place these patterns on photomasks result in longer write times, because linear decreases in address result in exponential increases in write time. This phenomenon can be compensated for by changes in writing strategies. Multipass gray is one method of drastically improving throughput at small addresses while retaining lithographic quality.

  15. Adjusting for global effects in voxel-based morphometry: gray matter decline in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Cusack, Rhodri; Henson, Richard N A

    2012-04-02

    Results from studies that have examined age-related changes in gray matter based on structural MRI scans have not always been consistent. Reasons for this variability likely include small or unevenly-distributed samples, different methods for tissue class segmentation and spatial normalization, and the use of different statistical models. Particularly relevant to the latter is the method of adjusting for global (total) gray matter when making inferences about regionally-specific changes. In the current study, we use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the impact of these methodological choices in assessing age-related changes in gray matter volume in a sample of 420 adults evenly distributed between the ages of 18-77 years. At a broad level, we replicate previous findings, showing age-related gray matter decline in nearly all parts of the brain, with particularly rapid decline in inferior regions of frontal cortex (e.g., insula and left inferior frontal gyrus) and the central sulcus. Segmentation was improved by increasing the number of tissue classes and using less age-biased templates, and registration was improved by using a diffeomorphic flow-based algorithm (DARTEL) rather than a "constrained warp" approach. Importantly, different approaches to adjusting for global effects--not adjusting, Local Covariation, Global Scaling, and Local Scaling--significantly affected regionally-specific estimates of age-related decline, as demonstrated by ranking age effects across anatomical ROIs. Split-half cross-validation showed that, on average, Local Covariation explained a greater proportion of age-related variance across these ROIs than did Global Scaling. Nonetheless, the appropriate choice for global adjustment depends on one's assumptions and specific research questions. More generally, these results emphasize the importance of being explicit about the assumptions underlying key methodological choices made in VBM analyses and the inferences that follow. Copyright

  16. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-08-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.

  17. Side of Limb-Onset Predicts Laterality of Gray Matter Loss in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Qiuli Zhang; Cuiping Mao; Jiaoting Jin; Chen Niu; Lijun Bai; Jingxia Dang; Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported regarding the lateralized brain abnormality in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the probable lateralization of gray matter (GM) atrophy in ALS patients. We focused on the relationship between the asymmetry in decreased GM volume and the side of disease onset in patients with limb-onset. Structural imaging evaluation of normalized atrophy (SIENAX) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to asse...

  18. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2017-01-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n = 534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent’s size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits

  19. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa M. Woldstad; Dullen, Kimberly N.; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.

    2014-01-01

    Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) was first documented on Alaska (USA) gray wolves (Canis lupus) on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hid...

  20. On a skull of Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846) (Cetacea, Globicephalinae) from Sénégal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Cadenat, J.

    1968-01-01

    L’examen d’un crâne, dont les mensurations et les dessins sont donnés dans cet article, trouvé à Niodor, Iles du Saloum, République du Sénégal, en 1966, a permis d’identifier un Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846). Cette espèce, assez mal connue, a été trouvée seulement une ou deux fois dans l’Océan

  1. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bailey, A. J.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Bolton, P. F.; Bullmore, E. T.; Carrington, S.; Chakrabarti, B.; Daly, E. M.; Deoni, S. C.; Ecker, C.; Happe, F.; Henty, J.; Jezzard, P.; Johnston, P.; Jones, D. K.; Lai, M. C.; Lombardo, M. V.; Madden, A.; Mullins, D.; Murphy, C. M.; Murphy, D. G.; Pasco, G.; Sadek, S.; Spain, D.; Steward, R.; Suckling, J.; Wheelwright, S.; Williams, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of “cortical separation distances” to assess the global and local intrinsic “wiring costs” of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical “connectivity” in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms. PMID:23878213

  2. Gray matter alterations in chronic pain: A network-oriented meta-analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have attempted to characterize morphological brain changes due to chronic pain. Although it has repeatedly been suggested that longstanding pain induces gray matter modifications, there is still some controversy surrounding the direction of the change (increase or decrease in gray matter and the role of psychological and psychiatric comorbidities. In this study, we propose a novel, network-oriented, meta-analytic approach to characterize morphological changes in chronic pain. We used network decomposition to investigate whether different kinds of chronic pain are associated with a common or specific set of altered networks. Representational similarity techniques, network decomposition and model-based clustering were employed: i to verify the presence of a core set of brain areas commonly modified by chronic pain; ii to investigate the involvement of these areas in a large-scale network perspective; iii to study the relationship between altered networks and; iv to find out whether chronic pain targets clusters of areas. Our results showed that chronic pain causes both core and pathology-specific gray matter alterations in large-scale networks. Common alterations were observed in the prefrontal regions, in the anterior insula, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, post- and pre-central gyri and inferior parietal lobule. We observed that the salience and attentional networks were targeted in a very similar way by different chronic pain pathologies. Conversely, alterations in the sensorimotor and attention circuits were differentially targeted by chronic pain pathologies. Moreover, model-based clustering revealed that chronic pain, in line with some neurodegenerative diseases, selectively targets some large-scale brain networks. Altogether these findings indicate that chronic pain can be better conceived and studied in a network perspective.

  3. Functionally Selective Signaling for Morphine and Fentanyl Antinociception and Tolerance Mediated by the Rat Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael M.; Reid, Rachel A.; Saville, Kimber A.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally selective signaling appears to contribute to the variability in mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of opioids. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/Protein kinase C (PKC) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation on both the expression and development of tolerance to morphine and fentanyl microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat. Microinjection of morphine or fentanyl into the periaqueductal gray produced a dose-dependent increase in hot plate latency. Microinjection of the non-specific GRK/PKC inhibitor Ro 32-0432 into the periaqueductal gray to block mu-opioid receptor phosphorylation enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine but had no effect on fentanyl antinociception. Microinjection of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 had no effect on morphine or fentanyl antinociception, but blocked the expression of tolerance to repeated morphine microinjections. In contrast, a microinjection of Ro 32-0432 blocked the expression of fentanyl, but not morphine tolerance. Repeated microinjections of Ro 32-0432 blocked the development of morphine tolerance and inhibited fentanyl antinociception whether rats were tolerant or not. Repeated microinjections of SP600125 into the periaqueductal gray blocked the development of tolerance to both morphine and fentanyl microinjections. These data demonstrate that the signaling molecules that contribute to tolerance vary depending on the opioid and methodology used to assess tolerance (expression vs. development of tolerance). This signaling difference is especially clear for the expression of tolerance in which JNK contributes to morphine tolerance and GRK/PKC contributes to fentanyl tolerance. PMID:25503060

  4. Gray-box reservoir routing to compute flow propagation in operational forecasting and decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, Euan; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting and decision support systems for flood mitigation and the daily management of water resources require computationally efficient flow routing models. If backwater effects do not play an important role, a hydrological routing approach is often a pragmatic choice. It offers a reasonable accuracy at low computational costs in comparison to a more detailed hydraulic model. This work presents a nonlinear reservoir routing scheme as well as its implementation for the flow propagation between the hydro reservoir Três Marias and a downstream inundation-affected city Pirapora in Brazil. We refer to the model as a gray-box approach due to the identification of the parameter k by a data-driven approach for each reservoir of the cascade, instead of using estimates based on physical characteristics. The model reproduces the discharge at the gauge Pirapora, using 15 reservoirs in the cascade. The obtained results are compared with the ones obtained from the full-hydrodynamic model SOBEK. Results show a relatively good performance for the validation period, with a RMSE of 139.48 for the gray-box model, while the full-hydrodynamic model shows a RMSE of 136.67. The simulation time for a period of several years for the full-hydrodynamic took approximately 64s, while the gray-box model only required about 0.50s. This provides a significant speedup of the computation by only a little trade-off in accuracy, pointing at the potential of the simple approach in the context of time-critical, operational applications. Key-words: flow routing, reservoir routing, gray-box model

  5. Recommendations for the Use of Automated Gray Matter Segmentation Tools: Evidence from Huntington’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate segmentation tool is a challenge facing any researcher aiming to measure gray matter (GM) volume. Many tools have been compared, yet there is currently no method that can be recommended above all others; in particular, there is a lack of validation in disease cohorts. This work utilizes a clinical dataset to conduct an extensive comparison of segmentation tools. Our results confirm that all tools have advantages and disadvantages, and we present ...

  6. Sex-specific Gray Matter Volume Differences in Females with Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques,...

  7. Using sperm morphometry and multivariate analysis to differentiate species of gray Mazama

    OpenAIRE

    Cursino, Marina Suzuki; Duarte, Jos? Maur?cio Barbanti

    2016-01-01

    There is genetic evidence that the two species of Brazilian gray Mazama, Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama nemorivaga, belong to different genera. This study identified significant differences that separated them into distinct groups, based on characteristics of the spermatozoa and ejaculate of both species. The characteristics that most clearly differentiated between the species were ejaculate colour, white for M.?gouazoubira and reddish for M.?nemorivaga, and sperm head dimensions. Multivariate...

  8. Disability-Specific Atlases of Gray Matter Loss in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie-Graham, A; Kurth, F.; Itoh, Y.; Wang, H-J; Montag, MJ; Elashoff, R.; Voskuhl, RR

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by progressive gray matter (GM) atrophy that strongly correlates with clinical disability. However, whether localized GM atrophy correlates with specific disabilities in patients with MS remains unknown.To understand the association between localized GM atrophy and clinical disability in a biology-driven analysis of MS.In this cross-sectional study, magnetic resonance images were acquired from 133 women with relapsing-remitting MS and analyzed using vo...

  9. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, So Young; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyung; Ha, Tae Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I.; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2008-01-01

    To examine regional abnormalities in the brains of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), we assessed the gray matter (GM) density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We compared magnetic resonance images (MRIs) acquired from 71 OCD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched normal controls and examined the relationship between GM density and various clinical variables in OCD patients. We also investigated whether GM density differs among the subtypes of OCD compared to healthy cont...

  11. Gene by Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-12-05

    Chronic cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. We therefore examined variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype in cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls.

  12. Wearing Quality of Austenitic, Duplex Cast Steel, Gray and Spheroidal Graphite Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrowski S.

    2012-01-01

    The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex”) cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainiti...

  13. Modification of gray iron produced by induction melting with barium strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelevskaya, G.; Feoktistov, A. V.; Selyanin, I. F.; Kutsenko, A. I.; Kutsenko, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides analysis of results of gray iron experimental melts in induction furnace and the following melt modification with barium-strontium carbonate (BSC-2). It is shown that modification positively affects mechanical and casting properties and as-cast iron structure. It was established that BSC-2 granulated immediately prior to use has greater impact on melt than BSC-2 of the same faction, supplied by the manufacturer.

  14. Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yazvenko, S. B.; McDonald, T. L.; Blokhin, S. A.; Johnson, S. R.; Melton, H. R.; Newcomer, M. W.; Nielson, R.; Wainwright, P. W.

    2007-01-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August? September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located in the vicinity of the seismic survey. This paper presents data...

  15. The Relation between Gray Matter Morphology and Divergent Thinking in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Janna; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P; Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-sp...

  16. Components of the cannabinoid system in the dorsal periaqueductal gray are related to resting heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Caron; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Seagard, Jeanne L.; Hopp, Francis A.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether variations in endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) are associated with baseline autonomic nerve activity, heart rate, and blood pressure. Blood pressure was recorded telemetrically in rats, and heart rate and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability were determined. Natural variations from animal to animal provided a range of baseline values for analysis. Transcript levels of endocannabinoid signaling c...

  17. Gray and white matter imaging: A biomarker for cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cortical and white matter changes that underlie cognitive impairment in patients with incident Parkinson's disease (PD) disease using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Newly diagnosed nondemented PD (n = 125) and control subjects (n = 50) were recruited from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study and completed cognitive assessments and 3T structural and diffusion tensor MR imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the relationship between gray matter volume and cognitive ability. Microstructural white matter changes were assessed with diffusion tensor imaging measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity using tract-based spatial statistics. Increased mean diffusivity was observed bilaterally in subjects with PD, relative to controls (P = 0.019). Increased mean diffusivity was associated with performance on the semantic fluency and Tower of London tasks in frontal and parietal white matter tracts, including the cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There was no difference in total gray matter volume between groups; however, bilateral reductions in frontal and parietal gray matter volume were associated with reduced performance on measures of executive function in PD subjects. At the earliest stages of PD, regionally specific increases in central white matter mean diffusivity are present and suggest early axonal damage. Such changes are not accompanied by significant gray matter volume loss and are consistent with proposed models of pathological progression of the disease. Structural MRI, especially diffusion tensor imaging analysis, offers potential as a noninvasive biomarker reflecting cognitive impairment in PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Cortical Gray and Adjacent White Matter Demonstrate Synchronous Maturation in Very Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Smyser, Tara A.; Christopher D Smyser; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Inder, Terrie E.; Neil, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and functional gradients of development have been described for the maturation of cerebral gray and white matter using histological and radiological approaches. We evaluated these patterns in very preterm (VPT) infants using diffusion tensor imaging. Data were obtained from 3 groups: 1) 22 VPT infants without white matter injury (WMI), of whom all had serial MRI studies during the neonatal period, 2) 19 VPT infants with WMI, of whom 3 had serial MRI studies and 3) 12 healthy, term-bor...

  19. Multiple sclerosis: white and gray matter damage associated with balance deficit detected at static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Sbardella, Emilia; Raz, Eytan; Cercignani, Mara; Tona, Francesca; Bozzali, Marco; Petsas, Nikolaos; Pozzilli, Carlo; Pantano, Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    To combine two unbiased (ie, without any a priori hypothesis) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging processing approaches, tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry, to investigate the relationship between white matter and gray matter damage and computer-based measures of balance impairment assessed at static posturography in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty-five ambulatory patients with MS (34 women, 11 men) and 25 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed by using a force platform to compute the displacement (in millimeters) of the body center of pressure in 30 seconds. In a separate session, patients underwent MR imaging at 3 T, including a dual-echo fast spin-echo sequence, a T1-weighted volume sequence, and a diffusion-tensor imaging sequence. T2 lesion volumes were assessed by using a semiautomated technique. Tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry were used for the white and gray matter analyses, respectively, to correlate force platform measures with diffusion-tensor imaging parameters and regional gray matter volumes, adjusting for the patients' sex, age, disease duration, and lesion volume. Patients with MS had worse postural stability, widespread alterations in most white matter bundles, and gray matter atrophy in several brain regions compared with control subjects. In patients with MS, balance impairment was correlated with worse diffusion-tensor imaging parameters along the cerebellar connections and supratentorial associative white matter bundles (P matter atrophy of the superior lobules of the cerebellum (IV, V, VI), and lobules VIII also correlated with worse posturometric values (P < .05, family-wise error corrected). Imbalance due to MS appears to be related to the disconnection between the spinal cord, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex, which in turn produces atrophy of the sensory motor cerebellar regions

  20. Elastic plastic analysis of growing cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R; Drugan, W J; Sham, T L

    1979-05-01

    The elastic--plastic stress and deformation fields at the tip of a crack which grows in an ideally plastic solid under plane strain, shows small scale yielding conditions. Results of an asymptotic analysis suggests the existence of a crack tip stress state similar to that of the classical Prandtl field, but containing a zone of elastic unloading between the centered fan region and the trailing constant stress plastic region. The near tip expression for the rate of opening displacement delta at distance r from the growing tip is found to have the form delta-. = ..cap alpha.. J-./sigma/sub o/ + ..beta..(sigma/sub o//E) a-. ln(R/r) but the presence of the elastic wedge causes ..beta.. to have the revised value of 5.08 (for Poisson ratio ..nu.. = 0.3); also, (a = crack length, sigma/sub o/ = yield strength, E = elastic modulus, and J denotes the far-field value), and (1-..nu../sup 2/)K/sup 2//E for the small scale yielding conditions considered. The parameters ..cap alpha.. and R cannot be determined from the asymptotic analysis, but comparisons with finite element solutions suggest that, for small amounts of growth, ..cap alpha.. is approximately the same for stationary and growing cracks, and R scales approximately with the size of the plastic zone, being about 15% to 30% larger. For large scale yielding, a similar form applies with possible variations in ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., in cases which maintain triaxial constraint at the crack tip. In the fully yielded case R is expected to be proportional to the dimension of the uncracked ligament. Model crack growth criterion requiring a critical delta at some fixed r from the tip, is re-examined in light of the more accurate solution. Results suggest that the J versus ..delta..a relation describing growth is dependent on the extent of yielding. It is suggested that this dependency might be small for highly ductile materials, provided that a similar triaxial constraint is maintained in all cases.