Cannon, Tyrone; Moffitt, Terrie; Brennan, Patricia; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura
Presents the obituary of Sarnoff A. Mednick (1928 -2015). Sarnoff A. Mednick was considered among the most important figures in psychopathology research in his generation. He pioneered the high-risk research design and made numerous contributions to our understanding of creativity and of the origins of schizophrenia and criminality. The son of Jewish immigrants, Mednick was born on January 27, 1928, and was raised in the Bronx in New York City, New York. He earned a bachelor's degree from the City College of New York in 1948 and a master's degree from Columbia University. In 1954, he earned his doctorate in psychology from Northwestern University. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, he was appointed an instructor at Harvard University and then became a visiting assistant research professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1958 -1959). In 1968, he became a professor at the New School for Social Research in New York, where he taught until 1977, when he joined the faculty at the University of Southern California until his retirement in August 2008. Mednick, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Southern California, died of natural causes on April 10, 2015, in Toledo, Ohio. He was 87. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
This paper summarizes an analysis of the Video Surveillance and Monitoring (VSAM) research being conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and the Sarnoff Corporation under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency...
... USAJobs Home » Statistics and Data » Low Vision Listen Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...
Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.; Whitman, S.R.
VISION is a flexible and extensible object-oriented programming environment for prototyping computer-vision and pattern-recognition algorithms. This year's effort focused on three major areas: documentation, graphics, and support for new applications
The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.
Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...
Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi
In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.
This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...
A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to…
Bonde, Inger Ellekilde
In the post-war period a heterogeneous group of photographers articulate a new photographic approach to the city as motive in a photographic language that combines intense formalism with subjective vision. This paper analyses the photobook Fragments of a City published in 1960 by Danish photograp...
Grodal, Torben Kragh
Embodied Visions presents a groundbreaking analysis of film through the lens of bioculturalism, revealing how human biology as well as human culture determine how films are made and experienced. Throughout the book the author uses the breakthroughs of modern brain science to explain general featu...
... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan
The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...
Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.
Ren, Chunye; Parel, Jean-Marie A.
Scientists have searched every discipline to find effective methods of treating blindness, such as using aids based on conversion of the optical image, to auditory or tactile stimuli. However, the limited performance of such equipment and difficulties in training patients have seriously hampered practical applications. A great edification has been given by the discovery of Foerster (1929) and Krause & Schum (1931), who found that the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex evokes the perception of a small spot of light called `phosphene' in both blind and sighted subjects. According to this principle, it is possible to invite artificial vision by using stimulation with electrodes placed on the vision neural system, thereby developing a prosthesis for the blind that might be of value in reading and mobility. In fact, a number of investigators have already exploited this phenomena to produce a functional visual prosthesis, bringing about great advances in this area.
There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.
Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.
Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.
... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not correctable ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety of ...
... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...
The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.
Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential
... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...
... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...
... Your Rights Training Resources Workplace Technology CareerConnect Stories Working as a Senior with Vision Loss For Seniors Age-Related Vision ... Changes Health and Aging Retirement Living Continuing to Work as a Senior with Vision Loss Get Connected About VisionAware Join ...
... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lowvision.html MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips We are sorry. MedlinePlus no longer maintains the For Low Vision Users page. You will still find health resources ...
Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).
Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.
The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses
Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessment of vision and prescription of low vision devices are part of a comprehensive low vision service. Other components of the service include training the person affected by low vision in use of vision and other senses, mobility, activities of daily living, and support for education, employment or leisure activities. Specialist vision rehabilitation agencies have services to provide access to information (libraries) and activity centres for groups of people with impaired vision.
Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.
JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.
In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such
AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the
Jain, A. K.; Dorai, C.
Computer vision has emerged as a challenging and important area of research, both as an engineering and a scientific discipline. The growing importance of computer vision is evident from the fact that it was identified as one of the "Grand Challenges" and also from its prominent role in the National Information Infrastructure. While the design of a general-purpose vision system continues to be elusive machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application elusive, machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application domains. Building a practical vision system requires a careful selection of appropriate sensors, extraction and integration of information from available cues in the sensed data, and evaluation of system robustness and performance. The authors discuss and demonstrate advantages of (1) multi-sensor fusion, (2) combination of features and classifiers, (3) integration of visual modules, and (IV) admissibility and goal-directed evaluation of vision algorithms. The requirements of several prominent real world applications such as biometry, document image analysis, image and video database retrieval, and automatic object model construction offer exciting problems and new opportunities to design and evaluate vision algorithms.
resonated with key tenets of social gospel theology, which imbued her texts with an overarching vision of humanity’s progressive history. It is suggested that Addams’ vision of a major transition in industrial society, one involving a BChristian renaissance^ and individuals’ transformation into Bsocialized...
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David
The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...
Florack, L.M.J.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.
geometric model is proposed for an artificial foveal vision system, and its plausibility in the context of biological vision is explored. The model is based on an isotropic, scale invariant two-form that describes the spatial layout of receptive fields in the the visual sensorium (in the biological
The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...
Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume
Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian
Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.
1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system
Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette
Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes.
California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...
Randolph, Susan A
With the increased use of electronic devices with visual displays, computer vision syndrome is becoming a major public health issue. Improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace and improved visual comfort.
INSA vision: Contribution to the world peace via advanced and excellent nuclear nonproliferation and security education and training; Objectives: Provide practical education and training programs; Raise internationally-recognized experts; Improve awareness about nuclear nonproliferation and security
Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.
Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto
A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments.
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth
IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...
Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.
This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.
Widergren, Steven E.; Knight, Mark R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Narang, David; Martin, Maurice; Nordman, Bruce; Khandekar, Aditya; Hardy, Keith S.
The Interoperability Strategic Vision whitepaper aims to promote a common understanding of the meaning and characteristics of interoperability and to provide a strategy to advance the state of interoperability as applied to integration challenges facing grid modernization. This includes addressing the quality of integrating devices and systems and the discipline to improve the process of successfully integrating these components as business models and information technology improve over time. The strategic vision for interoperability described in this document applies throughout the electric energy generation, delivery, and end-use supply chain. Its scope includes interactive technologies and business processes from bulk energy levels to lower voltage level equipment and the millions of appliances that are becoming equipped with processing power and communication interfaces. A transformational aspect of a vision for interoperability in the future electric system is the coordinated operation of intelligent devices and systems at the edges of grid infrastructure. This challenge offers an example for addressing interoperability concerns throughout the electric system.
Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D
There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be
Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C
To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.
Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems
NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.
Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....
easily help to address this visual disability.7 An average cost of near vision spectacle in Ghana is approximately. $ 5.8 Near-vision spectacle could be dispensed as single vision, bifocal or progressive eye glasses to meet near vi- sion needs.2. Recent evidence suggests that the ageing population in. Ghana is increasing ...
While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.
Matchko, Roy M.; Gerhart, Grant R.
This paper presents a simple mathematical performance model of the human foveal vision system based on an extensive analysis of the Blackwell-McCready (BM) data set. It includes a closed-form equation, the (ABC)t law, that allows the analyst to predict the entire range of BM threshold data. Relationships are derived among the four fundamental parameters of foveal vision: target area A, background luminance B, threshold contrast C, and stimulus presentation time t. Hyperbolic-curve fits on log-log plots of the data lead to the well-known laws of Ricco, Blackwell, Weber and Fechner, and Bloch. This paper unifies important relationships associated with target and background scene parameters as they relate to the human foveal vision process. The process of detecting a BM target, using foveal vision, is reduced to the total temporal summation of light energy modified by a multiplicative energy ratio. A stochastic model of human observer performance is presented in terms of a cumulative Gaussian distribution, which is a function of the apparent and BM contrast threshold values.
... missing areas. If any lines appear distorted or broken, note their location on the grid using a pen or pencil. DISTANCE VISION This is the standard eye chart doctors use, which has been adapted for home use. The chart is attached to a wall ...
MANGRUM, CHARLES T.
SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…
Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.
The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…
Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter
This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...
Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L
During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...
Andersson, Jonas E
and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...
By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...
Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela
Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…
Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots
This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with
Pillai, Rekha Sukamar
This Laboratory vision and strategy presents INL's vision and strategy for the Laboratory and is our introduction to a special place dedicated to improving our nation's energy security future.
What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...
Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit
The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.
... Cataract Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ... eyesight. How do I know if I have low vision? Below are some signs of low vision. Even ...
Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place
Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...
Van Dijk, B
Full Text Available engagement Siemens Centre of Knowledge Interchange (CKI) • Partnership and collaboration with Universities • Industry specific • Multi-million investment, annually Siemens mentors • All Siemens employees actively encouraged to engage with schools.... Siemens is an engineering company. Vision 2020 “we make what matters” including the next generation of engineers make a difference, change the world. > €20M annual donations to education. Siemens ownership culture 348,000 employees...
Full Text Available We need good quality information to be able to carry out our eye care programmes in support of VISION 2020, to measure (and improve our performance, and to advocate for the resources and support we need to succeed. Much of this information can be collected, analysed, and used as part of our daily work, as many of the articles in this issue show.
This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.
Trachtman, Joseph N
For nearly 2 millennia, signs of hypothalamic-related vision disorders have been noticed as illustrated by paintings and drawings of that time of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome. It was not until the 1800s, however, that specific connections between the hypothalamus and the vision system were discovered. With a fuller elaboration of the autonomic nervous system in the early to mid 1900s, many more pathways were discovered. The more recently discovered retinohypothalamic tracts show the extent and influence of light stimulation on hypothalamic function and bodily processes. The hypothalamus maintains its myriad connections via neural pathways, such as with the pituitary and pineal glands; the chemical messengers of the peptides, cytokines, and neurotransmitters; and the nitric oxide mechanism. As a result of these connections, the hypothalamus has involvement in many degenerative diseases. A complete feedback mechanism between the eye and hypothalamus is established by the retinohypothalamic tracts and the ciliary nerves innervating the anterior pole of the eye and the retina. A discussion of hypothalamic-related vision disorders includes neurologic syndromes, the lacrimal system, the retina, and ocular inflammation. Tables and figures have been used to aid in the explanation of the many connections and chemicals controlled by the hypothalamus. The understanding of the functions of the hypothalamus will allow the clinician to gain better insight into the many pathologies associated between the vision system and the hypothalamus. In the future, it may be possible that some ocular disease treatments will be via direct action on hypothalamic function. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imran Azam Butt
Full Text Available Vision is the ability to see with a clear perception of detail, colour and contrast, and to distinguish objects visually. Like any other sense, vision tends to deteriorate or diminish naturally with age. In most cases, reduction in visual capability can be corrected with glasses, medicine or surgery. However, if the visual changes occur because of an incurable eye disease, condition or injury, vision loss can be permanent. Many people around the world with permanent visual impairment have some residual vision which can be used with the help of low vision services, materials and devices. This paper describes different options for the enhancement of residual vision including optical and non-optical devices and providing training for the low vision client.
Full Text Available In this paper we shall present some observations on the role played by ecstasy in the activity of the seer, as he emerges in ancient Jewish and Iranian texts. In the Jewish religious literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, visions are described on almost every page, and visions were the most important means of divine revelation. Specific techniques for inducing the ecstatic state are not recorded in the Jewish sources. Some elements in the pattern leading up to the vision may be interpreted as parts of a method for inducing the final ecstasy; i.e. fasting and prayer. The Iranian material shows clearly the importance of ecstasy in the activity of the seer. The ecstatic seeing also means that the visionary shares with Ahura Mazda a divine quality, the "wisdom of omniscience". The granting of the "wisdom of omniscience" appears as a temporary and it conveys to the visionary a supernatural seeing. There is evidence to suggest that chanting was an important method of inducing ecstasy within the early Zoroastrian community. We do not find in the Jewish material a clear correspondence to the Iranian notion of "omniscient wisdom".
Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle
Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.
Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.
Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.
The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)
The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular
Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian
.... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...
Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian
.... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system
Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well
Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.
Doak, J. E. (Justin E.); Prasad, Lakshman
This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.
A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.
Pappas, Marjorie L.
In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…
... seeing close objects or reading small print. Many things can be done to help with these vision problems. Using reading ... t Working If vision problems seem to be getting worse and are of major concern to the ... what the results have been. Related Resources ...
The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels.
Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.
Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.
Breuel, Thomas M.
Functional programming is a style of programming that avoids the use of side effects (like assignment) and uses functions as first class data objects. Compared with imperative programs, functional programs can be parallelized better, and provide better encapsulation, type checking, and abstractions. This is important for building and integrating large vision software systems. In the past, efficiency has been an obstacle to the application of functional programming techniques in computationally intensive areas such as computer vision. We discuss and evaluate several 'functional' data structures for representing efficiently data structures and objects common in computer vision. In particular, we will address: automatic storage allocation and reclamation issues; abstraction of control structures; efficient sequential update of large data structures; representing images as functions; and object-oriented programming. Our experience suggests that functional techniques are feasible for high- performance vision systems, and that a functional approach simplifies the implementation and integration of vision systems greatly. Examples in C++ and SML are given.
Withey, Daniel J
Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...
This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.
Felicitas Pauss, Head of International Relations at CERN, greets Members of the Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST, who visited CERN on Friday 6 August. Members of Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology upon their arrival at CERN. KAUST, which is situated on Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coast, is a new, forward-looking co-educational and research university with a vision to become one of the world’s top ten science and technology Universities by 2020, stimulating the intellectual life of Saudi Arabia and making significant contributions to the country’s economy. CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer, is a member of the Board of Trustees. “I accepted the invitation to join the board because I believe that KAUST’s values can make a real difference to the region and to the world,” he said. The University’s mission statement emphasises achiev...
MANUEL ÁNGEL RÍO RUIZ
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta y evalúa las principales contribuciones de algunos de los estudios sobre etnicidad y relaciones étnicas en unas últimas décadas marcadas, frente a los pronósticos de diversas variantes de la teoría sociológica contemporánea, por una notable intensificación de los conflictos sociales articulados sobre lealtades y divisorias étnicas. Se exponen los avances y se identifican algunas de las lagunas y abusos que han presidido el debate entre las visiones primordialistas y construcitivistas de la etnicidad. Frente a los reduccionismos del primordialismo cultural y, tambien, de ciertas versiones encasilladas en la teoría constructivista, como los enfoques instrumentalistas radicales de la identidad étinica, se incide en la necesidad de considerar a la etnicidad como un fenómeno dual: una combinación de muchos aspectos única entre interés y adhesión primaria o afectiva, lo que dota a las asociaciones étnicas de una notable superioridad frente a otras formas de asociación colectiva como núcleo de movilización social.
Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg
The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....
Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...
Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles available in our Library...
Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles in the Army War College Library...
Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela
This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.
This edited book presents essential findings in the research fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision, with a primary focus on new research ideas and results for mathematical problems involved in computer vision systems. The book provides an international forum for researchers to summarize the most recent developments and ideas in the field, with a special emphasis on the technical and observational results obtained in the past few years.
Pollard, Tamara L; Simpson, John A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Keeffe, Jill E
To investigate barriers to accessing low vision services in Australia. Adults with a vision impairment (vision difficulties, duration of vision loss and satisfaction with vision and also examined issues of awareness of low vision services and referral to services. Focus groups were also conducted with vision impaired (Vision Australia Foundation. The discussions were recorded and transcribed. The questionnaire revealed that referral to low vision services was associated with a greater degree of vision loss (p = 0.002) and a greater self-perception of low vision (p = 0.005) but that referral was not associated with satisfaction (p = 0.144) or difficulties related to vision (p = 0.169). Participants with mild and moderate vision impairment each reported similar levels of difficulties with daily activities and satisfaction with their vision (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the level of difficulties experienced with daily activities between those with mild-moderate and severe vision impairment (p low vision services related to awareness of services among the general public and eye care professionals, understanding of low vision and the services available, acceptance of low vision, the referral process, and transport. In addition to the expected difficulties with lack of awareness of services by people with low vision, many people do not understand what the services provide and do not identify themselves as having low vision. Knowledge of these barriers, from the perspective of people with low vision, can now be used to guide the development and content of future health-promotion campaigns.
... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...
macula and fovea centralis. 4. Duality theory of vision-extends sensitivity of vision over 100,000 times (Fig. 12). ~Im Uilting Ullmlrage WVIVIWCentral...lowered night vision capa- bilities due to disease or degenerations . F. Hypoxia 1. Decrement of central vision due to 02 lack is quite small; such as, at
Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L
The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues.
Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.
Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.
Safal Khanal, BOptom; Pekila Lama, MD
Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a p...
Khan, Sarfaraz A.
Diabetic retinopathy is emerging as a major cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy calls for a multidisciplinary to the patients. Management of the patient requires a team work by the internist, diabetologist, dietician, ophthalmologist and low vision therapist. Diabetic retinopathy very often results in vision loss. It is important for ophthalmologist to recognize the importance of low vision rehabilitation in formulating appropriate treatment strategies. People with low vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy usually experience difficulty in daily life. Most people with diabetic retinopathy (who have remaining useful vision) can be helped with low vision devices. However, often one low vision device may not be suitable for all purposes. A comprehensive low vision evaluation is required to assess the person's current visual status, identify the goals and the visual needs, and then design an individualized vision rehabilitation program to meet these needs. (author)
Morais, Fábio Barreto
The Nobel Prize is the world's foremost honor for scientific advances in medicine and other areas. Founded by Alfred Nobel, the prizes have been awarded annually since 1901. We reviewed the literature on persons who have won or competed for this prize in subjects related to vision and ophthalmology. The topics were divided into vision physiology, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, disease mechanism, and miscellaneous categories. Allvar Gullstrand is the only ophthalmologist to win a Nobel Prize; he is also the only one to receive it for work in ophthalmology. Other ophthalmologists that have been nominated were Hjalmar Schiötz (tonometer), Karl Koller (topical anesthesia), and Jules Gonin (retinal detachment). Other scientists have won the prize for eye-related research: Ragnar Granit, Haldan Hartline and George Wald (chemistry and physiology of vision), and David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel (processing in the visual system). Peter Medawar is the only person born in Brazil to have won the Nobel Prize.
We present four models for describing a 3-D vision. Similar to the mirror scenario, our models allow 3-D vision with no need for additional accessories such as stereoscopic glasses or a hologram film. These four models are based on brain interpretation rather than pure objective encryption. We consider the observer "subjective" selection of a measuring device and the corresponding quantum collapse into one of his selected states, as a tool for interpreting reality in according to the observer concepts. This is the basic concept of our study and it is introduced in the first model. Other models suggests "soften" versions that might be much easier to implement. Our quantum interpretation approach contribute to the following fields. In technology the proposed models can be implemented into real devices, allowing 3-D vision without additional accessories. Artificial intelligence: In the desire to create a machine that exchange information by using human terminologies, our interpretation approach seems to be appropriate.
Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M
Humans with amblyopia have an asymmetry in binocular vision: neural signals from the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex by the fellow eye. The purpose of this study was to develop new models and methods for rebalancing this asymmetric binocular vision by manipulating the contrast and luminance in the two eyes. We measured the perceived phase of a cyclopean sinewave by asking normal and amblyopic observers to indicate the apparent location (phase) of the dark trough in the horizontal cyclopean sine wave relative to a black horizontal reference line, and used the same stimuli to measure perceived contrast by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to one eye. We varied both the relative contrast and luminance of the two eyes' inputs, in order to rebalance the asymmetric binocular vision. Amblyopic binocular vision becomes more and more asymmetric the higher the stimulus contrast or spatial frequency. Reanalysing our previous data, we found that, at a given spatial frequency, the binocular asymmetry could be described by a log-linear formula with two parameters, one for the maximum asymmetry and one for the rate at which the binocular system becomes asymmetric as the contrast increases. Our new data demonstrates that reducing the dominant eye's mean luminance reduces its suppression of the non-dominant eye, and therefore rebalances the asymmetric binocular vision. While the binocular asymmetry in amblyopic vision can be rebalanced by manipulating the relative contrast or luminance of the two eyes at a given spatial frequency and contrast, it is very difficult or even impossible to rebalance the asymmetry for all visual conditions. Nonetheless, wearing a neutral density filter before the dominant eye (or increasing the mean luminance in the non-dominant eye) may be more beneficial than the traditional method of patching the dominant eye for treating amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The
This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog
Christina Mosegaards barok-vision: om folder, ansigter og stilhed Det mest fængslende ved Christinas billeder er ved første øjekast den slående kontrast mellem roen i hendes ikonagtige ansigter og den dramatiske drejende bevægelse i stoffolderne. Men er de nu så radikalt forskellige i deres nat...... under sløret. Hun forbliver tro mod sin særegne vision i ikonerne, som i deres hudvæv gentager det opal-agtige og iriserende i marmorfoldens årer....
Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.
The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma
Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli
We have developed a range of vision rehabilitation devices and techniques for people with impaired vision due to either central vision loss or severely restricted peripheral visual field. We have conducted evaluation studies with patients to test the utilities of these techniques in an effort to document their advantages as well as their limitations. Here we describe our work on a visual field expander based on a head mounted display (HMD) for tunnel vision, a vision enhancement device for central vision loss, and a frequency domain JPEG/MPEG based image enhancement technique. All the evaluation studies included visual search paradigms that are suitable for conducting indoor controllable experiments.
Chen, Q.; Dijkstra, J.; Vries, de B.
Object recognition plays a major role in human behaviour research in the built environment. Computer based object recognition techniques using images as input are challenging, but not an adequate representation of human vision. This paper reports on the differences in object shape recognition
Full Text Available Considering the numbers of low vision patients who have been visited and treated in eye clinics, sometimes there is no exact treatment to increase their visual acuity. Therefore, the necessity to pay attention to vision rehabilitation for them is strongly felt. The aims of this essay are to define vision rehabilitation and its process in relevant centers (called Low Vision Clinic.The statistic of low vision people is reported and the method of collecting data is described. Standard definition, causes of low vision and related diseases (congenital, heredity, acquired… are explained. In addition, low vision aids and role of test and prescription are discussed. Sometimes ophthalmologists and optometrists can not exactly cure patient to raise their V.A because there is no treatment or drug or ordinary glasses. In these cases the clients should refer to low vision clinic and visit low vision specialist on vision rehabilitation process. After primary evaluation they are tested completely and at the end are prescribed proper low vision aid and also provided with advice in relation to career, education role and training techniques especially in children. At the last part of present dissertation, some examples are provided to show effectiveness of vision rehabilitation and low vision aid among the clients in different countries.
McWade, Jessica C.
This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…
Vistisen, Peter; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig
This paper examines the role of corporate vision videos as a possible setting for participation when exploring the future potentials (and pitfalls) of new technological concepts. We propose that through the recent decade’s rise web 2.0 platforms, and the viral effects of user sharing, the corpora...
Spencer, Simon; Ross, Malcolm
The paper describes a software system which uses microcomputers to aid in the assessment of functional vision in visually impaired students. The software also aims to be visually stimulating and to develop hand-eye coordination, visual memory, and cognitive abilities. (DB)
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.
We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused
Marcus, Laurence R.; Smith, Richard
This report presents an examination of the use of a participative model in the strategic planning process at a publicly-supported, comprehensive institution in the middle Atlantic region of the United States. Specific attention is given to the process of developing the vision statement, an undertaking of approximately 15 months preceding Board of…
This viewgraph presentation presents four working analog VLSI vision chips: (1) time-derivative retina, (2) zero-crossing chip, (3) resistive fuse, and (4) figure-ground chip; work in progress on computing motion and neuromorphic systems; and conceptual and practical lessons learned.
Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.
Watson, Andrew B.
To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.
Is the brain the result of (evolutionary) tinkering, or is it governed by natural law? How can we objectively know? What is the nature of consciousness? Vision research is spear-heading the quest and is making rapid progress with the help of new experimental, computational and theoretical tools. At the same time it is about to lead to important technical applications.
Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…
Machine learning is a crucial enabling technology for robotics, in particular for unlocking the capabilities afforded by visual sensing. This talk will present research within Prof Drummond’s lab that explores how machine learning can be developed and used within the context of Robotic Vision.
Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…
van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Boon, P.; Lange, G.; Paijmans, J.J.; Postma, E.
Until now, computer vision and machine learning techniques barely contributed to the archaeological domain. The use of these techniques can support archaeologists in their assessment and classification of archaeological finds. The paper illustrates the use of computer vision techniques for
Given the difficulty of achieving a global agreement to cope with the challenges of climate change or even a national resilience programme, an increasing number of initiatives are coming up from the local level for preemptively implementing policies to adapt to climate change or combat it. There are several towns and cities across the world that have taken this line (Copenhagen, Totnes, Vaexjoe, Bristol, etc.) but, as Jean Haentjens shows here, an effective response to climate change requires the development of a genuine strategic vision capable of mobilizing all the actors concerned. For the moment, the towns and cities that have managed to come up with such a vision are few and far between. After a -largely historical- review of the importance of vision in changes of urban paradigm, Jean Haentjens stresses how much twenty-first century eco-urbanism broadens the range of possible solutions to the many issues facing our towns and cities today. But, though digital innovations in fact offer new opportunities at the local level, we should nonetheless be wary of 'technological solutionism': the new technologies are tools which towns and cities can use to their advantage, but to become really 'smart' they have to develop a vision. After presenting a series of established or emerging urban models (the frugal city, the creative city, the leisure city and the eco-metropolis), along with the values and imaginative conceptions that underpin them, this article shows - without being unaware of the potential obstacles - how a town or city can produce and renew its strategic vision to reinvent itself and meet the challenges of today
REDDY SC; LOH KY
The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syn...
Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo
Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.
Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol
We describe a method of making a vision document tangible by attaching specific tactics and metrics to the key elements of the vision. We report on the development and early use of a "vision-tactics-metrics" table in a department of surgery. Use of the table centered the vision in the daily life of the department and its faculty, and facilitated cultural change.
Guy, Tiffany A.
In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…
It is argued that while the concept of "vision" in higher education has been met with disdain, criticism is based on misconceptions of vision's nature and role--that vision requires a charismatic administrator and that visionaries are dreamers. Educators and planners are urged to use imaginative thinking to connect the institution's and staff's…
Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.
Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…
Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C
Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...
Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna
The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col
Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph
The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft
Behal, Aman; Chung, Chi-Kit
The field of robotic vision has advanced dramatically recently with the development of new range sensors. Tremendous progress has been made resulting in significant impact on areas such as robotic navigation, scene/environment understanding, and visual learning. This edited book provides a solid and diversified reference source for some of the most recent important advancements in the field of robotic vision. The book starts with articles that describe new techniques to understand scenes from 2D/3D data such as estimation of planar structures, recognition of multiple objects in the scene using different kinds of features as well as their spatial and semantic relationships, generation of 3D object models, approach to recognize partially occluded objects, etc. Novel techniques are introduced to improve 3D perception accuracy with other sensors such as a gyroscope, positioning accuracy with a visual servoing based alignment strategy for microassembly, and increasing object recognition reliability using related...
Mumzhiu, Alex M.
Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.
Davies, E R
In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl
TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is
Moloney, David; Deniz, Oscar
For the past 40 years, computer scientists and engineers have been building technology that has allowed machine vision to be used in high value applications from factory automation to Mars rovers. However, until now the availability of computational power has limited the application of these technologies to niches with a strong enough need to overcome the cost and power hurdles. This is changing rapidly as the computational means have now become available to bring computer visi...
Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Perezagua, E. [Isofoton, Madrid (Spain); Demarcq, F.; Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Paris (France); Alferov, Z.I.; Andreev, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); De Segundo, K. [Shell International Renewables, London (United Kingdom); Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Solar GMBH und Co.KG, Marbach am Neckar (Germany); Goetzberger, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Itoiz Beunza, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Lojkowski, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Nowak, S. [NET Nowak nergy and Technology Ltd, St. Ursen (Switzerland); Vleuten, P. van der [Free Energy International, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Shell Solar, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
The report identifies the major technical and non-technical barriers to the uptake of the technology and outlines a strategic research agenda designed to ensure a breakthrough of PV (photovoltaics) and an increase in deployment in the Union and worldwide. The Council proposes the use of a European Technology Platform as a mechanism to implement the strategy and achieve the wider goals defined in the vision.
Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc
The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.
Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.
The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.
Volume 1 : This book is focused on the recent advances in computer vision methodologies and technical solutions using conventional and intelligent paradigms. The Contributions include: · Morphological Image Analysis for Computer Vision Applications. · Methods for Detecting of Structural Changes in Computer Vision Systems. · Hierarchical Adaptive KL-based Transform: Algorithms and Applications. · Automatic Estimation for Parameters of Image Projective Transforms Based on Object-invariant Cores. · A Way of Energy Analysis for Image and Video Sequence Processing. · Optimal Measurement of Visual Motion Across Spatial and Temporal Scales. · Scene Analysis Using Morphological Mathematics and Fuzzy Logic. · Digital Video Stabilization in Static and Dynamic Scenes. · Implementation of Hadamard Matrices for Image Processing. · A Generalized Criterion ...
This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours). · Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics · Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...
Bai, Yunli; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Ma, Xiaochen; Congdon, Nathan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Boswell, Matthew; Rozelle, Scott
This paper examines the prevalence of vision problems and the accessibility to and quality of vision care in rural China. We obtained data from 4 sources: 1) the National Rural Vision Care Survey; 2) the Private Optometrists Survey; 3) the County Hospital Eye Care Survey; and 4) the Rural School Vision Care Survey. The data from each of the surveys were collected by the authors during 2012. Thirty-three percent of the rural population surveyed self-reported vision problems. Twenty-two percent of subjects surveyed had ever had a vision exam. Among those who self-reported having vision problems, 34% did not wear eyeglasses. Fifty-four percent of those with vision problems who had eyeglasses did not have a vision exam prior to receiving glasses. However, having a vision exam did not always guarantee access to quality vision care. Four channels of vision care service were assessed. The school vision examination program did not increase the usage rate of eyeglasses. Each county-hospital was staffed with three eye-doctors having one year of education beyond high school, serving more than 400,000 residents. Private optometrists often had low levels of education and professional certification. In conclusion, our findings shows that the vision care system in rural China is inadequate and ineffective in meeting the needs of the rural population sampled.
Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A
State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.
Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi
Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883
Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.
Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914
Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia
Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.
Davies, E R
Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...
Full Text Available Vision is a prerequisite for efficient strategic planning and the effectiveness of a company. If a company has no vision (i.e., it does not know where it is heading, then it cannot build on advantages, eliminate weaknesses, exploit opportunities and avoid threats. The term ‘vision’ is often used in scientific and professional literature, but it should be noted that different authors understand the term differently and often discuss it inadequately. Many questions regarding the nature of vision arise in practice and in theory, and I answer many of them in my article. I define vision, explain the reasons for its necessity and provide its characteristics and content. I define mission and explain the main difference between vision and mission. The majority of the article presents the results of empirical research on the state of vision setting in Slovenian companies. The article highlights the way in which these terms are understood by top managers.
Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris
This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.
YN0Ve_jXBUC&pg=PR11&source=gbs_selected_page s&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. 5. Jeffries BJ. Color - blindness : its dangers and its detection. Boston (MA...Brussels, Belgium. Neuilly-sur-Seine (France): NATO; 1972. AGARD-CP-99. 11. Monlux DJ, Finne HA, Stephens MB. Color blindness and military fitness...unlimited. STINFO COPY AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0008 Operational Assessment of Color Vision Steve Wright, O.D.; James Gaska, Ph.D
Newell, Ben R
The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.
Gvozdenović Vasilije P.
Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.
The full text of publication follows. Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC, formerly Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative [ASCI]) was established in 1995 to help Defense Programs shift from test-based confidence to simulation-based confidence. Specifically, ASC is a focused and balanced program that is accelerating the development of simulation capabilities needed to analyze and predict the performance, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons and certify their functionality - far exceeding what might have been achieved in the absence of a focused initiative. To realize its vision, ASC is creating simulation and proto-typing capabilities, based on advanced weapon codes and high-performance computing
Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.
A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.
One law professor takes a stab at imagining an ideal law school of the future and describing how to get there. The Essay spells out a specific possible vision, taking into account changes to the demand for legal services and changes to the economics and composition of the legal profession. That thought experiment leads to a series of observations about values and vision in legal education in general and about what it might take to move any vision forward.
Robot technology has been implemented to various areas of production and life. With the continuous development of robot applications, requirements of the robot are also getting higher and higher. In order to get better perception of the robots, vision sensors have been widely used in industrial robots. In this paper, application directions of industrial robots are reviewed. The development, classification and application of robot vision servo technology are discussed, and the development prospect of industrial robot vision servo technology is proposed.
Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup
This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....
Lim, Yoong Kang
As demands for real-time computer vision applications increase, implementations on alternative architectures have been explored. These architectures include Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), which offer a high degree of flexibility and parallelism. A problem with this is that many computer vision algorithms have been optimized for serial processing, and this often does not map well to FPGA implementation. This thesis introduces the concept of FPGA-tailored computer vision algorithms...
Computer vision algorithms, which play an significant role in vision processing, is widely applied in many aspects such as geology survey, traffic management and medical care, etc.. Most of the situations require the process to be real-timed, in other words, as fast as possible. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have a advantage of parallelism fabric in programming, comparing to the serial communications of CPUs, which makes FPGA a perfect platform for implementing vision algorithms. The...
Tadema, J.; Koeners, J.; Theunissen, E.
In the past fifteen years, several research programs have demonstrated potential advantages of synthetic vision technology for manned aviation. More recently, some research programs have focused on integrating synthetic vision technology into control stations for remotely controlled aircraft. The
Sabel, Bernhard A; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Gao, Ying
How to cite this article: Sabel BA, Cárdenas-Morales L, Gao Y. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2018;12(1):1-9.
Conclusions: Low vision patients have poor quality of life as measured with the NEI VFQ-25. Low vision service is associated with improved visual function, better quality of life and high rate of patient satisfaction.
René Victor Valqui Vidal
Full Text Available This paper presents the principles behind the design and management of the Vision Conference: a one-day workshop for a large group of participants endeavoured to create ideas, projects and visions for the future activities of a local community or an organisation. A case study from a local community in Denmark is also presented with the purpose of illustrating the organisation, planning and management of a Vision Conference. The paper focuses in the three central social processes of the conference: group work, problem solving and facilitation. The paper ends with a discussion of creativity and creativity techniques suitable for Vision Conferences.
Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H
This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr
Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark
While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor
Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav
This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.
Iman Herwidiana Kartowisastro
Full Text Available Measuring distance from an object can be conducted in a variety of ways, including by making use of distance measuring sensors such as ultrasonic sensors, or using the approach based vision system. This last mode has advantages in terms of flexibility, namely a monitored object has relatively no restrictions characteristic of the materials used at the same time it also has its own difficulties associated with object orientation and state of the room where the object is located. To overcome this problem, so this study examines the possibility of using stereo vision to measure the distance to an object. The system was developed starting from image extraction, information extraction characteristics of the objects contained in the image and visual distance measurement process with 2 separate cameras placed in a distance of 70 cm. The measurement object can be in the range of 50 cm - 130 cm with a percentage error of 5:53%. Lighting conditions (homogeneity and intensity has a great influence on the accuracy of the measurement results.
At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.
This is the long term vision of the Dutch Transmission System Operator TenneT with respect to the 380kV and 220 kV parts of the national electricity distribution grid. In this vision 4 trend scenarios have been developed. The scenarios 'Green Revolution' and 'Sustainable transition' are based on a sustainable society whereas 'Money rules' and 'New strongholds' depict a society that mainly depends on fossil fuels. For 'Green revolution' and 'Money rules' a free global market is assumed and for 'Sustainable transition' and 'New strongholds' a regionally oriented market with protectionism is assumed. [mk]. [Dutch] Een langetermijnvisie van de Nederlandse Transmission System Operator TenneT op het 380 kV en 220kV deel van het landelijke elektriciteitstransportnet. Daarvoor zijn vier trendscenario's ontwikkeld. De scenario's Groene Revolutie en Duurzame Transitie gaan uit van een duurzame samenleving terwijl Geld Regeert en Nieuwe Burchten een samenleving hanteert die vooral afhankelijk is van fossiele brandstoffen. Voor Groene Revolutie en Geld Regeert wordt een vrije mondiale markt verondersteld en voor Duurzame Transitie en Nieuwe Burchten een regionaal georienteerde markt waarbij sprake is van protectionisme.
Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.
Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Sheedy, James E
Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a collection of symptoms related to prolonged work at a computer display. This article reviews the current knowledge about the symptoms, related factors and treatment modalities for CVS. Relevant literature on CVS published during the past 65 years was analyzed. Symptoms reported by computer users are classified into internal ocular symptoms (strain and ache), external ocular symptoms (dryness, irritation, burning), visual symptoms (blur, double vision) and musculoskeletal symptoms (neck and shoulder pain). The major factors associated with CVS are either environmental (improper lighting, display position and viewing distance) and/or dependent on the user's visual abilities (uncorrected refractive error, oculomotor disorders and tear film abnormalities). Although the factors associated with CVS have been identified the physiological mechanisms that underlie CVS are not completely understood. Additionally, advances in technology have led to the increased use of hand-held devices, which might impose somewhat different visual challenges compared to desktop displays. Further research is required to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying CVS and symptoms associated with the use of hand-held and stereoscopic displays.
De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Giesbertz, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.; Te Velthuis, M.; Drahos, M.
June 2006 the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002) was published. The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects. In this vision document all the relevant parties and stakeholders are informed about the development of energy markets in the Netherlands and abroad. Also an overview is given of the reactions from many stakeholders, involved and interested parties. [nl
Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.
The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.
The emerging field of educational visioning is full of challenges and phenomena worthy of careful analysis and documentation. A relatively neglected phenomenon is the learning curve of the leaders (often lay leaders) involved in the visioning process. This article documents a range of experiences of the author serving as a vision coach to five…
Leguire, L. E.; And Others
This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)
Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.
The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).
Full Text Available People with low vision have residual vision with some light perception, but their vision loss does not lend itself to improvement by standard spectacles or medical or surgical treatment. Such persons have the potential for enhanced functional vision if they receive appropriate low vision care services.
D.A. Stam (Daan)
textabstractThe communication of inspiring visions is arguably the sine qua non of change-oriented leadership. Visions are images of the future. Vision communication refers to the expression of a vision with the aim of convincing others (usually followers) that the vision is valid. Despite the fact
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.
Technical assistance is provided concerning documentation of functional vision loss for Florida students with visual impairments. The functional vision observation should obtain enough information for determination of special service eligibility. The observation is designed to supplement information on the medical eye examination, and is conducted…
The main question of the studies reported in this thesis is how the reading and spelling skills of children with low vision compare to those of their sighted peers, and which factors determine the variation in reading and spelling ability in children with low vision. In the study reported in chapter
Gompel, Marjolein; van Bon, Wim H. J.; Schreuder, Robert
This study of the reading of text found that despite their lower reading speed on a reading-comprehension task, the children with low vision comprehended texts at least as well as did the sighted children. Children with low vision need more time to read and comprehend a text, but they seem to use this time with enough efficiency to process the…
Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.
A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…
Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo
Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…
Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications for Quality in Language Teacher Education. ... attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central ...
Pedersen, Søren Hviid
The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...
William P. Stewart; Derek Liebert; Kevin W. Larkin
Residents' felt senses of their community can play substantial roles in determining visions for landscape change. Community identities are often anchored in tangible environments and events of a community, and have the potential to serve as visions for landscape planning processes. Photo-elicitation is applied in this study to connect community-based meanings to...
Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.
This paper introduces a new vision module, called PAAV, developed for the cognitive architecture ACT-R. Unlike ACT-R's default vision module that was originally developed for top-down perception only, PAAV was designed to model a wide range of tasks, such as visual search and scene viewing, where
vision and refractive errors among Braille reading children in Nigeria identified corneal, lens problems and glaucoma as causes of visual impairment. Susan also reported on the causes of low vision and blindness in East Africa and listed. “whole globe” –retina and corneal/phthisis as major cause in that order. These reports ...
Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.
This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…
In 2007, the US National Research Council (NRC) published a Vision and Strategy for [human health] Toxicity Testing in the 21st century. Central to the vision was increased reliance on high throughput in vitro testing and predictive approaches based on mechanistic understanding o...
... to follow or track an object, like a toy or ball, with their eyes as it moves across their field of vision. If your baby can't make steady eye contact by this time or seems unable to see, let your child's doctor know. See Infant Vision Development: What Can Babies See? for more information. Before ...
Buck, Steven L; Baraas, Rigmor; Lee, Barry B; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Webster, Michael A; Werner, John S
This feature issue of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) reflects the basic and applied research interests of members of the color vision community. Most of the articles stem from presentations at the 23rd Biennial Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society (ICVS).
De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong
Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.
Guez, Jean R.
This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…
The Botanic Experiment is one of the pilot experiments in the Telescience Test Bed program at the ESTEC research and technology center of the European Space Agency. The aim of the Telescience Test Bed is to develop the techniques required by an experimenter using a ground based work station for remote control, monitoring, and modification of an experiment operating on a space platform. The purpose of the Botanic Experiment is to examine the growth of seedlings under various illumination conditions with a video camera from a number of viewpoints throughout the duration of the experiment. This paper describes the Botanic Experiment and the points addressed in developing a stereo vision software package to extract quantitative information about the seedlings from the recorded video images.
Benjamin W Tatler
Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.
Harding, Kevin G.
Three dimensional perception is essential to the development of versatile robotics systems in order to handle complex manufacturing tasks in future factories and in providing high accuracy measurements needed in flexible manufacturing and quality control. A program is described which will develop the potential of Moire techniques to provide this capability in vision systems and automated measurements, and demonstrate artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to take advantage of the strengths of Moire sensing. Moire techniques provide a means of optically manipulating the complex visual data in a three dimensional scene into a form which can be easily and quickly analyzed by computers. This type of optical data manipulation provides high productivity through integrated automation, producing a high quality product while reducing computer and mechanical manipulation requirements and thereby the cost and time of production. This nondestructive evaluation is developed to be able to make full field range measurement and three dimensional scene analysis.
Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.
The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.
This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies. It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...
This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.
This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems. · Provides i...
Kelber, Almut; Lind, Olle
Humans and most vertebrates have duplex retinae with multiple cone types for colour vision in bright light, and one single rod type for achromatic vision in dim light. Instead of comparing signals from multiple spectral types of photoreceptors, such species use one highly sensitive receptor type thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio at night. However, the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, the nocturnal bee Xylocopa tranquebarica and the nocturnal gecko Tarentola chazaliae can discriminate colours at extremely dim light intensities. To be able to do so, they sacrifice spatial and temporal resolution in favour of colour vision. We review what is known about colour vision in dim light, and compare colour vision thresholds with the optical sensitivity of the photoreceptors in selected animal species with lens and compound eyes. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.
Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo
Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana. Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana
of distance refractive error and common eye related or surgical ... assessment of residual vision and needs, and the identification of ways and means to address the problem. ... The clinical records of low vision patients seen at the Low Vision.
These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision
Chalimbaud , Pierre; Berry , François
International audience; In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision) is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks,...
Villegas, Rex B; Ilsen, Pauline F
Most cases of visual acuity or visual field loss can be attributed to ocular pathology or ocular manifestations of systemic pathology. They can also occasionally be attributed to nonpathologic processes or malingering. Functional vision loss is any decrease in vision the origin of which cannot be attributed to a pathologic or structural abnormality. Two cases of functional vision loss are described. In the first, a 58-year-old man presented for a baseline eye examination for enrollment in a vision rehabilitation program. He reported bilateral blindness since a motor vehicle accident with head trauma 4 years prior. Entering visual acuity was "no light perception" in each eye. Ocular health examination was normal and the patient made frequent eye contact with the examiners. He was referred for neuroimaging and electrophysiologic testing. The second case was a 49-year-old man who presented with a long history of intermittent monocular diplopia. His medical history was significant for psycho-medical evaluations and a diagnosis of factitious disorder. Entering uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20 in each eye, but visual field testing found constriction. No abnormalities were found that could account for the monocular diplopia or visual field deficit. A diagnosis of functional vision loss secondary to factitious disorder was made. Functional vision loss is a diagnosis of exclusion. In the event of reduced vision in the context of a normal ocular health examination, all other pathology must be ruled out before making the diagnosis of functional vision loss. Evaluation must include auxiliary ophthalmologic testing, neuroimaging of the visual pathway, review of the medical history and lifestyle, and psychiatric evaluation. Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss.
Dler Jalal Ahmed
Full Text Available Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary and Erbil teaching hospitals in Erbil city. Those used computers in the months preceding the date of this study were included in the study. Results: Among 173 participants aged between 8 to 48 years (mean age of 23.28±6.6 years, the prevalence of computer vision syndrome found to be 89.65%. The most disturbing symptom was eye irritation (79.8%, followed by blurred vision(75.7%. Participants who were using visual display terminals for more than six hours per day were at higher risk of developing nearly all symptoms of computer vision syndrome. Significant correlation was found between time-consuming on computer and symptoms such as headache (P <0.001, redness (P <0.001, eye irritation (P <0.001, blurred vision (P <0.001 and neck pain (P <0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that more than three-fourths of the participants had one of the symptoms of computer vision syndrome while working on visual display terminals. Keywords: Computer vision syndrome; Headache; Neck pain; Blurred vision.
Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the processes that occur in late vision and address the problem of whether late vision should be construed as a properly speaking perceptual stage, or as a thought-like discursive stage. Specifically, I argue that late vision, its (partly conceptual nature notwithstanding, neither is constituted by nor does it implicate what I call pure thoughts, that is, propositional structures that are formed in the cognitive areas of the brain through, and participate in, discursive reasoning and inferences. At the same time, the output of late vision, namely an explicit belief concerning the identity and category membership of an object (that is, a recognitional belief or its features, eventually enters into discursive reasoning. Using Jackendoff’s distinction between visual awareness, which characterizes perception, and visual understanding, which characterizes pure thought, I claim that the contents of late vision belong to visual awareness and not to visual understanding and that although late vision implicates beliefs, either implicit or explicit, these beliefs are hybrid visual/conceptual constructs and not pure thoughts. Distinguishing between these hybrid representations and pure thoughts and delineating the nature of the representations of late vision lays the ground for examining, among other things, the process of conceptualization that occurs in visual processing and the way concepts modulate perceptual content affecting either its representational or phenomenal character. I also do not discuss the epistemological relations between the representations of late vision and the perceptual judgments they ‘support’, or ‘guide’ or ‘render possible’ or ‘evidence’ or ‘entitle’. However, the specification of the epistemology of late vision lays the ground for attacking that problem as well.
Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T
Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual
Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam
detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision.
Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola
This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.
Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu
Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.
Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Neumeyer, Christa
The goldfish is one of the few animals exceptionally well analyzed in behavioral experiments and also in electrophysiological and neuroanatomical investigations of the retina. To get insight into the functional organization of the retina we studied color vision, motion detection and temporal resolution before and after intra-ocular injection of neuropharmaca with known effects on retinal neurons. Bicuculline, strychnine, curare, atropine, and dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonists were used. The results reviewed here indicate separate and parallel processing of L-cone contribution to different visual functions, and the influence of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and GABA) on motion vision, color vision, and temporal resolution.
Scope of the state action for the mining sector, the performance of the mining sector, regional perceptions of mining development, construction of a long-term vision for the mining sector, the action plan and goals follow-up
Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo
This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)
Gabel, Brandon C; Lam, Arthur; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Sebastian, Arjun S; Arnold, Paul M; Hamilton, Steven R; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel
Retrospective multicenter case series. To assess the rate of perioperative vision loss following cervical spinal surgery. Medical records for 17 625 patients from 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, inclusive, were reviewed to identify occurrences of vision loss following surgery. Of the 17 625 patients in the registry, there were 13 946 patients assessed for the complication of blindness. There were 9591 cases that involved only anterior surgical approaches; the remaining 4355 cases were posterior and/or circumferential fusions. There were no cases of blindness or vision loss in the postoperative period reported during the sampling period. Perioperative vision loss following cervical spinal surgery is exceedingly rare.
Huss, Chuck; Corn, Anne
This article presents an overview of driving for adolescents and adults who meet their states' visual requirements for low vision driving using bioptic lenses. It also discusses the outcomes of two studies of bioptic driver education.
... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic ...
Human performance can get degraded due to boredom, distraction and fatigue in vision-related tasks such as measurement, counting etc. Vision based techniques are increasingly being employed in many scientific and engineering applications. Notable advances in this field are emerging from continuing improvements in the fields of sensors and related technologies, and advances in computer hardware and software. Automation utilizing vision-based systems can perform repetitive tasks faster and more accurately, with greater consistency over time than humans. Electronics and Instrumentation Services Division has developed vision-based systems for several applications to perform tasks such as precision alignment, biometric access control, measurement, counting etc. This paper describes in brief four such applications. (author)
Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N
This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.
Dickinson, Sven J
.... The result of a series of four highly successful workshops on the topic, the book gathers many of the most distinguished researchers from both computer and human vision to reflect on their experience...
Computer Vision and Robotic is one of the most challenging areas of 21st century. Its application ranges from Agriculture to Medicine, Household applications to Humanoid, Deep-sea-application to Space application, and Industry applications to Man-less-plant. Today’s technologies demand to produce intelligent machine, which are enabling applications in various domains and services. Robotics is one such area which encompasses number of technology in it and its application is widespread. Computational vision or Machine vision is one of the most challenging tools for the robot to make it intelligent. This volume covers chapters from various areas of Computational Vision such as Image and Video Coding and Analysis, Image Watermarking, Noise Reduction and Cancellation, Block Matching and Motion Estimation, Tracking of Deformable Object using Steerable Pyramid Wavelet Transformation, Medical Image Fusion, CT and MRI Image Fusion based on Stationary Wavelet Transform. The book also covers articles from applicati...
All comments submitted to Vision Hampton Roads were reviewed prior to addition to the final : document. Using this Public Responsiveness Summary, citizens will be able to see and track how : their engagement has impacted results. On the following pag...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2016. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2015. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...
The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) commissioned a one-year project, Connected and Autonomous : Vehicles 2040 Vision, with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to assess the implications of connected and : autonomous ve...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...
Liu, Yanxi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science, The Robotics Institute; Jiang, Tianzi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Lab. of Pattern Recognition, Inst. of Automation; Zhang, Changshui (eds.) [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Automation
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20. (orig.)
Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz
[Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...
Dler Jalal Ahmed; Eman Hussein Alwan
Background and objective: Nearly all colleges, universities and homes today are regularly using video display terminals, such as computer, iPad, mobile, and TV. Very little research has been carried out on Kurdish users to reveal the effect of video display terminals on the eye and vision. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among computer users. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of Rizgary...
Sameena; Mohd Inayatullah
Computers are probably one of the biggest scientific inventions of the modern era, and since then they have become an integral part of our life. The increased usage of computers have lead to variety of ocular symptoms which includ es eye strain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and diplopia, collectively referred to as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). CVS may have a significant impact not only on visual com fort but also occupational productivit...
Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.
Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B; Lusk, Kelly E; Corn, Anne L; Lappin, Joseph S
Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10-17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9-18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function.
Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lusk, Kelly E.; Corn, Anne L.; Lappin, Joseph S.
Purpose. Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. Methods. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10–17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9–18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. Results. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Conclusions. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function. PMID:22836766
Dagmar A Wismeijer
Full Text Available We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 x 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "new" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.
Wismeijer, Dagmar A; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Drewing, Knut
We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two "natural" tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two "novel" tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.
Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank
Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.
R K Shrestha
Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.
understand how vision can practically be assessed and how poor vision can affect a child, whether by limiting the ability to do activities of daily living or by limiting social interactions. In this group, there were some misconceptions regarding the use of color vision and the assessment of reading as a tool for vision assessment ...
Marinoff, Rebecca; Heilberger, Michael H.
A model Center of Excellence in Low Vision and Vision Rehabilitation was created in a health care setting in China utilizing an inter-institutional relationship with a United States optometric institution. Accomplishments of, limitations to, and stimuli to the provision of low vision and vision rehabilitation services are shared.
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen
Conclusion: Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population.
Abelman, Robert; Atkin, David; Dalessandro, Amy; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Janstova, Patricie
A description of the kinds of educated humans to be cultivated at a particular institution can be found in the college or university vision statement. The extent that vision is reflected in the governing models of advising operations, known by personnel, and transformed into day-to-day activities was assessed through a NACADA membership survey.…
Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing
Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and then full-text articles against
Full Text Available Objective of the study was to show the mean values of correction for near vision and to discuss the presbyopic correction in pseudophakic patients. Setting was the Eye department where authors work. Inclusion criteria for 55 patients were native or corrected distant vision of 0.8-1.0 on Snellen's chart; 0,6 on Jagger's chart for near vision; round pupil and good position of the implant. Biometry of the anterior chamber depth with Alcon biophysics during distant and near vision was performed in our study. „Hi square" test was carried out and it was concluded that patients younger than 59 years (41 eyes had median correction of +2.0 dsph, while patients older than 60 years (36 eyes had correction of+3.0 dsph, but it was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference of the correction between pseudophakic (41 and phakic (19 eyes in patients younger than 59 years. The anterior movement of the IOL was 0.18 mm in the younger group and 0.15 mm in the older group. With good IOL movement and new materials which could have changeable refractive power, the problem of pseudophakic correction for near vision might be solved.
Rostamigooran, N; Esmailzadeh, H; Rajabi, F; Majdzadeh, R; Larijani, B; Dastgerdi, M Vahid
Vast changes in disease features and risk factors and influence of demographic, economical, and social trends on health system, makes formulating a long term evolutionary plan, unavoidable. In this regard, to determine health system vision in a long term horizon is a primary stage. After narrative and purposeful review of documentaries, major themes of vision statement were determined and its context was organized in a work group consist of selected managers and experts of health system. Final content of the statement was prepared after several sessions of group discussions and receiving ideas of policy makers and experts of health system. Vision statement in evolutionary plan of health system is considered to be :"a progressive community in the course of human prosperity which has attained to a developed level of health standards in the light of the most efficient and equitable health system in visionary region(1) and with the regarding to health in all policies, accountability and innovation". An explanatory context was compiled either to create a complete image of the vision. Social values and leaders' strategic goals, and also main orientations are generally mentioned in vision statement. In this statement prosperity and justice are considered as major values and ideals in society of Iran; development and excellence in the region as leaders' strategic goals; and also considering efficiency and equality, health in all policies, and accountability and innovation as main orientations of health system.
Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration. Here, to illustrate how one might interpret the evolutionary significance of such differences, we used colour vision modelling based on an avian eye to evaluate the effects of variation in three key characters: photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, oil droplet pigmentation and the proportions of different photoreceptor types. The models predict that physiologically realistic changes in any one character will have little effect, but complementary shifts in all three can substantially affect discriminability of three types of natural spectra. These observations about the adaptive landscape of colour vision may help to explain the general conservatism of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities in birds. This approach can be extended to other types of eye and spectra to inform future work on coevolution of coloration and colour vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Simpson, Michael J
The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean
Full Text Available These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the visionary leader. The hypothesis from which we start is that all active leaders have a vision of what needs to be accomplished, and the inability to predict something that could be provided involves loss the capacity of the leader. Without vision, the energy reaches the lowest quotas, production decreases, terms limits are exceeded and human resources begin to dissipate.. The conclusion is that visionary leaders are endowed with multiple attributes (multiple intelligence, even if sometimes the role of intuition and unconscious in building vision at the expense of reason that is based on experience and facts is exaggerated.
McMullan, Keri S; Butler, Mary
Older adults with low vision are a growing population with rehabilitation needs including support with community mobility to enable community participation. Some older adults with low vision choose to use mobility scooters to mobilize within their community, but there is limited research about the use by people with low vision. This paper describes a pilot study and asks the question: what are the experiences of persons with low vision who use mobility scooters? This study gathered the experiences of four participants with low vision, aged 51 and over, who regularly use mobility scooters. Diverse methods were used including a go-along, a semi-structured interview and a new measure of functional vision for mobility called the vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM). Four themes were found to describe experiences: autonomy and well-being, accessibility, community interactions and self-regulation. Discussion and implications: This study was a pilot for a larger study examining self-regulation in scooter users. However, as roles emerge for health professionals and scooters, the findings also provide evidence to inform practice, because it demonstrates the complex meaning and influences on performance involved in low vision mobility scooter use. Implications for rehabilitation Scooter use supports autonomy and well-being and community connections for individuals with both mobility and visual impairments. Low vision scooter users demonstrate self-regulation of their scooter use to manage both their visual and environmental limitations. Issues of accessibility experienced by this sample affect a wider community of footpath users, emphasizing the need for councils to address inadequate infrastructure. Rehabilitators can support their low vision clients' scooter use by acknowledging issues of accessibility and promoting self-regulation strategies to manage risks and barriers.
Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha
To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang
This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.
This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research invo...... involve case studies of three companies that are part of the MCD-process. The cases primarily are focusing on the process and the dialogue dur¬ing the manufacturing vision development.......This Ph.D. project has been conducted in the context of PRODUCTION+5 methodology for devel¬oping manufacturing visions for companies, and related to Experimental Laboratory for Production. Both have been established in the Center for Industrial Production. The empirical parts of the research...
Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry
of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen, 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....
Wiscombe, W.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)
This talk will describe the progress to date on creating a science-driven vision for the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) in the post-2010 period. This effort began in the Fall of 2001 by organizing five science workgroups with representatives from NASA, academia and other agencies: Long-Term Climate, Medium-Term Climate, Extreme Weather, Biosphere & Ecosystems, and Solid Earth, Ice Sheets, & Sea Level. Each workgroup was directed to scope out one Big Question, including not just the science but the observational and modeling requirements, the information system requirements, and the applications and benefits to society. This first set of five Big Questions is now in hand and has been presented to the ESE Director. It includes: water resources, intraseasonal predictability, tropical cyclogenesis, invasive species, and sea level. Each of these topics will be discussed briefly. How this effort fits into the NEXT vision exercise and into Administrator O'Keefe's new vision for NASA will also be discussed.
Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua
This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Moore, Jennifer L; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Backus, Deborah
Advances in rehabilitation provide the infrastructure for research and clinical data to improve care and patient outcomes. However, gaps between research and practice are prevalent. Knowledge translation (KT) aims to decrease the gap between research and its clinical use. This special communication summarizes KT-related proceedings from the 2016 IV STEP conference, describes current KT in rehabilitation science, and provides suggestions for its application in clinical care. We propose a vision for rehabilitation clinical practice and research that includes the development, adaptation, and implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations, which will contribute to a learning health care system. A clinical research culture that supports this vision and methods to engage key stakeholders to innovate rehabilitation science and practice are described. Through implementation of this vision, we can lead an evolution in rehabilitation practice to ultimately prevent disabilities, predict better outcomes, exploit plasticity, and promote participation.
Gualtieri, J. Anthony
The problem of early vision is to transform one or more retinal illuminance images-pixel arrays-to image representations built out of such primitive visual features such as edges, regions, disparities, and clusters. These transformed representations form the input to later vision stages that perform higher level vision tasks including matching and recognition. Researchers developed algorithms for: (1) edge finding in the scale space formulation; (2) correlation methods for computing matches between pairs of images; and (3) clustering of data by neural networks. These algorithms are formulated for parallel implementation of SIMD machines, such as the Massively Parallel Processor, a 128 x 128 array processor with 1024 bits of local memory per processor. For some cases, researchers can show speedups of three orders of magnitude over serial implementations.
Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...
Bo H. Lindberg
Full Text Available To Blake art was a vision of the spiritual world, as he could talk about "Poetry, Painting & Music, the three Powers in Man of conversing with Paradise, which the flood did not Sweep away." Every work of art is an open window into eternity. God appears to man in art. Artistic inspiration is the same as the union with God. There is an unio artistica, a sister to the unio mystica. Blake accepts that reason cannot grasp the divine vision and understand it. That is why he always talks of the vision as appearing in stronger and better lineaments, and a stronger and better light than nature can produce or mortal and perishing organs can apprehend. But art can grasp it. The central conception of mysticism, the undescribable unio mystica, is present in Blake. He is a mystic. The only difference between Blake and the classical mystics is in terminology. When they say "God" Blake very often says "Art".
This article, based on a report prepared for the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and the International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation (ISLRR), explores the assessment of various aspects of visual functioning as needed to document the outcomes of vision rehabilitation. Documenting patient abilities and functional vision (how the person functions) is distinct from the measurement of visual functions (how the eye functions) and also from the assessment of quality of life. All three areas are important, but their assessment should not be mixed. Observation of task performance offers the most objective measure of functional vision, but it is time-consuming and not feasible for many tasks. Where possible, timing and error rates provide an easy score. Patient response questionnaires provide an alternative. They may save time and can cover a wider area, but the responses are subjective and proper scoring presents problems. Simple Likert scoring still predominates but Rasch analysis, needed to provide better result scales, is gaining ground. Selection of questions is another problem. If the range of difficulties does not match the range of patient abilities, and if the difficulties are not distributed evenly, the results are not optimal. This may be an argument to use different outcome questions for different conditions. Generic questionnaires are appropriate for the assessment of generic quality of life, but not for specific rehabilitation outcomes. Different questionnaires are also needed for screening, intake and outcomes. Intake questions must be relevant to actual needs to allow prioritization of rehabilitation goals; the activity inventory presents a prototype. Outcome questions should be targeted at predefined rehabilitation goals. The Appendix cites some promising examples. The Low Vision Intervention Trial (LOVIT) is an example of a properly designed randomized control study, and has demonstrated the remarkable effectiveness of
Full Text Available To study the descriptions from which artificial vision derives, to explore the new visual modalities resulting from eye surgeries and diseases, and to gain awareness of the use of machine vision systems for both enhancement of visual perception and better understanding of neuroadaptation. Science could not define until today what vision is. However, some optical-based systems and definitions have been established considering some factors for the formation of seeing. The best known system includes Gabor filter and Gabor patch which work on edge perception, describing the visual perception in the best known way. These systems are used today in industry and technology of machines, robots and computers to provide their "seeing". These definitions are used beyond the machinery in humans for neuroadaptation in new visual modalities after some eye surgeries or to improve the quality of some already known visual modalities. Beside this, “the blindsight” -which was not known to exist until 35 years ago - can be stimulated with visual exercises. Gabor system is a description of visual perception definable in machine vision as well as in human visual perception. This system is used today in robotic vision. There are new visual modalities which arise after some eye surgeries or with the use of some visual optical devices. Also, blindsight is a different visual modality starting to be defined even though the exact etiology is not known. In all the new visual modalities, new vision stimulating therapies using the Gabor systems can be applied. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 61-5
Christensen, Henrik I
This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate
Ayakutty Muni Raja
Full Text Available Nowadays, ophthalmologists are facing a new group of patients having eye problems related to prolonged and excessive computer use. When the demand for near work exceeds the normal ability of the eye to perform the job comfortably, one develops discomfort and prolonged exposure, which leads to a cascade of reactions that can be put together as computer vision syndrome (CVS. In India, the computer-using population is more than 40 million, and 80% have discomfort due to CVS. Eye strain, headache, blurring of vision and dryness are the most common symptoms. Workstation modification, voluntary blinking, adjustment of the brightness of screen and breaks in between can reduce CVS.
Despite a plethora of scientific literature devoted to vision research and the trend toward integrative research, the borders between disciplines remain a practical difficulty. To address this problem, this book provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of vision from various perspectives, ranging from neuroscience to cognition, and from computational principles to engineering developments. It is written by leading international researchers in the field, with an emphasis on linking multiple disciplines and the impact such synergy can lead to in terms of both scientific breakthroughs and technology innovations. It is aimed at active researchers and interested scientists and engineers in related fields.
Martín Rodríguez, Fernando; Barral Martínez, Mónica
This paper is about the design of an automated machine to cut turbot fish specimens. Machine vision is a key part of this project as it is used to compute a cutting curve for specimen’s head. This task is impossible to be carried out by mechanical means. Machine vision is used to detect head boundary and a robot is used to cut the head. Afterwards mechanical systems are used to slice fish to get an easy presentation for end consumer (as fish fillets than can be easily marketed ...
Hall, E. L.
The close relationship between sensing and other tasks in orbital space, and the integral role of vision sensing in practical aerospace applications, are illustrated. Typical space mission-vision tasks encompass the docking of space vehicles, the detection of unexpected objects, the diagnosis of spacecraft damage, and the inspection of critical spacecraft components. Attention is presently given to image functions, the 'windowing' of a view, the number of cameras required for inspection tasks, the choice of incoherent or coherent (laser) illumination, three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional model-matching, edge- and region-segmentation techniques, and motion analysis for tracking.
Hagelskjær, Frederik; Krüger, Norbert; Buch, Anders Glent
A multitude of pose estimation algorithms has been developed in the last decades and many proprietary computer vision packages exist which can simplify the setup process. Despite this, pose estimation still lacks the ease of use that robots have attained in the industry. The statement ”vision does...... not work” is still not uncommon in the industry, even from integrators. This points to difficulties in setting up solutions in industrial applications. In this paper, we analyze and investigate the current usage of pose estimation algorithms. A questionnaire was sent out to both university and industry...
Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Marshall, N Justin; Caldwell, Roy L
Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red.
Read, Jenny C. A.
Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.
Maule, Louise; Featonby, David
1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…
Baber, W. Lorenzo; Garrett, Michael T.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Culture as a group phenomenon versus the need of counselors to work with the individual is addressed. The VISION model of culture, which accounts for within-group and between-group differences, the disappearance of groups, and the emergence of new ones, is presented. Two examples of multicultural interventions are reported. (Author/EMK)
Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz
[Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.
Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.
It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…
Schiro, Michael Stephen
This book presents a description of the major curriculum philosophies that have influenced educators and schooling over the last century. The author analyzes four educational visions (Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction) to enable readers to reflect on their own educational beliefs and allow them to…
In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…
Multimedia is a powerful tool that will change both the way we look at knowledge and our vision of reality, as well as our educational system and the business world. Multimedia as used here refers to the innovation of mixing text, audio, and video through the use of a computer. Not only will there be new products emerging from multimedia uses, but…
LeCun, Yann [New York University
Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?
Andriessen, J.J.; Bouma, H.
The paper deals with adverse interactions between line stimuli ineccentric vision. Bothcontrast thresholdandjust noticeable difference of slanthave been measured for a test line as a function of the distance from a number of surrounding lines. Test lines were either parallel or perpendicular to the
Alma, M.A.; Mei, van der S.F.; Melis-Dankers, B.J.M.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Groothoff, J.W.; Suurmeijer, T.P.B.M.
Purpose. To assess the degree of participation of the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with population-based reference data. Method. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired elderly persons (≥55 years; n=173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation centre.
K.W. Gordon; K.P. Scott
During the 1998-99 school year, students from participating schools completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on U.S. national security. This report summarizes the student's views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's four years.
De Masi, Franco
The delusional experience is the result of a grave disjunction in the psyche whose outcome is not readily predictable. Examination of the specific mode of disjunction may help us understand the nature and radical character of delusion. I will present the therapy of a psychotic patient who after many years of analysis and progresses in his life continues to show delusional episodes although limited and contained. In his case, the two visions, one delusional and the other real, remain distinct and differentiated from each other because they both possess the same perceptual character, that of reality. He has a bi-ocular vision of reality and not a binocular one because his vision lacks integration, as would necessarily be the case if the two visions could be compared with each other. The principle of non-contradiction ceases to apply in delusion. A corollary of the failure of the principle of non-contradiction is that, if a statement and its negation are both true, then any statement is true. Logicians call this consequence the principle of explosion. For this reason, the distinction between truth, reality, improbability, probability, possibility and impossibility is lost in the delusional system, thus triggering an omnipotent, explosive mechanism with a potentially infinite progression. The paper presents some thoughts for a possible analytic transformation of the delusional experience. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara
Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually…
TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh
Elaine C. Zachi
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairments in social/communication abilities and restricted behaviors. The present study aims to examine color vision discrimination in ASD children and adolescents without intellectual disability. The participants were also subdivided in order to compare color vision thresholds of autistic participants and those who achieved diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome (AS. Nine subjects with autism, 11 participants with AS and 36 typically developing children and adolescents participated in the study. Color vision was assessed by the Cambridge Color Test (CCT. The Trivector protocol was administered to determine color discrimination thresholds along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion lines. Data from ASD participants were compared to tolerance limits for 90% of the population with 90% probability obtained from controls thresholds. Of the 20 ASD individuals examined, 6 (30% showed color vision losses. Elevated color discrimination thresholds were found in 3/9 participants with autism and in 3/11 AS participants. Diffuse and tritan deficits were found. Mechanisms for chromatic losses may be either at the retinal level and/or reflect reduced cortical integration.
Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias
We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...
Dobson, Simon; Sterritt, Roy; Nixon, Paddy; Hinchey, Mike
Efforts since 2001 to design self-managing systems have yielded many impressive achievements, yet the original vision of autonomic computing remains unfulfilled. Researchers must develop a comprehensive systems engineering approach to create effective solutions for next-generation enterprise and sensor systems. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed
Full Text Available AMD does not just affect the retina. It severely affects people’s lives. Paying attention to this aspect will only become more important as the population ages and more otherwise healthy individuals become affected. This paper will discuss the need for teamwork to overcome the difference between medical care, which addresses the causes of AMD, and rehabilitative care, which addresses the consequences. Different aspects and different degrees of vision loss ask for different interventions. Loss of detailed vision can be addressed by a wide variety of magnification devices. The means to address this aspect are well recognized. Surround vision is largely processed pre-attentively. Its loss cannot be remediated by devices, but must be addressed through patient education to bring previously subconscious reactions to conscious awareness. Loss of contrast vision is an aspect that is not sufficiently studied. It is important for early detection, and for the safety of the patient. When the eye condition cannot be modified, environmental modifications provide the most effective remediation.
This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes. Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). Date Released: 6/4/2008.
González, Roberto E.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Hernández, Cristian A.
AstroCV processes and analyzes big astronomical datasets, and is intended to provide a community repository of high performance Python and C++ algorithms used for image processing and computer vision. The library offers methods for object recognition, segmentation and classification, with emphasis in the automatic detection and classification of galaxies.
Argues that morality is a form of reality construction requiring a socially negotiated sensibility. Notes that this view is harmonious with the essential interpretive task of journalism. Stresses the importance of moral imagination as an aspect of moral reasoning, and claims that ethical action depends on an ethics of vision, a "seeing"…
The development of artificial vision techniques opens a door to the optimization of industrial processes which the nuclear industry cannot miss out on. Backing these techniques represents a revolution in security and reliability in the manufacturing of a highly technological products as in nuclear fuel. Enusa Industrias Avanzadas S. A. has successfully developed and implemented the first automatic inspection equipment for pellets by artificial vision in the European nuclear industry which is nowadays qualified and is already developing the second generation of this machine. There are many possible applications for the techniques of artificial vision in the fuel manufacturing processes. Among the practices developed by Enusa Industrias Avanzadas are, besides the pellets inspection, the rod sealing drills detection and positioning in the BWR products and the sealing drills inspection in the PWR fuel. The use of artificial vision in the arduous and precise processes of full inspection will allow the absence of human error, the increase of control in the mentioned procedures, the reduction of doses received by the personnel, a higher reliability of the whole of the operations and an improvement in manufacturing costs. (Author)
Lecerf, Antoine; Ouellet, Denis; Arias-Estrada, Miguel
Traditional computer vision is based on a camera-computer system in which the image understanding algorithms are embedded in the computer. To circumvent the computational load of vision algorithms, low-level processing and imaging hardware can be integrated in a single compact module where a dedicated architecture is implemented. This paper presents a Computer Vision Camera based on an open architecture implemented in an FPGA. The system is targeted to real-time computer vision tasks where low level processing and feature extraction tasks can be implemented in the FPGA device. The camera integrates a CMOS image sensor, an FPGA device, two memory banks, and an embedded PC for communication and control tasks. The FPGA device is a medium size one equivalent to 25,000 logic gates. The device is connected to two high speed memory banks, an IS interface, and an imager interface. The camera can be accessed for architecture programming, data transfer, and control through an Ethernet link from a remote computer. A hardware architecture can be defined in a Hardware Description Language (like VHDL), simulated and synthesized into digital structures that can be programmed into the FPGA and tested on the camera. The architecture of a classical multi-scale edge detection algorithm based on a Laplacian of Gaussian convolution has been developed to show the capabilities of the system.
... injury sustained as a child. The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is light-perception only... medical opinion, Mr. Williford has sufficient visual acuity, color vision and peripheral vision to perform...
This research proposal, Low Vision at the Schepens Eye Research Institute, is a collaborative effort on the part of four Investigators at the Institute whose goal is to advance the studies on low vision...
Discusses the need to shift from the old models for organizational development to the new methods of quality management and continuous improvement, visions and visioning, and strategic planning, despite inappropriate criticisms they receive. (AEF)
.... Ferris Mr. Ferris, 70, has had complete loss of vision in his right eye since 1991. The visual acuity in... sufficient vision to perform his driving tasks to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Ferris reported that he...
Full Text Available SLAM, or simultaneous localization and mapping, is a key component in the development of truly independent robots. Vision-based SLAM utilising stereo vision is a promising approach to SLAM but it is computationally expensive and difficult...
Full Text Available The psychophysics of human vision describes how humans perceive and process information in a scene. The physiological aspects (e.g. spatial resolution and spectral resolution) as well as the psychological aspects of vision have been investigated...
Evaluation of Teachers' Performance of Vision Screening in Primary. School Children in Port ... teachers can effectively perform vision screening in school children using ..... may be due to variations in methodology and definitions used, as this ...
António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista
Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and
Bogdănici, Camelia Margareta; Săndulache, Diana Elena; Nechita, Corina Andreea
The aim of the study was to analyze the effects that gadgets have on eyesight quality. A prospective observational study was conducted from January to July 2016, on 60 people who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 30 middle school pupils with a mean age of 11.9 ± 1.86 and Group 2 - 30 patients evaluated in the Ophthalmology Clinic, "Sf. Spiridon" Hospital, Iași, with a mean age of 21.36 ± 7.16 years. The clinical parameters observed were the following: visual acuity (VA), objective refraction, binocular vision (BV), fusional amplitude (FA), Schirmer's test. A questionnaire was also distributed, which contained 8 questions that highlighted the gadget's impact on the eyesight. The use of different gadgets, such as computer, laptops, mobile phones or other displays become part of our everyday life and people experience a variety of ocular symptoms or vision problems related to these. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) represents a group of visual and extraocular symptoms associated with sustained use of visual display terminals. Headache, blurred vision, and ocular congestion are the most frequent manifestations determined by the long time use of gadgets. Mobile phones and laptops are the most frequently used gadgets. People who use gadgets for a long time have a sustained effort for accommodation. A small amount of refractive errors (especially myopic shift) was objectively recorded by various studies on near work. Dry eye syndrome could also be identified, and an improvement of visual comfort could be observed after the instillation of artificial tears drops. Computer Vision Syndrome is still under-diagnosed, and people should be made aware of the bad effects the prolonged use of gadgets has on eyesight.
Drangsholt, Marius Aarvik
The goal of this thesis was to implement a computer vision system on a low power platform, to see if that could be an alternative for a collision detection system. To achieve this, research into fundamentals in computer vision were performed, and both hardware and software implementation were carried out. To create the computer vision system, a stereo rig were constructed using low cost Logitech webcameras, and connected to a Raspberry Pi 2 development board. The computer vision library Op...
Zhang, Xiaoling; Luo, Yinsheng; Lin, Yuchi; Zhu, Lei
A novel visual navigation method based on grating projection stereo vision for mobile robot in dark environment is proposed. This method is combining with grating projection profilometry of plane structured light and stereo vision technology. It can be employed to realize obstacle detection, SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and vision odometry for mobile robot navigation in dark environment without the image match in stereo vision technology and without phase unwrapping in the grating projection profilometry. First, we research the new vision sensor theoretical, and build geometric and mathematical model of the grating projection stereo vision system. Second, the computational method of 3D coordinates of space obstacle in the robot's visual field is studied, and then the obstacles in the field is located accurately. The result of simulation experiment and analysis shows that this research is useful to break the current autonomous navigation problem of mobile robot in dark environment, and to provide the theoretical basis and exploration direction for further study on navigation of space exploring robot in the dark and without GPS environment.
..., his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Smith, despite having a prosthetic left eye, has fully functional vision...-0166] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... announces receipt of applications from 26 individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the...
Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.
This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…
Farmer, Jeanie; Morse, Stephen E.
Modeled after Project PAVE (Corn et al., 2003) in Tennessee, Project Magnify is designed to test the idea that students with low vision who use individually prescribed magnification devices for reading will perform as well as or better than students with low vision who use large-print reading materials. Sixteen students with low vision were…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a patient...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended for...
Vision and "Automatic Generation of Recognition Features for Com- puter Vision," Mudge, Turney and Volz, published in Robotica (1987). All of the...Occluded Parts," (T.N. Mudge, J.L. Turney, and R.A. Volz), Robotica , vol. 5, 1987, pp. 117-127. 5. "Vision Algorithms for Hypercube Machines," (T.N. Mudge
Bentivegna, V.; Curwell, S.; Deakin, M.; Lombardi, P.; Mitchell, G.; Nijkamp, P.
The concepts and visions of sustainable development that have emerged in the post-Brundtland era are explored in terms laying the foundations for a common vision of sustainable urban development (SUD). The described vision and methodology for SUD resulted from the activities of an international
...-2006-24015; FMCA- 2008-0106; FMCSA-2008-0174] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision.... SUMMARY: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in... exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety. The...
...-0339] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... announces receipt of applications from 14 individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable to meet the vision requirement in one eye for...
...; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 23 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered or...
Drury, Ivo; Slomski, Carol
Thoughtful, carefully constructed mission statements and vision documents serve both to signal the purpose of a medical practice to the public and other professional colleagues, and to keep the practice's providers focused on its key purposes. Practice culture is the primary driver ofmission and vision. We clarify the differences between mission statements and vision documents, and offer guidelines to aid in constructing them.
Krüger, Norbert; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre
We discuss the need of an elaborated in-between stage bridging early vision and cognitive vision which we call `Early Cognitive Vision' (ECV). This stage provides semantically rich, disambiguated and largely task independent scene representations which can be used in many contexts. In addition...
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relation of type and degree of color vision deficiency and aeromedical color vision screening test scores to performance of color-dependent tasks of Air Traffic Control Specialists. The subjects included 37...
Sabel, Bernhard A; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Fedorov, Anton; Gall, Carolin
Vision loss after retinal or cerebral visual injury (CVI) was long considered to be irreversible. However, there is considerable potential for vision restoration and recovery even in adulthood. Here, we propose the "residual vision activation theory" of how visual functions can be reactivated and restored. CVI is usually not complete, but some structures are typically spared by the damage. They include (i) areas of partial damage at the visual field border, (ii) "islands" of surviving tissue inside the blind field, (iii) extrastriate pathways unaffected by the damage, and (iv) downstream, higher-level neuronal networks. However, residual structures have a triple handicap to be fully functional: (i) fewer neurons, (ii) lack of sufficient attentional resources because of the dominant intact hemisphere caused by excitation/inhibition dysbalance, and (iii) disturbance in their temporal processing. Because of this resulting activation loss, residual structures are unable to contribute much to everyday vision, and their "non-use" further impairs synaptic strength. However, residual structures can be reactivated by engaging them in repetitive stimulation by different means: (i) visual experience, (ii) visual training, or (iii) noninvasive electrical brain current stimulation. These methods lead to strengthening of synaptic transmission and synchronization of partially damaged structures (within-systems plasticity) and downstream neuronal networks (network plasticity). Just as in normal perceptual learning, synaptic plasticity can improve vision and lead to vision restoration. This can be induced at any time after the lesion, at all ages and in all types of visual field impairments after retinal or brain damage (stroke, neurotrauma, glaucoma, amblyopia, age-related macular degeneration). If and to what extent vision restoration can be achieved is a function of the amount of residual tissue and its activation state. However, sustained improvements require repetitive
Wampler, Brandon Loy
A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on
Canada's reputation as an energy superpower is based on its abundant traditional energy resources. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) has presented a vision of Canada's future solar energy industry. Rising demands for energy, along with the high cost of replacing Canada's aging generation facilities may provide an opportunity for the development of renewable energy sources and a more diversified energy system. The vision focused on creating high quality energy solutions while reducing the high cost of solar energy equipment. Studies have suggested that the solar photovoltaic energy will be market competitive by 2020. By 2025, it is hoped that the solar industry will support more than 35,000 jobs in the economy, and displace 15 to 31 million tonnes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per year. The economic benefits of solar energy were outlined, and new technologies were presented. The export potential of solar energy was discussed. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 40 figs.
A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon
The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.
Today, millions of children use computers on a daily basis. Extensive viewing of the computer screen can lead to eye discomfort, fatigue, blurred vision and headaches, dry eyes and other symptoms of eyestrain. These symptoms may be caused by poor lighting, glare, an improper work station set-up, vision problems of which the person was not previously aware, or a combination of these factors. Children can experience many of the same symptoms related to computer use as adults. However, some unique aspects of how children use computers may make them more susceptible than adults to the development of these problems. In this study, the most common eye symptoms related to computer use in childhood, the possible causes and ways to avoid them are reviewed.
Llamosa-Rincón, L. E.; Jaime-Díaz, J. M.; Ruiz-Cardona, D. F.
The use of computers has reported an exponential growth in the last decades, the possibility of carrying out several tasks for both professional and leisure purposes has contributed to the great acceptance by the users. The consequences and impact of uninterrupted tasks with computers screens or displays on the visual health, have grabbed researcher’s attention. When spending long periods of time in front of a computer screen, human eyes are subjected to great efforts, which in turn triggers a set of symptoms known as Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Most common of them are: blurred vision, visual fatigue and Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to unappropriate lubrication of ocular surface when blinking decreases. An experimental protocol was de-signed and implemented to perform thermographic studies on healthy human eyes during exposure to dis-plays of computers, with the main purpose of comparing the existing differences in temperature variations of healthy ocular surfaces.
Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Ferguson, Thomas A; Green, Douglas R
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of nonregenerating cells essential to homeostasis in the retina and the preservation of vision. While the RPE perform a number of important functions, 2 essential processes are phagocytosis, which removes the most distal tips of the photoreceptors to support disk renewal, and the visual cycle, which maintains the supply of chromophore for regeneration of photo-bleached visual pigments. We recently reported that these processes are linked by a noncanonical form of autophagy termed LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) in which components of the autophagy pathway are co-opted by phagocytosis to recover vitamin A in support of optimal vision. Here we summarize these findings.
Full Text Available The study aim at revealing the model the effective school culture through visionary leadership at SMAN 2 Palopo. This is a qualitative – fenomenolgy field research, while data were collected by employing interview, observation, and study documentation, as well as triangulation technique. The results show that he mechanisms conducted in implementing vision are analizing strategic circles, arranging program in strategic planning, and operasional planning. The strategies conducted in developing the culture of effective school includes: developing commitment of effective culture, giving deepest understanding about vision, missions, and objectives of school, establishing distinct course of policy, and emphasizing the importance of creativity and innovation.
This book covers theoretical aspects that are at the basis of lighting installations. It focuses on insight, backgrounds and coherence. There are many fundamental aspects that are essential for understanding why different ways to install and use lighting give different results. A purely pragmatic approach to solving practical lighting problems will lead to pitfalls. But as this book shows, on the basis of fundamental considerations on optics, light sources and vision, causes and effects that tend to be overlooked by lighting engineers and designers can be identified. The selection of subjects in this book is based on more than 50 years of experience in studying the fundamental and practical applications of lighting and vision. The author has given classes on these topics, in master courses at post-graduate and post-doctoral levels. Audience: graduate students, researchers, designers, engineers and consultants engaged in lighting, public lighting, lighting equipment and installations.
Little, James J.; Jennings, Cullen; Murray, Don
Two stereo-vision-based mobile robots navigate and autonomously explore their environment safely while building occupancy grid maps of the environment. The robots maintain position estimates within a global coordinate frame using landmark recognition. This allows them to build a common map by sharing position information and stereo data. Stereo vision processing and map updates are done at 3 Hz and the robots move at speeds of 200 cm/s. Cooperative mapping is achieved through autonomous exploration of unstructured and dynamic environments. The map is constructed conservatively, so as to be useful for collision-free path planning. Each robot maintains a separate copy of a shared map, and then posts updates to the common map when it returns to observe a landmark at home base. Issues include synchronization, mutual localization, navigation, exploration, registration of maps, merging repeated views (fusion), centralized vs decentralized maps.
algorithms, low-latency video processing, embedded image processor, wearable electronics, helmet-mounted systems, alternative night / day imaging...external subsystems and data sources with the device. The establishment of data interfaces in terms of data transfer rates, formats and types are...video signals from Near-visible Infrared (NVIR) sensor, Shortwave IR (SWIR) and Longwave IR (LWIR) is the main processing for Night Vision (NI) system
Crone, R A
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) published his book, On Vision and the Colors in 1816. He started from Aristotle's linear color system and Goethe's three pairs of contrast colors. His work preceded Hering's theory of opponent colors but his path to insight was blocked by his anti-Newtonianism and his neo-Hellenistic attitude toward science. Because of his theory of the subjectivity of colors he was a forerunner of the psycho-physiological variant of neo-Kantianism.
Cole, Barry L
All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.
Salcedo, Ernesto; Zheng, Lijun; Phistry, Meridee; Bagg, Eve E.; Britt, Steven G.
Invertebrates are sensitive to a broad spectrum of light that ranges from UV to red. Color sensitivity in the UV plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. Here, we show that a single amino acid polymorphism is responsible for invertebrate UV vision. This residue (UV: lysine vs blue:asparagine or glutamate) corresponds to amino acid position glycine 90 (G90) in bovine rhodopsin, a site affected in autosomal dominant...
crystal display monitor (NEC Multisync, P232W) at 1920x1080 resolution. Proper calibration was confirmed using a spot photometer/colorimeter (X-Rite i1...visual input to the right and left eye was achieved using liquid crystal display shuttered glasses (NVIDIA 3D Vision 2). The stereo target (Figure 4...threshold on the automated tasks. • Subjects had a lower (better) threshold on color testing for all cone types using the OCCT due to a ceiling
Archana B. Patankar; Priya A. Tayade
Grading and sorting of fruits, leaf is one of the most important process in fruits production, while this process is typically performed manually in most countries. Computer vision techniques have applied for evaluating food quality as well as fruit grading. In this project different technique used that is image preprocessing, image segmentation k-means clustering algorithm to find out the infection present in image also calculate percentage of infection, from that percentage did the...
MAAD, Soha; GARBAYA, Samir; AYADI, Nizar; BOUAKAZ, Saida
In this chapter, we overview the potential of machine vision and related technologies in various application domains of critical importance for economic growth and prospect. Considered domains include healthcare, energy and environment, finance, and industrial innovation. Visibility technologies considered encompass augmented and virtual reality, 3D technologies, and media content authoring tools and technologies. We overview the main challenges facing the application domains and discuss the ...
Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects
Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.
In her article "Burroughs's Postcolonial Visions in The Yage Letters" Melanie Keomany discusses the contents of William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg's The Yage Letters which could be dismissed as openly bigoted and racist. Keomany posits that the text reveals valuable connections between the colonial expansion of the eighteenth century and 1950s USA and Latin America. By re-shaping Burroughs's lived experiences in the Amazon into a text where the narrator William Lee mimics sardonically an...
Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M
We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to
Full Text Available In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks, inspired by biological vision systems. For this reason, we propose an original approach based on a system on programmable chip implemented in an FPGA connected to a CMOS imager and an inertial set. With such a structure based on reprogrammable devices, this system admits a high degree of versatility and allows the implementation of parallel image processing algorithms.
Full Text Available In computer vision and more particularly in vision processing, the impressive evolution of algorithms and the emergence of new techniques dramatically increase algorithm complexity. In this paper, a novel FPGA-based architecture dedicated to active vision (and more precisely early vision is proposed. Active vision appears as an alternative approach to deal with artificial vision problems. The central idea is to take into account the perceptual aspects of visual tasks, inspired by biological vision systems. For this reason, we propose an original approach based on a system on programmable chip implemented in an FPGA connected to a CMOS imager and an inertial set. With such a structure based on reprogrammable devices, this system admits a high degree of versatility and allows the implementation of parallel image processing algorithms.
Alenka Tatjana Sterle
Full Text Available Background. The authors present a preventive physiotherapy programme intended to improve the well-being of persons who have been blind or visually impaired since birth or experience partial or complete loss of vision later in life as a result of injury or disease.Methods. Different methods and techniques of physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and relaxation used in the rehabilitation of visually impaired persons are described.Results. The goals of timely physical treatment are to avoid unnecessary problems, such as improper posture, tension of the entire body, face and eyes, and deterioration of facial expression, that often accompany partial or complete loss of vision. Regular training improves functional skills, restores the skills that have been lost, and prevents the development of defects and consequent disorders of the locomotor apparatus.Conclusions. It is very difficult to change the life style and habits of blind and visually imapired persons. Especially elderly people who experience complete or partial loss of vision later in their lives are often left to their fate. Therefore blind and visually impaired persons of all age groups should be enrolled in a suitable rehabilitation programme that will improve the quality of their life.
Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René
Recent studies indicate that emotion enhances early vision, but the generality of this finding remains unknown. Do the benefits of emotion extend to all basic aspects of vision, or are they limited in scope? Our results show that the brief presentation of a fearful face, compared with a neutral face, enhances sensitivity for the orientation of subsequently presented low-spatial-frequency stimuli, but diminishes orientation sensitivity for high-spatial-frequency stimuli. This is the first demonstration that emotion not only improves but also impairs low-level vision. The selective low-spatial-frequency benefits are consistent with the idea that emotion enhances magnocellular processing. Additionally, we suggest that the high-spatial-frequency deficits are due to inhibitory interactions between magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. Our results suggest an emotion-induced trade-off in visual processing, rather than a general improvement. This trade-off may benefit perceptual dimensions that are relevant for survival at the expense of those that are less relevant.
Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.
Pearson, R A; Barber, A C; Rizzi, M; Hippert, C; Xue, T; West, E L; Duran, Y; Smith, A J; Chuang, J Z; Azam, S A; Luhmann, U F O; Benucci, A; Sung, C H; Bainbridge, J W; Carandini, M; Yau, K-W; Sowden, J C; Ali, R R
Cell transplantation is a potential strategy for treating blindness caused by the loss of photoreceptors. Although transplanted rod-precursor cells are able to migrate into the adult retina and differentiate to acquire the specialized morphological features of mature photoreceptor cells, the fundamental question remains whether transplantation of photoreceptor cells can actually improve vision. Here we provide evidence of functional rod-mediated vision after photoreceptor transplantation in adult Gnat1−/− mice, which lack rod function and are a model of congenital stationary night blindness. We show that transplanted rod precursors form classic triad synaptic connections with second-order bipolar and horizontal cells in the recipient retina. The newly integrated photoreceptor cells are light-responsive with dim-flash kinetics similar to adult wild-type photoreceptors. By using intrinsic imaging under scotopic conditions we demonstrate that visual signals generated by transplanted rods are projected to higher visual areas, including V1. Moreover, these cells are capable of driving optokinetic head tracking and visually guided behaviour in the Gnat1−/− mouse under scotopic conditions. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of photoreceptor transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for restoring vision after retinal degeneration.
Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng
A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.
Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Allcock, Claire; Evans, Jennifer R
The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 12); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; BIREME LILACS, OpenGrey, the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The date of the search was 17 January 2018. This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared any device or aid used for reading to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. We did not compare low-vision aids with no low-vision aid since it is obviously not possible to measure reading speed, our primary outcome, in people that cannot read ordinary print. We considered reading aids that maximise the person's visual reading capacity, for example by increasing image magnification (optical and electronic magnifiers), augmenting text contrast (coloured filters) or trying to optimise the viewing angle or gaze position (such as prisms). We have not included studies investigating reading aids that allow reading through hearing, such as talking books or screen readers, or through touch, such as Braille-based devices and we did not consider rehabilitation strategies or complex low-vision interventions. We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcome of the review was reading speed in words per minute. Secondary
Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision and Robotics to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. Nowadays, Machine learning is an essential and ubiquitous tool to automate extraction patterns or regularities from data (images in Machine vision; camera, laser, and sonar sensors data in Robotics) in order to solve various subject-oriented tasks such as understanding and classification of images content, navigation of mobile autonomous robot in uncertain environments, robot manipulation in medical robotics and computer-assisted surgery, and other. Usually such data have high dimensionality, however, due to various dependencies between their components and constraints caused by physical reasons, all "feasible and usable data" occupy only a very small part in high dimensional "observation space" with smaller intrinsic dimensionality. Generally accepted model of such data is manifold model in accordance with which the data lie on or near an unknown manifold (surface) of lower dimensionality embedded in an ambient high dimensional observation space; real-world high-dimensional data obtained from "natural" sources meet, as a rule, this model. The use of Manifold learning technique in Machine vision and Robotics, which discovers a low-dimensional structure of high dimensional data and results in effective algorithms for solving of a large number of various subject-oriented tasks, is the content of the conference plenary speech some topics of which are in the paper.
Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy
Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population to evaluate the impact of new vision-restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional visual ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional visual tasks for observation of performance and a case narrative summary. Results were analysed to determine whether the interview questions and functional visual tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, 26 subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 tasks for functional vision were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options—impossible (33 per cent), difficult (23 per cent), moderate (24 per cent) and easy (19 per cent)—were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with 'vision only' occurring 75 per cent on average with the System ON, and 29 per cent with the System OFF. The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as an assessment tool for functional vision and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical
Strappini, Francesca; Pelli, Denis G; Di Pace, Enrico; Martelli, Marialuisa
Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia. Our "standard" normal observer took these tests at various eccentricities in his periphery. Analyzing the published data of 32 apperceptive agnosia patients and a group of 14 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients on these tests, we find that each patient's pattern of object recognition deficits is well characterized by one number, the equivalent eccentricity at which our standard observer's peripheral vision is like the central vision of the agnosic patient. In other words, each agnosic patient's equivalent eccentricity is conserved across tests. Across patients, equivalent eccentricity ranges from 4 to 40 deg, which rates severity of the visual deficit. In normal peripheral vision, the required size to perceive a simple image (e.g., an isolated letter) is limited by acuity, and that for a complex image (e.g., a face or a word) is limited by crowding. In crowding, adjacent simple objects appear unrecognizably jumbled unless their spacing exceeds the crowding distance, which grows linearly with eccentricity. Besides conservation of equivalent eccentricity across object-recognition tests, we also find conservation, from eccentricity to agnosia, of the relative susceptibility of recognition of ten visual tests. These findings show that agnosic vision is like eccentric vision. Whence crowding? Peripheral vision, strabismic amblyopia, and possibly apperceptive agnosia are all limited by crowding, making it
Suram, Vasantha; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Khanna, Rohit C
There is paucity of data on the inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy between a primary-care technician (vision technician) and an ophthalmologist. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the accuracy of vision technicians, to screen potentially sight-threatening ocular conditions at rural vision centres of southern India and their agreement with an ophthalmologist. In July to August 2010, patients presenting to seven vision centres in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh) were selected and screened in a masked manner by seven vision technicians followed by an examination by a consultant ophthalmologist. Agreement was assessed between vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening of potential sight-threatening ocular conditions and decisions for referral. The ophthalmologist's findings were considered as the reference standard. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were enrolled at seven vision centres with a mean age of 32.9 ± 21.8 years. Agreement for screening of ocular pathology was 0.82 (95 per cent CI, 0.8-0.83). There was excellent agreement for cataract (0.97; 95 per cent CI, 0.93-1), refractive error (0.98; 95 per cent CI, 0.96-1), corneal pathology (1.0; 95 per cent CI, 1.0-1.0) and other anterior segment pathology (0.95; 95 per cent CI, 0.9-1); the agreement was moderate to fair for detection of glaucoma suspects (0.43; 95 per cent CI, 0.28-0.60) and retinal pathology (0.39; 95 per cent CI, 0.14-0.63). Sensitivity for screening of anterior segment pathology was 94.6-100 per cent. There was a fair to moderate sensitivity for glaucoma suspect; 35.6 per cent (95 per cent CI, 21.9-51.2) and retinal pathology 26.3 per cent (95 per cent CI, 9.2-51.2). Specificity for screening of ocular pathology was 98.2 to 100 per cent. The kappa (κ) agreement for referral for any pathology was 0.82 (0.8-0.83) CONCLUSION: As there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of
Ehrlich, Joshua R.; Ojeda, Lauro V.; Wicker, Donna; Day, Sherry; Howson, Ashley; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Moroi, Sayoko E.
Purpose To describe the various types of head-mounted display technology, their optical and human factors considerations, and their potential for use in low vision rehabilitation and vision enhancement. Design Expert perspective. Methods An overview of head-mounted display technology by an interdisciplinary team of experts drawing on key literature in the field. Results Head-mounted display technologies can be classified based on their display type and optical design. See-through displays such as retinal projection devices have the greatest potential for use as low vision aids. Devices vary by their relationship to the user’s eyes, field of view, illumination, resolution, color, stereopsis, effect on head motion and user interface. These optical and human factors considerations are important when selecting head-mounted displays for specific applications and patient groups. Conclusions Head-mounted display technologies may offer advantages over conventional low vision aids. Future research should compare head-mounted displays to commonly prescribed low vision aids in order to compare their effectiveness in addressing the impairments and rehabilitation goals of diverse patient populations. PMID:28048975
Full Text Available Even though the amount of rehabilitation guidelines has never been greater, uncertainty continues to arise regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the rehabilitation of gait disorders. This question has been hindered by the lack of information on accurate measurements of gait disorders. Thus, this article reviews the rehabilitation systems for gait disorder using vision and non-vision sensor technologies, as well as the combination of these. All papers published in the English language between 1990 and June, 2012 that had the phrases “gait disorder” “rehabilitation”, “vision sensor”, or “non vision sensor” in the title, abstract, or keywords were identified from the SpringerLink, ELSEVIER, PubMed, and IEEE databases. Some synonyms of these phrases and the logical words “and” “or” and “not” were also used in the article searching procedure. Out of the 91 published articles found, this review identified 84 articles that described the rehabilitation of gait disorders using different types of sensor technologies. This literature set presented strong evidence for the development of rehabilitation systems using a markerless vision-based sensor technology. We therefore believe that the information contained in this review paper will assist the progress of the development of rehabilitation systems for human gait disorders.
Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka
To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.
Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Costa, Vital P; Wu, Zhichao; Medeiros, Felipe A
To present a new methodology for investigating predictive factors associated with development of vision-related disability in glaucoma. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two hundred thirty-six patients with glaucoma followed up for an average of 4.3±1.5 years. Vision-related disability was assessed by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) at baseline and at the end of follow-up. A latent transition analysis model was used to categorize NEI VFQ-25 results and to estimate the probability of developing vision-related disability during follow-up. Patients were tested with standard automated perimetry (SAP) at 6-month intervals, and evaluation of rates of visual field change was performed using mean sensitivity (MS) of the integrated binocular visual field. Baseline disease severity, rate of visual field loss, and duration of follow-up were investigated as predictive factors for development of disability during follow-up. The relationship between baseline and rates of visual field deterioration and the probability of vision-related disability developing during follow-up. At baseline, 67 of 236 (28%) glaucoma patients were classified as disabled based on NEI VFQ-25 results, whereas 169 (72%) were classified as nondisabled. Patients classified as nondisabled at baseline had 14.2% probability of disability developing during follow-up. Rates of visual field loss as estimated by integrated binocular MS were almost 4 times faster for those in whom disability developed versus those in whom it did not (-0.78±1.00 dB/year vs. -0.20±0.47 dB/year, respectively; P disability developing over time (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.70; P = 0.013). In addition, each 0.5-dB/year faster rate of loss of binocular MS during follow-up was associated with a more than 3.5 times increase in the risk of disability developing (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.56-8.23; P = 0.003). A new methodology for classification and analysis
Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.
Jensen, Tina Blegind; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe
Empirical evidence from a case study of the diffusion and adoption of mobile technology in a highly structured home care setting in Denmark shows how an organizational field vision of an efficient mobile technology was created and became transformed through diverse translation mechanisms...... the organizing vision for mobile technology in practice. Our findings show that an integration of the translation perspective not only furthers our understanding of the malleability of the organizing vision but also shows how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology adoption and eventually...... institutionalization. Our study contributes to the increasing research on diffusion and adoption of mobile technologies within healthcare by challenging dominant single level analysis and factor-orientated approaches....
Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Dupas, Stephane
The overall aim of this report was to identify and review the process by which different cities have built visionary plans for the long-term sustainable development of their territory for a low-energy, climate-resilient future. We used a case studies approach to describe different methods used by cities to build their visionary plans and address present energy and climate change challenges. The purpose of this report is as well to contribute to the debate on the future of cities in the post-carbon society and to inspire further initiatives for a low-energy future. The first step towards understanding the visioning/planning process of cities for a low-energy future was to identify several initiatives were cities have developed a plan or statement to address energy and climate change issues in the next 20 to 50 years. These plans and documents were then reviewed in search of diverse and innovative methods and process for visioning, design and planning towards a low-carbon future. After these preliminary assessments and observations, we selected 4 cities based on the use of different methodologies for visioning, planning and development of the action plan and projects. Afterwards, we focused on the description of the visioning/planning process per city, based on information obtained from official plans and documents, and from interviews with local authorities and other personnel working for projects in each of the cities selected. The content of the interviews varied according to the local context of the initiative, but in general contained questions regarding methods and tools used to build their visions and action plans, as well as enquiries about the visioning steps and process, the role of stakeholders, and implementation strategies used to drive forward this initiatives
Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon
There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal vision spans a great range of complexity, with systems evolving to detect variations in light intensity, distribution, colour, and polarisation. Polarisation vision systems studied to date detect one to four channels of linear polarisation, combining them in opponent pairs to provide intensity-independent operation. Circular polarisation vision has never been seen, and is widely believed to play no part in animal vision. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polarisation is fully measured via Stokes' parameters--obtained by combined linear and circular polarisation measurements. Optimal polarisation vision is the ability to see Stokes' parameters: here we show that the crustacean Gonodactylus smithii measures the exact components required. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This vision provides optimal contrast-enhancement and precise determination of polarisation with no confusion states or neutral points--significant advantages. Linear and circular polarisation each give partial information about the polarisation of light--but the combination of the two, as we will show here, results in optimal polarisation vision. We suggest that linear and circular polarisation vision not be regarded as different modalities, since both are necessary for optimal polarisation vision; their combination renders polarisation vision independent of strongly linearly or circularly polarised features in the animal's environment.
S. A. Korotkikh
Full Text Available Observational study of patients after excimerlaser vision correction by LASEK method.Purpose: to estimate efficacy HILOZAR-COMOD® solution in patients after excimerlaser vision correction.Patients and methods: We examined 80 eyes (40 patients after excimer laser correction by LASIK method. All patients were divided in 2 groups. The patients from the first group were treated with by standard drug’s scheme, included deprotein izing the dialysate from the blood of healthy dairy calves (Solkoseryl® eye gel. HILOZAR-COMOD ® was prescribed as cornea protector in the 2 group of patients.Results: In the first group complete cornea epitalization by biomicroscopy in 70 % eyes after 48 hours of excimerlaser vision correction was found. Minimal unepitalization areas were diagnosed in 30 % (12 eyes. In the second group complete cornea epitalization was found in 82,5 % eyes (33 eyes in the same term after excimerlaser correction. Cornea epitelium defects in optical area were diagnosed in the17,5 % eyes. The difference between number of patients with cornea epitelium defects first and second groups was 12,5 %. 97,5 % patients (39 eyes of second group (HILOZAR-COMOD ® had complete cornea epitelization after 72 hours of excimer laser correction. In the same term unepitelization areas were found in 3 eyes (7,5 % in patients of first group. It was to 5 % more than in the first group, where dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid was used (complete cornea epitalization in first group was found in 37 eyes.Conclusions: The combined medicine included dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid decreases intensity of the dry eye symptoms, stimulate quick and full cornea healing and decrease the risk of postoperative complications risk.
Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.
Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.
Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.
Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.
When considering the burden of visual impairment on aging individuals and society at large, it is important to bear in mind that vision changes are a natural aspect of aging. In this article, we consider vision changes that are part of normal aging, the prevalence of abnormal vision changes caused by disorders of the visual system, and the anticipated incidence and impact of visual impairment as the US population ages. We then discuss the services available to reduce the impact of vision loss, and the extent to which those services can and should be improved, not only to be better prepared for the anticipated increase in low vision over the coming decades, but also to increase the awareness of interactions between visual impairment and comorbidities that are common among the elderly. Finally, we consider how to promote improved quality, availability, and acceptance of low vision care to lessen the impact of visual impairment on individuals, and its burden on society. PMID:24335074
This article reviews the potential for making use of biomass for the production of energy. Figures are presented on the proportion of Swiss energy needs that could be produced from biomass if the appropriate technologies were massively promoted. The scenario is based on an ecologically justifiable amount of biogenous wastes and re-growable biomass. The potential of such biomass use is commented on and the geographical distribution of such resources is looked at. Technologies that can be used are listed and commented on. The usefulness of geographic information systems is stressed. A vision for the year 2020 is presented and commented on
Andrew J Zele
Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated that rod activation under mesopic and scotopic light levels alters visual perception and performance. Here we review the most recent developments in the measurement of rod and cone contributions to mesopic color perception and temporal processing, with a focus on data measured using the four-primary photostimulator method that independently controls rod and cone excitations. We discuss the findings in the context of rod inputs to the three primary retinogeniculate pathways to understand rod contributions to mesopic vision. Additionally, we present evidence that hue perception is possible under scotopic, pure rod-mediated conditions that involves cortical mechanisms.
Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Bundesen, Claus
(1.33 s-1) or low (0.22 s-1) corresponding to mean waiting times of 750 ms and 4,500 ms, respectively. The probability (p) of correct report was approximately an exponential function of the stimulus duration (t): p = 1 - exp[-v (t - t0)], where t0 measured the threshold of conscious perception, and v...... even though no general decrease in processing speed over time occurred; thus, the observed pattern was independent of the actual duration of the waiting time, but depended entirely on expectation. This seems to be the first time speed of vision - unconfounded by motor components - has been shown...
Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine
Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.
This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt
Westrope, R A; Vaughn, L; Bott, M; Taunton, R L
Quality patient care is best provided by competent clinical staff members who are committed to their work, organizational values, and goals, and who maintain employment over time. Shared governance has provided the framework for clinical nurses to become more committed to their practice through decision making and to assume accountability for the outcomes of their decisions. At a tertiary teaching facility, shared governance resulted in increased job satisfaction, commitment, and retention among staff nurses. The authors describe the journey from creation of the shared governance vision to reality, and the impact of the changes.
Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; DeNardo, Dale F.
It has been discovered that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) proteins of Boidae (boas), Pythonidae (pythons), and Crotalinae (pit vipers) are used to detect infrared radiation, but the molecular mechanism for detecting the infrared radiation is unknown. Here, relating the amino acid substitutions in their TRPA1 proteins and the functional differentiations, we propose that three parallel amino acid changes (L330M, Q391H, and S434T) are responsible for the development of infrared vision in the three groups of snakes. Protein modeling shows that the three amino acid changes alter the structures of the central region of their ankyrin repeats. PMID:20937734
Giuliani, Fabienne; Schenk, Françoise
Vision is the most synthetic sensory channel and it provides specific information about the relative position of distant landmarks during visual exploration. In this paper we propose that visual exploration, as assessed by the recording of eye movements, offers an original method to analyze spatial cognition and to reveal alternative adaptation strategies in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Our general assumption is that eye movement exploration may simultaneously reveal whether, why, and how, compensatory strategies point to specific difficulties related to neurological symptoms. An understanding of these strategies will also help in the development of optimal rehabilitation procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.
Parker, J R
A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems
Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Prakash, M.S.; Setty, C.R.P.; Gupta, U.C.
When New Uranium Fuel Assembly Project at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) begins production, its operator will have equipment provided with intramachine handling systems working automatically by pressing a single button. Additionally simple low cost inter machine handling systems will further help in critical areas. All these inter and intra machine handling systems will result in improved reliability, productivity and quality. The fault diagnostics, mimics and real time data acquisition systems make the plant more operator friendly. The paper deals with the experience starting from layout, selection of product carriers, different handling systems, the latest technology and the integration of which made the vision on automation in fuel fabrication come true. (author)
Cipollini, A.; Meo, G.B.; Nanni, V.; Rossi, L.; Taraglio, S.; Ferjancic, C.
This work, a joint research between ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) and DIGlTAL, presents the layout of the ROBERT project, ROBot with Environmental Recognizing Tools, under development in ENEA laboratories. This project aims at the development of an autonomous mobile vehicle able to navigate in a known indoor environment through the use of artificial vision. The general architecture of the robot is shown together with the data and control flow among the various subsystems. Also the inner structure of the latter complete with the functionalities are given in detail
General Electric has developed an intelligent microprocessor-based machine vision system that is character font independent and is capable of reading characters that may be variably defined as a result of dirt, misalignment, or scratches incurred during processing. This system, the Alphavision System, was developed at the GE fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, North Carolina, and has been used to read serial numbers on fuel rods. This paper describes the system and considerations for its use and suggests some potential applications in nuclear materials item accountability
Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.
Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo
The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b
PETERS, CHRISTOPHER; O'SULLIVAN, CAROL ANN
PUBLISHED A memory model based on ?stage theory?, an influential concept of memory from the field of cognitive psychology, is presented for application to autonomous virtual humans. The virtual human senses external stimuli through a synthetic vision system. The vision system incorporates multiple modes of vision in order to accommodate a perceptual attention approach. The memory model is used to store perceived and attended object information at different stages in a filtering...
The purpose of this work is to perform a feasibility test of a Machine Vision system for potential use at the Hanford K basins during spent nuclear fuel (SNF) operations. This report documents the testing performed to establish functionality of the system including quantitative assessment of results. Fauske and Associates, Inc., which has been intimately involved in development of the SNF safety basis, has teamed with Agris-Schoen Vision Systems, experts in robotics, tele-robotics, and Machine Vision, for this work
Jones, Dyan L; Zollman, Dean
We present a qualitative study designed to examine how students construct an understanding of the human eye and vision from their knowledge of light and optics. As would be expected, vast differences are shown to exist between pre- and post-instruction students in terms of not only resource use, but also willingness to transfer their existing knowledge. However, we have found that appropriate scaffolding can facilitate resource activation and guide students to construct an understanding of vision and vision defects. (paper)
Lin, Stephanie; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; West, Sheila K; Johnson, Chris A; Friedman, David S; Kong, Xiangrong; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
We characterized vision in glaucoma using seven visual measures, with the goals of determining the dimensionality of vision, and how many and which visual measures best model activity limitation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 150 older adults with glaucoma, collecting seven visual measures: integrated visual field (VF) sensitivity, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), area under the log CS function, color vision, stereoacuity, and visual acuity with noise. Principal component analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of vision. Multivariable regression models using one, two, or three vision tests (and nonvisual predictors) were compared to determine which was best associated with Rasch-analyzed Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) person measure scores. The participants had a mean age of 70.2 and IVF sensitivity of 26.6 dB, suggesting mild-to-moderate glaucoma. All seven vision measures loaded similarly onto the first principal component (eigenvectors, 0.220-0.442), which explained 56.9% of the variance in vision scores. In models for GQL scores, the maximum adjusted- R 2 values obtained were 0.263, 0.296, and 0.301 when using one, two, and three vision tests in the models, respectively, though several models in each category had similar adjusted- R 2 values. All three of the best-performing models contained CS. Vision in glaucoma is a multidimensional construct that can be described by several variably-correlated vision measures. Measuring more than two vision tests does not substantially improve models for activity limitation. A sufficient description of disability in glaucoma can be obtained using one to two vision tests, especially VF and CS.
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a stereo computer vision algorithm intended to control a robotic arm. Specific points on the robot joints are marked and recognized in the software. Using a dedicated set of mathematic equations, the movement of the robot is continuously computed and monitored with webcams. Positioning error is finally analyzed.
A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Fukuoka city, Fukuoka Prefecture, which will serve as a basic guide to the promotion of new energy introduction which is one of the measures for coping with environmental problems. The vision is described in five chapters of (1) the local characteristics of Fukuoka city, (2) energy situation in Fukuoka city, (3) basic program, (4) high priority plans, and (5) efforts to enhance the vision toward realization. Discussed as high priority plans are the introduction of new energy into public buildings above all others, high efficiency utilization of refuse-derived energy, utilization of new energy at water supply and drainage facilities, utilization of water temperature difference energy, introduction of clean energy vehicles, promotion of a new energy industry, and the extension of assistance for encouraging citizens and industrialists to adopt new energy. In extending assistance for encouraging the introduction of new energy, studies are made about measures for introducing new energy into individual residences and about a citizenry-involving new energy adopting industry (offering a site to the power generation industry) under the basal conditions that information be supplied sufficiently and that the citizenry and administration cooperate with each other in driving forward the vision. (NEDO)
Stam, Daan; Lord, Robert G.; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara
We propose a model of vision communication that emphasizes the mediating role of follower collective possible selves—that is, self-conception in terms of what the collective (team, organization) which one is a member of may become in the future that can be held by individuals but can also be shared
Sadowski, B.M.; Matzat, U.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.
De centrale onderzoeksvraag van het project I-Vision was "in welke mate hebben de verschillenden FTTH (Fibre-to-the-Home) initiatieven vanuit de gemeente een bijdrage geleverd aan de verbetering van het sociaal-economische welzijn van bewoners en bedrijven in de regio Eindhoven". Deze vraag is
Organisations initiate and execute projects at an ever-increasing rate in order to achieve their strategic intentions. Many of these, however, find it difficult to measure the contribution that these projects make towards the realisation of the organisational vision. In order to effect these changes in a cumulatively beneficial way, ...
Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.
Dartt, Darlene A
We hypothesize that targeted molecular intervention can preserve vision threatened by battlefield trauma-induced corneal andretinal inflammation corneal and retina/optic nerve apoptosis ocular surface...
Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2). This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV
Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim
Full Text Available Purpose: Acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia (RVM is a rare, paroxysmal, sudden and transient vertical inversion of vision, also known as floor-on-the-ceiling phenomenon. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but it may due to transient impairment of vestibular projections to the parietal lobes. Case description: Here we present a case of a 60 year-old man with a right paramedian pontine stroke developed episodes of upside-down reversal of vision during transition from awake to sleep time (hypnagogic acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia that subsided after treatment with gabapentin.
Sevda Aydin Kurna
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25. Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group and 30 healthy patients (control group were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision P 0.4 in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4 in the worse eye had lower general health scores P<0.05. Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life.
Hudson, David L.
Up to now, robot vision systems have been designed to serve both application development and operational needs in inspection, assembly and material handling. This universal approach to robot vision is too costly for many practical applications. A new industrial vision system separates the function of application program development from on-line operation. A Vision Development System (VDS) is equipped with facilities designed to simplify and accelerate the application program development process. A complimentary but lower cost Target Application System (TASK) runs the application program developed with the VDS. This concept is presented in the context of an actual robot vision application that improves inspection and assembly for a manufacturer of electronic terminal keyboards. Applications developed with a VDS experience lower development cost when compared with conventional vision systems. Since the TASK processor is not burdened with development tools, it can be installed at a lower cost than comparable "universal" vision systems that are intended to be used for both development and on-line operation. The VDS/TASK approach opens more industrial applications to robot vision that previously were not practical because of the high cost of vision systems. Although robot vision is a new technology, it has been applied successfully to a variety of industrial needs in inspection, manufacturing, and material handling. New developments in robot vision technology are creating practical, cost effective solutions for a variety of industrial needs. A year or two ago, researchers and robot manufacturers interested in implementing a robot vision application could take one of two approaches. The first approach was to purchase all the necessary vision components from various sources. That meant buying an image processor from one company, a camera from another and lens and light sources from yet others. The user then had to assemble the pieces, and in most instances he had to write
Price, Trevor D
Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.
Present state of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is based on changes of MR signals produced by blood circulation changes due to the nerve activity, in vision research was reviewed. In this field, there are international associations of Human Brain Mapping and for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and reports presented in ARVO in 1998 and 1999 were firstly described. Next, the comparison between two conditions was defined as the experimental paradigm of fMRI and analyses with the event related fMRI and with classification into visual central regions were explained. Major findings obtained by stimulation of visual central regions were discussed on the lateral corpus geniculatum, areas of V1, V2, V3 (VP), V3A, V4A (V8), V5 and LO (lateral occipital complex), and others. In practice of actual fMRI, the noise is often attributable to the examinee factor and notification for speculating the result is important. The value of fMRI in the clinical ophthalmological diagnosis was discussed and thought to be further investigated. (K.H.)
Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni
Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently
Neff, John E
A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.
Yosafat Surya Murijanto
Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality.
John Edward Neff
Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.
Nygren, Richard E., E-mail: email@example.com [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Youchison, Dennis L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, Lance L.
Highlights: • New approach recommended to develop refractory fusion plasma facing components. • Need to develop engineered materials architecture with nano-features. • Need to develop PFCs with gas jet cooling with very fine scale for jet arrays. • Emphasis on role of additive manufacturing as needed method for fabrication. - Abstract: This paper advances a vision for plasma facing components (PFCs) that includes the following points. The solution for plasma facing materials likely consists of engineered structures in which the layer of plasma facing material (PFM) is integrated with an engineered structure that cools the PFM and may also transition with graded composition. The key to achieving this PFC architecture will likely lie in advanced manufacturing methods, e.g., additive manufacturing, that can produce layers with controlled porosity and features such as micro-fibers and/or nano-particles that can collect He and transmutation products, limit tritium retention, and do all this in a way that maintains adequate robustness for a satisfactory lifetime. This vision has significant implications for how we structure a development program.
Wright, Weldon; Pradhan, Sanjay; Bhattacharya, Sulgana; Mahapatra, Vasu; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Gajjeraman, Sivakumar; Mohanty, Samarendra
Photodegenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and dry age related macular degeneration (dry- AMD) lead to loss of vision in millions of individuals. Currently, no surgical or medical treatment is available though optogenetic therapies are in clinical development. Here, we demonstrate vision restoration using Multi- Characteristics Opsin (MCO1) in animal models with photo-degenerated retina. MCO1 is reliably delivered to specific retinal cells via intravitreal injection of Adeno-Associated Virus, leading to significant improvement in visually guided behavior conducted using a radial-arm water maze. The time to reach platform significantly reduced after delivery of MCO1. Notably, the improvement in visually guided behavior was observed even at light intensity levels orders of magnitude lower than that required for Channelrhodopsin-2 opsin. Chronic light exposure study showed that chronic light exposure did not compromise viability of vMCO1-treated retina. Safe virus-mediated MCO1-delivery has potential for effective gene therapy of diverse retinal degenerations in patients.
Butterflies use colour vision when searching for flowers. Unlike the trichromatic retinas of humans (blue, green and red cones; plus rods) and honeybees (ultraviolet, blue and green photoreceptors), butterfly retinas typically have six or more photoreceptor classes with distinct spectral sensitivities. The eyes of the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus) contain ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red and broad-band receptors, with each ommatidium housing nine photoreceptor cells in one of three fixed combinations. The Papilio eye is thus a random patchwork of three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. To determine whether Papilio use all of their receptors to see colours, we measured their ability to discriminate monochromatic lights of slightly different wavelengths. We found that Papilio can detect differences as small as 1-2 nm in three wavelength regions, rivalling human performance. We then used mathematical modelling to infer which photoreceptors are involved in wavelength discrimination. Our simulation indicated that the Papilio vision is tetrachromatic, employing the ultraviolet, blue, green and red receptors. The random array of three ommatidial types is a common feature in butterflies. To address the question of how the spectrally complex eyes of butterflies evolved, we studied their developmental process. We have found that the development of butterfly eyes shares its molecular logic with that of Drosophila: the three-way stochastic expression pattern of the transcription factor Spineless determines the fate of ommatidia, creating the random array in Papilio. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.
Hess, R F; Mansouri, B; Thompson, B
To develop a treatment for amblyopia based on re-establishing binocular vision. A novel procedure is outlined for measuring and reducing the extent to which the fixing eye suppresses the fellow amblyopic eye in adults with amblyopia. We hypothesize that suppression renders a structurally binocular system, functionally monocular. We demonstrate that strabismic amblyopes can combine information normally between their eyes under viewing conditions where suppression is reduced by presenting stimuli of different contrast to each eye. Furthermore we show that prolonged periods of binocular combination leads to a strengthening of binocular vision in strabismic amblyopes and eventual combination of binocular information under natural viewing conditions (stimuli of the same contrast in each eye). Concomitant improvement in monocular acuity of the amblyopic eye occurs with this reduction in suppression and strengthening of binocular fusion. Additionally, stereoscopic function was established in the majority of patients tested. We have implemented this approach on a headmounted device as well as on a handheld iPod. This provides the basis for a new treatment of amblyopia, one that is purely binocular and aimed at reducing suppression as a first step.
Godts, Daisy; Moorkens, Greta; Mathysen, Danny G P
To compare binocular vision measurements between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls. Forty-one CFS patients referred by the Reference Centre for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome of the Antwerp University Hospital and forty-one healthy volunteers, matched for age and gender, underwent a complete orthoptic examination. Data of visual acuity, eye position, fusion amplitude, stereopsis, ocular motility, convergence, and accommodation were compared between both groups. Patients with CFS showed highly significant smaller fusion amplitudes (P convergence capacity (P accommodation range (P convergence and accommodation should be routinely examined. CFS patients will benefit from reading glasses either with or without prism correction in an earlier stage compared to their healthy peers. Convergence exercises may be beneficial for CFS patients, despite the fact that they might be very tiring. Further research will be necessary to draw conclusions about the efficacy of treatment, especially regarding convergence exercises. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study evaluating binocular vision in CFS patients. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.
Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised
The contributions for this book have been gathered over several years from conferences held in the series of Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, the latest of which was held in Ankara, Turkey. The essential aspect is that they concern practical applications rather than the derivation of mere theory, though simulations and visualization are important components. The topics range from mining, with its heavy engineering, to the delicate machining of holes in the human skull or robots for surgery on human flesh. Mobile robots continue to be a hot topic, both from the need for navigation and for the task of stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicles. The swinging of a spray rig is damped, while machine vision is used for the control of heating in an asphalt-laying machine. Manipulators are featured, both for general tasks and in the form of grasping fingers. A robot arm is proposed for adding to the mobility scooter of the elderly. Can EEG signals be a means to control a robot? Can face recognition be ac...
Leonardo was an advocate of the intromission theory of vision. Light rays from the object to the eye caused visual perceptions which were transported to the brain ventricles via a hollow optic nerve. Leonardo introduced wax injections to explore the ventricular system. Perceptions were assumed to go to the "senso comune" in the middle (3rd) ventricle, also the seat of the soul. The processing station "imprensiva" in the anterior lateral horns together with memory "memoria" in th posterior (4th) ventricle integrated the visual perceptions to visual experience. - Leonardo's sketches with circular lenses in the center of the eye reveal that his dependence on medieval optics prevailed over anatomical observations. Drawings of the anatomy of the sectioned eye are missing although Leonardo had invented a new embedding technique. In order to dissect the eye without spilling its contents, the eye was first boiled in egg white and then cut. The procedure was now repeated and showed that the ovoid lens after boiling had become spherical. - Leonardo described that light rays were refracted and reflected in the eye but his imperfect anatomy prevented a development of physiological optics. He was, however, the first to compare the eye with a pin-hole camera (camera obscura). Leonardo's drawings of the inverted pictures on the back wall of a camera obscura inspired to its use as an instrument for artistic practice. The camera obscura was for centuries a model for explaining human vision.
Woods, Russell L.; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli
It can be useful to present a different image to each of the two eyes while they cooperatively view the world. Such dichoptic presentation can occur in investigations of stereoscopic and binocular vision (e.g., strabismus, amblyopia) and vision rehabilitation in clinical and research settings. Various techniques have been used to construct dichoptic displays. The most common and most flexible modern technique uses liquid-crystal (LC) shutters. When used in combination with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, there is often leakage of light from the image intended for one eye into the view of the other eye. Such interocular crosstalk is 14% even in our state of the art CRT-based dichoptic system. While such crosstalk may have minimal impact on stereo movie or video game experiences, it can defeat clinical and research investigations. We use micromirror digital light processing (DLP™) technology to create a novel dichoptic visual display system with substantially lower interocular crosstalk (0.3% remaining crosstalk comes from the LC shutters). The DLP system normally uses a color wheel to display color images. Our approach is to disable the color wheel, synchronize the display directly to the computer's sync signal, allocate each of the three (former) color presentations to one or both eyes, and open and close the LC shutters in synchrony with those color events.
Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C
Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Laby, Daniel M
Despite our inability to attenuate the course of many ocular diseases that can ultimately lead to loss or significantly decreased visual function, this report describes a potential technique to aid such patients in maximizing the use of the vision that remains. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of utilizing sports vision training to improve objective and subjective visuomotor function in a low-vision patient. A 37-year-old woman with Usher syndrome presented with reduced central visual acuity and visual field. Although we were unable to reverse the damage resulting from her diagnosis, we were able to improve the use of the remaining vision. A 27 to 31% improvement in hand-eye coordination was achieved along with a 41% improvement in object tracking and visual concentration. Most importantly, following the 14-week training period, there was also a subjective improvement in the patient's appreciation of her visual ability. The sports vision literature cites many examples in which sports vision training is useful in improving visuomotor and on-field performance. We hypothesized that these techniques may be used to aid not only athletes but also patients with low vision. Despite suffering from reduced acuity and a limited visual field, these patients often still have a significant amount of vision ability that can be used to guide motor actions. Using techniques to increase the efficient use of this remaining vision may reduce the impact of the reduced visual function and aid in activities of daily living.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Everest' Panorama 20-20 Vision (QTVR) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Everest' Panorama Animation If a human with perfect vision donned a spacesuit and stepped onto the martian surface, the view would be as clear as this sweeping panorama taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. That's because the rover's panoramic camera has the equivalent of 20-20 vision. Earthlings can take a virtual tour of the scenery by zooming in on their computer screens many times to get a closer look at, say, a rock outcrop or a sand drift, without losing any detail. This level of clarity is unequaled in the history of Mars exploration. It took Spirit three days, sols 620 to 622 (Oct. 1 to Oct. 3, 2005), to acquire all the images combined into this mosaic, called the 'Everest Panorama,' looking outward in every direction from the true summit of 'Husband Hill.' During that period, the sky changed in color and brightness due to atmospheric dust variations, as shown in contrasting sections of this mosaic. Haze occasionally obscured the view of the hills on the distant rim of Gusev Crater 80 kilometers (50 miles) away. As dust devils swooped across the horizon in the upper right portion of the panorama, the robotic explorer changed the filters on the camera from red to green to blue, making the dust devils appear red, green, and blue. In reality, the dust devils are similar in color to the reddish-brown soils of Mars. No attempt was made to 'smooth' the sky in this mosaic, as has been done in other panoramic-camera mosaics to simulate the view one would get by taking in the landscape all at once. The result is a sweeping vista that allows viewers to observe weather changes on Mars. The summit of Husband Hill is a broad plateau of rock outcrops and windblown drifts about 100 meters (300 feet) higher than the surrounding plains of Gusev Crater. In the distance, near the center of the mosaic, is the 'South Basin,' the
Boissin, J P; Peyresblanques, J; Rollin, J P; Marini, F; Beaufils, D
A study was conducted to measure the impact of welding on the vision of welders. This study was conducted in France by the occupational medicine staff of large companies on 1.131 people, namely 850 welders and 281 control subjects. This investigation included two examinations at the beginning and the end of a year. The investigative procedure examined the different welding processes, the percentage of working time spent on welding activity, the length of exposure in years, as well as the medical variables: the optical correction type and history of ocular traumatology. The Visiotest or the Ergovision were used for the visual examination, equipment in common use by occupational medicine departments. The welders were comparatively young (59.53% of them were less than 45 years old). Moreover, for 69.75% of the welders, more than 75% of their activity was devoted to welding. All currently used welding processes were represented, including the modern PLASMA-TIG welding process. No excessive blood alcohol levels were observed in all subjects, but welders did smoke slightly more than the control subjects (40% vs 33%). Self-medication was rather less frequent among the welders, except as regards the use of eye drops, where the proportions were clearly inverted. Optical correction for hyperopia was similar between the two groups; however, as regards myopia, the welders were corrected less often. Lastly, contact lens use was exceptional among the welders. Nearsightedness varied logically with age, but also, inexplicably, with the welding processes. Vision recovery time after exposure to glare was much longer among the welders, except for the PLASMA-TIG processes. No difference was observed in the other parameters of the study. No change in the visual functions studied was noted between the two examinations. The examination techniques used showed no impairment of the studied visual functions, probably because companies use protective and preventive eye care methods. Moreover
Encourages visionary questions relating to information technology and education. Describes the context of postmodernist change and discusses two contrasting visions of how education could change, paternalism and libertarianism. Concludes that teachers, learners, and communities need to articulate their own visions of education to ensure a…
Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon
Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...
Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Aaltonen, M.; Wybo,J.L.; Saari, J.; Kines, P.; Beeck, R. op de
This discussion paper is written out of a concern. We noticed that many companies with a good safety reputation have adopted a zero accident vision, yet there is very little scientific research in this field. The zero accident vision addresses the accidents causing deaths and severe injuries among
.... The best corrected visual acuity in his right eye is light perception, and in his left eye, 20/20.... Lifelong. Stable. Visual fields WNL. Color WNL. No contraindications for commercial driving.'' Mr. Clark... color vision, 180 degrees of peripheral vision, no medical contraindication to commercial truck driving...
Keywords: Direct vision, internal, urethrotomy, urethral and stricture.;. Four hundred and fifty nine patients seen with simple urethral strictures between 1990 and 1998 underwent direct vision urethrotomy.. The procedure was successful in 441 patients and failed in only 18 patients. Postoperative complications included fever.
A survey of the prevalence of blindness and low vision was conducted in the Ingwavuma district of KwaZulu to assess the effectiveness of existing eye care facilities in the prevention and treatInent of impaired vision and blindness. One hundred subjects from each of 60 randomly selected clusters (N =6 090) were screened.
The first book in the Series Radical Orthodoxy (RO) was not meant to be programmatic or set out to change the direction of modern theology. There are certain shared sensibilities among its authors and, principally, an ecumenical vision. This article sketches the nature of that ecumenical vision that begins with the way in ...
Cao, Y.; Nijholt, Antinus; Theune, Mariët; van der Sluis, Ielka; Bachvarova, Yulia; Andre, Elisabeth
Crisis management is a time-critical task with high uncertainty and high risk. Stress and cognitive overload often result in a set of bias in crisis manager’s situation understanding and information confirming processes, known as 'tunnel vision'. Aiming at preventing tunnel vision, we propose an
Methods: The teachers were randomly selected from 13 schools in Port Harcourt City (PHC) and given a six hours training workshop on vision disorders in children and congenital color vision screening. They were given a self administered pre and post test questionnaires before and after training respectively. Subsequently ...
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education.
The manual was intended to help school personnel (either an educator of the visually handicapped and/or a certified orientation and mobility instructor) evaluate the functional use of residual vision. The manual is organized in three major sections, which cover the following: (1) the general areas addressed in functional vision evaluation (such as…
Sacks, Sharon Zell; Rosenblum, L. Penny
Two studies examined how adolescents with low vision perceive their ability to drive. The results of both studies indicated similarities in the participants' responses with respect to knowledge of visual impairment, information about options for driving with low vision, frustrations and obstacles imposed by not being able to drive, and independent…
Chromatic thresholds were measured using the Cambridge Color Test (CCT), Color Assessment and Diagnosis : (CAD) test, and Cone Specific Contrast Test at ground and 3780 m (12,400 ft) for subjects with normal color : vision and red-green color vision ...
Mazyn, L.; Lenoir, M.; Montagne, G.; Delaey, C; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereo vision to the acquisition of a natural interception task. Poor catchers with good (N = 8; Stereo+) and weak (N = 6; Stereo-) stereo vision participated in an intensive training program spread over 2 weeks, during which they caught
.... Molenaar Mr. Molenaar, 59, has complete loss of vision in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected... examination in 2011, his ophthalmologist noted, ``It is my opinion that Gerardus C. Molenaar has sufficient vision to perform driving tasks required to operate a commercial vehicle.'' Mr. Molenaar reported that he...
MacInnes, Iain; Smith, Stuart
In the "The Science Study Series" book "The Physics of Television", it is stated that persistence of vision lasts for about a tenth of a second. This will be a notional figure just as 25 cm is taken to be the least distance of distinct vision. Estimates range from 1/8 to 1/16 s.
Roselle, Rene; Liner, Kevin
As preservice teachers enter their first teaching experience, they often have perceptions about what teaching will be like based on a vision that is typically linked to their own background and experiences. This study explores the changes in visions of 15 preservice teachers throughout student teaching in an urban environment. The research will…
The fundamental objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to gain more insight into what is involved in the practical application of a computer vision system, when the conditions of use cannot be controlled completely. The basic assumption is that research on isolated aspects of computer vision often leads
... proclaim the first week in March of each year as ``Save Your Vision Week.'' NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA... Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation While many... identified risk factors, early detection methods, and new treatments for many eye conditions, but individuals...
Describes use of collaborative metaphorical discussions, mind mapping, and imaginative visual thinking by the faculty of the Rider University School of Education to produce an idealistic vision of the college's future. This vision is expressed as a fanciful metaphorical drawing surrounded by a mind map and accompanied by a story connecting symbols…
Liefhebber, F.; Sijs, J.
The rehabilitation robot Manus is an assistive device for severely motor handicapped users. The executing of all day living tasks with the Manus, can be very complex and a vision-based controller can simplify this. The lack of existing vision-based controlled systems, is the poor reliability of the
Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Tai-Hoon Cho; Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; D. Earl Kline
Machine vision and automated processing systems are under development at Virginia Tech University with support and cooperation from the USDA Forest Service. Our goals are to help U.S. hardwood producers automate, reduce costs, increase product volume and value recovery, and market higher value, more accurately graded and described products. Any vision system is...
Dierking, Lynn D.; Falk, John H.
In this issue, we have compiled six original papers, outcomes from the U.S. National Science Foundation (US-NSF)-funded REESE (Research and Evaluation on Education in Science and Engineering) 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research project. The purpose of 2020 Vision was to re-envision the questions and frameworks guiding STEM…
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006 ...
Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia
This article explores the political dimensions of teacher learning, both in theoretical work on teacher professional vision, and in an empirical study of video-based teacher professional development. Theoretically, we revisit the origins of "professional vision" in linguistic anthropology and trace the concept's evolution in teacher…
Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van
We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite
... for moving violations in a CMV. Richard P. Frederiksen Mr. Frederiksen, 29, has had a prosthesis left... ophthalmologist noted, ``I felt his vision was good enough to drive a commercial or personal vehicle. I certify... ophthalmologist noted, ``I feel he has sufficient vision to perform the driving tasks required to operate a...
Majaj, Najib; Pelli, Denis
Today most vision-science presentations mention machine learning. Many neuroscientists use machine learning to decode neural responses. Many perception scientists try to understand recognition by living organisms. To them, machine learning offers a reference of attainable performance based on learned stimuli. This brief overview of the use of machine learning in biological vision touches on its strengths, weaknesses, milestones, controversies, and current directions.
This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...
Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer
Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.
Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B.; Pollmann, Stefan
Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual…
Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program
Buck, Steven L; Baraas, Rigmor; Kremers, Jan; Lindsey, Delwin T; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Webster, Michael A; Werner, John S
This feature issue of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) reflects the basic and applied research interests of members of the color vision community. Most of the articles stem from presentations at the 24th Biennial Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society (ICVS).
..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
.... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... acknowledgment that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
.... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
.... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
.... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
.... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... acknowledgment that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print... grant exemptions to each of them. Vision and Driving Experience of the Applicants The vision requirement...
Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne
Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…
Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter
Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Chris L.E. Paffen
Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.
Rosenfeld, Leslie; Chao, Yi; Signell, Richard P.
Numerical modeling is vital to achieving the U.S. IOOS® goals of predicting, understanding and adapting to change in the ocean and Great Lakes. In the next decade IOOS should cultivate a holistic approach to coastal ocean prediction, and encourage more balanced investment among the observing, modeling and information management subsystems. We believe the vision of a prediction framework driven by observations, and leveraging advanced technology and understanding of the ocean and Great Lakes, would lead to a new era for IOOS that would not only produce more powerful information, but would also capture broad community support, particularly from the general public, thus allowing IOOS to develop into the comprehensive information system that was envisioned at the outset.
Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.
The concept of an intelligent robot is an important topic combining sensors, manipulators, and artificial intelligence to design a useful machine. Vision systems, tactile sensors, proximity switches and other sensors provide the elements necessary for simple game playing as well as industrial applications. These sensors permit adaption to a changing environment. The AI techniques permit advanced forms of decision making, adaptive responses, and learning while the manipulator provides the ability to perform various tasks. Computer languages such as LISP and OPS5, have been utilized to achieve expert systems approaches in solving real world problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe several examples of visually guided intelligent robots including both stationary and mobile robots. Demonstrations will be presented of a system for constructing and solving a popular peg game, a robot lawn mower, and a box stacking robot. The experience gained from these and other systems provide insight into what may be realistically expected from the next generation of intelligent machines.
The following article sets forth the conceptual strategic framework that guided the organization and planning of the recent, highly successful 32nd International Geological Congress, held in Florence, Italy, August 20-28, 2004. This vision of the desired future state of the Earth sciences is presented here in order to extend significantly its distribution beyond the 7000+ Congress participants. Earth scientists around the worm are encouraged to consider, digest, and discuss its observations, conclusions, and recommendations to improve the relevance and sharpen the focus of current and future activities in the Earth sciences. [Originally published in the daily newspaper of the Congress, ""32nd IGC INFORMS,"" No. 9, August 28, 2004, and distributed to Congress participants. Available also on the lUGS website.
Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi
A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source，the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.
such as painting, other materials are also designed by creating pixel-art and by programming generative computer animations. These are ultimately combined with psychedelic music to form composites, which are mixed live with audio-reactive effects, using the VJ software VDMX. Aesthetically the work draws upon......Technoshamanic Visions from the Underworld II is an audio-visual art installation by Jon Weinel. The artwork consists of a video projection in which various analogue and digital animations are created as a compliment to music. While parts of the animations are created with traditional techniques...... exhibition and academic symposium which was part of the 2017 Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA) conference. The audio-visual work was also presented at Breaking Convention 2017, University of Greenwich....
This paper discusses state and promising directions of automated object extraction in photogrammetric computer vision considering also practical aspects arising for digital photogrammetric workstations (DPW). A review of the state of the art shows that there are only few practically successful systems on the market. Therefore, important issues for a practical success of automated object extraction are identified. A sound and most important powerful theoretical background is the basis. Here, we particularly point to statistical modeling. Testing makes clear which of the approaches are suited best and how useful they are for praxis. A key for commercial success of a practical system is efficient user interaction. As the means for data acquisition are changing, new promising application areas such as extremely detailed three-dimensional (3D) urban models for virtual television or mission rehearsal evolve.
Uhl, Tadeusz; Kohut, Piotr; Holak, Krzysztof; Krupinski, Krzysztof
In this paper, a vision-based method for measuring a civil engineering construction's in-plane deflection curves is presented. The displacement field of the analyzed object which results from loads was computed by means of a digital image correlation coefficient. Image registration techniques were introduced to increase the flexibility of the method. The application of homography mapping enabled the deflection field to be computed from two images of the structure, acquired from two different points in space. An automatic shape filter and a corner detector were implemented to calculate the homography mapping between the two views. The developed methodology, created architecture and the capabilities of software tools, as well as experimental results obtained from tests made on a lab set-up and civil engineering constructions, are discussed.
The Healing Brush is a tool introduced for the first time in Adobe Photoshop (2002) that removes defects in images by seamless cloning (gradient domain fusion). The Healing Brush algorithms are built on a new mathematical approach that uses Fibre Bundles and Connections to model the representation of images in the visual system. Our mathematical results are derived from first principles of human vision, related to adaptation transforms of von Kries type and Retinex theory. In this paper we present the new result of Healing in arbitrary color space. In addition to supporting image repair and seamless cloning, our approach also produces the exact solution to the problem of high dynamic range compression of17 and can be applied to other image processing algorithms.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.
Wilhelmsen, K.; Huber, L.; Silva, D.; Grasz, E.; Cadapan, L.
The Department of Energy has a need for treating existing nuclear waste. Hazardous waste stored in old warehouses needs to be sorted and treated to meet environmental regulations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently experimenting with automated manipulations of unknown objects for sorting, treating, and detailed inspection. To accomplish these tasks, three existing technologies were expanded to meet the increasing requirements. First, a binocular vision range sensor was combined with a surface modeling system to make virtual images of unknown objects. Then, using the surface model information, stable grasp of the unknown shaped objects were planned algorithmically utilizing a limited set of robotic grippers. This paper is an expansion of previous work and will discuss the grasp planning algorithm
Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew
the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating...
Khattab, Mohammed H.; Wiegand, Annette; Storch, Marcus; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas
Intraoral local anesthetics are widely used for performing painless dental treatments; however, in some cases, they may cause ocular complications such as meiosis, diplopia, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, and amaurosis. Mostly, the symptoms disappear after several hours; rarely, they have a prolonged character. We describe the case of a 38-year-old young man who had reduced vision in the left eye 5 days after having received intraoral local anesthesia. A diagnosis of cilioretinal artery occlusion with optic disc swelling was made. Ten weeks later, the patient's visual acuity had increased to 20/20, and the swelling of the optic disc had subsided. Although various possible mechanisms for ocular complications after intraoral local anesthetic administration were suggested in the literature, the exact etiology remains unclear. In this case, inadvertent intravascular injection is believed to be the cause. PMID:29681838
Uhl, Tadeusz; Kohut, Piotr; Holak, Krzysztof; Krupinski, Krzysztof, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)
In this paper, a vision-based method for measuring a civil engineering construction's in-plane deflection curves is presented. The displacement field of the analyzed object which results from loads was computed by means of a digital image correlation coefficient. Image registration techniques were introduced to increase the flexibility of the method. The application of homography mapping enabled the deflection field to be computed from two images of the structure, acquired from two different points in space. An automatic shape filter and a corner detector were implemented to calculate the homography mapping between the two views. The developed methodology, created architecture and the capabilities of software tools, as well as experimental results obtained from tests made on a lab set-up and civil engineering constructions, are discussed.
Full Text Available Tagore struggled against his dark vision of humanity to assert that the earth was a place of hierophanies and human life had a divine purpose. He failed. He called, with skepticism, for peace, equality and the restoration of earth’s loveliness: “I know I am crying in the wilderness, when I raise my voice of warning…” In a war-haunted and hungry Europe and Asia, he was confronted by a strange, cruel, and obstinately tribal world with its “legacy of ruin.” Though he asserted till his death in 1940 that he could never “commit the grievous sin of losing faith in man,” he could not turn away from “the crumbling ruins of … civilization….”
Yu, Wai; Pretlove, John R. G.
This paper describes the ongoing research work on developing a telerobotic system in Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research group at the University of Surrey. As human operators' manual control of remote robots always suffer from reduced performance and difficulties in perceiving information from the remote site, a system with a certain level of intelligence and autonomy will help to solve some of these problems. Thus, this system has been developed for this purpose. It also serves as an experimental platform to test the idea of using the combination of human and computer intelligence in teleoperation and finding out the optimum balance between them. The system consists of a Polhemus- based input device, a computer vision sub-system and a graphical user interface which communicates the operator with the remote robot. The system description is given in this paper as well as the preliminary experimental results of the system evaluation.
The NASA Strategic Plan, Vision 21, is a living roadmap to the future to guide the men and women of the NASA team as they ensure U.S. leadership in space exploration and aeronautics research. This multiyear plan consists of a set of programs and activities that will retain our leadership in space science and the exploration of the solar system; help rebuild our nation's technology base and strengthen our leadership in aviation and other key industries; encourage commercial applications of space technology; use the unique perspective of space to better understand our home planet; provide the U.S. and its partners with a permanent space based research facility; expand on the legacy of Apollo and initiate precursor activities to establish a lunar base; and allow us a journey into tomorrow, journey to another planet (Mars), and beyond.
Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos
This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...
The vision for Virtual Knowledge Center (VKC) is to make information accessible from one verifiable source, provide an environment for knowledge capture and sharing, and provide for automated business process management. VKC will be the foundation for management and integration of information activities at the Hanford Site for the next 5 years. It provides a distinctive solution that can increase return on investment, increase a facility's efficiency, and reduce a project's cost and schedule. This Five-Year Vision presents a clear path forward to support the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors in their goals of achieving the Site's missions of preparing for the future, restoring the river corridor, and transitioning the central plateau. Diminishing funds and reduced availability of resources has created a direct obligation for the Hanford Site to be more innovative and resourceful in the use of its current information assets. The difficulty and, in some instances, the inability of current systems to effectively and efficiently meet evolving standards and directions, coupled with Hanford's geographical size, pose challenges to information acquisition, sharing, and use. An imbalance exists in the lifecycle process of information between locating information and executing work. The need to capture and retain workers' knowledge for future use was evaluated to identify cost effective alternatives. The VKC is comprised of a suite of technologies that enables seamless access to the information available through integration of databases and systems. The VKC uses web technology to provide the environment for gathering information from disparate data sources. The VKC makes information available to users; allowing them to search, access documents, retain enterprise knowledge, or interact with other users. The VKC provides a single path to electronic information; allows capture of knowledge at its source and makes data and information available for informed decision
Full Text Available Establishing genotype-phenotype relationship is the key to understand the molecular mechanism of phenotypic adaptation. This initial step may be untangled by analyzing appropriate ancestral molecules, but it is a daunting task to recapitulate the evolution of non-additive (epistatic interactions of amino acids and function of a protein separately. To adapt to the ultraviolet (UV-free retinal environment, the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1 visual pigment in human (human S1 switched from detecting UV to absorbing blue light during the last 90 million years. Mutagenesis experiments of the UV-sensitive pigment in the Boreoeutherian ancestor show that the blue-sensitivity was achieved by seven mutations. The experimental and quantum chemical analyses show that 4,008 of all 5,040 possible evolutionary trajectories are terminated prematurely by containing a dehydrated nonfunctional pigment. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests that human ancestors achieved the blue-sensitivity gradually and almost exclusively by epistasis. When the final stage of spectral tuning of human S1 was underway 45-30 million years ago, the middle and long wavelength-sensitive (MWS/LWS pigments appeared and so-called trichromatic color vision was established by interprotein epistasis. The adaptive evolution of human S1 differs dramatically from orthologous pigments with a major mutational effect used in achieving blue-sensitivity in a fish and several mammalian species and in regaining UV vision in birds. These observations imply that the mechanisms of epistatic interactions must be understood by studying various orthologues in different species that have adapted to various ecological and physiological environments.
Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina
This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration
Zhao, Yue; Kang, Jinsheng; Wright, David
This paper describes the methods and case studies of a novel synthetic vision and memory model for virtual human. The synthetic vision module simulates the biological / optical abilities and limitations of the human vision. The module is based on a series of collision detection between the boundary of virtual humans field of vision (FOV) volume and the surface of objects in a recreated 3D environment. The memory module simulates a short-term memory capability by employing a simplified memory structure (first-in-first-out stack). The synthetic vision and memory model has been integrated into a virtual human modelling project, Intelligent Virtual Modelling. The project aimed to improve the realism and autonomy of virtual humans.
Bauckhage, Christian; Hanheide, Marc; Wrede, Sebastian; Käster, Thomas; Pfeiffer, Michael; Sagerer, Gerhard
The emerging cognitive vision paradigm deals with vision systems that apply machine learning and automatic reasoning in order to learn from what they perceive. Cognitive vision systems can rate the relevance and consistency of newly acquired knowledge, they can adapt to their environment and thus will exhibit high robustness. This contribution presents vision systems that aim at flexibility and robustness. One is tailored for content-based image retrieval, the others are cognitive vision systems that constitute prototypes of visual active memories which evaluate, gather, and integrate contextual knowledge for visual analysis. All three systems are designed to interact with human users. After we will have discussed adaptive content-based image retrieval and object and action recognition in an office environment, the issue of assessing cognitive systems will be raised. Experiences from psychologically evaluated human-machine interactions will be reported and the promising potential of psychologically-based usability experiments will be stressed.
Hi-Vision broadcasting, offering far more lifelike pictures than those produced by existing television broadcasting systems, has enormous potential in both industrial and commercial fields. The dissemination of the Hi-Vision system will enable vivid, movie theater quality pictures to be readily enjoyed in homes in the near future. To convert motion film pictures into Hi-Vision signals, a telecine system is needed. The Hi-Vision telecine systems currently under development are the "laser telecine," "flying-spot telecine," and "Saticon telecine" systems. This paper provides an overview of the pickup tube type Hi-Vision telecine system (referred to herein as the Saticon telecine system) developed and marketed by Ikegami Tsushinki Co., Ltd.
J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West
The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work