WorldWideScience

Sample records for sarnat grade ii

  1. The molecular biology of WHO grade II gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The WHO grading scheme for glial neoplasms assigns Grade II to 5 distinct tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage: diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Although commonly referred to collectively as among the "low-grade gliomas," these 5 tumors represent molecularly and clinically unique entities. Each is the subject of active basic research aimed at developing a more complete understanding of its molecular biology, and the pace of such research continues to accelerate. Additionally, because managing and predicting the course of these tumors has historically proven challenging, translational research regarding Grade II gliomas continues in the hopes of identifying novel molecular features that can better inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Unfortunately, the basic and translational literature regarding the molecular biology of WHO Grade II gliomas remains nebulous. The authors' goal for this review was to present a comprehensive discussion of current knowledge regarding the molecular characteristics of these 5 WHO Grade II tumors on the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic levels. Additionally, they discuss the emerging evidence suggesting molecular differences between adult and pediatric Grade II gliomas. Finally, they present an overview of current strategies for using molecular data to classify low-grade gliomas into clinically relevant categories based on tumor biology.

  2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhan Priya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication. However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior. This can be overcome by using newer immunohistochemical techniques. This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma. Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen. PCNA, p53-labeling indices were calculated along with micro vessel morphometric analysis using Biovis Image plus Software. Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively. Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001, higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters. Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20% of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36% of patients with grade II disease. PCNA and p53 labeling indices were positively correlated with Pearson′s correlation, p less than 0.001 for both. Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical evaluation scores over meet the challenge of accurate prognostication of this potentially fatal malignancy.

  3. Cervical Muscle Dysfunction in the Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Grade II (WAD-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Study Design: In a cross-sectional study, surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were obtained during different functional tasks in patients with a chronic whiplash associated disorder Grade II and healthy control subjects. - Objectives: To investigate whether muscle

  4. Cervical Muscle Dysfunction in the Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Grade II (WAD-II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marc J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Baten, Chris T.M.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Study Design: In a cross-sectional study, surface electromyography measurements of the upper trapezius muscles were obtained during different functional tasks in patients with a chronic whiplash associated disorder Grade II and healthy control subjects. - Objectives: To investigate whether muscle d

  5. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  6. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Patients and methods Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Results Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Conclusion Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation. PMID

  7. A Molecular Predictor Reassesses Classification of Human Grade II/III Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Rème

    Full Text Available Diffuse gliomas are incurable brain tumors divided in 3 WHO grades (II; III; IV based on histological criteria. Grade II/III gliomas are clinically very heterogeneous and their prognosis somewhat unpredictable, preventing definition of appropriate treatment. On a cohort of 65 grade II/III glioma patients, a QPCR-based approach allowed selection of a biologically relevant gene list from which a gene signature significantly correlated to overall survival was extracted. This signature clustered the training cohort into two classes of low and high risk of progression and death, and similarly clustered two external independent test cohorts of 104 and 73 grade II/III patients. A 22-gene class predictor of the training clusters optimally distinguished poor from good prognosis patients (median survival of 13-20 months versus over 6 years in the validation cohorts. This classification was stronger at predicting outcome than the WHO grade II/III classification (P≤2.8E-10 versus 0.018. When compared to other prognosis factors (histological subtype and genetic abnormalities in a multivariate analysis, the 22-gene predictor remained significantly associated with overall survival. Early prediction of high risk patients (3% of WHO grade II, and low risk patients (29% of WHO grade III in clinical routine will allow the development of more appropriate follow-up and treatments.

  8. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  9. Potential of Reinforced Indonesian Glulam Beams Using Grade I (Bengkirai, Grade II (Kamper, Grade III (Nyatoh Woods for Use in Structural Wood Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptahari Sugiri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural resource that is renewable and available in various species in tropical countries. Its abundancy in nature makes it easy to obtain, thus making it a nature friendly material for use in construction. Indonesia is the most important source of tropical wood in the world after Brazil, making the use of wood for structural elements very desirable. It is estimated that 4000 different varieties of wood exist in Indonesia. This estimate is based on the herbarium species collected by the Forestry Research Institute, currently counting nearly 4000 types of trees with a diameter of more than 40 cm. In the Indonesian wood structure code, the strength of woods is divided into 3 grades (grade I, II and III. This paper presents an evaluation of the mechanical properties of glulam wood sourced from native Indonesian timber: Bengkirai wood (grade I, Kamper wood (grade II, and Nyatoh wood (grade III, thus proving the potential for Indonesian wood as industrial structural elements in wooden constructions.

  10. Specific expression profile and prognostic significance of peroxiredoxins in grade II-IV astrocytic brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnula Vuokko L; Parkkila Seppo; Kallio Heini; Rodriguez Alejandra; Rantala Immo; Järvelä Sally; Soini Ylermi; Haapasalo Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) have recently been suggested to have a role in tumorigenesis. Methods We studied the expression of Prx I-VI and their relationship to patient survival in 383 grade II-IV diffuse astrocytic brain tumors. Results Prx I positivity was found in 68%, Prx II in 84%, Prx III in 90%, Prx IV in 5%, Prx V in 4% and Prx VI in 47% of the tumors. Prx I and Prx II expression decreased significantly with increasing malignancy grade (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Patient...

  11. Specific expression profile and prognostic significance of peroxiredoxins in grade II-IV astrocytic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnula Vuokko L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxiredoxins (Prxs have recently been suggested to have a role in tumorigenesis. Methods We studied the expression of Prx I-VI and their relationship to patient survival in 383 grade II-IV diffuse astrocytic brain tumors. Results Prx I positivity was found in 68%, Prx II in 84%, Prx III in 90%, Prx IV in 5%, Prx V in 4% and Prx VI in 47% of the tumors. Prx I and Prx II expression decreased significantly with increasing malignancy grade (p Conclusion The expression of Prx I and Prx II correlates with astrocytic tumor features, such as grade and patient age and proliferation activity (Prx I, and accordingly with patient survival.

  12. Role of radiotherapy in grade II and III meningiomas; Place de la radiotherapie dans les meningiomes de grades II et III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, K.; Hassouni, K.; Kebdani, T.; Elkacemi, H.; Benjaafer, N.; Elgueddari, B. [Institut national d' oncologie, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    Grade II and III meningiomas are rare tumours. They are not much studied and raise problems when taking them into care due to their aggressiveness and relapses. Based on 19 cases observed between 2000 and 2007, the authors report and discuss epidemiologic, clinic, and above all therapeutic and evolutional aspects. They state that radiotherapy is to be performed whatever the quality of the exeresis is, in order to reduce relapse risks. Short communication

  13. Clinical evaluation of guided tissue regeneration procedure in the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, P K; Faizuddin, M; Pradeep, A R

    2002-01-01

    The management of furcation defects remains a challenge in periodontal therapy, Traditionally, furcation therapy involved scaling, rootplaning, furcation plasty and resective techniques. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the potential of guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of mandibular molar grade II furcations using a nonresorbable barrier, TefGen-GTR and compare it with open flap debridement alone. Ten patients with similar bilateral grade II furcation lesions participated in the study. TefGen-GTR was placed in the experimental sites while the contralateral sites served as controls. Treatment effects were evaluated at six months reentry. Both groups showed gain in vertical and horizontal open probing attachment and defect depth reduction when compared to baseline values, with experimental sites showing statistically significant improvement over the controls. The results suggest that the nonresorbable Teflon barrier, TefGen-GTR, may be used as an alternative for treatment of grade II furcation invasions.

  14. CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina; Schrøder, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and distribution of the putative brain tumour stem cell marker CD133 in formalin fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas. A retrospective analysis of 114 grade II, III and IV astrocytomas was undertaken. The immunohistochemical...

  15. Ki-67 overexpression in WHO grade II gliomas is associated with poor postoperative seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Xiang, Wang; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Shuang, Liu; Yingjun, Fan; Qiao, Zhou; Yanwu, Yang; Qing, Mao

    2013-12-01

    Seizures are the most common initial symptom in patients with low-grade gliomas, and approximately 30% of these patients still suffer from epilepsy after gross-total resection of the tumour. We examined the relationship between the overexpression of ki-67 in WHO grade II gliomas and seizure control. A series of 93 histologically confirmed WHO grade II glioma tissues were analysed through immunohistochemical staining for ki-67 expression. Follow-up visits regarding seizure control were scheduled at 12 months. The Engel classification was used to categorise patients' seizure status. Of the 93 patients analysed, 65 (66.3%) patients initially presented with seizures. A total of 36 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade II oligodendrogliomas, 29 patients had oligoastrocytomas and 28 patients had astrocytomas. Ki-67 was over-expressed in 15 patients. One year after surgery poor seizure control was observed in 11 of these patients. In contrast, low ki-67 expression (seizure control was observed in 36 patients (difference between ki-67 over- and low expression groups P = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with gross-total resection achieved better seizure control while ki-67 overexpression and age below 38 years were poor seizure control factors explained of the variance of seizure outcome (OR: 0.382, 4.354 and 1.822, respectively). In WHO grade II gliomas, Ki-67 is a molecular marker which predicts poor seizure control of glioma patients after the resection of the tumour. Gross-total resection, ki-67 overexpression and age below 38 years significantly affect seizure prognosis. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  17. Treatment of grade II furcation involvement using resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane: A six-month study

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Deepti; Malhotra, Sumit; Naidu, D. Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate bone alloplast with bioresorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane for the treatment of mandibular grade II furcation defects. Settings and Design: A total of eight patients, four females and four males, in the age group of 18 to 65 years, with bilateral buccal grade II furcation defects in the mandibular molars, participated in the study. Materials and Metho...

  18. Outcome of resection of WHO Grade II meningioma and correlation of pathological and radiological predictive factors for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Bir, Shyamal C; Konar, Subhas; Maiti, Tanmoy; Kalakoti, Piyush; Jacobsohn, Jamie A; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether extent of surgical resection (Simpson and Shinshu grade) along with pathological and radiological factors influence the tumor control and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II meningiomas. The clinical, radiological and surgical notes on the 59 patients with WHO grade II meningioma managed at our institution over 20years were retrospectively reviewed. In this study, median survival time was 41months. The overall recurrence rate in Simpson grades I and II resection was 31%. In grades III and IV, the overall recurrence rate was 73%, and this high recurrence rate in these groups was confined within 5years. In Cox regression analysis, combined data of grades (I and II)/complete resection showed a significant difference in RFS compared to grades (III and IV)/subtotal resection (p=0.0001). A similar trend of RFS (p=0.0001) was observed with the Shinshu grading system of resection. In addition, a Ki-67% marker for proliferation less than 15% (p=0.029), absence of certain radiological features including heterogeneous enhancement, cyst formation and peritumoral edema (p=0.006), and repeat surgery for recurrent meningioma was associated with better survival (p=0.014). However, radiosurgery did not have a beneficial role in the treatment of recurrence of atypical meningioma. The Simpson grading system is the primary predictor of recurrence of WHO grade II meningioma after resection. In addition, certain pathological and radiological features need to be considered as possible factors of recurrence after resection. Lastly, depending on the likely risks and surgical morbidity, repeat surgical resection should be performed for recurrent atypical meningioma.

  19. Papillary Ependymoma WHO Grade II of the Aqueduct Treated by Endoscopic Tumor Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary ependymoma is a rare tumor that may be located along the ventricular walls or within the spinal cord. We report the case of a 54-year-old patient with a papillary ependymoma WHO grade II arising at the entrance of the aqueduct. The tumor caused hydrocephalus. The tumor was completely removed via a right-sided endoscopic approach with restoration of the aqueduct. The free cerebrospinal fluid passage through the aqueduct was not only visualized by endoscopy but also controlled by intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, an additional endoscopic third ventriculostomy was unneccessary.

  20. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  1. A Probabilistic Atlas of Diffuse WHO Grade II Glioma Locations in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cédric; Zouaoui, Sonia; Yordanova, Yordanka; Blonski, Marie; Rigau, Valérie; Chemouny, Stéphane; Taillandier, Luc; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Paragios, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse WHO grade II gliomas are diffusively infiltrative brain tumors characterized by an unavoidable anaplastic transformation. Their management is strongly dependent on their location in the brain due to interactions with functional regions and potential differences in molecular biology. In this paper, we present the construction of a probabilistic atlas mapping the preferential locations of diffuse WHO grade II gliomas in the brain. This is carried out through a sparse graph whose nodes correspond to clusters of tumors clustered together based on their spatial proximity. The interest of such an atlas is illustrated via two applications. The first one correlates tumor location with the patient’s age via a statistical analysis, highlighting the interest of the atlas for studying the origins and behavior of the tumors. The second exploits the fact that the tumors have preferential locations for automatic segmentation. Through a coupled decomposed Markov Random Field model, the atlas guides the segmentation process, and characterizes which preferential location the tumor belongs to and consequently which behavior it could be associated to. Leave-one-out cross validation experiments on a large database highlight the robustness of the graph, and yield promising segmentation results. PMID:26751577

  2. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used in the pre-operative assessment of brain tumours. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging...... that could best discriminate between grade II and III gliomas. METHODS: MRI (3 T) including morphological ((T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted (T1W)+Gd)) and perfusion (DCE and DSC) sequences was performed in 39 patients with newly diagnosed suspected low-grade glioma after...

  3. CS-27IDH1/2 MUTATIONS INFLUENCE ZEB1 EXPRESSION IN GRADES II AND III GLIOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Nesvick, Cody; Zhang, Chao; Montgomery, Blake; Lee, Michaela; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Merrill, Marsha; Heiss, John; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cell program that crucially regulates polarity and enhances invasion in normal epithelia and carcinomas. It has been recently demonstrated that EMT-promoting transcription factors (EMT-TFs) also govern cell invasion in glioblastoma, but the role of these proteins in lower-grade gliomas has not yet been investigated. We investigated the impact of EMT-TF expression on overall survival in World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III gliomas using...

  4. CS-27IDH1/2 MUTATIONS INFLUENCE ZEB1 EXPRESSION IN GRADES II AND III GLIOMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvick, Cody; Zhang, Chao; Montgomery, Blake; Lee, Michaela; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Merrill, Marsha; Heiss, John; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cell program that crucially regulates polarity and enhances invasion in normal epithelia and carcinomas. It has been recently demonstrated that EMT-promoting transcription factors (EMT-TFs) also govern cell invasion in glioblastoma, but the role of these proteins in lower-grade gliomas has not yet been investigated. We investigated the impact of EMT-TF expression on overall survival in World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III gliomas using the National Cancer Institute Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasis Data (REMBRANDT) and Cancer Genome Atlas Network Lower-Grade Glioma (CGAN LGG) datasets. Surprisingly, while expression of EMT-promoting transcription factors were generally associated with a decrease in overall survival, high ZEB1 expression was associated with an increase in overall survival in both datasets (log-rank test on all grade II and III gliomas: for REMBRANDT, median overall survival (OS) 54.2 months ZEB1-high vs. 19.6 months ZEB1-low, p = 0.0016; for CGAN, median OS 134.3 months ZEB1-high vs. 63.6 months ZEB1-low, p = 0.0038). Mutations in the genes coding for Isocitrate Dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are found in 85-90% of grades II and III gliomas and confer a favorable prognosis in these tumors. Using the CGAN LGG dataset, we found that ZEB1 is upregulated in IDH1/2-mutant versus IDH1/2-wild type tumors (unpaired t-test on all grade II and III gliomas: t = 10.292, p < 0.0001). Moreover, IDH1/2-mutant gliomas express lower levels of genes that are suppressed by ZEB1 including MIR200B and MIR200C (unpaired t-test on all grade II and III gliomas: p < 0.0001 for both targets). We further validated these findings in an independent set of 37 grade II and III gliomas using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. These findings reveal that ZEB1 not only has an unexpected prognostic significance in grades II and III gliomas but also may play an important role in IDH1

  5. Apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of newly diagnosed grade II gliomas†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayal, Inas S.; McKnight, Tracy R.; McGue, Colleen; Vandenberg, Scott; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing between low-grade oligodendrogliomas (ODs) and astrocytomas (AC) is of interest for defining prognosis and stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens. The purpose of this study was to determine if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion imaging can help to differentiate between newly diagnosed grade II OD and AC subtypes and to evaluate the ADC and FA values for the mixed population of oligoastrocytomas (OA). Fifty-three patients with newly diagnosed grade II gliomas were studied using a 1.5T whole body scanner (23 ODs, 16 ACs, and 14 OAs). The imaging protocol included post-gadolinium T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and either three and/or six directional diffusion imaging sequence with b = 1000 s/mm2. Diffusion-weighted images were analyzed using in-house software to calculate maps of ADC and for six directional acquisitions, FA. The intensity values were normalized by values from normal appearing white matter (NAWM) to generate maps of normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) and normalized fractional anisotropy (nFA). The hyperintense region in the T2 weighted image was defined as the T2All region. A Mann–Whitney rank-sum test was performed on the 25th, median, and 75th nADC and nFA among the three subtypes. Logistic regression was performed to determine how well the nADC and nFA predict subtype. Lesions diagnosed as being OD had significantly lower nADC and significantly higher nFA, compared to AC. The nADC and nFA values individually classified the data with an accuracy of 87%. Combining the two did not enhance the classification. The patients with OA had nADC and nFA values between those of OD and AC. This suggests that ADC and FA may be helpful in directing tissue sampling to the most appropriate regions for taking biopsies in order to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19125391

  6. [Cognitive disorders and adult grade II and III gliomas: analysis of a series of 15 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rhun, E; Delbeuck, X; Devos, P; Pasquier, F; Dubois, F

    2009-06-01

    Correlated with better follow-up of gliomas, cognitive disorders are increasingly studied. The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive disorders presented by these patients at baseline, before any treatment, and to evaluate the relations between cognitive disorders and return to work. A detailed neuropsychological evaluation was administrated to 15 newly diagnosed patients with a grade II or III glial tumor before any treatment. Patients also completed the quality of life and depression scales. All patients in our study presented with at least one failed cognitive domain during the detailed examination, while the scores on the MMSE scale were within the norm. The most deteriorated functions were divided attention and episodic verbal and nonverbal memory. Moreover, a significant link was found between the number of failed cognitive functions and quality of life. Cognitive disorders are frequent with glial tumors and impact patients' quality of life. Simple tests of global cognitive status are not sufficient to detect cognitive difficulties in these patients. Consequently, detailed and adapted neuropsychological assessment is necessary, especially to detect deteriorated problems with memory, divided attention, or processing speed in this population.

  7. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  8. [Performance by cytology and hybrid capture II in screening for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Letícia Martins; Velasque, Luciane; Luz, Paula Mendes; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Cytryn, Andrea; Andrade, Angela Cristina Vasconcelos de; Vanni, Tazio; Brasil, Pedro E A A; Russomano, Fabio; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2011-07-01

    HIV-infected women are at increased risk of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), the precursor lesions for cervical cancer. This study estimated and compared the performance of cytology and hybrid capture II in screening for precursor lesions of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women. The study population consisted of women from the open prospective cohort at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (IPEC/Fiocruz). Colposcopy and histology were considered jointly in defining the gold standard. Cytology showed 31.8% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity, while hybrid capture II showed higher sensitivity (100%) and lower specificity (52%). The positive likelihood ratio was 7.1 for cytology and 2.1 for hybrid capture II, while the negative likelihood ratio was 0.7 for cytology and 0.0 for hybrid capture II.

  9. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  10. Grade II whiplash injuries to the neck: what is the benefit for patients treated by different physical therapy modalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischak Gert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a majority of cases, whiplash injuries are a domain of conservative therapy. Nevertheless it remains unclear whether physical therapy is of medical or economic benefit in patients with whiplash injuries. Methods Seventy patients with acute Quebec Task Force (QTF grade II whiplash injuries were randomized to two therapy groups and received either active (APT or passive (PPT physical therapy. Patients were compared with regard to pain and range of motion with data obtained in an earlier study from a group with grade II whiplash injuries in which the therapy recommendation had been "act as usual" (AAU; n = 20. The above-mentioned parameters were assessed at 24 hours and two months after the injury. Furthermore patients' period of disability was documented after two months. Results After two months, patients in both the APT and PPT groups showed significant improvement in the median period of disability (active: 14 days; passive: 14 days compared to the AAU group (49 days. No group difference was observed with regard to median improvement in range of motion (active: 120°; passive: 108°; activity as usual: 70°. The median pain reduction was significantly greater in the APT group (50.5 than in the PPT (39.2 or AAU group (28.8. Conclusion Our data show that active physical therapy results in enhanced pain reduction and shortening of post-injury disability. Therefore, active physical therapy should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with QTF grade II whiplash injuries. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission.

  11. Human Language, Unit II: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, the lessons in this second of a two-part unit on the human language intended for grades three and four revolve around the character Sad Sam, who gets lost in the woods and happens to observe four animals (bears, raccoons, geese, and robins). Having been introduced to Sad Sam in lesson 1, the…

  12. Communication Systems, Unit II: Language Curriculum, Level D [Grade Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project for grades three and four, this second of two units on communication systems begins with a lesson which reinforces the concept that in order to communicate we must all have the same meaning for the signals used. Lessons 1 through 3 deal with the various kinds of communication signals used by…

  13. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR THE FIFTH GRADE. A TEACHER GUIDE, SEMESTER II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PELIKAN, ALFRED; AND OTHERS

    INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION FOR FIFTH GRADE HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO FIVE AREAS--ART, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, MUSIC, PHYSICAL EDUCATION, AND SCIENCE. A CALENDAR IS GIVEN TO CORRELATE DATES AND SUBJECT MATTER. A PREVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF EACH LESSON IS MADE AVAILABLE, AND FOLLOWUP ACTIVITIES ARE SUGGESTED TO REINFORCE THE LEARNING. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ART…

  14. Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Meningiomas Grades I and II Suggest Shared Biomarkers with Malignant Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Raafat El-Gewely

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas represent the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system, but few microRNA (miRNA profiling studies have been reported so far. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries generated from two human meningioma biopsies WHO grades I (benign and II (atypical were compared to excess dura controls. Nineteen differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using tumor RNA from 15 patients and 5 meninges controls. Tumor suppressor miR-218 and miR-34a were upregulated relative to normal controls, however, miR-143, miR-193b, miR-451 and oncogenic miR-21 were all downregulated. From 10 selected putative mRNA targets tested by RT-qPCR only four were differentially expressed relative to normal controls. PTEN and E-cadherin (CDH1 were upregulated, but RUNX1T1 was downregulated. Proliferation biomarker p63 was upregulated with nuclear localization, but not detected in most normal arachnoid tissues. Immunoreactivity of E-cadherin was detected in the outermost layer of normal arachnoids, but was expressed throughout the tumors. Nuclear Cyclin D1 expression was positive in all studied meningiomas, while its expression in arachnoid was limited to a few trabecular cells. Meningiomas of grades I and II appear to share biomarkers with malignant tumors, but with some additional tumor suppressor biomarkers expression. Validation in more patients is of importance.

  15. Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Meningiomas Grades I and II Suggest Shared Biomarkers with Malignant Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gewely, Mohamed Raafat; Andreassen, Morten; Walquist, Mari; Ursvik, Anita; Knutsen, Erik; Nystad, Mona; Coucheron, Dag H.; Myrmel, Kristin Smistad; Hennig, Rune; Johansen, Steinar D.

    2016-01-01

    Meningiomas represent the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system, but few microRNA (miRNA) profiling studies have been reported so far. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries generated from two human meningioma biopsies WHO grades I (benign) and II (atypical) were compared to excess dura controls. Nineteen differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using tumor RNA from 15 patients and 5 meninges controls. Tumor suppressor miR-218 and miR-34a were upregulated relative to normal controls, however, miR-143, miR-193b, miR-451 and oncogenic miR-21 were all downregulated. From 10 selected putative mRNA targets tested by RT-qPCR only four were differentially expressed relative to normal controls. PTEN and E-cadherin (CDH1) were upregulated, but RUNX1T1 was downregulated. Proliferation biomarker p63 was upregulated with nuclear localization, but not detected in most normal arachnoid tissues. Immunoreactivity of E-cadherin was detected in the outermost layer of normal arachnoids, but was expressed throughout the tumors. Nuclear Cyclin D1 expression was positive in all studied meningiomas, while its expression in arachnoid was limited to a few trabecular cells. Meningiomas of grades I and II appear to share biomarkers with malignant tumors, but with some additional tumor suppressor biomarkers expression. Validation in more patients is of importance. PMID:26950155

  16. Reading comprehension on the last grades of cicles I and II of elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eliane Mi; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2014-01-01

    To characterize students' performance in Cycle I and II of the Elementary School (EF), in decoding, reading comprehension and underlying skills of reading, and investigate correlations between these variables, in the absence and presence of reading comprehension deficits, identified by their teachers. 125 students from ES were grouped according to Cycle and presence or absence of reading comprehension impairments. Two Control (good readers from both Cycles) and two Research groups (poor readers from both Cycles) were established. Assessment involved: fluency and reading comprehension; oral comprehension; working and short-term phonological memory; grammar closure. It was compared (Mann-Whitney test): in intragroup study, both Control and Research groups; in intergroup study, Control and Research from different cycles, and Control I and Research II. Spearman coefficient investigated correlations. Analyzing reading comprehension, we observed better performance of Control Groups in all tasks in comparison to the respective Research Groups, and better performance of Control II in comparison to Control I. Research Groups had similar results in most tests. Positive correlations have been observed between most of the variables. Students without reading comprehension impairments showed better performance in reading in both Cycles. Working memory and oral comprehension did not differentiate students with and without complaints in Cycle I, differently from what was observed in Cycle II. Research II presented similar or better performance than Research I and similar or worse performance than Control I. Underlying skills showed different profiles of correlation with reading comprehension capacity, according to the group.

  17. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II and III with Photolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Y P; Lapzevich, T P; Chalau, V N; Shliakhtsin, S V; Trukhachova, T V

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to test in clinics a previously developed novel organ-saving approach for the treatment of CIN using PDT with the photosensitizer Photolon applied in women of a childbearing age with CIN II and III. A total number of 112 patients aged 35.2+/-1.6 with morphologically proven diagnosis of CIN II and III were enrolled into the study. All 112 patients had been observed at least during 1-year follow-up period after PDT. Among them 53 patients (44.1%) were subjected to a dynamic observation for less than 2 years; 29 patients (24.1%) were under the observation for less than 3 years; 13 patients (10.8%) - for 3-4 years and 17 women - for more than 4 years. A complete response represented by the complete regression of neoplastic lesions, which was proved by the results of morphological examinations, was revealed in 104 (92.8%) of treated women. In 3 months after treatment a complete eradication of the HPV infection was proven by PCR-analysis in 47 (53.4%) from 88 patients who have been infected with HPV of a highly oncogenic strains before PDT. PDT with Photolon is an alternative approach for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia which can be recommended for women of childbearing age. The simplicity of the procedure as well as its' high therapeutic efficacy defines the reasonability of its' introduction into the clinical practice as a new organ-saving method for the treatment of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  18. Phase II Trial of Erlotinib during and after Radiotherapy in Children with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim eQaddoumi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in most pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG. Since erlotinib had shown activity in adults with HGG, we conducted a phase II trial of erlotinib and local radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed HGG. Methods. Following maximum surgical resection, patients between 3 and 21 years with nonmetastatic HGG received local radiotherapy at 59.4 Gy (54 Gy for spinal tumors and those with ≥70% brain involvement. Erlotinib started on day 1 of radiotherapy (120 mg/m2 per day and continued for 2 years unless there was tumor progression or intolerable toxicities. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS was estimated for patients with intracranial anaplastic astrocytoma (AA and glioblastoma.Results. Median age at diagnosis for 41 patients with intracranial tumors (21 with glioblastoma and 20 with AA was 10.9 years (range, 3.3 to 19 years. The 2-year PFS for patients with AA and glioblastoma was 15% ± 7% and 19% ± 8%, respectively. Only five patients remained alive without tumor progression. Twenty-six patients had at least one grade 3 or 4 toxicity irrespective of association with erlotinib; only four required dose modifications. The main toxicities were gastrointestinal (n=11, dermatologic (n=5, and metabolic (n=4. One patient with gliomatosis cerebri who required prolonged corticosteroids died of septic shock associated with pancreatitis. Conclusions. Although therapy with erlotinib was mostly well tolerated, it did not change the poor outcome of our patients. Our results showed that erlotinib is not a promising medication in the treatment of children with intracranial AA and glioblastoma.

  19. Atrophy of type I and II muscle fibers is reversible in the case of grade >2 fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, Jaroslaw; Danilewicz, Marian; Zwierzchowski, Jacek T; Niedzielski, Kryspin

    2016-03-01

    Although clinical investigations indicate that the limit of reversibility of rotator cuff muscles fibers type I and II atrophy is grade 2 of fatty degeneration (FD) according to the Goutallier computed tomography classification, little is known about the morphometric verification of these findings. The supraspinatus tendon was detached from the greater tubercle and the infraspinatus and subscapularis in 12 rabbits, and a 12-week observation period followed. This proved to be sufficient for development of grade >2 FD of the supraspinatus tendon. The tendon was then reinserted. The animals were euthanized 24 weeks after tendon reconstruction. The sections of middle part of supraspinatus were stained for adenosine triphosphatase reaction, and morphometric measurements were taken of type I and II muscle fiber diameters. The contralateral shoulders served as controls. The macroscopic inspection of the supraspinatus tendons revealed complete healing in all cases. No statistically significant differences were found between controls and operated-on shoulders for type I (P = .13) and type II (P = .55) muscle fibers. Atrophy of type I and II muscle fibers in rabbit supraspinatus muscle, characterized by grade >2 fatty degeneration according to the Goutallier computed tomography classification, is reversible after 24 weeks from reattachment of its tendon. A requirement for type I and II muscle fibers hypertrophy is a change in the biomechanical and functional conditions of the muscle after its tendon is reconstructed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement. PMID:27190647

  1. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T. The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA and mean diffusivity (rMD in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.. Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement.

  2. Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin versus beta-tri-calcium phosphate in the treatment of Grade II mandibular furcation defects using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zeba Rahman; Jhingran, Rajesh; Bains, Vivek Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Madan, Rohit; Rizvi, Iram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) versus β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) in the treatment of Grade II mandibular furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Forty-five Grade II furcation defect in mandibular molars which were assigned to open flap debridement (OFD) with PRF Group I (n = 15), to OFD with β-TCP Group II (n = 15), and to OFD alone Group III (n = 15) were analyzed for clinical parameters (probing pocket depth [PPD], vertical clinical attachment level [VCAL], horizontal clinical attachment level [HCAL], gingival recession, relative vertical height of furcation [r-VHF], and relative horizontal depth of furcation [r-HDF]) and radiographical parameters (horizontal depth of furcation [H-DOF], vertical height of furcation [V-HOF]) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at 6 months interval. Results: For clinical parameters, reduction in PPD and gain in VCAL and HCAL were higher in Group II as compared to Group I. Change in r-VHF and r-HDF was greater in Group II as compared to Group I. Mean percentage clinical vertical defect fill was higher in Group II as compared to Group I (58.52% ± 11.68% vs. 53.24% ± 13.22%, respectively). On CBCT, mean change at 6 months for all parameters showed nonsignificant difference between the two experimental groups. Mean change in V-HOF was higher in Group I as compared to Group II, but mean change in H-DOF and furcation width was more in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: For both experimental and control groups, there was statistically significant improvement at 6 months follow-up from baseline values. PMID:28042265

  3. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months.

  4. First insight into the somatic mutation burden of neurofibromatosis type 2-associated grade I and grade II meningiomas: a case report comprehensive genomic study of two cranial meningiomas with vastly different clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Ramita; Pemov, Alexander; Dutra, Amalia S; Pak, Evgenia D; Edwards, Nancy A; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Hansen, Nancy F; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Mullikin, James C; Asthagiri, Ashok R; Heiss, John D; Stewart, Douglas R; Germanwala, Anand V

    2017-02-13

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare autosomal dominant nervous system tumor predisposition disorder caused by constitutive inactivation of one of the two copies of NF2. Meningiomas affect about one half of NF2 patients, and are associated with a higher disease burden. Currently, the somatic mutation landscape in NF2-associated meningiomas remains largely unexamined. Here, we present an in-depth genomic study of benign and atypical meningiomas, both from a single NF2 patient. While the grade I tumor was asymptomatic, the grade II tumor exhibited an unusually high growth rate: expanding to 335 times its initial volume within one year. The genomes of both tumors were examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES) complemented with spectral karyotyping (SKY) and SNP-array copy-number analyses. To better understand the clonal composition of the atypical meningioma, the tumor was divided in four sections and each section was investigated independently. Both tumors had second copy inactivation of NF2, confirming the central role of the gene in meningioma formation. The genome of the benign tumor closely resembled that of a normal diploid cell and had only one other deleterious mutation (EPHB3). In contrast, the chromosomal architecture of the grade II tumor was highly re-arranged, yet uniform among all analyzed fragments, implying that this large and fast growing tumor was composed of relatively few clones. Besides multiple gains and losses, the grade II meningioma harbored numerous chromosomal translocations. WES analysis of the atypical tumor identified deleterious mutations in two genes: ADAMTSL3 and CAPN5 in all fragments, indicating that the mutations were present in the cell undergoing fast clonal expansion CONCLUSIONS: This is the first WES study of NF2-associated meningiomas. Besides second NF2 copy inactivation, we found low somatic burden in both tumors and high level of genomic instability in the atypical meningioma. Genomic instability resulting in altered gene

  5. Gadobutrol Versus Gadopentetate Dimeglumine or Gadobenate Dimeglumine Before DCE-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Multiple Sclerosis, Grade II-IV Glioma, or Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Multiple Sclerosis; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm

  6. Clinical and Biometric Evaluation of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Coronally Positioned Flap In Treatment of Grade II Forcation Defects In Mandibular Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Nejad M.; Soleimani-e-Shayesteh Y; Mohammad Zadeh Z

    2000-01-01

    Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is the most recent and common method for regeneration of class II forcation molars. However, it requires membrane, which seems expensive for most of the patients. In order to overcome this problem, Coronally Position Flap (CPF) procedure may be applied which arresting the epithelial cell down growth, follow the same aim. This study is aimed to compare GTR technique utilizing bioresorable collagen membrane and CPF utilizing citric acid. Nine patients with grade...

  7. Use of periosteal membrane as a barrier membrane for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects in lower molars: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To use the periosteum as a barrier in treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. Materials and Methods : This technique was performed on 12 patients with bilateral buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. On a random basis, one furcation defect of each pair was selected for the control group and other for the experimental group. Debridement was done in the defect area in both groups. In the control group, after debridement, mucoperiosteal flap was sutured back. In the experimental group, after reflection of the mucoperiosteal flap, a portion of the periosteum along with a layer of connective tissue (periosteal membrane was incised and mobilized in the defect area for defect coverage as a barrier, and then the periosteal membrane and mucoperiosteal flap were fixed with suture, respectively. Horizontal dimension of the furcation defect was the primary outcome measure. Gingival index, probing attachment level (PAL, and vertical dimension of furcation defect were the secondary outcome measures. Clinical parameters were registered at baseline and at 6 months. Results : Every clinical parameter was improved by surgery. Significant gain in PAL as well as horizontal and vertical dimensions of the furcation defects was found. Conclusion: This periosteum displacement technique is effective for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars.

  8. Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ishiuchi, Shogo [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Memorial Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Atsushi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, Takashi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Iraha, Shiro [Department of Radiology, Okinawa South Medical Center, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.

  9. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Deept Jain; Dhruvakumar Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects w...

  10. Natural history and role of radiation in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial WHO grade II ependymomas: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Ayal A; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Nguyen, Paul L; Macdonald, Shannon M; Yock, Torunn I; Tarbell, Nancy J; Shih, Helen A; Loeffler, Jay S; Oh, Kevin S

    2013-12-01

    Patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II supratentorial ependymomas are commonly observed after gross total resection (GTR), although supporting data are limited. We sought to characterize the natural history of such tumors. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify 112 patients ages 0-77 diagnosed with WHO grade II ependymomas between 1988 and 2007, of whom 63 (56 %) and 49 (44 %) had supratentorial and infratentorial primaries, respectively. Inclusion criteria were strict to ensure patient homogeneity. Of 33 patients with supratentorial tumors after GTR, 18 (55 %) received adjuvant radiation therapy and 15 (45 %) did not. Ependymoma-specific mortality (ESM) was the primary endpoint. With a median follow up of 4.5 years, only 1 of 33 patients with supratentorial ependymoma died of their disease after GTR; the 5-year estimate of ESM in this population was 3.3 % (95 % CI 0.2-14.8 %). Among patients with infratentorial ependymomas after GTR, the 5-year estimate of ESM was 8.7 % (95 % CI 1.4-24.6 %). In patients with subtotally resected tumors, 5-year estimates of ESM in patients with supratentorial and infratentorial primaries were 20.1 % (95 % CI 8.0-36.2 %) and 12.3 % (95 % CI 2.9-28.8 %), respectively. Among the whole cohort, on both univariable and multivariable regression, extent of resection was predictive of ESM, while tumor location and use of radiation were not. After GTR, patients with WHO grade II supratentorial ependymomas have a very favorable natural history with low associated cancer-specific mortality. Observation, with radiation reserved as a salvage option, may be a reasonable postoperative strategy in this population.

  11. Laser-assisted lipolysis for arm contouring in Teimourian grades I and II: a prospective study of 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Alcolea, Justo M; Vogt, Peter; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Mordon, Serge; Casoli, Vincent; Trelles, Mario A

    2015-04-01

    Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. We conducted this study to objectively assess if, in Teimourian low-grade upper arm remodelling, one session of laser-assisted lypolisis (LAL) could result in full patient satisfaction. Between 2011 and 2013, 45 patients were treated for unsightly fat arm Teimourian grade I (15 patients), grade IIa (15 patients) and grade IIb (15 patients) with one session of LAL. The laser used in this study was a 1470-nm diode laser (Alma Lasers, Cesarea, Israel) with the following parameters: continuous mode, 15 W power and transmission through a 600-μm optical fibre. Previous mathematical modelling suggested that 0.1 kJ was required in order to destroy 1 ml of fat. Treatment parameters and adverse effects were recorded.The arm circumference and skin pinch measurements were assessed pre and postoperatively. Patients were asked to file a satisfaction questionnaire. Pain during the anaesthesia and discomfort after the procedure were minimal. Complications included prolonged oedema in 11 patients. The average arm circumference decreased by 4.9 ± 0.4 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 4.7 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade I patients, 5.5 ± 0.6 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.2 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIa patients and 5.4 ± 0.5 cm in the right arm (p < 0.01) and 5.3 ± 0.5 cm in the left arm (p < 0.01) in grade IIB patients. The skin tightening effect was confirmed by the reduction of the skin calliper measurements in all three groups. Overall mean opinion of treatment was high for both patients and investigators. Of the 45 patients, all but one would recommend this treatment. A single session of LAL in upper arm remodelling for Teimourian grades I to IIb is a safe and reproducible technique. The procedure allows reduction in the amount of adipose deposits

  12. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82. However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are

  13. Teacher's Supplement to Unit on U.S.S.R. Grade Eleven. [Unit II.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is a subunit to one of four resource units for an eleventh grade course on area studies. This subunit is a teacher's supplement to the unit on the U.S.S.R. A pretest on the Soviet Union, supplementary readings on the Soviet economy, foreign policy, constitution, government, Soviet attitudes toward the United States, and comparative statistics…

  14. A roentgenographic assessment of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel® in conjunction with amnion membrane in grade II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harveen Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, techniques are being developed to guide and instruct the specialized cellular components of the periodontium to participate in the regenerative process. This approach of reconstruction makes use of understanding of the development of the periodontium and the cellular processes that are involved. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring non-sulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Hence, its administration to periodontal wound sites could achieve comparable beneficial effects in periodontal tissue regeneration. Hence, the purpose of the present case report was to assess roentgenographically, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel® in conjunction with bioactive amnion guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane in a patient with Grade II furcation defect. Case Presentation: A patient complained of bleeding gums from the lower back tooth region, reportedly found Grade II furcation in the lower right mandibular first molar. After Phase, I therapy, Gengigel® along with bioactive amnion membrane was placed in the furcation area during the surgical phase. Roentgenographic assessment was done at 4 months and 6 months postoperatively. It resulted in complete defect-fill and loss of radiolucency at 6 months. Conclusion: Surgical placement of Gengigel® along with amnion membrane in the furcation defect can significantly improve the periodontal defect morphology.

  15. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Zhou Kong

    Full Text Available The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  16. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H cannot be ruled out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cytryn

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS into ASC-US (undetermined significance and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out. The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. METHODS: ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis was taken as the gold standard. RESULTS: The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55% and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764. Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83; P = 0.2786998. There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  18. Surgical re-entry evaluation of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel™ and platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of grade II furcation: A novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkirat Kaur Sandhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The furcation area creates situations in which routine periodontal procedures are somewhat limited, and surgical procedures are generally required. The introduction of bioactive agents, such as platelet concentrates, enamel matrix derivatives, bone morphogenic proteins, and matrix macromolecules such as hyaluronic acid has expanded the scope for better outcomes in furcation treatment. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring nonsulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is an immune and platelet concentrate containing all the constituents of a blood sample, which are favorable for healing and immunity. The purpose of the present case report was to assess through surgical re-entry, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel™ in conjunction with PRF in a patient with grade II furcation defect. It was observed that the combined approach resulted in significant furcation defect fill on re-evaluation at 6 months.

  19. Gefitinib in patients with progressive high-grade gliomas: a multicentre phase II study by Gruppo Italiano Cooperativo di Neuro-Oncologia (GICNO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, E; Cavallo, G; Lonardi, S; Magrini, E; Tosoni, A; Grosso, D; Scopece, L; Blatt, V; Urbini, B; Pession, A; Tallini, G; Crinò, L; Brandes, A A

    2007-04-10

    To investigate the role of gefitinib in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs), a phase II trial (1839IL/0116) was conducted in patients with disease recurrence following surgery plus radiotherapy and first-line chemotherapy. Adult patients with histologically confirmed recurrent HGGs following surgery, radiotherapy and first-line chemotherapy, were considered eligible. Patients were treated with gefitinib (250 mg day(-1)) continuously until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 6 months progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6). Tissue biomarkers (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene status and expression, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) expression) were assessed. Twenty-eight patients (median age, 55 years; median ECOG performance status, 1) were enrolled; all were evaluable for drug activity and safety. Sixteen patients had glioblastoma, three patients had anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and nine patients had anaplastic astrocytoma. Five patients (17.9%, 95% CI 6.1-36.9%) showed disease stabilisation. The overall median time to progression was 8.4 (range 2-104+) weeks and PFS-6 was 14.3% (95% CI 4.0-32.7%). The median overall survival was 24.6 weeks (range 4-104+). No grade 3-4 gefitinib-related toxicity was found. Gefitinib showed limited activity in patients affected by HGGs. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression or gene status, and p-Akt expression do not seem to predict activity of this drug.

  20. Pre-clinical grades predict clinical performance in the MBBS stage II examination at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, Dagogo J; Young, Lauriann E; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana M; Carroll, Robert G

    2013-12-20

    In the preclinical sciences, statistically significant predictive values have been reported between the performances in one discipline and the others, supporting the hypothesis that students who perform well in one discipline were likely to perform well in the other disciplines. We therefore decided to conduct a retrospective study to investigate the predictive effects of preclinical subjects on clinical subjects from 87 students of The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona Campus who took the MBBS Stage II examination at various times between May 2000 and May 2002. The grade in Pathology was significantly predicted by scores in Anatomy and Pharmacology; Medicine by Physiology and Pharmacology scores; Surgery by Anatomy and Social and Preventive Medicine scores; while, the Obstetrics and Gynecology grade was predicted by the Anatomy score. The results support the hypothesis that the scores in some preclinical subjects can predict the performance in specific clinical subjects, which could be interpreted to suggest that poor performance in specific preclinical disciplines could be a warning sign of future poor performance in the related clinical disciplines.

  1. Clinical and Biometric Evaluation of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Coronally Positioned Flap In Treatment of Grade II Forcation Defects In Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Pak Nejad M

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR is the most recent and common method for regeneration of class II forcation molars. However, it requires membrane, which seems expensive for most of the patients. In order to overcome this problem, Coronally Position Flap (CPF procedure may be applied which arresting the epithelial cell down growth, follow the same aim. This study is aimed to compare GTR technique utilizing bioresorable collagen membrane and CPF utilizing citric acid. Nine patients with grade II forcation defects were selected. Defects were bilateral that randomly assigned into two groups: GTR and CPF groups. Measurements recorded at baseline and after surgery (6 months. Paired-T test was performed on these data. The following results were obtained after 6 months: In both groups significant reduction in probing pocket depth were measured in GTR and CPF groups, 1.55 Ind 1.88 mm, respectively. Also, open vertical probing depth: 0.33, 1.11 mm. Reduction in forcation weight in both groups was 0.22 mm. Bone fill was observed in 0.33% and 51% of defects. No recession was observed in GTR group, in CPF was 0.11 mm. Loss of attached gingiva was 0.34 and 0.78 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between clinical parameters except OHPD. Comparison of means at the day (0 and 180 in each group showed the success for regeneration of forca. Considering the results, it can be concluded that CPF may substitute for GTR technique.

  2. EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR SPINAL FUSION WITH PEDICLE SCREWS AND RODS WITH BONE SUBSTITUTES IN GRADE I AND II SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low-back pain is the commonest condition encountered day in and day out of an orthopaedic practice. Incidence of spondylolisthesis in normal population is around 5-7%. No matter what the aetiology is, patient has significant functional disability. OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of pedicular screw rod system and posterolateral fusion with bone substitutes in spondylolisthesis, and to study the complications associated with this treatment modality. METHODOLOGY From July 2012 to September 2014, a total of 30 patients operated with posterolateral fusion were followed up and evaluated based on VAS for low back pain and Japanese orthopaedic association scoring system. RESULTS The mean difference between pre-operative and post-operative VAS score is 3SD with a p value of <0.001, which is strongly significant. The pre-operative and post-operative JOA score has an improvement of 73.4% with a p value of <0.001, which is strongly significant. Rate of improvement was excellent in 16.7%, good in 53.3%, fair in 23.3% and poor in 6.3% of patients; 82% of patients had bone fusion by the end of 8 months. CONCLUSION Pedicular screw rod system with postero-lumbar fusion with bone substitute is safe, promising and appealing technique for low-grade spondylolisthesis with early post-operative pain relief.

  3. THE FOOTWEAR DESIGNING SESSION USING CRISPIN DYNAMICS ENGINEER. PART II: Creating the parts, Estimating the material consumption, Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversification and customization of products are important characteristic of the modern economy and especially of the fashion industry. Because of this, the lifetime of the footwear product is very short and result the necessity to cut the design and production time. By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. With CRISPIN Dynamics, one can visualize a range of designs on-screen; work out the costs of a new style and even cut out sample shoe components. Reliance on manual skills is largely eliminated, so the staff can work creatively, but with increased accuracy and productivity. One can even send designs to a distant office or manufacturing centre in a matter of minutes. This paper presents the basic function of CRISPIN Dynamics CAD Suite Engineer for footwear design. The process of new product development has six stapes: digitized form of the medium copy, last flatting, model drawing, creation and management of individual parts, estimation of material consumption, multiplying the designed footwear product’s pattern. This product has been developed for shoemakers who wish to ensure that their business remains competitive by increasing the efficiency, speed and accuracy of pattern development and grading.

  4. Early Detection of Malignant Transformation in Resected WHO II Low-Grade Glioma Using Diffusion Tensor-Derived Quantitative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Martin T.; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.; Binczyk, Francisczek; Laun, Frederik B.; Weber, Christian; Bonekamp, David; Tarnawski, Rafal; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Polanska, Joanna; Majchrzak, Henryk; Stieltjes, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Objective Here, we retrospectively investigate the value of voxel-wisely plotted diffusion tensor-derived (DTI) axial, radial and mean diffusivity for the early detection of malignant transformation (MT) in WHO II glioma compared to contrast-enhanced images. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up between 2006–2014 after gross-tumor resection of intra-axial WHO II glioma. Axial/Mean/Radial diffusivity maps (AD/MD/RD) were generated from DTI data. ADmin/MDmin/RDmin values were quantified within tumor regions-of-interest generated by two independent readers including tumor contrast-to-noise (CNR). Sensitivity/specificity and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Inter-reader agreement was assessed (Cohen’s kappa). Results Eighteen patients demonstrated malignant transformation (MT) confirmed in 8/18 by histopathology and in 10/18 through imaging follow-up. Twelve of 18 patients (66.6%) with MT showed diffusion restriction timely coincidental with contrast-enhancement (CE). In the remaining six patients (33.3%), the diffusion restriction preceded the CE. The mean gain in detection time using DTI was (0.8±0.5 years, p = 0.028). Compared to MDmin and RDmin, ROC-analysis showed best diagnostic value for ADmin (sensitivity/specificity 94.94%/89.7%, AUC 0.96; p<0.0001) to detect MT. CNR was highest for AD (1.83±0.14), compared to MD (1.31±0.19; p<0.003) and RD (0.90±0.23; p<0.0001). Cohen’s Kappa was 0.77 for ADmin, 0.71 for MDmin and 0.65 for RDmin (p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion MT is detectable at the same time point or earlier compared to T1w-CE by diffusion restriction in diffusion-tensor-derived maps. AD demonstrated highest sensitivity/specificity/tumor-contrast compared to radial or mean diffusivity (= apparent diffusion coefficient) to detect MT. PMID:27741525

  5. Effect of graded Nrf2 activation on phase-I and -II drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Connie Wu

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative/electrophilic stress. Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1 sequesters Nrf2 in the cytosol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating the mRNA of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. Microarray analysis was performed in livers of Nrf2-null, wild-type, Keap1-knockdown mice with increased Nrf2 activation, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout mice with maximum Nrf2 activation. In general, Nrf2 did not have a marked effect on uptake transporters, but the mRNAs of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and organic anion transporter 2 were decreased with Nrf2 activation. The effect of Nrf2 on cytochrome P450 (Cyp genes was minimal, with only Cyp2a5, Cyp2c50, Cyp2c54, and Cyp2g1 increased, and Cyp2u1 decreased with enhanced Nrf2 activation. However, Nrf2 increased mRNA of many other phase-I enzymes, such as aldo-keto reductases, carbonyl reductases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. Many genes involved in phase-II drug metabolism were induced by Nrf2, including glutathione S-transferases, UDP- glucuronosyltransferases, and UDP-glucuronic acid synthesis enzymes. Efflux transporters, such as multidrug resistance-associated proteins, breast cancer resistant protein, as well as ATP-binding cassette g5 and g8 were induced by Nrf2. In conclusion, Nrf2 markedly alters hepatic mRNA of a large number of drug metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters, and thus Nrf2 plays a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification.

  6. A comparison of outcomes and cost in VHWG grade II hernias between Rives-Stoppa synthetic mesh hernia repair versus underlay biologic mesh repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J P; Basta, M N; Mirzabeigi, M N; Kovach, S J

    2014-01-01

    The current literature is void of evidence-based guidelines regarding optimal choice of mesh. We aim to perform a comparative outcome analysis of synthetic mesh and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in Ventral Hernia Working Grade (VHWG) grade II hernias with primary fascial closure. A retrospective review of patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (VHR) by the senior author (S.J.K.) from 2007 to 2012 was performed. Patients undergoing VHR with primary fascial closure were risk stratified using the VHWG defined grading system. Seventy-two patients met the abovementioned inclusion criteria with 45 receiving synthetic mesh and 27 receiving ADM. The mean length of follow-up was 12.1 ± 9.1 months. Patients were, on average, 53.2 ± 11.6 years of age with a BMI of 33.9 ± 10.6 kg/m(2). The overall incidence of surgical site occurrence (SSO) in the cohort was 41.7 % and the incidence of hernia recurrence was 5.6 %. 30-day mortality was 1.2 %. Bivariate analysis demonstrated that obesity (P = 0.038) and number of comorbidities (P = 0.043) were associated with SSO. Bivariate analysis demonstrated that prior failed hernia, use of ADM, and operative time were associated with higher rates of hernia recurrence; however, adjusted multivariate regression found only prior failed hernia (OR = 4.1, P = 0.03) and biologic mesh (OR = 3.4, P = 0.046) to be independently associated with recurrent hernia. Comparison of mesh types revealed few differences in preoperative or operative characteristics between synthetic mesh and acellular dermal matrices (ADM). The rate of hernia recurrence was significantly higher with ADM (14.8 % vs. 0.0 %, P = 0.017). Patients receiving ADM repairs incurred significantly greater cost ($56,142.1 ± 54,775.5 vs. $30,599.8 ± 39,000.8, P hernia recurrences and lower cost utilization at 1-year. Prognostic/risk category, level III.

  7. RH-02A PILOT RCT ON THE EFFICACY OF HOME-BASED EXERCISE TO IMPROVE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN GRADE II AND III GLIOMA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Karin; Stuiver, Martijn; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Taphoorn, Martin; Aaronson, Neil; Sitskoorn, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with gliomas suffer from cognitive deficits. Recent findings indicate that physical exercise is effective in ameliorating cognitive decline, in particular in older adults and select neurological patient populations. Studies of exercise interventions in patients with cancer demonstrated to have beneficial effects on various measures of physical and mental well-being. This pilot randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of home-based exercise in improving cognitive functioning and self-reported mental well-being in glioma patients. Clinically stable patients with grade II and III glioma will undergo baseline neuropsychological testing, including questionnaires on cognitive symptoms, fatigue, sleep, mood and quality of life; and cardiorespiratory exercise testing (CPET) to determine room for improvement of physical fitness. Sixty patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the intervention group or active control group. Patients in the intervention group exercise 3 times per week for 6 months, during 20 to 45 minutes at an increasing intensity of 55 to 85% of their maximum heart rate. CPET-outcome (VO2peak) is used to tailor an individual, home-based exercise program. Participants wear heart rate monitors and are supervised by a physical therapist via internet and telephone. Patients in the active control group are advised to walk regularly. Neuropsychological test performance, physical fitness, and mental well-being are assessed again after 6 months. In November 2014, 30 patients are expected to be accrued. Six-month follow-up data on neuropsychological performance, physical fitness and self-reported mental well-being of the currently included 15 patients (12 intervention; 3 control group) will be available. Mean age of this group is 48.1 (±9.8) years; median time since surgery is 4.1 (0.7-14.7) years. Most of these participants are female (n = 11), and have a grade II glioma (n = 10). To our knowledge, this is the first study that

  8. Histomorphometric Analysis of Periodontal Tissue Regeneration by the Use of High Density Polytetrafluoroethylen Membrane in Grade II Furcation Defects of Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoofi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are limited histomorphometric studies on biologic efficacy of high density tetrafluoroethylen (d-PTFE membrane. Objectives: To investigate the healing of surgically induced grade II furcation defects in dogs following the use of dense polytetrafluoroethylene as the barrier membrane and to compare the results with the contra lateral control teeth without the application of any membrane. Materials andMethods: Mandibular and maxillary 3rd premolar teeth of 18 young adult male mongrel dogs were used for the experiment. The furcation defects were created during the surgery. 5 weeks later, regenerative surgery was performed. The third premolar teeth were assigned randomly to control and test groups. In the test group, after a full thickness flap reflection, the d-PTFE membrane was placed over furcation defects. In the control group, no membrane was placed over the defect. 37 tissue blocks containing the teeth and surrounding hard and soft tissues were obtained three months post-regenerative surgery. The specimens were demineralized, serially sectioned, mounted and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining technique. From each tissue block, 35-45 sections of 10 μm thickness within 60μm interval captured the entire surgically created defect. The histological images were transferred to computer and then the linear measurement ranges of the defects area, interadicular alveolar bone, epithelial attachment and coronal extension of the new cementum were done. Then, the volume and area of aforementioned parameters were calculated considering the thickness and interval of the sections. To compare the parameters between the control and test teeth, we calculated the amount of each one proportionally to the original amount of defects. Results: The mean interradicular root surface areas of original defects covered with new cementum was 74.46% and 29.59% for the membrane and control defects, respectively (p < 0.0001. Corresponding

  9. Synchrotron X-ray tests of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnicke, Marcelo G; Keister, Jeffrey W; Conley, Raymond; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Takacs, Peter Z; Coburn, David Scott; Reffi, Leo; Cai, Yong Q

    2011-11-01

    Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

  10. First-line treatment with brief-duration chemotherapy plus rituximab in elderly patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, John D; Litchy, Sharlene; Lamb, M Ray; Rodriguez, Gladys I; Scroggin, Carroll; Greco, F Anthony

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of rituximab added to the VNCOP-B (etoposide/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone/bleomycin) combination regimen for the treatment of elderly patients with large B-cell lymphoma. Previously untreated patients > or = 65 years of age with stage II, III, or IV large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a modified VNCOP-B regimen with weekly chemotherapy for 8 weeks. In addition, patients received rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. All patients received prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) during the 8 weeks of treatment. Between August 1999 and February 2002, 41 patients entered this multicenter phase II trial. The median age was 74 years, and 54% of patients had high-risk tumors (age-adjusted International Prognostic Index scores of 2 or 3). Sixty-eight percent of patients completed the 8 weeks of therapy. Overall response rate was 66%; actuarial progression-free survival rate at 2 years was 59%, with a 57% actuarial overall 2-year survival rate. Patients > or = 75 years of age had similar treatment outcomes compared with younger patients. Toxicity with this regimen was predominantly related to chemotherapy; rituximab was well tolerated. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 83% of patients even with routine use of prophylactic G-CSF or GM-CSF. Treatment-related death occurred in 4 patients (10%). VNCOP-B plus rituximab is efficacious, producing 2-year progression-free survival rates that compare favorably with those of other active regimens in this patient group. Hematologic toxicity was increased compared with previous reports with VNCOP-B alone, as evidenced by the treatment-related mortality rate of 10% in the present study. Differences in toxicity may have been caused by the addition of rituximab, the modified etoposide schedule, or the differences in

  11. Single-arm phase II study of conformal radiation therapy and temozolomide plus fractionated stereotactic conformal boost in high-grade gliomas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Mario; Manfrida, Stefania; Mangiola, Annunziato; Fiorentino, Alba; D' Agostino, Giuseppe Roberto; Frascino, Vincenzo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Mantini, Giovanna; Albanese, Alessio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Chiesa, Silvia; Valentini, Vincenzo; Anile, Carmelo; Cellini, Numa [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Catholic Univ. of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Apicella, Giuseppina [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Catholic Univ. of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Novara (Italy); Azario, Luigi [Dept. of Physics, Catholic Univ. of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To assess survival, local control and toxicity using fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (FSCRT) boost and temozolomide in high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Patients and Methods: Patients affected by HGG, with a CTV{sub 1} (clinical target volume, representing tumor bed {+-} residual tumor + a margin of 5 mm) {<=} 8 cm were enrolled into this phase II study. Radiotherapy (RT, total dose 6,940 cGy) was administered using a combination of two different techniques: three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, to achieve a dose of 5,040 or 5,940 cGy) and FSCRT boost (19 or 10 Gy) tailored by CTV{sub 1} diameter ({<=} 6 cm and > 6 cm, respectively). Temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered during the first 2 or 4 weeks of RT, After the end of RT, temozolomide (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered for at least six cycles. The sample size of 41 patients was assessed by the single proportion-powered analysis. Results: 41 patients (36 with glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and five with anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) were enrolled; RTOG neurological toxicities G1-2 and G3 were 12% and 3%, respectively. Two cases of radionecrosis were observed. At a median follow-up of 44 months (range 6-56 months), global and GBM median overall survival (05) were 30 and 28 months. The 2-year survival rate was significantly better compared to the standard treatment (63% vs. 26.5%; p < 0.00001). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11 months, in GBM patients 10 months. Conclusion: FSCRT boost plus temozolomide is well tolerated and seems to increase survival compared to the standard treatment in patients with HGG. (orig.)

  12. β-Cell Function Improvements in Grade I/II Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes 1 Month After Biliopancreatic Diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Vasques, Ana Carolina; Pareja, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Maria da Saude; Satake Novaes, Fernanda; Miranda de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Chaim, Élinton A.; Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery on β-cell function in grade I and II obese patients with type 2 diabetes using oral and intravenous glucose loads. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-eight women were divided into the following three groups: 19 lean-control (23.0 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 18 obese-control (35.0 ± 4.8 kg/m2) subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and 31 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (36.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2). Of the 31 diabetic women, 64% underwent BPD (n = 20, BMI: 36.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2) and were reassessed 1 month after surgery. Oral glucose tolerance tests and hyperglycemic clamps were performed. Mathematical modeling was used to analyze basal and stimulated β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (IS), hepatic extraction (HE) of insulin, and delay time of β-cell response to a specific plasma glucose concentration. RESULTS After BPD, restoration of the basal disposition index (P < 0.001) and improvement of the stimulated disposition indices in oral and intravenous glucose stimulation of the β-cell were observed (P < 0.05). In both dynamic tests, there were no changes in the delay time of β-cell response. IS for oral glucose stimulation (ISoral) and intravenous clamp glucose stimulation (ISclamp) was completely normalized (P < 0.001). ISoral and ISclamp increased approximately 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively (P < 0.01). The HE of insulin increased in the basal (P < 0.05) and stimulated states (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS β-Cell function, IS, and HE of insulin improved after BPD, which improved glycemic control. PMID:24135388

  13. [Guidelines for adult diffuse gliomas WHO grade II, III and IV: pathology and biology. Société franc¸aise de neuropathologie . Réseau de neuro-oncologie pathologique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Labrousse, François; Mohktari, Karima

    2012-10-01

    Pathological diagnosis plays a major role in the therapeutic management of adult diffuse gliomas. It is based on the histopathological analysis of a representative specimen. Therefore pathologists might be aware of the neuroradiological features of the lesions. Pathologists play a major role in the management of biological resources. Pathologists should classify adult gliomas according to WHO 2007 classification (histological subtype and grade). In addition, in order to provide the histomolecular classification of adult gliomas, search for molecular markers of diagnostic, prognostic or predictive of therapeutic responses must be performed by appropriate and validated immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. In all diffuse gliomas, whatever their grade, search for IDH1 R132H and P53 expression is required. Search for IDH1 minor mutations and IDH2 mutations is required in grade II and III IDH1 R132H negative gliomas whereas 1p19q codeletion should be searched for in grade II and III gliomas with an oligodendroglial component. Search for EGFR amplification and MGMT promoter methylation is recommended. It is strongly recommended to fill the standardized form for pathology and molecular features (validated by the French Society of Neuropathology) in all adult diffuse gliomas.

  14. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deept Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms.

  15. A comparative evaluation of freeze-dried bone allograft with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deept; Deepa, Dhruvakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Furcation defects represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges for periodontal therapy. Various treatment modalities have been tried with different success rates. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) with and without bioabsorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane Healiguide® in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilateral Grade II furcation defects were selected for the study. After phase I therapy, subjects were divided into two arms and treated in a split-mouth design. Ten defects were treated with FDBA alone in the control arm. Ten defects were treated with FDBA in conjunction with bioabsorbable GTR membrane Healiguide® in test arm. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, and relative attachment level (RAL) were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, clinical improvement was seen in both the arms with mean pocket depth reduction of 1.2 ± 1.032 mm and 1.7 ± 0.948 mm and mean horizontal probing depth reduction being 2.1 ± 1.969 mm and 1.6 ± 1.264 mm in control and test arm, respectively. Both surgical procedures resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths. Conclusion: Both the arms demonstrated a significant improvement in the probing depth, horizontal furcation depth, and RAL at 6 months postsurgery in the treatment of Grade II furcation defects. However, on the intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant difference in the results achieved between two arms. PMID:26941515

  16. Long-term stabilization by radiosurgery of a secondary focal anaplastic transformation in a surgically treated WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Y N; Rodriguez-Arribas, M-A; Duffau, H

    2015-02-01

    We report on a young woman with a left temporal diffuse low-grade glioma treated initially by a subtotal resection. A focal anaplastic area appeared 5years later and was treated by radiosurgery. A long-time stabilization was therefore obtained and lasted even after pregnancy, which is a known factor of faster tumour progression. This report shows that radiosurgery could be an option in the multimodal treatment of a selected group of patients with focal malignant transformation of diffuse low-grade glioma. It could permit long-term stabilization of the tumour without any other adjuvant treatment and without compromising the quality of life.

  17. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C

    2015-01-01

    , to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ≥ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology...

  18. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  19. Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Phukan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG with histological grading (HG using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28% cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48% grade II, and 12 (24% grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%, 28 (56% and 13 (26% cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%, which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I. Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

  20. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  1. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of human periodontal osseous defect (mandibular grade II furcation) treated with PepGen P-15 and a bioresorbable membrane (Atrisorb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashu, Himanshu; Vandana, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The various treatment modalities available to treat furcation involvement either maintain the existing furcation or increases access to furcation or leads to elimination of furcation (root resection, bicuspidization etc). Newer treatment modalities include regenerative procedures like placement of bone graft and organic or synthetic membranes. In this study we have evaluated the use of a new xenograft based tissue engineered bone material which provides both the inorganic and organic component; individually and in conjunction with a synthetic bioresorbable material. Materials and Methods: 6 patients with 18 mandibular grade 2 furcations were selected after the completion of initial phase in all the patients. Selected sites were divided into control and experimental groups randomly and were treated by split mouth design. The control sites were treated with flap debridement and placement of ABM graft, whereas the experimental site received flap debridement, ABM graft and a synthetic bioresorbable membrane. Results: All the parameters recorded showed significant reduction from baseline to 9 months in both the experimental and control group. When compared in between the control and experimental group, all the parameters showed marginally better results in the control group, although none of them were clinically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the use of ABM along with a bioresorbable membrane and without membrane is both beneficial for the treatment of grade 2 furcation. On the cost benefit basis, the bone graft alone seems to be a better choice for regenerative treatment of furcation involvement. PMID:23493651

  2. miR-21 and 221 upregulation and miR-181b downregulation in human grade II-IV astrocytic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alfredo; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; La Torre, Domenico; Tomasello, Chiara; Cardali, Salvatore; Angileri, Filippo F; Maio, Francesca; Cama, Annamaria; Germanò, Antonino; Vita, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs can function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes. It has been demonstrated that in glioblastoma multiforme miR-21 and 221 are upregulated whereas miR-128 and 181 are downregulated. Expression of miR-21, 221, 128a, 128b, 128c, 181a, 181b, 181c was studied using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting for human astrocytic tumors with different grade of malignancy. miR-21 and 221 were overexpressed in glioma samples, whereas miRNA 181b was downregulated compared with normal brain tissue. miRNA-21 was hyperexpressed in all tumor samples whereas higher levels of miRNA-221 were found in high-grade gliomas. This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in astrocytic tumor at different stages of malignancy. The different expression pattern observed in tumors at different stages of malignancy is probably dependent on the cell-specific repertoire of target genes of tumors sharing different molecular pathways activity and suggests miRNAs may have also a place in diagnosis and staging of brain tumors.

  3. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part II. Treatment-related late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)

    2003-09-01

    Material and Methods: Studies on the use of radiation therapy in children with low-grade glioma were systematically reviewed for data on radiotherapy-induced side effects on brain parenchyma, endocrine dysfunction, growth retardation, neurocognitive dysfunction, vasculopathy, and secondary neoplasms. Results: Data on late effects are scarce and heterogeneous. Past reports included only retrospective series from the 1930s to present days, a time during which treatment policies and radiation techniques widely varied and considerably changed in recent years. Often, considerable uncertainty existed regarding pretreatment health status and radiotherapy-related factors (e.g., total dose, dose per fraction, treatment fields). In spite of these shortcomings and often conflicting observations, it appears that especially younger children and children with neurofibromatosis (NF) are at risk of endocrinopathies in terms of growth retardation and developmental abnormalities, as well as neurocognitive dysfunction expressed as problems in the psychosocial environment such as in education and occupation. However, both observations may be attributed to the higher proportion of NF in the very young who frequently develop large tumors spreading along the entire supratentorial midline. The risk of radiation-induced disturbances in visual function is low (no case reported). Young children with NF appear to have an increased risk of vasculopathies. 33 cases of moyamoya disease were found (preferably in the very young), 18 of whom were NF-positive. Other cerebrovascular accidents (24 cases, of whom 14 were NF-positive) and secondary neoplasms (15 cases, of whom only five occurred in field - four were high-grade astrocytomas) are a rare condition. The latter cannot be distinguished from late relapses with malignant transformation. Modern treatment techniques appear to reduce the risk of radiation-induced late effects. Conclusions: More studies and clear definitions of clinical endpoints

  4. TRICKS Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3-Tesla for Assessing Whole Lower Extremity Vascular Tree in Patients with High-Grade Critical Limb Ischemia: DSA and TASC II Guidelines Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheung-Fat Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire vascular tree of 58 lower extremities with high-grade critical limb ischemia (CLI was assessed with three-station time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS magnetic resonance angiography (T-MRA and correlated with digital subtraction angiography (DSA examinations and Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II (TASC II guidelines. Kappa (κ statistics were utilized to evaluate the agreement of stenosis scores (5-point scale; 0 normal to 4 occlusion based on T-MRA and DSA. With DSA as the standard, significant stenosis instances (stenosis score ≥2 among vascular segments were compared. The κ-statistics of image quality (4-point scale; 1 nondiagnostic to 4 excellent of T-MRA and TASC II classification assessed by a radiologist and a vascular surgeon were also evaluated. Among 870 vascular segments, excellent agreement was observed between T-MRA and DSA (mean κ = 0.883 in revealing stenosis (mean stenosis score, 2.1  ±  1.3 versus 2.0  ±  1.3. T-MRA harbored overall high sensitivity (99.5%, specificity (93.6%, positive predictive value (95.4%, negative predictive value (99.6%, and accuracy (97.7% in depicting significant stenosis. Excellent interobserver agreement (mean κ = 0.818 of superb image quality (mean score = 3.5–3.6 of T-MRA and outstanding agreement of TASC II classification of aortoiliac and femoral-popliteal lesions (κ = 0.912–0.917 between two raters further verified the clinical feasibility of T-MRA for treatment planning.

  5. ECOG Phase II trial of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b in patients with metastatic melanoma over-expressing basic fibroblast growth factor (E2602)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ronald S.; Lee, Sandra J.; Shin, Donghoon; Callister, Steven M.; Jobe, Dean A.; Conry, Robert M.; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Kirkwood, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated use of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b (Peg-IFN) in patients with stage IV melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The primary objective was suppression of plasma FGF-2 to within normal range (≤7.5 pg/mL). Experimental Design Plasma FGF-2 was measured at baseline (Step 1), and patients with concentrations ≥15 pg/mL were eligible for study treatment (Step 2). Peg-IFN was given weekly at starting dose of 0.5 μg/kg/wk with increment every 3 weeks based on serial FGF-2 concentrations. Results Two hundred seven patients entered Step 1; 45 (22%) overexpressed FGF-2 (median=22 pg/dL). Twenty-nine eligible patients entered Step 2 and received treatment. Patients’ median age was 64 years (range, 29–84 years). Most had >2 prior therapies. FGF-2 decreased in 28 (97%) patients, with suppression to normal range in 10 (35%). Median time to FGF-2 suppression was 30 days. The best clinical responses were partial response (7%) and stable disease (17%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.0 and 9.7 months, respectively. Patients who achieved FGF-2 suppression were more likely than those who did not to have a response or stable disease (P = 0.03). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations decreased in 27 patients (93%) during treatment and paralleled those of FGF-2 over time. We found no compensatory rise in VEGF among those with FGF-2 suppression. Conclusions Graded-dose Peg-IFN suppresses FGF-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma who overexpress FGF-2. Over a third of patients had complete suppression of plasma FGF-2, which correlated with clinical response to this therapy. PMID:24122792

  6. Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Marko; Džodić, Radan; Đurišić, Igor; Marković, Ivan; Vujasinović, Tijana; Markićević, Milan; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1 PAI-1 levels, respectively. Analyses of 4 phenotypes, defined by tumor size and PAI-1 status, revealed that patients bearing either pT1 tumors, irrespective of PAI-1 levels, or pT2,3 tumors with low PAI-1 levels, had similar disease-free interval probabilities and showed favorable outcome compared to those bearing pT2,3 tumors with high PAI-1 levels. Our findings suggest that tumor size and PAI-1, used in combination as phenotypes are not only prognostic but might also be predictive in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period.

  7. Effects of acrylamide graded doses on metallothioneins I and II induction and DNA fragmentation: Bochemical and histomorphological changes in the liver of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Chaabene, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Marrakchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahya Sellami; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the toxic effects of acrylamide (ACR) administered to rats at two doses on (i) oxidative stress and disruption of pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in hepatic cells and (ii) its correlation with metallothioneins (MTs) genes expression, DNA damage and histomorphological changes. Treated rats with 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight of ACR led to an increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products, protein carbonyl levels as well as an alteration in the antioxidant status. Total MT content in the liver and MT I and MT II genes induction were increased. Plasma transaminases activities, albumin, total protein and glucose levels were also increased, while alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C decreased in a dose-dependent manner. A random DNA degradation was observed only in the liver of ACR-treated rats with the highest dose. These changes were confirmed by histopathological observations.

  8. The effectiveness and safety of topical PhotoActif phosphatidylcholine-based anti-cellulite gel and LED (red and near-infrared) light on Grade II-III thigh cellulite: a randomized, double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Oberg, Kerby; Tucker, Barbara; Gaston, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Cellulite of the upper lateral and posterior thighs and lower buttocks represents a common, physiological and unwanted condition whose etiologies and effective management are subjects of continued debate. The purpose of this controlled, double-blinded study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel phosphatidylcholine-based, cosmeceutical anti-cellulite gel combined with a light-emitting diode (LED) array at the wavelengths of red (660 nm) and near-infrared (950 nm), designed to counter the possible mechanisms that purportedly accentuate the presence of thigh cellulite. Nine healthy female volunteers with Grade II-III thigh cellulite were randomly treated twice daily with an active gel on one thigh and a placebo gel on the control thigh for 3 months. Twice weekly, each thigh was exposed for a 15-minute treatment with LED light for a total of 24 treatments. At 0, 6, and 12 weeks of the study the following clinical determinants were obtained: standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, standardized thigh circumference tape measurements, pinch testing, body mass index (kg/m2), body fat analysis (Futrex-5500/XL near-infrared analyzer), and digital high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the dermal-adiposal border. In selected patients, full-thickness biopsies of the placebo and active-treated sites were obtained. At 18 months, repeat standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, and body mass index measurements were obtained. At the end of 3 months, eight of nine thighs treated with the phosphatidylcholine-based, anti-cellulite gel and LED treatments were downgraded to a lower cellulite grade by clinical examination, digital photography, and pinch test assessment. Digital ultrasound at the dermal-adiposal interface demonstrated not only a statistically significant reduction of immediate hypodermal depth, but also less echo-like intrusions into the dermal layer. Three of six biopsies from thighs treated for 3 months with

  9. Cytological grading of breast cancers and comparative evaluation of two grading systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Farooq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the cytograding of breast cancers using Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective (from Oct 2000 to Sept 2005 and 1-year prospective study (from Oct 2005 to Oct 2006. A total of 110 fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC cases of breast cancers were studied. These were graded according to Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods (grade I-III followed by comparison of the two methods. Results: Of the 110 cases graded according to Robinson′s method, 28 (25.45% cases were grade I, 46 (41.81% grade II, and 36 (32.72% were grade III, whereas using Mouriquand′s grading methods, 28 (25.45%, 42 (38.18%, and 40 (36.36% cases were graded as grade I, II, and III, respectively. A high degree of concordance was observed between the two grading methods (90.9%. A highly significant relationship between the scores obtained by two methods was also observed (P=0.004. Conclusions: A comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancers is possible by using two different methods proposed by Robinson and Mouriquand. In spite of a high degree of concordance between the two methods, the Robinson′s grading system has been found to be easier and better because of more objective set of criteria and easy reproducibility.

  10. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  11. Robinson′s cytological grading on aspirates of breast carcinoma: Correlation with Bloom Richardson′s histological grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cytological grading (CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma is a useful tool for surgical maneuver and prognosis. Aims : An endeavor was made to use CG on aspirates of breast carcinoma using Robinson′s grade and to correlate it with Bloom Richardsons′ histopathological grading. Materials and Methods : A total of 59 patients of breast carcinoma, aged 28-57 years, were aspirated and the smears were graded using Robinson′s criteria. All the cases were correlated with Bloom Richardson′s grade on histopathology in mastectomy specimens. Lymphadenopathy in 38 cases was aspirated and stained with Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stain. Results : Robinson′s CG correlated well with Bloom Richardson′s histopathological grading. For grade I and II tumors, there was substantial strength of agreement between cytology and histopathology, while in grade III, the concordance was nearly perfect. Lymph node metastasis was found in 27 of 32 axillary nodes, three of five cervical nodes and the only palpable supraclavicular node. Lymph node metastasis was observed in three with cytological grade II, 28 of grade III and none of grade I. All grade I had stage A, two of grade II had stage B, while all grade III had either stage B or stage C disease. Conclusions : Thus, CG of breast carcinoma correlates well with histopathological grading and may well be useful as a prognostic marker.

  12. Clinical evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G with and without collagen membrane (Periocol in the treatment of bilateral grade II furcation defects in mandibular first permanent molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy Prathap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation invasions represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges in periodontics. This investigation assessed and compared the clinical efficacy of hydroxyapatite bone graft material when used alone and with collagen membrane in the treatment of grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with comparable bilateral furcation defects in relation to mandibular first molars were selected and treated in a split-mouth design. After the hygiene phase of therapy was completed, the groups were selected randomly either for treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G alone or with a combination of bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane (Periocol. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, position of marginal gingiva, and the amount of bone fill were used at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths and gain in the clinical attachment level. Conclusion: The use of combination technique yielded superior results compared to sites treated with bone graft alone. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  13. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  14. Desempenho do exame colpocitológico com revisão por diferentes observadores e da captura híbrida II no diagnóstico da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical graus 2 e 3 Performance of cervical cytology with review by different observers and hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Ferreira Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia (CO de encaminhamento e daquela coletada no serviço de referência, com revisão por diferentes técnicas e observadores, e da captura híbrida II (CH II no diagnóstico da neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical (NIC de alto grau, foram incluídas 105 mulheres atendidas entre agosto de 2000 e junho de 2001 por atipias pré-neoplásicas na CO. Todas foram submetidas à coleta de nova CO e CH II para detecção do DNA-HPV. Foi realizada biópsia cervical em 91, sendo o diagnóstico histológico considerado padrão ouro. Foram descritas a sensibilidade, especificidade e razão de verossimilhança positiva (RVP dos métodos propedêuticos com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%. A sensibilidade e especificidade da CO de encaminhamento foi de 57% e 82% para o diagnóstico de NIC 2 e 3, e a RVP de 3,2 (IC95%: 1,5-6,8. A CO do serviço mostrou uma sensibilidade e especificidade 79% e 84%, respectivamente e RVP de 5,0 (IC95%: 2,5-10,0. A sensibilidade (86%, especificidade (80% e RVP (4,3 foram semelhantes com a revisão lenta realizada pelo segundo observador, havendo uma queda significativa da sensibilidade (64% à revisão rápida pelo terceiro observador. A CH II mostrou alta sensibilidade (100%, baixa especificidade (43% e baixa RVP (1,7, IC95%: 1,4-2,2.To evaluate the performance of initial cervical cytology and that collected at the reference service with a review conducted by different observers and techniques, as well as hybrid capture II, in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, 105 women attended from August 2000 to June 2001 for preneoplastic atypia upon cervical cytology were included. A new cervical cytology and hybrid capture II for DNA-HPV were conducted in all the patients. Cervical biopsies were taken in 91 women. Performance of the investigative procedures was described by estimating the sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio (PLR, with a 95

  15. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  16. Mid-term results after midcarpal arthrodesis using an iliac crest cortical chip for grade II/III SLAC/SNAC-wrists [Mittelfristige Ergebnisse nach mediokarpaler Teilarthrodese mit kortikospongiösem Beckenkammspan bei SLAC/SNAC-wrist Grad II/III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeplin, Philip H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: The four-corner-fusion is an option for grade II/III SNAC-/SLAC-wrists. The case-control study evaluates the results of a four-corner-f with a screw-fixed iliac crest cortical chip. Methods: Ten patients with SNAC/SLAC-wrist ≥ grade II were treated. The evaluation occurred after 24 months using a standard study protocol. Results: The mean postoperative active range of motion were 46% (extension/flexion and 52% (radial/ulnar deviation of the contralateral wrist respectively. The postoperative mean grip strength was 43% of the contralateral side, and 84% compared to the preoperative values. The mean Cooney-Bussey Score was 63 and the mean DASH score was 25 (p≤0.05. Four of the patients (40% had to undergo a partial removal of the osteosynthetic material because of radiodorsal impingement. Conclusions: The four-corner fusion using an iliac crest cortical chip represents an alternative operating procedure for treatment, even though the period of immobilisation cannot be reduced. [german] Hintergrund: Die mediokarpale Teilarthrodese stellt eine anerkannte Behandlungsmethode bei karpalen Kollaps nach Skaphoidpseudarthrose (SNAC-wrist oder nach Ruptur des skapholunären Bandes (SLAC-wrist dar. Anhand der vorliegenden Fall-Kontrollstudie wurden die Ergebnisse nach mediokarpaler Teilarthrodese unter Verwendung eines kortikospongiösen Beckenkammspanes evaluiert. Material und Methoden: Zehn Patienten wurden 24 Monate nach mediokarpaler Teilarthrodese bei mit SLAC/SNAC-wrist Grad II/III mit einem kortikospongiösen Beckenkammspan nachuntersucht. Ergebnisse: Das mittlere postoperative Bewegungsausmaß des Handgelenkes betrug für Extension/Flexion 46% und für Radial-/Ulnaradduktion 52% im Vergleich zur unbehandelten Gegenseite. Die postoperative Griffstärke betrug im Mittel 43% der Gegenseite und 84% der präoperativen Werte. Der mittlere Cooney-Bussey-Score lag bei 63, der mittlere DASH-Score bei 25 (p≤0.05. Bei vier Patienten

  17. Making the Grade: Understanding Learning and Grade Orientations of First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…

  18. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  19. Analysis of Antibiotic in Outpatient Department of a Grade-II Hospital in 2014%某二级医院2014年门诊抗菌药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕; 王昊颖; 邹芃

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey and analysis of the effectiveness of the application and management of antibiotic agents in the outpatient department of a Grade-II hospital. Methods Investigated antibiotic drug consumption and utilization of outpatients' antibiotic prescription in 2014. To spot check prescription rational drug use. Results Antibiotic sales amount for 33.20%of outpatient drug sales amount in 2014,outpatient drug combined use rate was 4.01%, the number of unqualified antibiotic prescription accounted for 10.67% of the total antibiotic prescription. Conclusion The use of antibacterial drugs tends to be reasonable,unqualified antibiotic prescription mainly shows no indication for use of antibiotic.%目的:调查分析某二级医院门诊抗菌药物应用和管理成效。方法调查该院2014年门诊抗菌药物销售情况、门诊抗菌药物处方使用率及处方合理用药情况。结果该院2014年门诊抗菌药物销售额占门诊药品销售金额33.20%;门诊科室抗菌药物处方使用率21.73%,联用率为4.01%,不合格抗菌药物处方占抗菌药物处方总数的10.67%。结论该院抗菌药物的使用趋于合理,门诊处方中抗菌药物应用不合理应用主要表现为无指征使用抗菌药物。

  20. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit II. Ocean Management: Who Owns the Sea? =Humedo y Salvaje. Segund Unidad. El Manejo de los Oceanos: Quien Es el Dueno de los Mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to ocean management are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into four sections (labeled A through D). The first three sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or 4-6)…

  1. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2000-01-01

    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  2. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  3. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  4. Single treatment of grades II and III cellulite using a minimally invasive 1,440-nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser and side-firing fiber: an institutional review board-approved study with a 24-month follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Gordon H

    2013-12-01

    Cellulite represents one of the common topographic alterations to the skin surface and one of the structural changes to the subdermal fat and septal band of the posterolateral thighs. Currently, no treatment exists to address this entity with a multifactorial genesis that produces long-term beneficial outcomes. This clinical study evaluated the safety and efficacy of the 1,440-nm laser and the duration of the clinical benefits during 2 years. Initially, 25 healthy women with thigh cellulite were enrolled in this prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. For grade II cellulite, the laser fiber delivered up to 1,000 J of energy to the undersurface of the entire involved skin. For grade III cellulite, the laser fiber distributed 1,300 to 1,500 J of energy to melt the subdermal fat, subcise the taut septal bands, and heat the reticular dermis. Baseline and posttreatment analyses included standardized high-resolution photography, skin elasticity measurements, ultrasound scanning for dermal thickness, histology, investigator global assessment scores, and recording of adverse events. Of the 24 subjects who underwent treatment, only 20 were available for the 6-month follow-up assessment. Objective measurements at 2 years demonstrated an increase over the baseline mean skin elasticity (34 %) and mean dermal thickness (11 %), as well as an increase in the average percentage of dermal thickening determined by ultrasound imaging. Independent investigator global assessments were rated higher for grade II subjects than for grade III subjects throughout the 2-year follow-up period. Mild adverse events disappeared by the third month. This IRB-conducted clinical trial, as part of a multicenter study for Food and Drug Administration approval, demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a single minimally invasive treatment for grades II and III thigh cellulite during a 2-year follow-up period. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each

  5. Almost Graded Prime Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

  6. CT Grading of Otosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, T.C; Aviv, R.I; Chen, J.M; Nedzelski, J.M; Fox, A.J; Symons, S.P

    2009-01-01

    ...: The CT grading system for otosclerosis was proposed by Symons and Fanning in 2005. The purpose of this study was to determine if this CT grading system has high interobserver and intraobserver agreement...

  7. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  8. Correlation between cytological and histological grading of breast cancer and its role in prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shweta; Gupta, Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Assigning grade to breast cancer on FNAC provides prognostic information and guides optimal therapy. Aims: The present study was undertaken to grade breast carcinoma on cytology by Robinson's grading system and correlate it with Elstons modified Bloom Richardson histological grading system. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study done on fifty cases of breast cancer reported on cytology. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for breast carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded. Correlation between cytological and histological grading system was determined. Sensitivity and specificity of Robinson's cytological grading system was calculated in each grade. All cases evaluated for presence of metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation between cytological and histological grading was established using the non parametric Spearman’ s correlation coefficient. Results: Concordance rate between cytological and histological grade was 78%. The coefficient of correlation between cytological grade and histological grade was 0.804 and P value was <0.001 which indicated a strong correlation and significant association between the cytological and histological grade. Sensitivity was maximum in cytological grade I tumors (100%) and least in cytological grade III tumors (45.45%). Specificity was maximum in cytological grade III tumors (94.87%) and least in cytological grade II tumors (72.72%). The incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis was maximum in cytological grade III tumors and grade I tumors. Conclusions: Cytological grade strongly predicts histological grade and is useful in selecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28028331

  9. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  10. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  11. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden...

  12. Phase III intergroup study of fludarabine phosphate compared with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients with stage II and IV low-grade malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hagenbeek; H. Eghbali; S. Monfardini; U. Viloto; P.J. Hoskin; C. de Wolf-Peeters; K. MacLennan; E. Staab-Renner; J. Kalmus; A. Schott; I. Teodorovic; A. Negrouk; M. van Glabbeke; R. Marcus

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy and safety of fludarabine phosphate with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) in 381 previously untreated, advanced-stage, low-grade (lg) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients in a phase III, multicenter study. Patients and Methods Between 1993 and 1997

  13. Are grades really oppressive?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心宇

    2015-01-01

    Are grades really oppressive? The broad question's answer is of course open: it varies in different condition and in prerequisites. Like in Daily Californian,"Why Grades are Oppressive", the title tells us it standing: yes, grades are oppressive. In the article, the authors (this article was written by 16 students of the class) pointed out that the grading system has had a violent and powerfully destructive effect on our lives. Because grading focuses our attention on class requirements that we have no say in determination. And this makes many students equate their self-worth with the grades they get in exams. Besides, grades are intimately connected with a larger system of control in community, which trains students to be submissive and not to question or challenge it. In the end, the authors conclude that they should take responsibility for evaluating their own learning process.

  14. Clinical grades: upward bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine M; Seldomridge, Lisa A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of grades earned in paired theory and clinical courses. Data collected during academic years 1997 to 2002 confirmed that grade inflation exists in clinical nursing courses. Problems involved in awarding grades for clinical performance are discussed (e.g., standards of clinical performance, methods used in evaluation of clinical performance, the impossibility of faculty omnipresence, the influence of student effort in grading, the effect of recency, the challenges of keeping good anecdotal records). Solutions to grading problems are proposed, including dividing up performance into agreed-on elements, measurement of these elements on a grading scale that allows for more differentiation of quality in evaluating clinical performance, assigning grades from the beginning of a clinical course, emphasizing all three domains of clinical practice, and evaluating student performance in both laboratory and, clinical settings.

  15. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  16. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  17. Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pezeshki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2 and from group B (groups 3 and 4. In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII (0-1000 ng/kg/min, iv infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P<0.05. The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P<0.05. MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P<0.05. These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

  18. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  19. Pallet part grading trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah F. Cook; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    2000-01-01

    A computerized pallet grading training system was developed to facilitate the production of higher quality pallets. Higher quality pallets would be more durable and could be re-used many times, resulting in long-term savings. Schmoldt et al. (1993) evaluated the economic impact of grading and sorting pallet parts. They determined that higher quality pallets produced by...

  20. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  1. Grading Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  2. Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

    2011-01-01

    Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

  3. Tumor tissue protein signatures reflect histological grade of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Petter; Ohlsson, Mattias; Fernö, Mårten; Rydén, Lisa; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Wingren, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Histological grade is one of the most commonly used prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with breast cancer. However, conventional grading has proven technically challenging, and up to 60% of the tumors are classified as histological grade 2, which represents a heterogeneous cohort less informative for clinical decision making. In an attempt to study and extend the molecular puzzle of histologically graded breast cancer, we have in this pilot project searched for additional protein biomarkers in a new space of the proteome. To this end, we have for the first time performed protein expression profiling of breast cancer tumor tissue, using recombinant antibody microarrays, targeting mainly immunoregulatory proteins. Thus, we have explored the immune system as a disease-specific sensor (clinical immunoproteomics). Uniquely, the results showed that several biologically relevant proteins reflecting histological grade could be delineated. In more detail, the tentative biomarker panels could be used to i) build a candidate model classifying grade 1 vs. grade 3 tumors, ii) demonstrate the molecular heterogeneity among grade 2 tumors, and iii) potentially re-classify several of the grade 2 tumors to more like grade 1 or grade 3 tumors. This could, in the long-term run, lead to improved prognosis, by which the patients could benefit from improved tailored care.

  4. Characterizations of Graded Distributive Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Chen; Chang'an Li

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we give some characterizations of graded distributive modules, prove some interesting results between graded rings (modules) and lattices under finiteness conditions, and investigate the direct sum of graded distributive modules in terms of orders of graded submodules and homomorphisms of graded factor modules.

  5. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  6. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  7. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  8. Automated grading of renal cell carcinoma using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent technology developments have demonstrated the benefit of using whole slide imaging (WSI in computer-aided diagnosis. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using automatic WSI analysis to assist grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, which is a manual task traditionally performed by pathologists. Materials and Methods: Automatic WSI analysis was applied to 39 hematoxylin and eosin-stained digitized slides of clear cell RCC with varying grades. Kernel regression was used to estimate the spatial distribution of nuclear size across the entire slides. The analysis results were correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grades determined by pathologists. Results: The spatial distribution of nuclear size provided a panoramic view of the tissue sections. The distribution images facilitated locating regions of interest, such as high-grade regions and areas with necrosis. The statistical analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size was significantly different (P < 0.001 between low-grade (Grades I and II and high-grade tumors (Grades III and IV. The receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the maximum nuclear size distinguished high-grade and low-grade tumors with a false positive rate of 0.2 and a true positive rate of 1.0. The area under the curve is 0.97. Conclusion: The automatic WSI analysis allows pathologists to see the spatial distribution of nuclei size inside the tumors. The maximum nuclear size can also be used to differentiate low-grade and high-grade clear cell RCC with good sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that automatic WSI analysis may facilitate pathologic grading of renal tumors and reduce variability encountered with manual grading.

  9. Functionally Graded Media

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Cédric M.; Epstein, Marcelo; De León, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

  10. The Grade Contract Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1976-01-01

    Adaptations of and variations on the grade contract system are described with emphasis on individualized instruction, fair evaluation, and learner-oriented classes. The method used is described, and results are assessed. (Author/RM)

  11. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  12. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  13. Estudo clínico, prospectivo, aberto, randomizado e comparativo para avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul versus peróxido de benzoíla 5% no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III A prospective, randomized, open and comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blue light treatment versus a topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grade II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. F. de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Muitos pacientes relatam melhora da acne com a exposição à luz solar, e vários estudos demonstram que a luz azul é efetiva no tratamento da acne. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a segurança e a eficácia da luz azul (espectro eletromagnético de 407 a 420 nm no tratamento da acne inflamatória graus II e III, comparada à terapêutica tópica com peróxido de benzoíla a 5%. MÉTODOS: O estudo avaliou 60 pacientes em cinco visitas: uma de seleção, uma com 7, 14 e 28 dias de tratamento e uma última de seguimento, 14 dias após o término do tratamento. Trinta foram randomizados para luz azul (oito sessões, duas vezes por semana, e outros 30, para peróxido de benzoíla a 5%, duas vezes ao dia, diariamente. A avaliação foi por meio da contagem das lesões e fotografias. RESULTADOS: A redução no número médio de lesões foi semelhante com os dois tratamentos, independente do tipo de lesão (p 0,05, porém o tratamento com a luz azul apresentou menos efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÕES: A luz azul foi um tratamento tão eficaz quanto o peróxido de benzoíla a 5% para o tratamento da acne graus II e III, mas com menos efeitos adversos.BACKGROUND: Many acne patients improve after exposure to sunlight and there are many reports about the efficacy of blue light phototherapy on acne lesions. OBJECTIVES - The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of blue light treatment versus topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grades II and III. METHODS - Sixty volunteers with facial acne were included and evaluated in 5 visits: the first one for screening, another 3 held on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment, and the last one after 14 days of the end of treatment. Thirty of them were irradiated with Blue Light (8 times, twice a week and the other thirty were treated with topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% formulation, auto-applied twice a day, every day. We assessed the severity of acne by counting the lesions and

  14. Contemporary Gleason grading and novel Grade Groups in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Montironi, Rodolfo; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-09-01

    The Gleason grading system provides important information for guiding prostate cancer patients' management and prognostication. The grading system underwent significant modifications over the past decade. In 2005 and more recently in 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) held two consensus conferences to update prostate cancer grading. Recently, five prognostic grade groups have been proposed to be used in parallel to the Gleason grading system. The purpose of this review is to highlight the key changes in the Gleason grading system and the utility of the grade groups to better reflect biologic behavior for both patients and clinicians. At the 2014 ISUP consensus conference, prostate cancer Gleason grading was updated and a previously proposed concept of five prognostic grade groups, from 1 to 5 was supported. The Grade Groups, used in parallel to the modified Gleason grading system, translate Gleason scores in five distinct risk categories where Grade Group 1 is defined as Gleason score 6 or less, Grade Group 2 as Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7, Grade Group 3 as Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, Grade Group 4 as Gleason score 4 + 4 = 8, and Grade Group 5 as Gleason score 9/10. This 5-tiered grade group system better reflects biologic behavior and guides clinical care. The Grade Groups have been endorsed by the ISUP and the World Health Organization. The performance of the Grade Groups has been examined in several recent studies. This review summarizes developments over the last year in the use of grade groups and outlines their value in clinical practice.

  15. Interventricular low-grade oligodendroglioma with multiple parenchymal relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Rakhsha, Afshin; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-06-08

    Oligodendrogliomas can be found anywhere oligodendrocytes exist; however, they mostly occur in frontal lobes. Although intra- and extra central nervous system dissemination of anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a well-known property of this tumour, low-grade oligodendroglioma with intracranial relapse is a very uncommon finding. In this case report, a 37-year-old man with grade II oligodendroglioma relapsed after 18 months with multiple parenchymal masses is presented.

  16. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  17. Relevance of Simpson grading system and recurrence-free survival after surgery for World Health Organization Grade I meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Konar, Subhas K; Missios, Symeon; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical significance of the Simpson system for grading the extent of meningioma resection and its role as a predictor of the recurrence of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas have been questioned in the past, echoing changes in meningioma surgery over the years. The authors reviewed their experience in resecting WHO Grade I meningiomas and assessed the association between extent of resection, as evaluated using the Simpson classification, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients after meningioma surgery. METHODS Clinical and radiological information for patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas who had undergone resective surgery over the past 20 years was retrospectively reviewed. Simpson and Shinshu grading scales were used to evaluate the extent of resection. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. RESULTS Four hundred fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis. Overall tumor recurrence rates for Simpson resection Grades I, II, III, and IV were 5%, 22%, 31%, and 35%, respectively. After Cox regression analysis, Simpson Grade I (extensive resection) was revealed as a significant predictor of RFS (p = 0.003). Patients undergoing Simpson Grade I and II resections showed significant improvement in RFS compared with patients undergoing Grade III and IV resections (p = 0.005). Extent of resection had a significant effect on recurrence rates for both skull base (p = 0.047) and convexity (p = 0.012) meningiomas. Female sex and a Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70 were also identified as independent predictors of RFS after resection of WHO Grade I meningioma. CONCLUSIONS In this patient cohort, a significant association was noted between extent of resection and rates of tumor recurrence. In the authors' experience the Simpson grading system maintains its relevance and prognostic value and can serve an important role for patient education. Even though complete tumor

  18. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  19. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  20. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  1. Grading ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast using an automated proliferation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Christopher J; Davis, Marilyn; Kimler, Bruce F; Fan, Fang; Damjanov, Ivan; Thomas, Patricia; Tawfik, Ossama W

    2011-01-01

    Tumor grade, size and margin status are the most significant factors in predicting the behavior of ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). The inclusion of necrosis and nuclear grade in the grading of DCIS has demonstrated a fair but suboptimal agreement between pathologists. The grading of DCIS was studied and compared to the Van Nuys (VN) system, by using our newly proposed unifying "nuclear grade + proliferation index (N+P) grading system for invasive carcinomas. 162 DCIS tumors were studied including 49 VN I, 31 VN II, and 82 VN III cases. The VN and N+P systems were compared with each other and correlated with tumor size, ER, PR, p53, Her-2, EGFR, Bcl-2, p27 and p21 status. The two systems demonstrated similar frequencies for the different grades and an agreement with each other for all of the biomarkers studied. The greatest difference between the two systems was observed for those tumors initially classified as VN II (94% being down-graded to N+P I) and VN III (80% being down-graded to N+P II). These results suggest that the N+P system, combining nuclear grade with automated MIB-1 count, is a potentially valid and reproducible grading system for both non-invasive and invasive mammary carcinomas. It is automated, less subjective in assessing mitotic activity and necrosis and correlates with other prognostic biomarkers.

  2. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  3. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  4. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  5. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  6. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  7. Seizure prognosis of patients with low-grade tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Fadul, Camilo E; Roberts, David W; Thadani, Vijay M; Bujarski, Krzysztof A; Scott, Rod C; Jobst, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    Seizures frequently impact the quality of life of patients with low grade tumors. Management is often based on best clinical judgment. We examined factors that correlate with seizure outcome to optimize seizure management. Patients with supratentorial low-grade tumors evaluated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Using multiple regression analysis the patient characteristics and treatments were correlated with seizure outcome using Engel's classification. Of the 73 patients with low grade tumors and median follow up of 3.8 years (range 1-20 years), 54 (74%) patients had a seizure ever and 46 (63%) had at least one seizure before tumor surgery. The only factor significantly associated with pre-surgical seizures was tumor histology. Of the 54 patients with seizures ever, 25 (46.3%) had a class I outcome at last follow up. There was no difference in seizure outcome between grade II gliomas (astrocytoma grade II, oligodendroglioma grade II, mixed oligo-astrocytoma grade II) and other pathologies (pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymomas, DNET, gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma). Once seizures were established seizure prognosis was similar between different pathologies. Chemotherapy (p=0.03) and radiation therapy (p=0.02) had a positive effect on seizure outcome. No other parameter including significant tumor growth during the follow up period predicted seizure outcome. Only three patients developed new-onset seizures after tumor surgery that were non-perioperative. Anticonvulsant medication was tapered in 14 patients with seizures and 10 had no further seizures. Five patients underwent additional epilepsy surgery with a class I outcome in four. Two patients received a vagal nerve stimulator with >50% seizure reduction. Seizures at presentation are the most important factor associated with continued seizures after tumor surgery. Pathology does not influence seizure outcome. Use of long term prophylactic anticonvulsants is unwarranted. Chemotherapy and

  8. IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and outcomes of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hany; Khashaba, Mohamed T; El-Ayouty, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Osman; Hasanein, Bothina M

    2006-04-01

    The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of brain injury and their relation to neurological outcomes of asphyxiated neonates is not fully defined. We hypothesize that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlate with the severity of brain injury and can predict neurological deficits in infants who suffered from hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A prospective study was conducted on 24 term infants diagnosed with HIE and 13 controls. HIE was clinically classified into mild, moderate and severe according to Sarnat and Sarnat grading. Blood and CSF samples were obtained from all infants in the first 24h of life as part of routine investigations for suspected meningitis and/or sepsis. Neurological examination and Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II) were performed at 6 and 12 months of life. IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were all significantly increased in HIE infants when compared to control. IL-1beta in the CSF correlated with the severity of HIE (r=0.61, P=0.001) more than IL-6 (r=0.45, P=0.004) or TNF-alpha (r=0.47, P=0.003). IL-1beta exhibited the highest CSF/serum ratio among the three studied cytokines suggesting its local release in the brain after the initial hypoxic injury. Abnormal neurological findings and/or abnormal DDST II at 6 and 12 months were best predicted by IL-1beta in the CSF (sensitivity=88% and specificity=80%). This study confirms the role of IL-1beta in the ongoing neuronal injury that occurs in the latent phase following the original HIE insult.

  9. Assessment of tissue heterogeneity using diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging for grading gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam [International Institute of Information Technology-Bangalore, Bangalore (India); Saini, Jitender; Mahadevan, Anita; Rao, K.V.L. Narasinga; Swaminathan, Aarthi [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (India)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we aim to assess the significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters in grading gliomas. Retrospective studies were performed on 53 subjects with gliomas belonging to WHO grade II (n = 19), grade III (n = 20) and grade IV (n = 14). Expert marked regions of interest (ROIs) covering the tumour on T2-weighted images. Statistical texture measures such as entropy and busyness calculated over ROIs on diffusion parametric maps were used to assess the tumour heterogeneity. Additionally, we propose a volume heterogeneity index derived from cross correlation (CC) analysis as a tool for grading gliomas. The texture measures were compared between grades by performing the Mann-Whitney test followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy. Entropy, busyness and volume heterogeneity index for all diffusion parameters except fractional anisotropy and anisotropy of kurtosis showed significant differences between grades. The Mann-Whitney test on mean diffusivity (MD), among DTI parameters, resulted in the highest discriminability with values of P = 0.029 (0.0421) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.0312 (0.0415) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). In DKI, mean kurtosis (MK) showed the highest discriminability, P = 0.018 (0.038) for grade II vs. III and P = 0.022 (0.04) for III vs. IV for entropy (busyness). Results of CC analysis illustrate the existence of homogeneity in volume (uniformity across slices) for lower grades, as compared to higher grades. Hypothesis testing performed on volume heterogeneity index showed P values of 0.0002 (0.0001) and 0.0003 (0.0003) between grades II vs. III and III vs. IV, respectively, for MD (MK). In summary, the studies demonstrated great potential towards automating grading gliomas by employing tumour heterogeneity measures on DTI and DKI parameters. (orig.)

  10. Write More, Grade Less: Five Practices for Effectively Grading Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the dilemmas that teachers frequently face is grading student papers. As a teacher, the author regularly reads research regarding instructional practices, grading, and assessment, but struggled to translate theory into practice in her own classroom. The intent of this article is to share one method of instructing and grading writing that…

  11. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  12. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  13. The Fracture Toughness of Nuclear Graphites Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erdman, III, Donald L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, Rick R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunter, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hannel, Cara C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    New measurements of graphite mode I critical stress intensity factor, KIc (commonly referred to as the fracture toughness) and the mode II critical shear stress intensity, KIIc, are reported and compared with prior data for KIc and KIIc. The new data are for graphite grades PCEA, IG-110 and 2114. Variations of KIc and acoustic emission (AE) data with graphite texture are reported and discussed. The Codes and Standards applications of fracture toughness, KIc, data are also discussed. A specified minimum value for nuclear graphite KIc is recommended.

  14. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade ...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  16. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  17. Modeling of functionally graded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Buiochi, Flávio; Adamowski, Julio Cezar; Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli

    2009-05-01

    The application of functionally graded material (FGM) concept to piezoelectric transducers allows the design of composite transducers without interfaces, due to the continuous change of property values. Thus, large improvements can be achieved, as reduction of stress concentration, increasing of bonding strength, and bandwidth. This work proposes to design and to model FGM piezoelectric transducers and to compare their performance with non-FGM ones. Analytical and finite element (FE) modeling of FGM piezoelectric transducers radiating a plane pressure wave in fluid medium are developed and their results are compared. The ANSYS software is used for the FE modeling. The analytical model is based on FGM-equivalent acoustic transmission-line model, which is implemented using MATLAB software. Two cases are considered: (i) the transducer emits a pressure wave in water and it is composed of a graded piezoceramic disk, and backing and matching layers made of homogeneous materials; (ii) the transducer has no backing and matching layer; in this case, no external load is simulated. Time and frequency pressure responses are obtained through a transient analysis. The material properties are graded along thickness direction. Linear and exponential gradation functions are implemented to illustrate the influence of gradation on the transducer pressure response, electrical impedance, and resonance frequencies.

  18. Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schramm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.

  19. Teaching about World War II in Sixth Grade World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Janet K.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl: A Teacher Response Unit." Lists examples of activities contained in the unit, including timeliness, simulations, and writing assignments. Highlights specific activities concerning propaganda, discrimination, and prejudice. (MJP)

  20. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis – is cytological grading significant? A correlation of grades with clinical, biochemical, ltrasonographic and radionuclide parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Radharaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic, radionuclide and cytomorphological observations in Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT, to define the cytological grading criteria on smears and correlation of grades with above parameters. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 76 patients attending the Fine needle aspiration cytology clinic of a tertiary care institute in North India. The various parameters like patients' clinical presentation, thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies, hormonal profiles, radionuclide thyroid scan and thyroid ultrasound were studied. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid gland and grading of thyroiditis was done on smears. The grades were correlated with above parameters and the correlation indices were evaluated statistically. Results Most of the patients were females (70, 92.11% who presented with a diffuse goiter (68, 89.47%. Hypothyroid features (56, 73.68% and elevated TSH (75, 98.68% were common, but radioiodide uptake was low or normal in majority of patients. Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody was elevated in 46/70 (65.71% patients. Cytomorphology in fine needle aspirates was diagnostic of lymphocytic thyroiditis in 75 (98.68% patients. Most of them had grade I/II disease by cytology. No correlation was observed between grades of cytomorphology and clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and radionuclide parameters. Conclusion Despite the availability of several tests for diagnosis of LT, FNAC remains the gold standard. The grades of thyroiditis at cytology however do not correlate with clinical, biochemical, radionuclide and ultrasonographic parameters.

  1. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis - is cytological grading significant? A correlation of grades with clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and radionuclide parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Alka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic, radionuclide and cytomorphological observations in Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT, to define the cytological grading criteria on smears and correlation of grades with above parameters. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 76 patients attending the Fine needle aspiration cytology clinic of a tertiary care institute in North India. The various parameters like patients′ clinical presentation, thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies, hormonal profiles, radionuclide thyroid scan and thyroid ultrasound were studied. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid gland and grading of thyroiditis was done on smears. The grades were correlated with above parameters and the correlation indices were evaluated statistically. Results: Most of the patients were females (70, 92.11% who presented with a diffuse goiter (68, 89.47%. Hypothyroid features (56, 73.68% and elevated TSH (75, 98.68% were common, but radioiodide uptake was low or normal in majority of patients. Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody was elevated in 46/70 (65.71% patients. Cytomorphology in fine needle aspirates was diagnostic of lymphocytic thyroiditis in 75 (98.68% patients. Most of them had grade I/II disease by cytology. No correlation was observed between grades of cytomorphology and clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and radionuclide parameters. Conclusion: Despite the availability of several tests for diagnosis of LT, FNAC remains the gold standard. The grades of thyroiditis at cytology however do not correlate with clinical, biochemical, radionuclide and ultrasonographic parameters.

  2. Evaluation of 1p and 14q status, MIB-1 labeling index and progesterone receptor immunoexpression in meningiomas: Adjuncts to histopathological grading and predictors of aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meningiomas are benign central nervous system tumors; however, significant fraction recurs, irrespective of histological grade. Materials and Methods: We performed fluorescence in-situ hybridization for 1p36 and 14q32, and immunohistochemistry for progesterone receptor (PR, p53 and MIB-1 on 84 meningiomas. Results and Conclusion: Sixty-four were convexity tumors (30 grade I, 21 grade II, 13 grade III and 20 petroclival (grade I; 10 with gross total resection (GTR, 10 with subtotal resection (STR. Isolated 1p36 deletion was seen in 20% grade I, 28.6% grade II and 30.8% grade III convexity meningiomas, and isolated 14q deletion in one grade III convexity tumor. 1p/14q co-deletion was seen in none of grade I, 28.5% grade II and 30% grade III convexity meningiomas. PR immunoreactivity was less frequent in grade III tumors. Petroclival tumors did not show isolated deletion. However, 1p/14q co-deletion was seen in 20% of petroclival tumors with STR and in none with GTR. Frequency of chromosomal alterations and MIB-1 labeling index both increase with tumor grade. 1p/14q co-deletion is characteristic of grade II/III meningiomas, while PR immunoreactivity inversely correlates with grade, suggesting their use as surrogate markers for grading. Identification of 1p/14q co-deletion in grade I petroclival tumors with STR suggests that unresectable petroclival meningiomas are biologically more aggressive than their grade I convexity counterparts.

  3. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  4. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  5. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiWei; WU QuanShui

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc (A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  6. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc(A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  7. Simplification in Graded Readers: Measuring the Authenticity of Graded Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridge, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of "normal" authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE (Nation and Heatley, 2003) to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words…

  8. Grade Point Average and Changes in (Great) Grade Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorf, Craig A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines student grade expectations throughout a semester in which students offered their expectations three times during the course: (1) within the first week; (2) midway through the semester; and (3) the week before the final examination. Finds that their expectations decreased stating that their cumulative grade point average was related to the…

  9. Is there a need for surgical staging of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas grade 1 and 2?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, K.; Christiansen, K.; Schledermann, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Our institution has followed the Danish Guidelines for treatment of uterine carcinomas including staging lymphadenectomy in the pelvis for endometrioid adenocarcinomas (EA) grade 1 and 2 with deep myometrial invasion (>50%) or cervical involvement. We wanted to find out how...... IIIC. In 32/39% lymphadenectomy was omitted due to old age and/or comorbidity. In grade 1, stage IIIC, 6 of the 8 patients had cervical involvement (+/- deep myometrial invasion) and only 2 had deep invasion without cervical involvement. For grade 2 the numbers are: total 246, 53 stage IB, 33 stage II...... and 9 stage IIIC. 39 (74%) stage IB and 19 (58%) stage II were staged. Of the 9 stage IIIC 5 had cervical involvement and deep myometrial invasion. 4 had only deep invasion. Conclusion: Staging of stage II, grade 1 and 2 EA seems reasonable, while it could be omitted in stage IB....

  10. Learning- and grade-orientation, sex, and prediction of self-reported academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stewart; Alexitch, Louise R

    2003-02-01

    148 undergraduate students completed the LOGO-II scale, a measure of educational orientation, i.e., learning-oriented and grade-oriented attitudes and behaviors, and were asked to report their current and expected grades, as well as their self-assessed academic skill. Generally, learning orientation was positively correlated with academic performance, but grade orientation was negatively correlated with performance. Learning orientation and grade orientation predicted academic performance for men but not women. Implications of these findings, including the possibility of encouraging students to assume a more learning-oriented approach to their education, are discussed.

  11. Gleason Grade Progression Is Uncommon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R.; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well-differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer 1982–2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982–1/1993), 19.9% stage ≥T3, to the latest (5/2000–12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ≥8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (p=0.04) suggests the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

  12. Automated prostate cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading of tissue microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ali; Kumar, Vinay P.; Pang, Ho-Yuen; Verbel, David; Kotsianti, Angeliki; Teverovskiy, Mikhail; Saidi, Olivier

    2005-04-01

    We present the results on the development of an automated system for prostate cancer diagnosis and Gleason grading. Images of representative areas of the original Hematoxylin-and-Eosin (H&E)-stained tissue retrieved from each patient, either from a tissue microarray (TMA) core or whole section, were captured and analyzed. The image sets consisted of 367 and 268 color images for the diagnosis and Gleason grading problems, respectively. In diagnosis, the goal is to classify a tissue image into tumor versus non-tumor classes. In Gleason grading, which characterizes tumor aggressiveness, the objective is to classify a tissue image as being from either a low- or high-grade tumor. Several feature sets were computed from the image. The feature sets considered were: (i) color channel histograms, (ii) fractal dimension features, (iii) fractal code features, (iv) wavelet features, and (v) color, shape and texture features computed using Aureon Biosciences' MAGIC system. The linear and quadratic Gaussian classifiers together with a greedy search feature selection algorithm were used. For cancer diagnosis, a classification accuracy of 94.5% was obtained on an independent test set. For Gleason grading, the achieved accuracy of classification into low- and high-grade classes of an independent test set was 77.6%.

  13. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ISSN 1684–5315 ©2012 Academic Journals ... Exposure to Pb above permissible limit (50 ppb in water) .... taken and analyzed for residual metal concentration determination. ..... loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity up to five cycles of reuse of.

  14. Grade Skipping in Gifted Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云婕

    2016-01-01

    Grade skipping has been heatedly discussed with the development of gifted education. Experts and scholars are trying to do ifnd out the better way to cultivate those gifted children, to develop their potential, and make full use of their talent. Although grade skipping has long history, there is no certain comment about whether it is beneiftial to the gifted children.

  15. Grade Inflation in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The topic of grade inflation, the awarding of too many "A's" and "B's", is frequently mentioned in the literature on higher education. Many educational philosophies have suggested ways to evaluate students fairly. Some professors have used the bell-shaped curve as a model, giving grades according to the normal distribution curve regardless of the…

  16. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  17. Temozolomide chemotherapy versus radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033) : a randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Brigitta G; Hegi, Monika E; van den Bent, Martin J; von Deimling, Andreas; Gorlia, Thierry; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Brandes, Alba A; Kantor, Guy; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Hassel, Mohamed Ben; Hartmann, Christian; Ryan, Gail; Capper, David; Kros, Johan M; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wick, Wolfgang; Enting, Roelien; Reni, Michele; Thiessen, Brian; Dhermain, Frederic; Bromberg, Jacoline E; Feuvret, Loic; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Chinot, Olivier; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M M; Rossiter, John P; Dif, Nicolas; Balana, Carmen; Bravo-Marques, Jose; Clement, Paul M; Marosi, Christine; Tzuk-Shina, Tzahala; Nordal, Robert A; Rees, Jeremy; Lacombe, Denis; Mason, Warren P; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) is highly variable, reflecting molecular heterogeneity of the disease. We compared two different, single-modality treatment strategies of standard radiotherapy versus primary temozolomide chemotherapy in patients with low-grade glioma, and asses

  18. Correlation of quantitative sensorimotor tractography with clinical grade of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow (India); Agarwal, Shruti; Rathore, Ram K.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Shah, Vipul [Bhargava Nursing Home, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery unit, Lucknow (India); Goyel, Puneet [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology, Lucknow (India); Paliwal, Vimal K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, Lucknow (India)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether tract-specific diffusion tensor imaging measures in somatosensory and motor pathways correlate with clinical grades as defined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in cerebral palsy (CP) children. Quantitative diffusion tensor tractography was performed on 39 patients with spastic quadriparesis (mean age = 8 years) and 14 age/sex-matched controls. All patients were graded on the basis of GMFCS scale into grade II (n = 12), grade IV (n = 22), and grade V (n = 5) CP and quantitative analysis reconstruction of somatosensory and motor tracts performed. Significant inverse correlation between clinical grade and fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in both right and left motor and sensory tracts. A significant direct correlation of mean diffusivity values from both motor and sensory tracts was also observed with clinical grades. Successive decrease in FA values was observed in all tracts except for left motor tracts moving from age/sex-matched controls to grade V through grades II and IV. We conclude that white matter tracts from both the somatosensory and the motor cortex play an important role in the pathophysiology of motor disability in patients with CP. (orig.)

  19. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade group (IV); and Gleason score 9–10 (prognostic grade group (V). PMID:23464824

  20. Expression of Progestrone Receptor and Proliferative Marker ki 67, in Various Grades of Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Shayanfar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are slow-growing neoplasms which recur locally, their morphologic grading is simple but do not always correlate with patient outcome. The aim of present study is to evaluate the status of progesterone receptor (PR and proliferation marker Ki67 in various grades of meningioma in a group of Iranian patients. 78 cases of meningioma were selected from the file of a hospital university. All archival H&E stained sections were reviewed and regraded according to WHO criteria. Immunohistochemical analysis for PR and Ki67 was performed on formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded samples. PR status considered positive if > 10% of tumor cell's nuclei were strongly immunoreactive, or if > 50% of nuclei were stained with medium intensity. The Ki67 labeling index (LI is defined as the percentage area with strongest immunostaining. PR were positive in 61/63(96.8% of grade I tumors,2/10(20% of grade II,and 0/5(0% of grade III tumors.Ki67 LI was %2.98±2.27 in grade I tumors, %9.30±5.79 in grade II tumors and %34.00±5.47 in grade III tumors. For both markers, differences between grade I,II and III tumors were significant(P<0.001.There was a reverse relationship between mean of Ki67 LI and PR status,with increasing grade of tumor. Evaluation of PR status and Ki67 LI together with conventional histologic evaluation can help in providing more information about the biologic behaviour of meningiomas,especially for those that histological grading is not straightforward.

  1. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  2. Inside ISIS II

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    ISIS stands for Identification of Secondaries by Ionization Sampling. It was a drift chamber with an active volume of about 40 m3 built by Oxford University as a particle identifier for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). The photo shows the electrostatic grading structure and the central anode-wire plane, with Roger Giles standing just under it (Annual Report 1981 p. 57, Fig. 4). ISIS-II differed from the prototype ISIS-I only in the depth of the track (4 m instead of 1 m) thus extending the momentum range for particle identification to 50 GeV/c. See Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 224 (1984) 396, and Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 258 (1987) 26.

  3. Measuring grade inflation and grade divergence accounting for student quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Matos-Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a rich longitudinal data-set of 13,202 full-time students belonging to 11 cohorts over 22 consecutive semesters (Fall 1995 to Spring 2006 to model the determinants of the grade inflation rates prevailing at the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón. The following new interesting findings are reported: (1 Estimated rates vary significantly among and within the academic programs, implying grade divergence, depending on the time reference used: cohort time dummies or semesters since admission to the institution. (2 The rates are significantly related to the proportions of female students, students who switch from their original academic programs, and students from private schools. (3 Results suggest that, under determinate circumstances, average- and low-quality students consider higher grades as normal goods; conversely, high-quality students consider higher grades as inferior goods.

  4. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  5. MRI assessment of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration with lumbar degenerative disease using the Pfirrmann grading systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Peng Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate by MRI intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with lumbar degenerative disease using the Pfirrmann grading system and to determine whether Modic changes correlated with the Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration. METHODS: The clinical data of 108 surgical patients with lumbar degenerative disease were reviewed and their preoperative MR images were analyzed. Disc degeneration was evaluated using the Pfirrmann grading system. Patients were followed up and low back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS and the effect of back pain on the daily quality of life was assessed using Oswestry disability index (ODI. RESULTS: Forty-four cases had normal anatomical appearance (Modic type 0 and their Pfirrmann grades were 3.77±0.480 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were of 5.81±1.006. Twenty-seven cases had Modic type I changes and their Pfirrmann grades were 4.79±0.557 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were 7.00±0.832. Thirty-six cases exhibited Modic type II changes and their Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades were 4.11±0.398 and 6.64±0.867, respectively. One case had Modic type III changes. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant difference in modified Pfirrmann grade among Modic type 0, I and II changes (P0.05. Binary regression analysis showed that Modic changes correlated most strongly with disc degeneration. Follow up studies indicated that the VAS and ODI scores were markedly improved postoperatively. However, no difference was noted in VAS and ODI scores among patients with different Modic types. CONCLUSION: Modic changes correlate with the Pfirrmann and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration in lumbar degenerative disease. There is no significant correlation between Modic types and surgical outcomes.

  6. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available G Simonetti, P Gaviani, A Botturi, A Innocenti, E Lamperti, A Silvani Neurooncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy Abstract: Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients' quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients. Keywords: anaplastic oligodendroglioma, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  7. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  8. Les astrocytomes de bas-grade: caractérisation moléculaire et implications cliniques / Low-grade astrocytomas: molecular characterization and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rorive, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    La malignité des astrocytomes est établie sur base de critères morphologiques définis au sein de la classification de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). Ce système de gradation, qui s’échelonne de I à IV, constitue actuellement l’outil pronostique le plus fiable. Par facilité, les cliniciens regroupent les astrocytomes de grade I (astrocytomes pilocytiques) et les astrocytomes diffus de grade II sous le terme d’« Astrocytomes de bas-grade » par opposition aux astrocytomes de haut-grad...

  9. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  10. Severity grading in radial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkki, S K

    2014-11-01

    A functional scoring method to grade the usefulness and quality of the upper limbs in congenital radial dysplasia is presented. It is based on the author's examinations of 44 arms with congenital deficiency of the radius. The hand (H), wrist (W) and proximal parts (P) of the extremity are each scored from 0 to 10 points for severity. The scoring is expressed similarly to the TNM (tumour, nodes, metastasis) tumour classification, for example as H5W4P2. The maximum severity index is 30 points. A severity grade of mild is between 1 and 8 points, moderate between 9 and 16 points and severe 17 points and over. In the author's series, the grades were mild in eight, moderate in 21 and severe in 15 cases. The functional severity grading should allow better comparison of radially deficient limbs and the results of treatment between groups of patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  12. Thermal rectification in graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Pereira, Emmanuel; Casati, Giulio

    2012-07-01

    In order to identify the basic conditions for thermal rectification we investigate a simple model with nonuniform, graded mass distribution. The existence of thermal rectification is theoretically predicted and numerically confirmed, suggesting that thermal rectification is a typical occurrence in graded systems, which are likely to be natural candidates for the actual fabrication of thermal diodes. In view of practical implications, the dependence of rectification on the asymmetry and system's size is studied.

  13. Discriminant Analysis on Land Grading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yaolin; HOU Yajuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the discriminant analysis on land grading after analyzing the common methods and discussing the Fisher's discriminant in detail. Actually this method deduces the dimension from multi to single, thus it makes the feature vectors in n-dimension change to a scalar, and use this scalar to classify samples. This paper illustrates the result by giving an example of the residential land grading by the discriminant analysis.

  14. Preferences With Grades of Indecisiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Minardi; Andrei Savochkin

    2013-01-01

    Departing from the traditional approach to modeling an agent who finds it difficult to make clear-cut comparisons between alternatives, we introduce the notion of graded preferences: Given two alternatives, the agent reports a number between 0 and 1, which reflects her inclination to prefer the first option over the second or, put differently, how confident she is about the superiority of the first one. In the classical framework of uncertainty, we derive a representation of a graded preferen...

  15. The WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 systems for malignancy grading of bladder cancer. Scientific foundation and translation to one another and previous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Christer; Algaba, Ferran

    2002-08-01

    Recently, two new classification systems for grading of urothelial neoplasms have been published. The objective of both was to avoid the overdiagnosis of cancer and to create better criteria for the grades. The WHO/ISUP classification of 1998 distinguishes papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), low and high grade carcinomas, whereas the WHO 1999 system subdivides the high grade into grades II and III, and is otherwise identical. This note summarizes studies supporting the rationale of the two new systems, describes pattern recognition criteria for the grades, and highlights the homology between them.

  16. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)…

  18. Health-related quality of life in stable, long-term survivors of low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Boele; L. Douw; J.C. Reijneveld; R. Robben; M.J.B. Taphoorn; N.K. Aaronson; J.J. Heimans; M. Klein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) often experience long periods of stable disease, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed the changes in HRQOL in long-term survivors of WHO grade I or II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or oligoa

  19. Health-related quality of life in stable, long-term survivors of low-grade glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, F.W.; Douw, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Robben, R.; Taphoorn, M.J.B.; Aaronson, N.K.; Heimans, J.J.; Klein, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) often experience long periods of stable disease, emphasizing the importance of maintaining good health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We assessed the changes in HRQOL in long-term survivors of WHO grade I or II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or

  20. Effects of Guided Inquiry versus Lecture Instruction on Final Grade Distribution in a One-Semester Organic and Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive guided-inquiry approach was used in a combined organic and biochemistry course for prenursing and predietetics students rather than lecture. To assess its effectiveness, exam grades and final course grades of students in three instructional techniques were compared. The three groups were the following: (i) lecture only, (ii)…

  1. The Simpson grading revisited: aggressive surgery and its place in modern meningioma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Simon, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent advances in radiotherapy and neuroimaging have called into question the traditional role of aggressive resections in patients with meningiomas. In the present study the authors reviewed their institutional experience with a policy based on maximal safe resections for meningiomas, and they analyzed the impact of the degree of resection on functional outcome and progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 901 consecutive patients with primary meningiomas (716 WHO Grade I, 174 Grade II, and 11 Grade III) who underwent resections at the University Hospital of Bonn between 1996 and 2008. Clinical and treatment parameters as well as tumor characteristics were analyzed using standard statistical methods. RESULTS The median follow-up was 62 months. PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.6% and 86.0%, respectively. Younger age, higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, and convexity tumor location, but not the degree of resection, were identified as independent predictors of a good functional outcome (defined as KPS Score 90-100). Independent predictors of PFS were degree of resection (Simpson Grade I vs II vs III vs IV), MIB-1 index (10%), histological grade (WHO I vs II vs III), tumor size (≤ 6 vs > 6 cm), tumor multiplicity, and location. A Simpson Grade II rather than Grade I resection more than doubled the risk of recurrence at 10 years in the overall series (18.8% vs 8.5%). The impact of aggressive resections was much stronger in higher grade meningiomas. CONCLUSIONS A policy of maximal safe resections for meningiomas prolongs PFS and is not associated with increased morbidity.

  2. Observer variation in histopathological diagnosis and grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, S. M.; Colclough, A. B.; Dinnen, J. S.; Eakins, D.; Evans, D M; Gradwell, E.; O'Sullivan, J. P.; Summerell, J M; Newcombe, R G

    1989-01-01

    To assess the variability among histopathologists in diagnosing and grading cervical intraepithelial neoplasia eight experienced histopathologists based at different hospitals examined the same set of 100 consecutive colposcopic cervical biopsy specimens and assigned them into one of six diagnostic categories. These were normal squamous epithelium, non-neoplastic squamous proliferations, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades I, II, and III, and other. The histopathologists were given curr...

  3. Comparison between Gram stain and culture for the characterization of vaginal microflora: Definition of a distinct grade that resembles grade I microflora and revised categorization of grade I microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Backer Ellen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually made using Nugent's criteria, a useful but rather laborious scoring system based on counting bacterial cell types on Gram stained slides of vaginal smears. Ison and Hay have simplified the score system to three categories and added a fourth category for microflora with a predominance of the Streptococcus cell type. Because in the Nugent system several cell types are not taken into account for a final score, we carried out a detailed assessment of the composition of the vaginal microflora in relation to standard Gram stain in order the improve the diagnostic value of the Gram stain. To this purpose we compared Gram stain based categorization of vaginal smears with i species specific PCR for the detection of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae and with ii tDNA-PCR for the identification of most cultivable species. Results A total of 515 samples were obtained from 197 pregnant women, of which 403 (78.3% were categorized as grade I microflora, 46 (8.9% as grade II, 22 (4.3% as grade III and 8 (1.6% as grade IV, according to the criteria of Ison and Hay. Another 36 samples (7.0% were assigned to the new category 'grade I-like', because of the presence of diphtheroid bacilli cell types. We found that 52.7% of the grade I-like samples contained Bifidobacterium spp. while L. crispatus was present in only 2.8% of the samples and G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were virtually absent; in addition, the species diversity of this category was similar to that of grade II specimens. Based on the presence of different Lactobacillus cell types, grade I specimens were further characterized as grade Ia (40.2%, grade Iab (14.9% and grade Ib (44.9%. We found that this classification was supported by the finding that L. crispatus was cultured from respectively 87.0% and 76.7% of grade Ia and Iab specimens while this species was present in only 13.3% of grade Ib specimens, a

  4. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  5. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Differences in the architecture of low-grade and high-grade gliomas evaluated using fiber density index and fractional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Shi, Yonghong; Song, Zhijian

    2010-07-01

    Accurate pre-operative assessment of tumor grade is important for the selection of appropriate treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether the fiber density index (FDi) and fractional anisotropy (FA) via diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) could assist with pre-operative diagnosis of glioma grade. A total of 31 patients who had histologically confirmed gliomas underwent DTI performed using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. To reconstruct the white matter adjacent to the tumor, DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) using an FA threshold of 0.15 was implemented. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined (i-iv) as: the tumor center (ROI i); white matter adjacent to the tumor (ROI ii); contralateral centrum semiovale (ROI iii); and the homologous fiber tracts to ROI ii in the contralateral hemisphere (ROI iv). We calculated six parameters from different ROIs and compared high-grade and low-grade gliomas: FA values and ratios; FDi values and ratios with an FA threshold of 0.15; and FDi values and ratios with an FA threshold of 0.25. The results showed that FA ratios and FDi ratios with FA thresholds of 0.25 were significantly different between patients with high-grade and low-grade gliomas. This may be useful for developing surgical strategies and appraising patient prognosis.

  7. Felipe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Restrepo Canal

    1962-04-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la monumental Historia de España que bajo la prestante y acertadísima dirección de don Ramón Menéndez Pidal se comenzó a dar a la prensa desde 1954 por la Editorial Espasa Calpe S. A., aparecieron en 1958 dos tomos dedicados al reinado de Felipe II; aquella época en que el imperio español alcanzó su unidad peninsular juntamente con el dilatado poderío que le constituyó en la primera potencia de Europa.

  8. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  9. 42 CFR 21.29 - Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade... PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.29 Eligibility; grades above senior assistant grade. Every candidate for examination for appointment in grades above that of senior assistant shall meet the...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test weight...

  11. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  12. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  13. The Ninth-Grade Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, high schools have found that their ninth-grade students have the highest rates of truancy, discipline referrals, failures, and retentions. A school's worst data points are usually found among freshmen. For this reason, proactive schools seek strategies for transitioning freshmen into high school. An effective freshman…

  14. Contract grading in clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolcraft, V; Delaney, C

    1982-01-01

    The use of contracts in grading clinical performance has provided faculty with a solution to two important problems. One has been how to ensure that students are graded consistently among the various faculty who are grading the same clinical component of a course. The second has been to increase the opportunity for individualized attention to student learning needs. We have been pleased to see all the faculty members increase their input and involvement in the continuing modifications of the contract. Although we have taken the major responsibility for the semi-annual revisions of the contract, other faculty members have been increasingly more explicit in their evaluations and suggestions as their experience with the contract has expanded. Their confidence in this method of clinical evaluation has increased with each semester of use. We plan to continue in the refinement of the instrument and will develop materials for the use of other faculty groups who are interested in developing similar contracts. We are also designing a survey to attempt to discover how widespread is the use of contract grading in clinical areas.

  15. Seals. Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Explanations of a marine mammal rescue program and information on seals and sea lions are presented in this curriculum package for intermediate grade teachers. Activities are highlighted which focus on the natural history of harbor seals. This unit contains: (1) pre-trip activities (including fact sheets and worksheets on the different types of…

  16. Predicting Grades in Basic Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elise

    1994-01-01

    Data from (n=470) students at Owens Technical College in Fall 1991 showed that high school GPA was the best predictor of grades in Basic Algebra, followed by high school rank, college GPA, ACT natural sciences, ASSET numerical skills, and ASSET elementary algebra scores. (11 references) (SW)

  17. The Reliability of College Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  18. Grading Policy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ralph R.; Sawyer, Chris R.; King, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on poor grades, one of the primary reasons students drop out of school. Recommends that borderline students be earmarked for special treatment rather than be held to rigorous academic standards or passed when they are actually failing. Suggests that operational procedures for the implementation of special treatment be pedagogically…

  19. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  20. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Functionally Graded Material (FGM) belongs to a class of advanced material characterized by variation in properties as the dimension varies. The overall properties of FMG are unique and different from any of the individual material that forms it...

  1. Graded contractions of Virasoro algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyakov, I V; Kuratov, V V

    2001-01-01

    We describe graded contractions of Virasoro algebra. The highest weight representations of Virasoro algebra are constructed. The reducibility of representations is analysed. In contrast to standart representations the contracted ones are reducible except some special cases. Moreover we find an exotic module with null-plane on fifth level.

  2. Assessing clinical outcomes of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis in addition to the Tokyo grading: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute cholecystitis is still based on clinical expertise. This study aims to investigate whether the outcome of acute cholecystitis can be related to the severity criteria of the Tokyo guidelines and additional clinical comorbidities. A total of 103 patients with acute cholecystitis were retrospectively enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. They were all classified according to therapeutic modality, including early cholecystectomy and antibiotic treatment with or without percutaneous cholecystostomy. The impact of the Tokyo guidelines and the presence of comorbidities on clinical outcome were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. According to Tokyo severity grading, 48 patients were Grade I, 31 patients were Grade II, and 24 patients were Grade III. The Grade III patients had a longer hospital stay than Grade II and Grade I patients (15.2 days, 9.2 days, and 7.3 days, respectively, p < 0.05. According to multivariate analysis, patients with Grade III Tokyo severity, higher Charlson’s Comorbidity Score, and encountering complications had a longer hospital stay. Based on treatment modality, surgeons selected the patients with less severity and fewer comorbidities for cholecystectomy, and these patients had a shorter hospital stay. In addition to the grading of the Tokyo guidelines, comorbidities had an additional impact on clinical outcomes and should be an important consideration when making therapeutic decisions.

  3. The effect of solvent grade on thin layer chromatographic analysis of writing inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Julia; Ramotowski, Robert; Nwokoye, Jennie

    2016-09-01

    The effects on the separation of writing ink dyes and the repeatability of the Rf values from using different grades of chemicals used in solvent system I (SSI) and solvent system II (SSII) for thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) ink analysis were studied. Solvent system I consists of a 70:35:30 mixture of ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water. Solvent system II consists of a 50:10:15 mixture of ethanol, water, and n-butanol. Since 1991, the ASTM International Guideline E 1422 has recommended that the purity of solvents should be "reagent grade" and that water quality should be "distilled or equivalent." A total of 25 blue and 25 black inks were selected for analysis. Thirteen of each color ink were ballpoint and the remainder were non-ballpoint. The observations show that there is a solvent grade effect on both the separation and clarity of the ink dyes and the repeatability of their Rf values. These results indicate that the grades and manufacturers of solvents used in solvent systems for thin-layer chromatography must be consistent. This is especially critical for searching TLC plates against those from a large ink library in casework. Overall, the combination of solvents that produced the best results for solvent system I consisted of denatured ethanol, HPLC grade water, and ACS grade ethyl acetate. There was no consensus for the best combination of solvent grades for solvent system II; however, it was shown that different grades did have an effect on the separation of ink components. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Steroid treatment of acute graft versus host disease grade I: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Crupi, Alessandra; Severino, Alessandro; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Selleri, Carmine; Sormani, Maria Pia; Signori, Alessio; Risitano, Antonio; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2017-09-29

    Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) grade I, were randomized, to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86), consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day , after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II-IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of GvHD grade II-IV, was 50% in the observation and 33% in the treatment arm (p=0.005). However, grade III-IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs 10% respectively; p=0.6), and this was true for sibling and alternative donor transplants. Moderate/severe chronic GvHD was also comparable (17% vs 19%). In multivariate analysis, an early interval between transplant and randomization (< day +20) , was the only negative predictor of GvHD grade III-IV .Patients in the observation arm had less infectious bacterial episodes (12 vs 25, p=0.04), less severe infectious fungal episodes (0 vs 3; p=0.04), and less severe adverse events (3 vs 11 p=0.07). At 5 years, non relapse mortality was 20% (observation) vs 26% (treatment) (p=0.2), relapse related death 25% vs 21%, and actuarial survival was 51% vs 41% respectively (p=0.3). In multivariate analysis, advanced disease phase, older age and an early onset of GvHD, were significant negative predictors of survival, independent of the randomization arm. In conclusion, steroids treatment of acute GvHD grade I prevents progression to grade II but not to grade III-IV GvHD, and there is no effect on non relapse mortality and survival; patients treated with steroids, are at a higher risk of develping infections and have more adverse events. (This trial is registered as EUDTRACT 2008-000413-29). Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. SVM-based glioma grading: Optimization by feature reduction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Frank G; Emblem, Kyrre E; Schad, Lothar R

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the predictive power of feature reduction analysis approaches in support vector machine (SVM)-based classification of glioma grade. In 101 untreated glioma patients, three analytic approaches were evaluated to derive an optimal reduction in features; (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), (ii) principal component analysis (PCA) and (iii) independent component analysis (ICA). Tumor grading was performed using a previously reported SVM approach including whole-tumor cerebral blood volume (CBV) histograms and patient age. Best classification accuracy was found using PCA at 85% (sensitivity=89%, specificity=84%) when reducing the feature vector from 101 (100-bins rCBV histogram+age) to 3 principal components. In comparison, classification accuracy by PCC was 82% (89%, 77%, 2 dimensions) and 79% by ICA (87%, 75%, 9 dimensions). For improved speed (up to 30%) and simplicity, feature reduction by all three methods provided similar classification accuracy to literature values (∼87%) while reducing the number of features by up to 98%.

  6. Expression of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 at low grade and high grade serous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhu; Lin-Sheng He; Zhen-Dong Zhang; Qing-Shui Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in differential diagnosis of patients with low-grade serous (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) serous ovarian cancer. Methods: LGSC and HGSC serous ovarian cancer were diagnosed by the two-tier grade system, serum levels of HE4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) were measured by ELISA and radioisotope method, respectively in 60 serous ovarian cancer patients. HE4 and TP53 protein in cancer tissue were measured by immunohistochemical method. Results: The difference in density of HE4 and TP53 protein was significant between LGSC and HGSC tissue, while serum CA125 did not show significant difference between different serum samples. There was significant difference in serum HE4 levels between LGSC and HGSC, and the result was different within FIGO (I+II) stage, suggesting HE4 was not a reliable biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC. HE4 had potential as a biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC but the role in early diagnosis was limited. Conclusions: HE4 may be a reliable marker for differential diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC. But its role in early diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC need to be confirmed from the perspective of two-tier grade system.

  7. BRAF Mutation Is Rare in Advanced-Stage Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Mok, Samuel C.; Zu, Zhifei; Sun, Charlotte; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are believed to arise via an adenoma-serous borderline tumor-serous carcinoma sequence. In this study, we found that advanced-stage, low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas both with and without adjacent serous borderline tumor shared similar regions of loss of heterozygosity. We then analyzed 91 ovarian tumor samples for mutations in TP53, BRAF, and KRAS. TP53 mutations were not detected in any serous borderline tumors (n = 30) or low-grade serous carcinomas (n = 43) but were found in 73% of high-grade serous carcinomas (n = 18). BRAF (n = 9) or KRAS (n = 5) mutation was detected in 47% of serous borderline tumors, but among the low-grade serous carcinomas (39 stage III, 2 stage II, and 2 stage I), only one (2%) had a BRAF mutation and eight (19%) had a KRAS mutation. The low frequency of BRAF mutations in advanced-stage, low-grade serous carcinomas, which contrasts with previous findings, suggests that aggressive, low-grade serous carcinomas are more likely derived from serous borderline tumors without BRAF mutation. In addition, advanced-stage, low-grade carcinoma patients with BRAF or KRAS mutation have a better apparent clinical outcome. However, further investigation is needed. PMID:20802181

  8. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  9. Generalized Green Correspondence of Graded Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah El-Din; S.HUSSEIN

    2009-01-01

    The author studies the Green correspondence and quasi-Green correspondence for indecomposable modules over strongly graded rings.The motivation is to investigate the influence of induction and restriction processes on indecomposability of graded modules.

  10. Academic Interest Rates and Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, James F.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the causes and effects of the devaluation of honors grades over the past fifteen years noting particularly effects on transcripts and grades as a means of exchange and suggesting faculty responsibility for restoration of academic standards. (JT)

  11. Suggestions for Responding to the Dilemma of Grading Students' Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca S.; Speck, Bruce W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the four-week summer Memphis (Tennessee) Urban Writing Institute, during which a furor erupted over the dilemma of grading. Provide a number of approaches to grading students' writing, including minimalist grading, cassette grading, collaborative grading, and portfolio grading. Suggests that teachers consider the grading dilemma and…

  12. Differential Calculus on N-Graded Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Sardanashvily, G.; W. Wachowski

    2017-01-01

    The differential calculus, including formalism of linear differential operators and the Chevalley–Eilenberg differential calculus, over N-graded commutative rings and on N-graded manifolds is developed. This is a straightforward generalization of the conventional differential calculus over commutative rings and also is the case of the differential calculus over Grassmann algebras and on Z2-graded manifolds. We follow the notion of an N-graded manifold as a local-ringed space whose body is a s...

  13. [The contribution of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the classification of high grade gliomas. The predictive value of macromolecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Celda-Muñoz, B; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Ferrer-Ripollés, P; Revert-Ventura, A J; Piquer-Belloch, J; Mollá-Olmos, E; Arana-Fernández de Moya, E; Dosdá-Muñoz, R

    1H MRS allows the study of metabolite concentration changes in intracranial tumours, relating them, more or less successfully, to the histological type and grade of the tumour. To analyse the patterns which are useful for classifying the grades of cerebral gliomas by means of various ratios obtained using 1H MRS with two echo times (ET), with and without water suppression, paying special attention to the macromolecules. We studied 8 gliomas (1 grade II, 2 grade III and 5 grade IV) with single volume 1H MRS at ET 31 ms (8/8) and 136 ms (7/8). The intensities of the metabolites, including macromolecules (MMA, 0.9 ppm; MMB, 1.3 ppm), were normalised to water signal intensity for ET 31, to Cr at ET 31 and 136 ms and NAA/Cho for both ET and the ratio MMA/MMB at ET 31. There were significant differences between the three grades on the ratios MMA/MMB (p= 0.000) with descent of the MMA/MMB coefficient as the grade increases, and NNA/Cho at ET 136 (p= 0.018). We found an inverse relationship between the quantity in mI and the increase in grade. No macromolecules were found at ET 136 in any of the tumours of grade II or III. The spectra of gliomas with ET 31 showed macromolecules around 0.9 and 1.3 ppm with different relative ratios for each tumour grade. The ET 136 spectra informs about the content of NNA and Cho. Apart from the increase in MMB (0.9 ppm), with short ET the higher grades showed lower content of mI. The study of gliomas using 1H MRS with ET 31 and 136 ms contributes to the diagnosis of the grade of tumour.

  14. Differential Calculus on N-Graded Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sardanashvily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential calculus, including formalism of linear differential operators and the Chevalley–Eilenberg differential calculus, over N-graded commutative rings and on N-graded manifolds is developed. This is a straightforward generalization of the conventional differential calculus over commutative rings and also is the case of the differential calculus over Grassmann algebras and on Z2-graded manifolds. We follow the notion of an N-graded manifold as a local-ringed space whose body is a smooth manifold Z. A key point is that the graded derivation module of the structure ring of graded functions on an N-graded manifold is the structure ring of global sections of a certain smooth vector bundle over its body Z. Accordingly, the Chevalley–Eilenberg differential calculus on an N-graded manifold provides it with the de Rham complex of graded differential forms. This fact enables us to extend the differential calculus on N-graded manifolds to formalism of nonlinear differential operators, by analogy with that on smooth manifolds, in terms of graded jet manifolds of N-graded bundles.

  15. Current treatment of low grade gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Bent (Martin); T.A.B. Snijders (Tom); J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLow grade gliomas affect predominantly young adults, and have a relatively favorable prognosis compared to grade III and grade IV gliomas. The challenge for an optimal management of these patients is to find the balance between an optimal survival and the preservation of neurological fun

  16. Fair & Accurate Grading for Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many changes in education over the past century, grading and reporting practices have essentially remained the same. In part, this is because few teacher preparation programs offer any guidance on sound grading practices. As a result, most current grading practices are grounded in tradition, rather than research on best practice. In an…

  17. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  18. Science for Grades 6-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 6-9. SUBJECT MATTER: General science, life science, earth science, and physical science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into separate sections for each grade. Each section is further subdivided into units. The major portion of each unit is laid out in four columns; column headings are concepts,…

  19. Elementary Mathematics, Grades 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Elementary math. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Introductory material focuses on the philosophy and objectives of instructional material. The guide is divided into six units covering grades 1-6. Each unit presents the general goals, materials needed, minimum program, skills to be developed,…

  20. Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

  1. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. 51.1575 Section 51.1575 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1576 - U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade B Large. 51.1576 Section 51.1576 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Potatoes Grades § 51.1576 U.S. Grade B Small; U.S. Grade B Medium; U.S. Grade B Medium to Large; U.S. Grade...

  3. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural... Pineapple Juice are corrected to include text inadvertently omitted from Tables I and II. The corrections... of Pineapple Juice are located on the Internet at: http://www.regulations.go v or http://www.ams.usda...

  4. The Relationship between Grades Earned in Introductory Nursing Courses and Several Predictor Variables: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Anthony E.

    A study was conducted at Morton College (Illinois) to gain a better understanding of the factors which contribute to academic success in introductory nursing courses, and to investigate the relationship between the following variables: student grades in Fundamentals of Nursing I and II, Anatomy and Physiology I, and Rhetoric I; and their scores on…

  5. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  6. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  7. The Effects of a Classroom Management Teacher Training Primary Prevention Program on Fifth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Effective Classroom Management II-Elementary (ECM), an in-service teacher training course, was evaluated. Grade 5 teachers were taught techniques in communication, classroom management, and self-esteem enhancement. The goals were to make classroom environments more responsive to students' affective and cognitive needs, thereby fostering positive…

  8. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  9. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  10. Correlation of CD24 expression with histological grading and TNM staging of retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Syed Muhammad; Kehar, Shahnaz Imdad; Zafar, Shahid; Hasan, Syed Furqan Ul

    2016-01-01

    Correlation of CD24 expression with histological grading and TNM staging of retinoblastoma. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, BMSI, JPMC and NICH from 1(st) January 2009 to 31(st) December 2013. A total 68 diagnosed cases of retinoblastoma were selected for CD24 immuno staining. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Out of 68 cases 7.35% showed grade 1 followed by 11.76% in G2, 26.47% in G3 and 54.41% in G4. Majority of cases i.e. 60.29% in stage IV followed by 19.11% in stage I, 10.29% each in stage II and stage III. CD24 immuno staining positivity was seen in majority of grade 3 and grade 4. In grade 3, 38.88% showed moderate and 22.22% strong immuno reaction. Amongst grade 4, 40.54% showed moderate and 13.51% strong positive. Variable immuno pattern was observed according to TNM staging. In stage I, 46.15% showed moderate and 7.69% strong positivity, while in stage II, 57.14% were negative for saining. In stage III, 42.85% were negative while 28.57% each showed moderate and strong staining. Majority of cases in stage IV i.e. 48.78% were negative for staining while 34.14%, 17.07% showed moderate and severe CD24 immuno staining. Majority of grade I retinoblastoma were in TNM stage I & II and mostly were immuno negative. Lymph node and distant metastatic cases were 75% in G4 and 25% in G3, all of them showed moderate to strong immunoreactivity. These results showed that CD24 expression may be a marker of poor prognosis in retinoblastoma. Whereas TNM staging of retinoblastomas with CD24 expression had varying pattern and showed no significant correlation between them.

  11. Is there a need for surgical staging of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas grade 1 and 2?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochumsen, K.; Christiansen, K.; Schledermann, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Our institution has followed the Danish Guidelines for treatment of uterine carcinomas including staging lymphadenectomy in the pelvis for endometrioid adenocarcinomas (EA) grade 1 and 2 with deep myometrial invasion (>50%) or cervical involvement. We wanted to find out how...... often staging lymphadenectomy resulted in upstaging and further therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of records for all patients with endometrial cancer at Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark from Jan. 1st 2004 to Dec. 31st 2013. The focus was on EA grade 1 and 2. Patients...... IIIC. In 32/39% lymphadenectomy was omitted due to old age and/or comorbidity. In grade 1, stage IIIC, 6 of the 8 patients had cervical involvement (+/- deep myometrial invasion) and only 2 had deep invasion without cervical involvement. For grade 2 the numbers are: total 246, 53 stage IB, 33 stage II...

  12. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  13. Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust

  14. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  15. Proteoglycan depletion and size reduction in lesions of early grade chondromalacia of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Häkkinen, T; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Inkinen, R; Tammi, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the content and molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in patellar chondromalacia (CM) and control cartilages as a first step in investigating the role of matrix alterations in the pathogenesis of this disease. METHODS--Chondromalacia tissue from 10 patients was removed with a surgical knife. Using identical techniques, apparently healthy cartilage of the same site was obtained from 10 age matched cadavers (mean age 31 years in both groups). Additional pathological cartilage was collected from 67 patients with grades II-IV CM (classified according to Outerbridge) using a motorised shaver under arthroscopic control. The shaved cartilage chips were collected with a dense net from the irrigation fluid of the shaver. The content of tissue PGs was determined by Safranin O precipitation or uronic acid content, and the molecular size by mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--The mean PG content of the CM tissue samples with a knife was dramatically reduced, being only 15% of that in controls. The cartilage chips collected from shaving operations of grades II, III, and IV CM showed a decreasing PG content: 9%, 5%, and 1% of controls, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of PGs extracted with guanidium chloride from the shaved tissue samples suggested a significantly reduced size of aggrecans in the mild (grade II) lesions. CONCLUSION--These data show that there is already a dramatic and progressive depletion of PGs in CM grade II lesions. This explains the softening of cartilage, a typical finding in the arthroscopic examination of CM. The PG size reduction observed in grade II implicates proteolytic attack as a factor in the pathogenesis of CM. Images PMID:7492223

  16. Prognostic utility of Hyams histological grading and Kadish-Morita staging systems for esthesioneuroblastoma outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana; Saade, Rami; Roberts, Dianna; Ow, Thomas J; Kupferman, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2015-03-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is derived from the specialized olfactory neuroepithelium. Hyams grading and Kadish staging have been used to prognosticate and to guide treatment decisions. In this study, we sought to validate the prognostic utility of these systems in a large ENB cohort. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with ENB who had been evaluated and treated at our institution. The association of grade and stage with prognostic outcome was assessed; the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to generate 5-year OS and DFS curves. Out of 124 cases we identified, 121 were assessed for grading and 109 for staging. Review of the tissue samples revealed that 62 % of tumors were low grade (I/II) and 21 % were high grade (III/IV); 17 % of tumors were metastasis. The OS rate was 75 % at 5 years. The DFS was 60 % at 5 years. The OS was significantly worse for metastatic ENB (low-grade ENB vs metastatic ENB p = 0.01598); the DFS was significantly worse for high grade versus low grade ENB. Of the 109 cases that had been staged, 16 % were stage A, 33 % stage B, 43 % stage C, and 8 % stage D. In the A, B, and C groups, there were no significant differences between recurrence, distant metastasis, or 5-year survival rates. Statistical significance was not reached with the T, N, M and overall staging system. Age cutoff of 65 years reliably predicted OS. High grade of ENB was significantly associated with poor outcome, while advanced stage was not associated with poor outcome in this large cohort. Grading should certainly be considered in prognostication and treatment decisions for ENB.

  17. Effect of High-Grade Disease on Outcomes of Surgically Treated Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Ramzi; Bordeianou, Liliana G; Berger, David L

    2016-04-01

    Tumor grade is one of the cardinal pathological characteristics of colon cancer. Despite a large body of evidence on disease grade in general, the exact impact of high-grade disease in the context of the simplified high/low-grade dichotomy that is based on glandular formation rate has yet to be quantified. Patients with sporadic colon cancer treated surgically at our center (2004-2011) were included in an institutional review board-approved database. We measured the rates of distant and nodal disease spread in baseline pathology and the multivariable hazard radio (mHR) of recurrence and overall- and disease-specific mortality. Among 922 patients with specified tumor grade in baseline surgical pathology, 175 (19.0 %) had high-grade disease. These patients were at far higher risk of lymph node metastasis (63.8 vs. 39.6 %; P mHR = 1.83; P = 0.026), overall mortality (57.7 vs. 33.3 %; mHR = 1.65; P mHR = 1.57; P = 0.004). Most significantly, in stage II patients (n = 294), those with high-grade disease (16.0 %) had an mHR of 2.84 (P < 0.001) for mortality. High-grade disease on baseline surgical pathology is associated with a considerably higher rate of nodal and distant metastasis in colon cancer. As a result, the colon cancer-related mortality doubles for patients with high-grade disease. These findings were independent of baseline staging and confirm that the high-/low-grade tumor dichotomy is an important prognostic factor greatly influencing colon cancer outcomes across stages.

  18. Association of Cross Linked C-Telopeptide II Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid with Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butar Butar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to investigate the association of Cross Linked C-Telopeptide Type I & II Collagen (CTX-I and II and hyaluronic acid (HA with knee osteoarthritis (OA severity. METHODS: Sixty menopause women with primary knee OA were enrolled in this study during their visits to the Outpatient Department. Patients with knee pain during weight bearing, active or passive range of motion, or tenderness with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL grade of more than I were included. Patients with injury, inflammatory and metabolic diseases were excluded. Patients were put in a 10-hour fasting prior to withdrawal of morning blood samples for examinations of HA, CTX-I, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP level. Second void morning urine specimens were taken for CTXII assessment. HA, CTX-I and II levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Sixty menopausal female patients were included in this study, 35 with KL grade II, 17 grade III, and 8 grade IV. Means of CTX-II were significantly different between subjects KL grade IV and III (p=0.021. Correlation of KL grade was significant with CTX-II (p=0.001, r=0.412 and HA (p=0.0411, r=0.269. KL grades were not significantly associated with CTX-I (p=0.8364, r=-0.0272; IL-1β (p=0.5773, r=0.0853 and hs-CRP (p=0.2625, r=0.1470. CONCLUSIONS: CTX-II and HA were associated with severity of knee OA, suggesting that CTX-II and HA can be used as marker for knee OA severity. KEYWORDS: CTX-II, hyaluronic acid, otestoarthritis, knee.

  19. A 31-year-old woman with a transformed low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Peter C

    2010-03-10

    Low-grade gliomas in adults have an incidence of 0.8 to 1.2 per 100,000, and their causes are unknown. Despite their histological classification as low-grade, they cannot be cured by any current treatment mode, and no class I evidence exists to guide initial treatment of these tumors. Median survival ranges between 7.5 years and 10 years, with a 5-year survival probability between 55% and 86%. The prognosis depends on age, World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade, Karnofsky performance score, cytological type (oligodendroglioma vs astrocytoma), and, potentially, the extent of resection. Oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q have a distinctly more favorable prognosis and therapeutic response rate. Low-grade tumors progress to high-grade gliomas with aggressive biological behavior at increasing frequency with advancing age. Ms P is a young woman with a previously treated oligodendroglioma, WHO grade II, with loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1p and 19q, which at a third resection had transformed into an oligodendroglioma of WHO grade III. She wants to know her current and future therapeutic options.

  20. Risk factors for recurrence and prognosis of low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma; vaginal versus other sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschiano, Elizabeth J; Barbuto, Denise A; Walsh, Christine; Singh, Kanwaljit; Euscher, Elizabeth D; Roma, Andres A; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Montiel, Delia P; Kim, Insun; Djordjevic, Bojana; Malpica, Anais; Hong, Sung Ran; Silva, Elvio G

    2014-05-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common gynecologic cancer in the United States. The prognosis is generally favorable, however, a significant number of patients do develop local or distant recurrence. The most common site of recurrence is vaginal. Our aim was to better characterize patients with vaginal recurrence of low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma with respect to associated tumor parameters and clinical outcome. We compiled 255 cases of low-grade (FIGO Grade I or II) endometrioid adenocarcinoma on hysterectomy specimens with lymph node dissection. A total of 113 cases with positive lymph nodes or recurrent disease were included in our study group. Seventy-three cases (13 Grade 1, 60 Grade 2) developed extravaginal recurrence and 40 cases (7 Grade 1, 33 Grade 2) developed vaginal recurrence. We evaluated numerous tumor parameters including: percentage myoinvasion, presence of microcystic, elongated, and fragmented pattern of myoinvasion, lymphovascular space invasion, and cervical involvement. Clinical follow-up showed that 30% (34/113) of all patients with recurrent disease died as a result of their disease during our follow-up period, including 31 (42.5%) with extravaginal recurrence and 3 (7.5%) with primary vaginal recurrence (P=0.001). The 3 patients with vaginal recurrence developed subsequent extravaginal recurrence before death. Vaginal recurrence patients show increased cervical involvement by tumor, but lack other risk factors associated with recurrent disease at other sites. There were no deaths among patients with isolated vaginal recurrence, suggesting that vaginal recurrence is not a marker of aggressive tumor biology.

  1. Graded bandgap perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Onur; Gilbert, S. Matt; Pham, Thang; Turner, Sally J.; Tan, Mark Tian Zhi; Worsley, Marcus A.; Zettl, Alex

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional solar cell building blocks. Their high light absorption coefficients and long diffusion lengths suggest high power conversion efficiencies, and indeed perovskite-based single bandgap and tandem solar cell designs have yielded impressive performances. One approach to further enhance solar spectrum utilization is the graded bandgap, but this has not been previously achieved for perovskites. In this study, we demonstrate graded bandgap perovskite solar cells with steady-state conversion efficiencies averaging 18.4%, with a best of 21.7%, all without reflective coatings. An analysis of the experimental data yields high fill factors of ~75% and high short-circuit current densities up to 42.1 mA cm-2. The cells are based on an architecture of two perovskite layers (CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx), incorporating GaN, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride, and graphene aerogel.

  2. A novel graded density impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  3. Does Relative Grading help Male Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph

    The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most...... for male students than absolute grading. In the full sample, we find weak support for our hypothesis. Among the more motivated students we find evidence that men indeed score significantly higher on the test when graded on a curve. Female students, irrespective of their motivation, do not increase...... their scores under relative grading. Since women slightly outperform men under absolute grading, grading on a curve actually narrows the gender gap in performance....

  4. Commentary: grading: what is it good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Hemmer, Paul A

    2012-08-01

    Grading students is a necessary but challenging activity. In this commentary, the authors respond to the compelling national data about clerkship grading in U.S. medical schools presented by Alexander and colleagues. They present perspectives and cautions for how the medical education community might perceive these findings and examine how the community can act to address them. The authors discuss several aspects of normative versus criterion-based grading, reliability, and educational theory to provide context for the results reported by Alexander and colleagues. To address variability among and within schools with regard to grading systems and terminology, the authors argue for more credible and transparent interpretation of what grades mean rather than inflexible regulation of grade distributions.

  5. The relationship of serum erythropoietin level with coronary collateral grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinarslan, Asife; Yalcin, Ridvan; Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Ercin, Ugur; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Topal, Salih; Bukan, Neslihan; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin has been shown to induce neovascularization and protect against ischemic vascular injury. We investigated whether a higher serum erythropoietin (EPO) level is related to better coronary collateral vessel grade. Ninety-nine patients with stable angina pectoris who have at least 1 coronary stenosis of equal to or greater than 70% at coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. Serum EPO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were studied. Coronary collateral degree was graded according to the Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral degree were included in the good collateral group and formed Group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral degree were included in the poor collateral group and formed Group II. The serum EPO level was significantly higher in the good collateral group (17.3 ± 9.3 mU/mL vs 11.7 ± 5.0 mU/mL; P < 0.001). There was also a positive correlation between serum EPO level and Rentrop score (r = 0.39; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, serum EPO level (odds ratio [OR] 1.336; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.120-1.593; P = 0.001), oxygen saturation (OR 0.638; 95% CI, 0.422-0.963; P = 0.033) and presence of chronic total occlusion (CTO) (OR 26.7; 95% CI, 3.874-184.6; P = 0.001) were independently related to well-developed coronary collaterals. Higher serum EPO level is related to better coronary collateral development. Erythropoietin may have a positive effect on the development of collaterals and may provide a new agent for the treatment strategies to enhance coronary collateral vessel development. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  7. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments...... or control group risk) was often missing. For judgments about downgrading the quality of evidence, the percentage of informative explanations ranged between 41% (imprecision) and 79% (indirectness). CONCLUSION: We found that by and large explanations were informative but detected several areas...

  8. Good Gradings of Generalized Incidence Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry is based on both the construction of generalized incidence rings due to Gene Abrams and the construction of good group gradings of incidence algebras due to Molli Jones. We provide conditions for a generalized incidence ring to be graded isomorphic to a subring of an incidence ring over a preorder. We also extend Jones's construction to good group gradings for incidence algebras over preorders with crosscuts of length one or two.

  9. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Filetti; Mary Wright; King, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department...

  10. Characterization of graded polyurethane elastomer by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polyurethane elastomers with graded structure were prepared in the graded temperature field. The samples were characterized by FTIR technology. The results show that the degree of microphase separation in the samples decreases with the decrease of the curing temperature. As far as the molar ratio of NH2 and NCO is concerned, the sample exhibits better graded morphology when the ratio is 0.95. The transparence of the samples prepared also changes gradually, increasing along the direction, in which temperature decreases.

  11. Characterization of graded polyurethane elastomer by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polyurethane elastomers with graded structure were prepared in the graded temperature field. The samples were characterized by FTIR technology. The results show that degree of microphase separation in the samples decreases with the decrease of the curing temperature. As far as the molar ratio of NH2 and NCO is concerned, the sample exhibits better graded morphology when the ratio is 0.95. The transparence of the samples prepared also change gradually, increasing along the direction, in which temperature decrease.

  12. GRADE: a graphical programming environment for multicomputers

    OpenAIRE

    Kacsuk, P; G. Dózsa; T. Fadfyas; R. Lovas

    2012-01-01

    To provide high-level graphical support for developing message passing programs, an integrated programming environment (GRADE) is being developed. GRADE currently provides tools to construct, execute, debug, monitor and visualize message passing based parallel programs. GRADE offers the programmer an integrated graphical user interface during the whole life-cycle of program development and provides high-level graphical programming abstraction mechanisms to construct parallel applications. The...

  13. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  14. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies).

  15. Relationship between radiological grading and clinical status in knee osteoarthritis. a multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Vaquero Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy exists regarding the relationship between radiographic findings and clinical status in knee osteoarthritis. Although the surgical indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA should be based on pain, clinical status, and the deterioration of quality of life, the radiographic study is the most commonly used criterion for preoperative evaluation. The objective of this study is to find out the relationship between the Ahlbäck classification and clinical status in patients undergoing TKA. Methods 1329 protocols were collected from preoperative studies in four multicentric working groups (the Interax, Duracon, Scorpio, and Triathlon Spanish groups in 30 Spanish hospitals. Mean age was 70.4 years (SD: 6.8; range: 35 to 98; 76.3% of patients were women. Patients entered the study whenever the surgeon found that medical treatment was insufficient to control pain and functional limitation. Data were collected using electronic Case Report Forms, and included Ahlbäck grading scores, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score (HSS, SF-12, and other clinical and epidemiologic variables. Results According to the Ahlbäck grading system, patients were divided as follows: 243 grade I (18.3%, 358 grade II (26.9%, 416 grade III (31.3%, 241 grade IV (18.1%, and 71 grade V (5.3%. As for HSS, the following scores were obtained: Conclusions We found a relationship between Ahlbäck grading and the preoperative clinical score. The range of variability of the HSS score between the different Ahlbäck grades is small.

  16. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤ 52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12-4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72-2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59-2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.

  17. Improving Student's Lab Practices: the Performance Grade

    CERN Document Server

    Lippi, G L

    2015-01-01

    Instilling good laboratory working attitudes in students is a difficult but very important task, especially in the first level courses. The introduction of a grade, based on the observation of work practices during laboratory sessions, can be strongly beneficial towards the acquisition of positive skills covering not only the technical aspects, but also the acquisition of both independence and team work. Explicit suggestions are given for basing the grade on specific observations and a quantitative analysis is performed to guarantee that the higher intrinsic volatility of the Performance Grade does not affect the final laboratory grade.

  18. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  19. Automated Grading of Gliomas using Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Images: A modular approach with ensemble of convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertosun, Mehmet Günhan; Rubin, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Brain glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with different pathologic subtypes: Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade II, Lower Grade Glioma (LGG) Grade III, and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Grade IV. The survival and treatment options are highly dependent of this glioma grade. We propose a deep learning-based, modular classification pipeline for automated grading of gliomas using digital pathology images. Whole tissue digitized images of pathology slides obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to train our deep learning modules. Our modular pipeline provides diagnostic quality statistics, such as precision, sensitivity and specificity, of the individual deep learning modules, and (1) facilitates training given the limited data in this domain, (2) enables exploration of different deep learning structures for each module, (3) leads to developing less complex modules that are simpler to analyze, and (4) provides flexibility, permitting use of single modules within the framework or use of other modeling or machine learning applications, such as probabilistic graphical models or support vector machines. Our modular approach helps us meet the requirements of minimum accuracy levels that are demanded by the context of different decision points within a multi-class classification scheme. Convolutional Neural Networks are trained for each module for each sub-task with more than 90% classification accuracies on validation data set, and achieved classification accuracy of 96% for the task of GBM vs LGG classification, 71% for further identifying the grade of LGG into Grade II or Grade III on independent data set coming from new patients from the multi-institutional repository.

  20. Glioma grade assessment by using histogram analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-derived maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, András; Molnár, Péter; Emri, Miklós; Berényi, Ervin

    2011-07-01

    Current endeavors in neuro-oncology include morphological validation of imaging methods by histology, including molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an up-to-date methodology of intracranial diagnostics that has gained importance in studies of neoplasia. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of discriminant analysis applied to histograms of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-derived images for the prediction of glioma grade validated by histomorphology. Tumors of 40 consecutive patients included 13 grade II astrocytomas, seven oligoastrocytomas, six grade II oligodendrogliomas, three grade III oligoastrocytomas, and 11 glioblastoma multiformes. Preoperative DTI data comprised: unweighted (B (0)) images, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and radial diffusivity maps, directionally averaged diffusion-weighted imaging, and trace images. Sampling consisted of generating histograms for gross tumor volumes; 25 histogram bins per scalar map were calculated. The histogram bins that allowed the most precise determination of low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) classification were selected by multivariate discriminant analysis. Accuracy of the model was defined by the success rate of the leave-one-out cross-validation. Statistical descriptors of voxel value distribution did not differ between LG and HG tumors and did not allow classification. The histogram model had 88.5% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity in the separation of LG and HG gliomas; specificity was improved when cases with oligodendroglial components were omitted. Constructing histograms of preoperative radiological images over the tumor volume allows representation of the grade and enables discrimination of LG and HG gliomas which has been confirmed by histopathology.

  1. Glioma grade assessment by using histogram analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-derived maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakab, Andras; Berenyi, Ervin [University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Department of Biomedical Laboratory and Imaging Science, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen (Hungary); Molnar, Peter [University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklos [University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    Current endeavors in neuro-oncology include morphological validation of imaging methods by histology, including molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an up-to-date methodology of intracranial diagnostics that has gained importance in studies of neoplasia. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of discriminant analysis applied to histograms of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-derived images for the prediction of glioma grade validated by histomorphology. Tumors of 40 consecutive patients included 13 grade II astrocytomas, seven oligoastrocytomas, six grade II oligodendrogliomas, three grade III oligoastrocytomas, and 11 glioblastoma multiformes. Preoperative DTI data comprised: unweighted (B{sub 0}) images, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and radial diffusivity maps, directionally averaged diffusion-weighted imaging, and trace images. Sampling consisted of generating histograms for gross tumor volumes; 25 histogram bins per scalar map were calculated. The histogram bins that allowed the most precise determination of low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) classification were selected by multivariate discriminant analysis. Accuracy of the model was defined by the success rate of the leave-one-out cross-validation. Statistical descriptors of voxel value distribution did not differ between LG and HG tumors and did not allow classification. The histogram model had 88.5% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity in the separation of LG and HG gliomas; specificity was improved when cases with oligodendroglial components were omitted. Constructing histograms of preoperative radiological images over the tumor volume allows representation of the grade and enables discrimination of LG and HG gliomas which has been confirmed by histopathology. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P=0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P=0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P=0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09×10(-3)mm2/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P=0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment of tumor grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-Gaussian diffusion MR imaging of glioma: comparisons of multiple diffusion parameters and correlation with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ren; Haopeng, Pang; Xiaoyuan, Feng; Jiawen, Zhang; Zhenwei, Yao [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Jinsong, Wu; Chengjun, Yao; Tianming, Qiu [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ji, Xiong [Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Mao, Sheng; Yueyue, Ding [Department of Imaging, Suzhou Children' s Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yong, Zhang [MR Research, GE Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Jianfeng, Luo [Fudan University, Department of Biostatistics, Public Health School, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    This study was conducted to compare the association of Gaussian and non-Gaussian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived parameters with histologic grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling) index (MI) in brain glioma. Sixty-five patients with pathologically confirmed glioma, who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI with 2 b values (0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and 22 b values (≤5000 s/mm{sup 2}), respectively, were divided into three groups of grade II (n = 35), grade III (n = 8), and grade IV (n = 22). Comparisons by two groups were made for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (Dslow), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and heterogeneity index α. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed to maximize the area under the curve (AUC) for differentiating grade III + IV (high-grade glioma, HGG) from grade II (low-grade glioma, LGG) and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) from grade II + III (other grade glioma, OGG). Correlations with MI were analyzed for the MRI parameters. On tumor regions, the values of ADC, Dslow, DDC, and α were significantly higher in grade II [(1.37 ± 0.29, 0.70 ± 0.11, 1.39 ± 0.34) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.88 ± 0.05, respectively] than in grade III [(0.99 ± 0.13, 0.55 ± 0.07, 1.04 ± 0.20) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.80 ± 0.03, respectively] and grade IV [(1.03 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.05, 1.02 ± 0.16) (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.76 ± 0.04, respectively] (all P < 0.001). The parameter α showed the highest AUCs of 0.950 and 0.922 in discriminating HGG from LGG and GBM from OGG, respectively. Significant correlations with histologic grade and MI were observed for the MRI parameters. The non-Gaussian MRI-derived parameters α and Dslow are superior to ADC in glioma grading, which are comparable with ADC as reliable biomarkers in noninvasively predicting the proliferation level of glioma malignancy. (orig.)

  4. Immunohistochemical studies of PIVKA-II in hepatocellular carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, N; Higashi, T; Nouso, K; Ito, T; Tsuji, T

    1995-02-01

    Tissue PIVKA-II was examined in 32 hepatocellular carcinomas and 2 metastatic liver tumors using indirect immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with the size, histological grading and serum PIVKA-II level. The specificity of this method was confirmed by the disappearance of reactivity in PLC/PRF/5 cells after the addition of vitamin K to the culture medium. Positive PIVKA-II staining was observed as a clustered or a single cell pattern only in the HCC nodules, but not in the surrounding cirrhotic tissue. PIVKA-II staining was observed in all HCC groups regardless of histological grade. There was no relationship between PIVKA-II staining and the size of HCC. PIVKA-II was detected immunohistochemically even in small HCC of patients whose plasma PIVKA-II levels were below the detection limit. These results suggest that PIVKA-II production is a specific phenotype of HCC regardless of its histological grading and demonstrate that this immunofluorescent PIVKA-II staining is more sensitive and useful than plasma PIVKA-II assay for the diagnosis of HCC.

  5. Immunohistochemical studies of PIVKA-II in hepatocellular carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuwahara,Naoaki

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue PIVKA-II was examined in 32 hepatocellular carcinomas and 2 metastatic liver tumors using indirect immunofluorescence, and the results were compared with the size, histological grading and serum PIVKA-II level. The specificity of this method was confirmed by the disappearance of reactivity in PLC/PRF/5 cells after the addition of vitamin K to the culture medium. Positive PIVKA-II staining was observed as a clustered or a single cell pattern only in the HCC nodules, but not in the surrounding cirrhotic tissue. PIVKA-II staining was observed in all HCC groups regardless of histological grade. There was no relationship between PIVKA-II staining and the size of HCC. PIVKA-II was detected immunohistochemically even in small HCC of patients whose plasma PIVKA-II levels were below the detection limit. These results suggest that PIVKA-II production is a specific phenotype of HCC regardless of its histological grading and demonstrate that this immunofluorescent PIVKA-II staining is more sensitive and useful than plasma PIVKA-II assay for the diagnosis of HCC.

  6. How Minimal Grade Goals and Self-Control Capacity Interact in Predicting Test Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the prediction of school students' grades in an upcoming math test via their minimal grade goals (i.e., the minimum grade in an upcoming test one would be satisfied with). Due to its significance for initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, self-control capacity was expected to moderate the relation between…

  7. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  8. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  9. Morphometry of tumor cells in different grades and types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvulović, Ivana; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Sustercić, Dunja; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Manojlović, Spomenka

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare morphometric characteristics of different types and grades of breast cancer. Morphometric analysis was performed using the SFORM software (Vamstec, Zagreb) on the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) breast tissue specimens. The study included 42 patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma by breast smear FNAC at Merkur University Hospital during the 2001-2005 period. Postoperative tumor histopathology and semi-quantitative tumor grading by the method of Elston and Ellis' showed invasive ductal carcinoma grade I in 10, invasive ductal carcinoma grade II in 9, invasive ductal carcinoma grade III in 13, and invasive lobular carcinoma in 13 patients, the latter also including a subtype of invasive tubulolobular carcinoma. The following parameters were assessed by use of Statistica 7.1 and chi2-test: tumor area, circumference, maximal radius, minimal radius, convexity, length, width, elongation, nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and shape factor. Morphometric analysis yielded statistically significant differences among all study groups (p < 0.001). Morphometric parameters showed significant individual correlation with tumor type and grade, whereby the area, convexity and circumference were most significant at both nuclear and cellular level.

  10. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    been further delays to the F-35 System Development and Demonstration ( SDD ) program. As a result, the SDB II integration will be accomplished as a...follow-on integration to the F-35 SDD . SDB II OT&E on the F-35 will not be completed by the FRP threshold of October 2019, thus delaying the FRP decision

  11. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  12. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  13. Extrauterine Low-Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Chen

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma typically has an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or progesterone therapy should be considered for the management of residual or recurrent low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

  14. A graph theoretic approach to graded identities

    CERN Document Server

    Haile, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    We consider the algebra M_k(C) of k-by-k matrices over the complex numbers and view it as a crossed product with a group G of order k by embedding G in the symmetric group S_k via the regular representation and embedding S_k in M_k(C) in the usual way. This induces a natural G-grading on M_k(C) which we call a crossed product grading. This grading is the so called elementary grading defined by any k-tuple (g_1,g_2,..., g_k) of distinct elements g_i in G. We study the graded polynomial identities for M_k(C) equipped with a crossed product grading. To each multilinear monomial in the free graded algebra we associate a directed labeled graph. This approach allows us to give new proofs of known results of Bahturin and Drensky on the generators of the T-ideal of identities and the Amitsur-Levitsky Theorem. Our most substantial new result is the determination of the asymptotic formula for the G-graded codimension of M_k(C).

  15. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and “U.S. No. 1” consist of pistachio kernels which meet the following requirements: (1) Well dried,...

  16. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  17. Economics of Grading and Sorting Pallet Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; John A. McLeod; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Before trying to develop an automated inspection system for pallet part grading we analyzed the economics of such a system. Our results suggest that higher quality pallets produced by grading and sorting pallet parts would be attractive to both manufacturers and their customers, who would have to pay increased prices for higher quality pallets. Reductions in cost-per-...

  18. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  19. Correlates of College Students' Attitudes toward Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Changhwan; And Others

    This study describes the development of the Attitude Toward Grades (ATG) survey instrument, a brief internally consistent measure of college student attitude toward grades and reports on selected behavioral correlates of that attitude. An initial item pool of approximately 50 attitude statements was created and the Thurstone equal appearing…

  20. Can Business Students Forecast Their Own Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines grade expectations of two groups of business students for their final course mark. We separate students that are on average "better" forecasters on the basis of them not making significant forecast errors during the semester from those students that are poor forecasters of their final grade. We find that the better…

  1. Learning with Text in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a rationale for learning-with-text experiences for primary-grade children; lists 10 general approaches to foster primary-grade content area reading; and offers a sample lesson incorporating these approaches that promotes comprehension of text and content matter. Suggests that trade books, textbooks, realistic fiction, and other print…

  2. Gradings and Symmetries on Heisenberg type algebras

    OpenAIRE

    A. Calderón; C. Draper; Martín, C.; Sánchez, T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the fine (group) gradings on the Heisenberg algebras, on the Heisenberg superalgebras and on the twisted Heisenberg algebras. We compute the Weyl groups of these gradings. Also the results obtained respect to Heisenberg superalgebras are applied to the study of Heisenberg Lie color algebras.

  3. Assessing and Grading Student Achievement. ERS Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Glen E.; Craver, James M.

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the practices and procedures used by school districts to assess and grade student achievement. In April of 1988, the Educational Research Service conducted a nationwide survey of the grading and reporting practices and procedures using a stratified random sample of public school districts. The…

  4. Automated Grading of Rough Hardwood Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Any automatic hardwood grading system must have two components. The first of these is a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on rough lumber. The second is a system for automatically grading boards based on the output of the computer vision system. This paper presents research results aimed at developing the first of these components. The...

  5. Can Grades Be Helpful and Fair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursuck, William D.; Munk, Dennis D.

    1998-01-01

    Letter grades are still the most popular way of indicating student performance. Both included (special-needs) and general-education students perceive the use of adaptations for some but not all students as unfair. Although half of all general-education teachers use informal grading adaptations, few consider them fair. Schools should develop a…

  6. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  7. Central extension of graded Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Welte, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the universal central extension of two important classes of so-called root-graded Lie algebras defined over a commutative associative unital ring $k.$ Root-graded Lie algebras are Lie algebras which are graded by the root lattice of a locally finite root system and contain enough $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$-triples to separate the homogeneous spaces of the grading. Examples include the infinite rank analogs of the simple finite-dimensional complex Lie algebras. \\\\ In the thesis we show that in general the universal central extension of a root-graded Lie algebra $L$ is not root-graded anymore, but that we can measure quite easily how far it is away from being so, using the notion of degenerate sums, introduced by van der Kallen. We then concentrate on root-graded Lie algebras which are graded by the root systems of type $A$ with rank at least 2 and of type $C$. For them one can use the theory of Jordan algebras.

  8. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  9. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  10. Liberal Grading Improves Evaluations But Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Ross; Sarmiento, Robert F.

    Two grading distributions--a liberal and a more stringent curve--were compared between two sections of an undergraduate psychology course. The two classes were team taught and treated as similarly as possible. Four unit exams and an optional final were administered, with one section consistently receiving a more lenient grade distribution. No…

  11. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  12. 7 CFR 29.6028 - No Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No Grade. 29.6028 Section 29.6028 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6028 No Grade. A designation applied to a lot of tobacco classified...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6018 - Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade. 29.6018 Section 29.6018 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6018 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group and quality...

  14. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  15. The Investigation of relation between elementary school second grade students’ self-esteem, different skills and assertiveness levels İlköğretim II. kademe öğrencilerinde benlik saygısı, farklı yetenek ve atılganlık düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıçam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relation among the self esteem, different abilility levels and assertiveness levels of second grade primary education. An investigation has been done on over 180 students, chosen randomly, from the primary education schools of Erzurum MEB in accordance with the purpose of this study. Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, Basic Aptitude Test 6-8 and Rathus Assertiveness Inventory were used. SPSS/WINDOWS programme was used for data analysis. ‘t test’ was used for determine the difference among the groups and ‘Pearson Moment Correlation Analysis’ was used for determine correlation among variables. In this study different abilities were examined in the subhead of Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, General Ability. It was found in this study that there is a meaningful relation between Sef-Esttem and Language ability, The Ability of Reasoning, Numerical Ability, General Ability, Assertiveness. In the view of the preceding findings, and in the scope of academic success this study is discussed and leads other investigations and applications.

  16. CURRENT VIEWS OF THE GLEASON GRADING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide the proceedings of the 2005 First International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference and the basic provisions that differ the modified Gleason grading system from its original interpretation. In particular, we should do away with Gleason grade 1 (or 1 + 1 = 2 while assessing the needle biopsy specimens. Contrary to the recommendations by Gleason himself, the conference decided to apply stringent criteria for using Gleason grades 3 and 4. This is due to the fact that these grades are of special prognostic value so it is important to have clear criteria in defining each Gleason grade. Notions, such as secondary and tertiary Gleason patterns, are considered; detailed recommendations are given on the lesion extent sufficient to diagnose these components.

  17. The geometry of A-graded algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, B

    1994-01-01

    We study algebras k[x_1,...,x_n]/I which admit a grading by a subsemigroup of N^d such that every graded component is a one-dimensional k-vector space. V.I.~Arnold and coworkers proved that for d = 1 and n <= 3 there are only finitely many isomorphism types of such A-graded algebras, and in these cases I is an initial ideal (in the sense of Groebner bases) of a toric ideal. In this paper it is shown that Arnold's finiteness theorem does not extend to n = 4. Geometric conditions are given for I to be an initial ideal of a toric ideal. The varieties defined by A-graded algebras are characterized in terms of polyhedral subdivisions, and the distinct A-graded algebras are parametrized by a certain binomial scheme.

  18. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  19. Noncommutative Supergeometry of Graded Matrix Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, H.; Reiter, G.

    Generalizing the ungraded case one can build up Z Z_2-graded differential calculi over arbitrary Z Z_2-graded bbbc-algebras based on their respective Lie superalgebra of graded derivations. Especially for the Z Z_2-graded bbbc-algebra I M(n\\vert m) of (n+m)times(n+m)-matrices with block-matrix grading (n,min{I N}_{0}, nneq m) the resulting differential algebra (Omega^{g}({I M}(n\\vert m)),d) coincides - as far as we are interested only in its linear structure - with the cochain complex of the Lie superalgebra sl(n\\vert m) with coefficients in {I M}(n\\vert m). Here we want to point out two remarkable facts about this differential algebra (for proofs see Grosse and Reiter 1999).

  20. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mc Spirit

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares grade inflation rates among different ability students at a large, open admissions public University. Specifically, this study compares trends in graduating grade point average (GPA from 1983 to 1996 across low, typical and higher ability students. This study also tests other explanations for increases in graduating GPA. These other explanations are changes in 1 ACT score 2 gender 3 college major and 4 vocational programs. With these other explanations considered, regression results still report an inflationary trend in graduating GPA. Time, as measured by college entry year, is still a significant positive predictor of GPA. More directly, comparisons of regression coefficients reveal lower ability students as experiencing the highest rate of grade increase. Higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students.

  1. Graded q-differential matrix algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V.; Raknuzzaman, Md.

    2013-10-01

    We consider the algebra of square matrices of order N as graded q-differential algebra, where q is a primitive Nth root of unity. We study the differential calculus of this algebra determined by a differential d, which satisfies the graded q-Leibniz rule and dN = 0. A graded q-differential algebra can be viewed as a generalization of graded differential algebra, and we consider the higher degree elements of graded q-differential matrix algebra as analogs of differential forms. We use two matrices x,ξ, which generate the algebra of square matrices of order N in order to express these analogs of differential forms in terms of "coordinate" x and its differentials dx,d2x,...,dN-1x. We study an analog of connection and calculate its curvature.

  2. Typicality, graded membership, and vagueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2007-05-01

    This paper addresses theoretical problems arising from the vagueness of language terms, and intuitions of the vagueness of the concepts to which they refer. It is argued that the central intuitions of prototype theory are sufficient to account for both typicality phenomena and psychological intuitions about degrees of membership in vaguely defined classes. The first section explains the importance of the relation between degrees of membership and typicality (or goodness of example) in conceptual categorization. The second and third section address arguments advanced by Osherson and Smith (1997), and Kamp and Partee (1995), that the two notions of degree of membership and typicality must relate to fundamentally different aspects of conceptual representations. A version of prototype theory-the Threshold Model-is proposed to counter these arguments and three possible solutions to the problems of logical selfcontradiction and tautology for vague categorizations are outlined. In the final section graded membership is related to the social construction of conceptual boundaries maintained through language use.

  3. Penn Grade Micellar Displacement Project. Third annual report, June 1977--June 1978. [Lawry project in Bradford field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, H.H.; Paynter, W.T.; Ondrusek, P.S.; Finalle, L.L.

    1979-03-01

    During third year operations of the jointly funded Penn Grade Micellar Displacement Project, the plant facilities were completed for the 24-acre test designated Phase II. The transient testing program and the pre-flush brine and micellar slug injection stages were all completed. Biopolymer injection was initiated. This report details the development, testing, and operations of Phase II, as well as plans for continuing the test.

  4. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  5. Factor II deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...

  6. Comparison of cerebral blood volume and permeability in preoperative grading of intracranial glioma using CT perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Bei; Ling, Hua Wei; Chen, Ke Min [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Hong [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Yan Bo [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2006-10-15

    Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and permeability surfaces (rPS) permit in vivo assessment of glioma microvasculature, which provides quite important pathophysiological information in grading gliomas. The aim of our study was to simultaneously examine rCBV and rPS in glioma patients to determine their correlation with histological grade using CT perfusion imaging. A total of 22 patients with gliomas underwent multislice CT perfusion imaging preoperatively. Low-grade and high-grade groups were categorized corresponding to WHO grade II gliomas and WHO grade III or IV gliomas, respectively, as determined by histopathological examination. rCBVs and rPSs were obtained from regions of maximal abnormality in tumor parenchyma on CBV and PS color perfusion maps. Perfusion parameters were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test in order to evaluate the differences in relation to tumor grade. The Pearson coefficients of rCBV and rPS for each tumor grade were assessed using SPSS 13.0 software. (orig.)

  7. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an authorized agency official may provide grade retention to an employee moving... lower-graded position. (c) When an employee is offered a position with grade retention under this... entitlement to grade retention under § 536.201 if the agency actually moves the employee to the lower-graded...

  8. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that provides entitlement to grade retention for 2 years beginning on the date the employee is placed... reduces an employee in grade under circumstances also entitling the employee to grade retention, the...-year grade retention period if the employee's grade was retained under this part in the appointment...

  9. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  11. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  12. Flux-pinning-induced stress and magnetostriction in a functionally graded long rectangular superconductor slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W. J.; Han, X.; Ma, P.

    2011-09-01

    The flux-pinning-induced stress and magnetostriction of a functionally graded type-II superconductor shaped as a rectangular slab are analyzed. By using the plane strain approach, the exact solution of the three-dimensional (3D) magneto-elastic problem is found. All the stresses, strains, and magnetostriction in the graded direction are first expressed in terms of the flux-density profile in the slab, and all these expressions are valid for any critical-state model jc=jc(B ). Then, based on the Bean model, i.e., jc=const, an extensive analysis is made for three cases of applied magnetic fields, i.e., increasing field, decreasing field, and field cooling. And the emphasis is put on the effects of both the applied magnetic field and the graded index of the slab on the maximum tensile stress and the magnetostriction.

  13. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Filetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department at a small, public liberal arts university in Virginia, examine the relationship between grade distributions and faculty rank, and conclude that tenure-track faculty grade more leniently than their tenured colleagues, primarily in the number of - A- grades assigned. The results of this study suggest that tenured professors tend to award fewer - As- than tenure-track professors. We posit that at universities where emphasis is placed upon teaching, two specific patterns emerge: reciprocity may be an unspoken agreement between some faculty and students with regard to the exchange of good grades for good evaluations, or with experience comes rigor.

  14. TWO-STEP CONTROL GRADING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The incorrectness of function grading in value engineering has been an essential problem for de- cades. This paper proposes a new method, where the functions under consideration are ranked in queue ac- cording to their importance and then graded quantitatively. By using this method, the reviewers are more aware of the degrees of importance, and therefore will have an easier time grasping the standard and reducing the erroneous grading. In the first step, the sign test is used to discard incorrect data, to count the grading re- sult and to arrange in queue according to the degrees of functional importance. In the second step the queued up functions undergo quantitative grading, where the “average value of fluctuation coefficient” is proposed to determine the control levels and to delete unreasonable data outside the controlled region so as to get more sati- sfactory grading value. The proposed method solves the problem of the incorrectness of function grading in val- ue engineering. It has been proved that the correctness has been raised from the original 70% to over 95% . This new method is not only contributive to the discipline of value engineering but also suitable in the evalu- ation of technical economy.

  15. 7 CFR 51.2335 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (i) Worm holes; (ii) Broken skins which are not healed; (iii) Sunscald; (iv) Freezing injury; (v...) Carefully packed; (v) Clean; and, (vi) Fairly well formed. (2) Free From: (i) Worm holes; (ii) Broken skins..., (vi) Not badly misshapen. (2) Free From: (i) Worm holes; (ii) Broken skins which are not healed; (iii...

  16. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  17. COTORSION PAIRS OVER FINITE GROUP GRADED RINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fan-yun; SUN Ju-xiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relation of cotorsion pairs between the graded and ungraded cases. By using the graded theory and the relative homological algebra, we first consider the relationship of cotorsion pairs in R-mod and S = R∗G-mod when R is any ring and G is a finite group. Then we study rigid cotorsion pairs in R-gr and consider the relationship of cotorsion pairs between R-gr and R-mod when R is a ring graded by a finite group G with|G|−1 ∈R.

  18. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan; Gao, Nansha; Songhua, Cao

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  19. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio [San Martino Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred [UKE, Department of Neurosurgery, Hamburg (Germany); Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Matschke, Jakob [UKE, Department of Neuropathology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  20. Curriculum Development for Enhancing the Art Aesthetic in Art Learning Substance for Grade 7 Students: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisedsang, Dheerayut; Chookhampaeng, Chowwalit; Noiwangklang, Pitak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research and development was to develop a curriculum for enhancing grade 7 students' aesthetic sense and substantial art learning. There were 2 phases of the study consisting of: (i) the study of basic information about art aesthetics, including the attributes, approaches, theories, problems, and needs, (ii) the development…

  1. Histologic grading of urothelial papillary neoplasms: impact of combined grading (two-numbered grading system) on reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Burçin; Yörükoglu, Kutsal; Düzcan, Ender; Sen, Sait; Nese, Nalan; Sarsık, Banu; Akder, Aysegul; Sayhan, Sehnaz; Mungan, Uğur; Kirkali, Ziya

    2011-06-01

    The clinical management of tumor patients is often strongly influenced by the tumor grade. The presence of heterogeneity is well recognized in a variety of tumors. Overall grade is based on highest grade area identified within a tumor. Urothelial carcinoma often contains different histological grades within the same tumor. This study investigates the impact of a combined grading system on the reproducibility of papillary urothelial neoplasms. A set prepared for an earlier study consisting of ten cases of each category (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), LGPUC, and HGPUC) was used. Agreement between pairs of pathologists was evaluated using κ statistics for the combined scoring system. Interobserver agreement was fair to substantial as reflected by κ values ranging from 0.24 to 0.74 (mean κ = 0.43). The combined scores of 2 and 3 which included PUNLMP showed the lowest degree of agreement and when this category was excluded from the analysis, interobserver agreement increased significantly (mean κ = 0.65; ranging from 0.43 to 0.92) in terms of combined scores of 4, 5, and 6. PUNLMP has been shown to be the least reproducible component of a combined scoring system even among experienced observers. Exclusion of PUNLMP from grading scheme seems to improve interobserver variability.

  2. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  3. SVM-based glioma grading. Optimization by feature reduction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Emblem, Kyrre E. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Boston MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Oslo Univ. Hospital (Norway). The Intervention Center

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the predictive power of feature reduction analysis approaches in support vector machine (SVM)-based classification of glioma grade. In 101 untreated glioma patients, three analytic approaches were evaluated to derive an optimal reduction in features; (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC), (ii) principal component analysis (PCA) and (iii) independent component analysis (ICA). Tumor grading was performed using a previously reported SVM approach including whole-tumor cerebral blood volume (CBV) histograms and patient age. Best classification accuracy was found using PCA at 85% (sensitivity = 89%, specificity = 84%) when reducing the feature vector from 101 (100-bins rCBV histogram + age) to 3 principal components. In comparison, classification accuracy by PCC was 82% (89%, 77%, 2 dimensions) and 79% by ICA (87%, 75%, 9 dimensions). For improved speed (up to 30%) and simplicity, feature reduction by all three methods provided similar classification accuracy to literature values ({proportional_to}87%) while reducing the number of features by up to 98%. (orig.)

  4. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), Pradiotherapy (TR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), Pradiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPESIFIC PEDAGOGY TEMATIK UNTUK MENANAMKAN KEDISIPLINAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anderiani

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aims to produce thematic Specific Pedagogy Subject (SSP which is suitable, and to assess the validity of thematic SSP to inculcate the characters of Grade II students of the elementary school, especially those of discipline and care. This was a Research and Development (R & D based on Borg & Gall model consist of ten stages. In this research were nine stages only, namely: (1 preliminary study and data collection, (2 planning, (3 product draft development, (4 preliminary field tryout, (5 revision of the tryout result, (6 field tryout, (7 product finalization based the field tryout result, (8 field implementation testing, and (9 final product finalization. The tryout subjects were Grade II students of SDN Glagah Yogyakarta. The one-to-one tryout subjects consisted of three students from Grade II B, the small-group tryout subjects consisted of ten students from Grade II B who were not involved in the one-to-one tryout and the field tryout subjects consisted of 56 students from Grade II A and Grade II C. The instruments of collecting data consisted of the guide of interview, scoring paper on product, the assessment of SSP by teachers, observation paper of students’ characters, questionnaire of discipline, questionnaire of care and scoring paper. The result of the study is in the form of SSP consisting of a syllabus, lesson plans, student worksheets, and assessment instruments. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus, lesson plans, student worksheets, developed assessment instruments are good. The results of tryout product it can be concluded the students’ average affective learning outcomes of discipline and care are 91.11 and 91.82 respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the developed SSP is in the good category and effective to inculcate the discipline and care at the second grade students of elementary school. Keywords: development, SSP, thematic, characters

  6. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  7. Research on Spelling in Primary Grades (ERIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine conference papers and practica in the ERIC database that deal with spelling research in the primary grades. Notes that the entries in the annotated bibliography were published between 1990 and 1992. (RS)

  8. Computer Aided Grading of Quantitative Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. E.; Lytle, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of fair grading of unknowns is discussed. An approach is presented to answer some of the important questions concerning faulty procedures, level of accuracy and precision, recognition of bad unknowns,'' and dry labing. (DF)

  9. How Zucchini Won Fifth-Grade Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Denise

    1987-01-01

    A nutrition education program for grades K through 6 in Arizona is described, and essential elements of the program are given. Children learn about foods and the role of nutrients in health through gardening. (MT)

  10. Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication...

  11. "BLACK GOLD" GRADE12-LEARNERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SK

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ... cultural backgrounds), refers to black Grade 12 learners from a diverse group of ..... learners in the community, community cohesion or a sense of community pride, and.

  12. Rwandan grade 6 mathematics teachers' knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Key words: Teacher knowledge, test scores, Rwanda, grade 6, content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, mathematics. .... We identified four aspects of PCK (Hill, Blunk, ..... Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(4), 438-457.

  13. Valencia's Tooth: A First-Grade Operetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lillian S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade class created an operetta about losing their teeth. The students told stories about losing teeth and made those stories into songs using Orff-type speech and music techniques. (AM)

  14. Case report 541: Low grade chrondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, G.; Wagner, L.D.; Klein, M.J.; Faye-Peterson, O.M.; Lewis, M.M.

    1989-05-01

    A case of low grade chondrosarcoma of the femur in a 15-year-old female is presented. Although chondrosarcoma is a relatively common primary malignant bone tumor in adults, its incidence in the pediatric age group is low. If it does occur in the very young the lesion usually is a high grade tumor. The atypical radiological pattern and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.).

  15. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  16. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  17. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. METHODS: Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo. T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350 and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700 were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. FINDINGS: Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05. T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000 but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854. However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms, grade II (54.60-62.03 ms, grade III (<54.60 ms. CONCLUSIONS: T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  18. Numerical Evaluations of Functionally Graded RC Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mastali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using fibrous materials is used widely in strengthening applications such as cross-section enlargement and using functionally graded reinforced concrete. Functionally graded reinforced concrete is used as multireinforced concrete layers that can be reinforced by different fiber types. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials by performing analytical simulations. In order to achieve this purpose, in the first stage of this study, three functionally graded reinforced concretes by steel and polypropylene (PP were experimentally tested under flexural loading. Inverse analysis was applied to obtain the used material properties of reinforced concrete by FEMIX software. After obtaining the material properties, to assess the performance of proposed slabs, some other cases were proposed and numerically evaluated under flexural and shear loading. The results showed that increasing steel fiber in reinforced entire cross section led to achieve better shear and flexural performance while the best performance of reinforced functionally graded slabs was achieved for slab at 1% fiber content. In the second stage, nineteen reinforced functionally graded RC slabs with steel bars were simulated and assessed and some other cases were considered which were not experimentally tested.

  19. Properties of ϕ-Primal Graded Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a commutative graded ring with unity 1≠0. A proper graded ideal of R is a graded ideal I of R such that I≠R. Let ϕ:I(R→I(R∪{∅} be any function, where I(R denotes the set of all proper graded ideals of R. A homogeneous element a∈R is ϕ-prime to I if ra∈I-ϕ(I where r is a homogeneous element in R; then r∈I. An element a=∑g∈Gag∈R is ϕ-prime to I if at least one component ag of a is ϕ-prime to I. Therefore, a=∑g∈Gag∈R is not ϕ-prime to I if each component ag of a is not ϕ-prime to I. We denote by νϕ(I the set of all elements in R that are not ϕ-prime to I. We define I to be ϕ-primal if the set P=νϕ(I+ϕ(I (if ϕ≠ϕ∅ or P=νϕ(I (if ϕ=ϕ∅ forms a graded ideal of R. In the work by Jaber, 2016, the author studied the generalization of primal superideals over a commutative super-ring R with unity. In this paper we generalize the work by Jaber, 2016, to the graded case and we study more properties about this generalization.

  20. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110 M, 125 M, 150 M, 200 M, 350 M (α-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ∼80% β-AL), DCL11 (spray dried α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼12% β-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110 M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work).

  1. Genomic proifling oflower-grade gliomas uncovers cohesive disease groups:implications fordiagnosis andtreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangMingZhang; DanielJBrat

    2016-01-01

    Lower‑grade gliomas (including low‑ and intermediate‑grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) are diffusely inifltrative neoplasms that arise most often in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have traditionally been classiifed based on their presumed histogenesis as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas. Although the histopathologic classiifcation of lower‑grade glioma has been the accepted standard for nearly a century, it suffers from high intra‑ and inter‑observer variability and does not adequately predict clinical outcomes. Based on integrated analysis of multiplatform genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, lower‑grade gliomas have been found to segregate into three cohesive, clinically relevant molecular classes. Molecular classes were closely aligned with the status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, tumor protein 53 mutations and the co‑deletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q, but were not closely aligned with histologic classes. These ifndings emphasize the potential for improved deifnition of clinically relevant disease subsets using integrated molecular approaches and highlight the importance of biomarkers for brain tumor classiifcation.

  2. MRI features predict survival and molecular markers in diffuse lower-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Vallières, Martin; Bai, Harrison X; Su, Chang; Tang, Haiyun; Oldridge, Derek; Zhang, Zishu; Xiao, Bo; Liao, Weihua; Tao, Yongguang; Zhou, Jianhua; Zhang, Paul; Yang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that MR imaging features can be used to predict survival and molecular profile of glioblastoma. However, no study of a similar type has been performed on lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Presurgical MRIs of 165 patients with diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas (histological grades II and III) were scored according to the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Images (VASARI) annotations. Radiomic models using automated texture analysis and VASARI features were built to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion status, histological grade, and tumor progression. Interrater analysis showed significant agreement in all imaging features scored (k = 0.703-1.000). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, no enhancement and a smooth non-enhancing margin were associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS), while a smooth non-enhancing margin was associated with longer overall survival (OS) after taking into account age, grade, tumor location, histology, extent of resection, and IDH1 1p/19q subtype. Using logistic regression and bootstrap testing evaluations, texture models were found to possess higher prediction potential for IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion status, histological grade, and progression of LGGs than VASARI features, with areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of 0.86 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.01, 0.86 ± 0.01, and 0.80 ± 0.01, respectively. No enhancement and a smooth non-enhancing margin on MRI were predictive of longer PFS, while a smooth non-enhancing margin was a significant predictor of longer OS in LGGs. Textural analyses of MR imaging data predicted IDH1 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, histological grade, and tumor progression with high accuracy.

  3. The Guy's stone score--grading the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kay; Smith, Naomi C; Hegarty, Nicholas; Glass, Jonathan M

    2011-08-01

    To report the development and validation of a scoring system, the Guy's stone score, to grade the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Currently, no standardized method is available to predict the stone-free rate after PCNL. The Guy's stone score was developed through a combination of expert opinion, published data review, and iterative testing. It comprises 4 grades: grade I, solitary stone in mid/lower pole or solitary stone in the pelvis with simple anatomy; grade II, solitary stone in upper pole or multiple stones in a patient with simple anatomy or a solitary stone in a patient with abnormal anatomy; grade III, multiple stones in a patient with abnormal anatomy or stones in a caliceal diverticulum or partial staghorn calculus; grade IV, staghorn calculus or any stone in a patient with spina bifida or spinal injury. It was assessed for reproducibility using the kappa coefficient and validated on a prospective database of 100 PCNL procedures performed in a tertiary stone center. The complications were graded using the modified Clavien score. The clinical outcomes were recorded prospectively and assessed with multivariate analysis. The Guy's stone score was the only factor that significantly and independently predicted the stone-free rate (P = .01). It was found to be reproducible, with good inter-rater agreement (P = .81). None of the other factors tested, including stone burden, operating surgeon, patient weight, age, and comorbidity, correlated with the stone-free rate. The Guy's stone score accurately predicted the stone-free rate after PCNL. It was easy to use and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymphocytic thyroiditis: a correlation of cytological grades with clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Uma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis sometimes referred to as goitrous thyroiditis is a synonym of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is one of the most common cause of goiter and hypothyroidism, it is found most commonly in middle aged and young female, but can also occur in other age groups, including children. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis can be graded based on cytomorphology. In this study an attempt has been made to correlate the grades with clinical findings, biochemical levels and ultrasonography findings. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted on 309 patients in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. The various parameters like patient’s clinical presentation, biochemical levels and thyroid ultrasound were studied. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid gland and grading of thyroiditis was done on smears. The grades were correlated with above parameters and the correlation indices were evaluated statistically. Chi-square tests were used for statistical correlation and p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Most of the patients were females (297, 96.11% who commonly presented with a diffuse goiter (263, 85.11%. Asymptomatic cases (193, 62.46% and elevated TSH (194, 62.78% were common. Most of the cases had grade I/II disease (299, 96.76% by cytology. Conclusion: FNAC is a simple, safe and cost effective procedure and is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool in diagnosing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Cytological grading of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis helps in assessing the severity of the disease and can predict the thyroid functional status. A combined approach of cytological grading of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis along with ultrasonography and biochemical levels can detect subclinical hypothyroid states and provide a guide to therapy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 523-531

  5. TERT promoter mutations contribute to subset prognostication of lower-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Yao, Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Liu, Joseph Shu-Ming; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Shi, Zhifeng; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Zhou, Liangfu; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) have been found in various cancers including diffuse gliomas. Mutations lead to TERT upregulation and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior in glioblastomas. However, the clinical significance of TERT promoter mutations in lower-grade gliomas remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the status of TERT promoter and the respective prognostic significance in a cohort of 237 lower-grade gliomas comprising grades II and III astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas. Mutually exclusive mutations in TERT promoter, C228T and C250T, were identified in 16/105 (15%) diffuse astrocytomas, 16/63 (25%) anaplastic astrocytomas, 13/18 (72%) oligodendrogliomas, 3/3 (100%) anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 17/45 (38%) oligoastrocytomas, and 2/3 (67%) anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Mutations co-occurred with 1p/19q codeletion (Ppromoter mutation (P=0.037), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation (Ppromoter-mutated tumors exhibited longer progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.027) and OS (P=0.004). Consistent with this observation, in the subset of 97 IDH-mutated astrocytomas, 14 TERT promoter-mutated tumors showed longer PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001). In contrast, among the subset of 74 IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas with intact 1p/19q, TERT promoter mutation was associated with shorter PFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001). Similarly, in the subset of 65 IDH wild-type astrocytomas, 16 TERT promoter-mutated tumors exhibited unfavorable PFS (P=0.007) and OS (P=0.008). Our results indicate that when combined with IDH status, TERT promoter mutation contributes to prognostic subgroups of lower-grade astrocytic tumors or 1p/19q intact lower-grade gliomas and this may further refine future molecular classification of lower-grade gliomas.

  6. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  7. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-07-18

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization.

  8. Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: differences in tumour microvascular permeability evaluated with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongzheng; Geng, Daoying; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xingrong; Zhang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively assess the microvascular permeability of oligodendroglioma using the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) and the volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (V(e)) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of K(trans) and V(e) in distinguishing between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The maximal values of K(trans) and V(e) for 65 patients with oligodendroglioma (27 grade II, 38 grade III) were obtained. Differences in K(trans) and V(e) between the two groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cut-off values for the K(trans) and Ve that could differentiate between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Values for K(trans) and Ve in low-grade oligodendrogliomas were significantly lower than those in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (p low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in a statistically significant manner. Our results suggest that DCE-MRI can distinguish the differences in microvascular permeability between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

  9. Quininium tetrachloridozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhuang Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydroxy(6-methoxyquinolin-1-ium-4-ylmethyl]-8-vinylquinuclidin-1-ium tetrachloridozinc(II}, (C20H26N2O2[ZnCl4], consists of a double protonated quininium cation and a tetrachloridozinc(II anion. The ZnII ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Hydrosol II Project; El Proyecto Hydrosol II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Martinez, A.

    2008-07-01

    At present energy production is based on the combustion of fossil fuels and is the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions, which is to say it is the main cause of the climate change that is affecting the planet. On a worldwide scale, the use of solar concentration systems with systems capable of dissociating water is considered, from both an energy and an economic standpoint, as the most important long-term goal in the production of solar fuels to reduce the costs of hydrogen and to ensure practically zero carbon dioxide emissions. The Hydrosol II project has the largest pilot plant of its kind, and the Hydrosol II reactors will be capable of breaking up the water molecule on the basis of thermochemical cycles at moderate temperatures. The Hydrosol II project pilot plant is now a reality, located in the SSPS heliostats field of the Almeria Solar Platform. (Author)

  11. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  12. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilekha Namala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronuclei (MN in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student′s t-test and Spearman′s correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  13. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  14. Low grade metamorphism of mafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Peter

    1995-07-01

    Through most of this past century, metamorphic petrologists in the United States have paid their greatest attention to high grade rocks, especially those which constitute the core zones of exhumed, mountain belts. The pioneering studies of the 50's through the 80's, those which applied the principles of thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks, focused almost exclusively on high temperature systems, for which equilibrium processes could be demonstrated. By the 1980's, metamorphic petrologists had developed the methodologies for deciphering the thermal and baric histories of mountain belts through the study of high grade rocks. Of course, low grade metamorphic rocks - here defined as those which form at pressures and temperatures up to and including the greenschist facies - had been well known and described as well, initially through the efforts of Alpine and Circum-Pacific geologists who recognized that they constituted an integral and contiguous portion of mountain belts, and that they underlay large portions of accreted terranes, many of oceanic origins. But until the mid 80's, much of the effort in studying low grade rocks - for a comprehensive review of the literature to that point see Frey (1987) - had been concentrated on mudstones, volcanoclastic rocks, and associated lithologies common to continental mountain belts and arcs. In the mid 80's, results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) rather dramatically mitigated a shift in the study of low grade metamorphic rocks.

  15. ZEB1 expression is increased in IDH1-mutant lower-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvick, Cody L; Zhang, Chao; Edwards, Nancy A; Montgomery, Blake K; Lee, Michaela; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Herui; Zhu, Dongwang; Heiss, John D; Merrill, Marsha J; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factors that induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promote invasion, chemoresistance and a stem-cell phenotype in epithelial tumors, but their roles in central nervous system tumors are not well-understood. We hypothesized these transcription factors have a functional impact in grades II-III gliomas. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lower-Grade Glioma (LGG) data, we determined the impact of EMT-promoting transcription factors (EMT-TFs) on overall survival in grades II-III gliomas, compared their expression across common genetic subtypes and subsequently validated these findings in a set of 31 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Increased expression of the gene coding for the transcriptional repressor Zinc Finger E box-binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB1) was associated with a significant increase in overall survival (OS) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Genetic subtype analysis revealed that ZEB1 expression was relatively increased in IDH1/2-mutant gliomas, and IDH1/2-mutant gliomas expressed significantly lower levels of many ZEB1 transcriptional targets. Similarly, IDH1/2-mutant tumors expressed significantly higher levels of targets of microRNA 200C (MIR200C), a key regulator of ZEB1. In a validation study, ZEB1 mRNA was significantly increased in IDH1-mutant grades II-III gliomas, and ZEB1 protein expression was more pronounced in these tumors. Our findings demonstrate a novel relationship between IDH1/2 mutations and expression of ZEB1 and its transcriptional targets. Therapy targeting ZEB1-associated pathways may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for this class of tumors.

  16. Third-Grade Reading Policies. Reading/Literacy: Preschool to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The third-grade year is considered a pivotal point in a child's educational career, as a critical shift in learning takes place--one where basic reading skills are established and can begin to be utilized for more complex learning. State policymakers are well aware of the importance of ensuring that all students are reading at grade level by the…

  17. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section 810.804 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  19. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  20. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  1. Low-grade osteosarcoma of the spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Myung In; Choo, Hye Jung; Huh, Yong Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Low-grade osteosarcoma is not typically found in the long bone and pelvis. Most primary osteosarcomas that arise in the spine are high-grade malignancies. A low-grade osteosarcoma arising in the spine has not been previously described. We report here the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of a case of low-grade osteosarcoma that arose in the spine.

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  3. 7 CFR 947.15 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 947.15 Section 947.15 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.15 Grade and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes, as defined and set forth in: (a...

  4. 7 CFR 958.9 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 958.9 Section 958.9 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.9 Grade and size. Grade means any of the officially established grades of onions, and size means any of the officially...

  5. 7 CFR 946.13 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 946.13 Section 946.13 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.13 Grade and size. Grade means any one of the officially established grades of potatoes, and size means any one of the officially established sizes of potatoes as...

  6. 7 CFR 966.10 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 966.10 Section 966.10 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.10 Grade and size. Grade means any one of the established grades of tomatoes and size means any one of the established sizes of tomatoes as defined and set forth in U.S...

  7. 7 CFR 906.9 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 906.9 Section 906.9 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.9 Grade and size. Grade means any one of the established grades of fruit and size means any one of the established sizes of fruit as...

  8. 7 CFR 959.11 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 959.11 Section 959.11 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.11 Grade and size. Grade means any of the established grades of onions, and size means any of the established sizes of onions as defined and set forth in the United States...

  9. 7 CFR 956.15 - Grade and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and size. 956.15 Section 956.15 Agriculture... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.15 Grade and size. Grade means any of the officially established grades of onions, including maturity requirements and size means any of...

  10. 5 CFR 531.414 - Interim within-grade increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim within-grade increase. 531.414... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.414 Interim within-grade increase. (a) An interim within-grade increase shall be granted to an employee who has: (1) Appealed a negative within...

  11. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  12. The Quotient Category of a Graded Morita-Takeuchi Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. CASTA(N)O IGLESIAS; C. N(A)ST(A)SESCU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a graded equivalence between the quotient categories defined by any graded Morita Takeuchi context via certain modifications of the graded cotensor functors. As a consequence, we show a commutative diagram that establish the relation between the closed objects of the categories grC and MC, where C is a graded coalgebra.

  13. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  14. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  15. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  16. 7 CFR 28.514 - Leaf Grade No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 4. 28.514 Section 28.514 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.514 Leaf Grade No. 4. Leaf grade No. 4 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  17. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  18. 7 CFR 28.516 - Leaf Grade No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 6. 28.516 Section 28.516 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.516 Leaf Grade No. 6. Leaf grade No. 6 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  19. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  20. 7 CFR 28.513 - Leaf Grade No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 3. 28.513 Section 28.513 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.513 Leaf Grade No. 3. Leaf grade No. 3 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  1. 7 CFR 28.515 - Leaf Grade No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 5. 28.515 Section 28.515 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.515 Leaf Grade No. 5. Leaf grade No. 5 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  2. 7 CFR 28.511 - Leaf Grade No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 1. 28.511 Section 28.511 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.511 Leaf Grade No. 1. Leaf grade No. 1 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  3. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  4. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  5. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  6. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  7. Homological dimension of graded semi-simple module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaozhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper proved that graded modules for greded division ring R are graded free modules and R is a IBN ring, and if R is a graded commutative ring, RM is a graded module and RM is a finite semisimple module, then gr.inj.dim RM=inj.dim RM.

  8. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  9. Gleason and Fuhrman no longer make the grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Nacey, John N; Srigley, John R

    2016-03-01

    Grading is an important prognostic parameter for prostate adenocarcinoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, the most frequently used classifications fail to account for advances in our understanding of the diagnostic features, classification and/or behaviour of these tumours. In 2005 and 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed changes to Gleason scoring with the adoption of the ISUP grading for prostate cancer in 2014 (grade 1, score 3 + 3; grade 2, score 3 + 4; grade 3, score 4 + 3; grade 4, score 8; grade 5, score 9-10). Internationally the Fuhrman grading system is widely employed despite criticisms related to its application, validity, and reproducibility. In 2012, the ISUP established a grading system for RCC (grade 1, the nucleolus is not seen or is inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2, nucleoli are eosinophilic and clearly visible at ×400 magnification; grade 3, nucleoli are clearly visible at ×100 magnification; grade 4, tumours show extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology). This grading has been validated for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. It was further recommended that chromophobe RCC not be graded. For other morphotypes of RCC, ISUP grading has not been validated as a prognostic parameter, but can be used for descriptive purposes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 7 CFR 28.507 - Color Grade No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color Grade No. 7. 28.507 Section 28.507 Agriculture... American Pima Cotton § 28.507 Color Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in color is inferior to Color Grade No. 6 shall be designated as “Color Grade No. 7.”...

  11. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Equipment and the Joint Mission Planning System. The SDB II Program will develop and field a single-weapon USAF storage container and a dual DoN weapon...weapon directly impacted the target but did not detonate. Due to a lack of telemetry data, because live fire test assets are not equipped with telemetry

  12. Richter syndrome and brain involvement: low-grade lymphoma relapsing as cerebral high-grade lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuplich, Moritz; Mayer, Karin; Kim, Young; Thanendrarajan, Sharmilan; Simon, Matthias; Schäfer, Niklas; Glas, Martin; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Richter syndrome (RS) describes the development of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from low-grade NHL. RS isolated to the brain is very rare and has a poor prognosis. We describe the cases of high-grade large B-cell diffuse NHL in a 56-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in a 71-year-old female with previously unknown low-grade NHL, both with initial appearance of neurological symptoms. This report extends the literature of central nervous system RS and particularly highlights the importance of a thorough diagnostic evaluation of patients with low-grade NHL presenting with neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Rom II-forordningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pii, Tine; Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret.......Artiklen redegør for de vigtigste regler i Europaparlamentets og Rådets forordning om lovvalgsregler for forpligtelser uden for kontraktforhold (Rom II) og sammenligner dem med dansk ret....

  14. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3410 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... injury; (ii) Blackheart; (iii) Late Blight Tuber Rot; (iv) Southern Bacterial Wilt; (v) Bacterial Ring...: (i) Freezing or freezing injury; (ii) Blackheart; (iii) Late Blight Tuber Rot; (iv) Southern...

  16. Debate-Proof Grades: Experiences and Challenges of Using a Grading Rubric in a Social Welfare Policy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, Christson A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences and challenges of a graduate teaching assistant in using a grading rubric in a social welfare policy course. Using a grading rubric as a debate-proof strategy against the grade entitlement of students is expatiated. In addition, the benefits of using grading rubrics to achieve CSWE/EPAS competency…

  17. Dielectric Response of Graded Spherical Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi; WEI En-Bo; ZHANG Han-De; TIAN Ji-Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effective dielectric responses of graded spherical composites under an external uniform electric field by taking the dielectric function of spherical inclusion, εi = crkeβr, where r is the inner distance of a point inside the particle from the centre of the spherical particle in the coordination. In the dilute limit, our exact result is used to test the validity of differential effective dipole approximation (DEDA) for estimating the effective response of graded spherical composites and it is shown that the DEDA is in excellent agreement with the exact result.

  18. Micromechanical models for graded composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, T; Dvorak, G.J.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    Elastic response of selected plane-array models of graded composite microstructures is examined under both uniform and linearly varying boundary tractions and displacements, by means of detailed finite element studies of large domains containing up to several thousand inclusions. Models consisting...... fields are predicted by Mori-Tanaka estimates. On the other hand, the response of graded materials with a skeletal microstructure in a wide transition zone between clearly defined matrix phases is better approximated by the self-consistent estimates. Certain exceptions are noted for loading by overall...

  19. Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudnos, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

  20. Functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam under load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.F.; Chen, Y. [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, the problem of a functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam subjected to different loadings is studied. The piezoelectric beam is characterized by continuously graded properties for one elastic parameter and the material density. A pair of stress and induction functions in the form of polynomials is proposed and determined. Based on these functions, a set of analytical solutions for the beam subjected to different loadings is obtained. As particular cases, series of solutions for some canonical problems can be directly obtained from the solutions of the present paper, such as for the problems of a piezoelectric cantilever beam with constant body force or without body forces, etc. (orig.)

  1. Progression-free survival: an important end point in evaluating therapy for recurrent high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Kathleen R; Yung, W K Alfred; Chang, Susan M; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Fine, Howard A; Fink, Karen L; Junck, Larry; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G; Aldape, Kenneth D; Hibberts, Janelle; Peterson, Pamela M; Prados, Michael D

    2008-04-01

    The North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) uses 6-month progression-free survival (6moPFS) as the efficacy end point of therapy trials for adult patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether progression status at 6 months predicts survival from that time, implying the potential for prolonged survival if progression could be delayed. We also evaluated earlier time points to determine whether the time of progression assessment alters the strength of the prediction. Data were from 596 patient enrollments (159 with grade III gliomas and 437 with grade IV tumors) in NABTC phase II protocols between February 1998 and December 2002. Outcome was assessed statistically using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Median survivals were 39 and 30 weeks for patients with grade III and grade IV tumors, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of patients with grade III and 16% of patients with grade IV tumors had progression-free survival of >26 weeks. Progression status at 9, 18, and 26 weeks predicted survival from those times for patients with grade III or grade IV tumors (p < 0.001 and hazard ratios < 0.5 in all cases). Including KPS, age, number of prior chemotherapies, and response in a multivariate model did not substantively change the results. Progression status at 6 months is a strong predictor of survival, and 6moPFS is a valid end point for trials of therapy for recurrent malignant glioma. Earlier assessments of progression status also predicted survival and may be incorporated in the design of future clinical trials.

  2. Combined cytotoxic effect of UV-irradiation and TiO2 microbeads in normal urothelial cells, low-grade and high-grade urothelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Roghayeh; Veranič, Peter; Iglič, Aleš; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Pazoki, Meysam; Hudoklin, Samo

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation of urothelial cells results in normal terminally differentiated cells or by alternative pathways in low-grade or high-grade urothelial carcinomas. Treatments with traditional surgical and chemotherapeutical approaches are still inadequate and expensive, as bladder tumours are generally highly recurrent. In such situations, alternative approaches, using irradiation of the cells and nanoparticles, are promising. The ways in which urothelial cells, at different differentiation levels, respond to UV-irradiation (photolytic treatment) or to the combination of UV-irradiation and nanoparticles (photocatalytic treatment), are unknown. Here we tested cytotoxicity of UV-irradiation on (i) normal porcine urothelial cells (NPU), (ii) human low-grade urothelial cancer cells (RT4), and (iii) human high-grade urothelial cancer cells (T24). The results have shown that 1 minute of UV-irradiation is enough to kill 90% of the cells in NPU and RT4 cultures, as determined by the live/dead viability assay. On the other hand, the majority of T24 cells survived 1 minute of UV-irradiation. Moreover, even a prolonged UV-irradiation for 30 minutes killed TiO2 microbeads and then UV-irradiated, the viability of these high-grade urothelial cancer cells was reduced to TiO2 photocatalysis. Using electron microscopy, we confirmed that the mesoporous TiO2 microbeads were internalized into T24 cells, and that the cell's ultrastructure was heavily compromised after UV-irradiation. In conclusion, our results show major differences in the sensitivity to UV-irradiation among the urothelial cells with respect to cell differentiation. To achieve an increased cytotoxicity of urothelial cancer cells, the photocatalytic approach is recommended.

  3. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  4. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji-Won, E-mail: fromentin@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Sung Eun, E-mail: serha@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soon Nam, E-mail: hiohsn@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Michael Yong, E-mail: digirave@kmle.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young, E-mail: jybyun@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ahwon, E-mail: klee@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The solid component of all invasive epithelial cancers showed high b{sub 1000} signal intensity. •ADCs can predict the histologic grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs correlate negatively to the surgical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs may be useful imaging biomarkers to assess epithelial ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. Materials and methods: We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. Results: The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P = 0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P = 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P = 0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P = 0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. Conclusion: The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging

  5. (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Sta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Konne

    Removal of Ni (II), Co (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous media using Starch. Stabilized Magnetic ... initial metal concentration and contact time on the removal processes was investigated. The results .... India) supplied NaOH and the Fe salts.

  6. Oligodendroglial component complicates the prediction of tumour grading with metabolic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Osamu; Hattori, Naoya; Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Shiga, Tohru; Magota, Keiichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Motegi, Hiroaki [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Oyama-Manabe, Noriko [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Department of Integrated Molecular Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Previous radiological investigations have generally shown the superiority of metabolic imaging in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade glioma, but the presence of an oligodendroglial component may affect the diagnostic accuracy. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of PET imaging using {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade glioma, in correlation with the oligodendroglial component. The study population comprised adult patients who underwent preoperative PET imaging using both MET and FDG within 1 week and successful excision of the tumour tissue, which confirmed WHO grade II-IV glioma. We examined the tumour metabolic activity in terms of lesion-to-normal uptake ratios (L/N ratio) in both MET PET and FDG PET images. We assessed the correlation between the imaging results and the histological findings to determine the diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in detecting high-grade tumours. We studied 46 patients with glioma (13 low-grade and 33 high-grade), including 26 with an oligodendroglial components. The L/N ratios of the PET images showed significantly higher metabolic activities in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas for both MET (4.29 ± 1.22 and 2.36 ± 0.72, respectively; p < 0.0001) and FDG (1.72 ± 0.91 and 0.77 ± 0.26, respectively; p = 0.0007) images, although significant overlaps in L/N ratio were observed between high-grade and low-grade gliomas. Excluding the 26 patents with an oligodendroglial component improved the separation for both MET (4.62 ± 1.14 vs. 2.16 ± 0.63; p < 0.001) and FDG (1.76 ± 0.87 vs. 0.71 ± 0.14; p < 0.05) images. The ROC analyses demonstrated the clinical utility of the metabolic radiotracers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas, showing similar AUC values for MET (0.91) and FDG (0.92). Excluding the 26 patents with an oligodendroglial component also further improved the diagnostic

  7. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.

  8. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Hasle, Peter; Hyld Pejtersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii...... variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78–1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk...

  9. Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid in a Porous Medium with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown. PMID:24785147

  10. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017 and TP53 mutation (p < 0.001, but not 1p/19q loss (p = 0.834, occurred at a higher frequency in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041 and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010 were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response

  11. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yang; Wang, Yin-Yan; Cai, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017) and TP53 mutation (p isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041) and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010) were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was highly associated with O 6-methylguanine DNA

  12. Apache, Vol. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiroga, Ronald, Comp.; And Others

    The short stories, poems, songs, and cultural descriptions about American Indians (volume 2 of two) are the result of a combined effort of the 7th grade students of Rice School District (Sacaton, Arizona), their teacher, and the parents and friends of the students of the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation (Arizona). The 24 student contributors…

  13. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC PLA CENTAL GRADING - A PREDICTOR OF FETAL MATURITY IN NORMAL A ND HIGH RISK PREGANA NCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The placental maturity is associated with advancing gestational age. Factors such as chronic hypertension, pre - eclampsia, intra - uterine growth retardation and maternal smoking are associated with accelerated placental maturation, whereas diabetes and fetom aternal immunization are associated with delayed placental maturation. Ultra sonographical placental grading is a safe, non - invasive method of assessment of fetal gestational age. AIM : To determine the placental grading in all the patients presenting to th e department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology after 32 weeks of pregnancy. To note the amniotic fluid index in all these patients and to analyse factors associated in all cases, show a grade III placenta. To compare the perinatal outcome in patient with grade II and III placenta. MATERIAL AND METHOD : A Prospective Study to 149 Antenatal case in whose pregnancy 32 weeks or more in N.S.C.B. Medical College, Jabalpur during June 2011 to September 2012. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Antenatal case whose pregnancy 32 weeks o r more and in whom USG was done within 1 wk prior to delivery. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Antenatal case whose pregnancy less than 32 weeks. All ANC patient came to the OPD at or after 32 weeks were thoroughly examined after taking detail history date of last men strual period was correctly known in all cases and gestational age were calculated by naegles formula. On abdominal examination height of the uterus was noted and compared with weeks of gestation. Routine investigation, such as hemoglobin, blood group and Rh factor and qualitative examination for albumin in urine, microscopic examination of urine were carried out in every patient. Technique for scanning the biparietal diameter - biparietal diameter was calculated in trans thalamic plane. Central echogenic fal x with two short parallel lines representing cavum septum pellucid and bilateral hypoechoic thalami were seen on either side of mid line falx. After delivery baby was

  14. PDGFRA gain in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kazuya; Mittelbronn, Michel; Paulus, Werner; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Keyvani, Kathy; Sure, Ulrich; Wrede, Karsten; Nakazato, Yoichi; Tanaka, Yuko; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Pierscianek, Daniela; Kim, Young-Ho; Mariani, Luigi; Vital, Anne; Perry, Arie; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas with a proneural expression signature are characterized by frequent IDH1 mutations (i.e. genetic hallmarks of secondary glioblastomas) and PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) amplification. Mutations in IDH1/2 are frequent and early genetic events in diffuse astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade II), precursor to secondary glioblastomas, but little is known about the role and timing of PDGFRA amplification in these tumors. We assessed PDGFRA gain in 342 low-grade diffuse gliomas by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gain in PDGFRA was detected in 27 (16.3%) of 166 diffuse astrocytomas, significantly more frequent than in oligodendrogliomas (3 [2.6%] of 115, p < 0.0001). Analyses using previously published data from our laboratory showed an inverse correlation between PDGFRA gain and IDH1/2 mutations (p = 0.018) or 1p/19q loss (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of diffuse astrocytomas showed IDH1/2 mutations and/or PDGFRA gain (154 [93%] of 166). Mean survival of diffuse astrocytoma patients with PDGFRA gain was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, similar to that with IDH1/2 mutations (7.8 ± 0.5 years) or TP53 mutations (7.6 ± 0.6 years) but significantly longer than those with MET gain (4.4 ± 0.7 years). Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization in 6 diffuse astrocytomas with PDGFRA/MET co-gain identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that PDGFRA and MET were typically amplified in different tumor cell populations. Tumor cells with coamplification were also focally observed, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity, even in diffuse astrocytomas.

  15. Relação entre a carga viral de HPV oncogênico determinada pelo método de captura híbrida e o diagnóstico citológico de lesões de alto grau Association between high-risk human papillomavirus DNA load detected by hybrid capture II and high-grade precursor lesions of cervical cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siumara Tulio

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O papilomavírus humano (HPV é o principal fator de risco para as neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais (NIC e o câncer cervical. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar se há associação entre a carga viral de HPV oncogênico (alto risco, determinada por meio do teste molecular captura híbrida II (CH II, e o diagnóstico de lesões de alto grau (NIC II/III. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 982 amostras cervicovaginais de exames ginecológicos de rotina, obtidas pelos métodos Papanicolaou convencional e/ou citologia em base líquida (DNA-Citoliq-Digene. Os resultados foram confirmados utilizando-se o método de captura híbrida (CH [Digene] para detecção de DNA/HPV de alto grau. Os resultados com valor > 1 pg/ml foram considerados positivos, e esses foram divididos em dois grupos: 1. carga viral 100 pg/ml. RESULTADOS: Dos 210 (21,4% casos diagnosticados como NIC I, 152 (72,4% foram positivos para HPV de alto risco por CH II. Desses, 101 (66,4% apresentaram carga viral > 100 pg/ml. O diagnóstico de NIC II ou III foi confirmado por CH II de alto risco em 86 (43,6% casos, contudo, entre esses, em 53 (61,6% a carga viral detectada foi > 100 pg/ml. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados demonstram que há uma clara associação entre o valor da carga viral determinada pelo método CH II (versão 1 e o grau das lesões precursoras de câncer. Pacientes com carga viral superior a 100 µg/ml devem ser monitoradas periodicamente.INTRODUCTION: Infection with oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV has been established as the main etiologic agent for cervical cancer and of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between viral loads of the high risk HPV using the hybrid capture II (HC II system and CIN lesion stage. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 982 women with diagnosis of negative or of CIN I-III with Pap or liquid-based cytology (DNA-Citoliq-Digene were included. HC II testing

  16. Urban Sociology. Curriculum Bulletin. Grade 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    The focus of the urban sociology teaching guide for grade 12 is on the effect of urbanization upon four of the major social institutions: familial, governmental, economic, and educational. An overall educational objective is to prepare students for developing rational solutions to problems confronting urban society. Objectives are stated in…

  17. Manufacture of Semi-Conductor Grade Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramakrishna

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of manufacture of elemental Si are considered in the light of its occurrence and abundance in nature. The thermodynamics of the reactions involved in the manufacture and in the refining process has been discussed. Some commercial for obtaining semiconductor Grade Si are outlined.

  18. Functional Reading Levels: From Graded Word Lists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Victor

    This study investigated the feasibility of using only the McCracken Word List (MWL), a subtest of the Standard Reading Inventory (SRI), rather than the entire SRI to determine functional grade placement in reading. The MWL is one of the few word lists with well-documented reliability and validity. In addition, the MWL has been shown to be highly…

  19. When Wrong Answers Receive Top Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    To find out whether the education community shares a collective understanding about how students should be evaluated, we surveyed 202 educators (from all grade levels) and scientists attending assessment workshops (Pennsylvania, California, and Massachusetts) or judging a national student competition (Washington, DC). The educators and scientists…

  20. Number & operations drill sheets : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2010-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice number & operations concepts.

  1. College Course Grades for Dual Enrollment Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Jill D.; Allen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study compared college course grade outcomes, both during and after high school, of dual-enrollment students to those of traditional students. The study was based on a large, multiyear sample of Iowa high school and community college students. The results showed that while in high school, dual-enrollment students consistently outperformed…

  2. INTERPRETING MODERN MATHEMATICS GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Diego County Dept. of Education, CA.

    A TELEVISION SERIES ENTITLED "INTERPRETING MODERN MATHEMATICS" IS SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY AS AN INSERVICE EDUCATIONAL SERVICE FOR TEACHERS OF GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX. THE SERIES IS NOT INTENDED TO OFFER A COMPREHENSIVE COURSE IN MODERN MATHEMATICS, BUT RATHER TO DEAL WITH THE CONTENT,…

  3. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  4. Data Modelling with First-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for a renewed focus on statistical reasoning in the beginning school years, with opportunities for children to engage in data modelling. Results are reported from the first year of a 3-year longitudinal study in which three classes of first-grade children (6-year-olds) and their teachers engaged in data modelling activities. The…

  5. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  6. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  7. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  8. Algebra task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  9. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  10. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  11. Home Economics: Grades 7-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 74 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics instruction in grades 7-9. It is organized into the following categories: child development--including toys, babysitting, and home discipline; clothing and textiles; consumer practices; foods and nutrition; and home management and family economics. Each…

  12. Online Interactive Home Work Grading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John JENQ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, World Wide Web usage for teaching and learning has increased rapidly. At the same time, the traditional paper based grading of home works have also not changed. Recently there have been many researches on automated and intelligent grading. Clearly an online grading system would be a highly desirable addition to the educational tool-kit, particularly if it can provide less costly and more effective outcome. To facilitate the student and faculties in submitting and grading their home works, a new, interactive and adaptable approach has been implemented. The unique feature of this research is to allow the grader to mark over the assignment submitted and to add comments to it. Common errors committed are recorded and is used to recommend the instructor to review certain topics which corresponds to the high error percentage. The system has been developed by making use of free distribution of software products available for the public. Based upon our experience we offer suggestions for improving the system to make it an adaptive system

  13. Helping Your Kid Make the Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sandy

    Research indicates that students' activities and relationships with their parents predict grades more surely than parental education, family income, ethnicity, sex, and family structure. Children with extremely permissive parents do not do well and children with extremely authoritarian parents do worse. Inconsistent parenting is even more strongly…

  14. Experimental Course Report, Grade Nine, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert B.

    Reported are the results of an experimental course taught at the ninth grade level. The course included both modern and traditional topics in algebra. Presented are a rationale for the course, a list of the topics included in the course, a description of instructional techniques and methods used in presenting and developing some of the main ideas…

  15. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  16. Handwriting: Grade 3 Cursive Practice Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    Intended for children in third grade, this workbook provides practice in writing correctly all 26 cursive letters, both upper and lower-case, and numerals from 0 to 9. The alphabet used in the workbook is the Zaner-Bloser style of handwriting, the most widely used system in the schools of the United States. The strokes used to make each letter are…

  17. Handwriting: Grade 4 Cursive Practice Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    Intended for children in fourth grade, this workbook provides practice in writing correctly all 26 cursive letters, both upper and lower-case, and numerals from 0 to 9. The alphabet used in the workbook is the Zaner-Bloser style of handwriting, the most widely used system in the schools of the United States. The strokes used to make each letter…

  18. THE MORE CAPABLE LEARNER, GRADE 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLENBERGER, DARIUS; AND OTHERS

    THE COLLECTION OF MATERIALS PROVIDES ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES FOR THIRD GRADE PUPILS. AN INTRODUCTORY SECTION OFFERS AIDS TO THE TEACHER IN IDENTIFYING THE MORE ABLE STUDENT AND IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES, ART APPRECIATION, ARITHMETIC, AND HAIKU - A POETRY FORM. THE SECOND SECTION IS A COMPILATION OF SAMPLE COPIES OF PUPIL MATERIALS. THE MATERIALS…

  19. THE MORE CAPABLE LEARNER, GRADE 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELDERS, HAL; AND OTHERS

    THE COLLECTION OF MATERIALS PROVIDES ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES FOR THE FOURTH GRADE STUDENT. THE TEACHER'S SECTION INCLUDES--SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THE PUPIL MATERIALS, CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MORE ABLE LEARNER, A CHECK LIST FOR IDENTIFYING THE MORE ABLE LEARNER, AND AN ACTIVITIES CHART SHOWING THE OVERLAPPING USE OF VARIOUS ACTIVITIES TO AID IN THE…

  20. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual no

  1. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  2. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  3. Logic Mysteries. Grades 3-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Jane

    The logical mysteries in this book are designed to develop critical thinking and deductive reasoning skills, motivate children to read carefully, and develop memory skills. The mystery solutions are explained at the end of the book. The first nine mysteries are intended for third grade students to work on with their teacher or parents. The second…

  4. Asymptotic modelling of some functionally graded materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak, Czeslaw; Wagrowska, Monika

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The object of analysis is a multilayered functionally graded laminated heat conductor. Region occupied by this heat conductor is denoted by Ω=(0, L)× Ξ, where Ξ is a region on the 0ξ1ξ2 plane and x∈(0, L). Region Ω is divided into n layers of the same thicknesses λ ...

  5. Functionally graded materials with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Pei, Y.T.; Brebbia, CA

    2001-01-01

    Al-40 w/o Si functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a onestep laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surro

  6. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  7. Functionally Graded Materials Produced by Laser Cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  8. Online Interactive Home Work Grading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John JENQ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, World Wide Web usage for teaching and learning has increased rapidly. At the same time, the traditional paper based grading of home works have also not changed. Recently there have been many researches on automated and intelligent grading. Clearly an online grading system would be a highly desirable addition to the educational tool-kit, particularly if it can provide less costly and more effective outcome. To facilitate the student and faculties in submitting and grading their home works, a new, interactive and adaptable approach has been implemented. The unique feature of this research is to allow the grader to mark over the assignment submitted and to add comments to it. Common errors committed are recorded and is used to recommend the instructor to review certain topics which corresponds to the high error percentage. The system has been developed by making use of free distribution of software products available for the public. Based upon our experience we offer suggestions for improving the system to make it an adaptive system

  9. Automated computer grading of hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Klinkhachorn; J.P. Franklin; Charles W. McMillin; R.W. Conners; H.A. Huber

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an improved computer program to grade hardwood lumber. The program was created as part of a system to automate various aspects of the hardwood manufacturing industry. It enhances previous efforts by considering both faces of the board and provides easy application of species dependent rules. The program can be readily interfaced with a computer...

  10. Serendipity, Eighth Grade Concerns, and Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Josie; Pros, Jennifer; Marshall, Joan

    Graduate students (N=13) in a counselor education program in New York State participated in a study about what they thought were the main concerns of eighth grade students. A needs assessment is often a helpful method for counselors to plan and deliver services. The responses of the school counselor trainees were very different from the responses…

  11. The Golden Rule of Grading: Being Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brian J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides four rules on grading for new teaching assistants: (1) set clear standards, and make them known; (2) apply the same standards to everyone; (3) stand firm when you are right, admit when you are wrong; and (4) take your students seriously. (CMK)

  12. Sex Fair Grading in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Helga

    1984-01-01

    Sex fair performance evaluation has been a primary concern in physical education. A discussion of physiological differences between males and females shows how problems in developing fair evaluation plans arise. Suggestions for developing a sex fair grading plan and an example program adaptable to other settings are offered. (DF)

  13. Grade Inflation in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachan, Ray

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the continual increase in the proportion of "good" honour degrees awarded by UK universities since the mid-2000s. This trend has brought with it the charge of "grade inflation" that may reflect falling standards in UK higher education. This issue has been raised in the national press and in government which…

  14. Does Social Background Influence Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests a hypothesized linear relationship between social background and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Central Arkansas. I employ a cross-sectional research design and ordinary least square (OLS) estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis. Relying on a sample of up to 204…

  15. Early Grade Writing Assessment: An Instrument Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization promoted the creation of a model instrument for individual assessment of students' foundational writing skills in the Spanish language that was based on a literature review and existing writing tools and assessments. The purpose of the "Early Grade Writing Assessment"…

  16. Home Economics. Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection contains 41 cognitive objectives and related test items for home economics, grades 10-12. It is organized into the following categories: child development (home discipline); clothing and textiles, consumer practices; design principals; health services, home management and family economics; housing; and pregnancy. Each objective is…

  17. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  18. Does Attendance Enhance Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2007-01-01

    This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…

  19. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  20. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  1. Health Education: Nutrition for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This publication contains 24 objectives and related evaluation items for grades K-6. The collection is organized into the following categories: daily food choices, food processing, consumer education, nutrients from food, nutrients and disease, storage preparation methods, food in man's environment, and table manners. Three elements--the…

  2. What I Learned from Teaching Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn

    1996-01-01

    Reflections of a second grade mathematics teacher include the importance of organizing the year into units (place value, sorting, geometry, probability, comparing numbers, and geometry again), the benefits of giving choices within the classroom, assigning homework where the student must teach a lesson to someone at home, and the ability of the…

  3. When Wrong Answers Receive Top Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    To find out whether the education community shares a collective understanding about how students should be evaluated, we surveyed 202 educators (from all grade levels) and scientists attending assessment workshops (Pennsylvania, California, and Massachusetts) or judging a national student competition (Washington, DC). The educators and scientists…

  4. Endocervical glandular involvement, positive endocervical surgical margin and multicentricity are more often associated with high-grade than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Gozde; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Topal, Cumhur Selçuk; Yılmaz, Müberra Segmen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative frequencies of endocervical glandular involvement (EGI), multicentricity, positive endocervical surgical margins (ESM) and positive vaginal surgical margins (VSM), and adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix (AIS) between high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL, respectively). We identified 238 patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) who were treated by loop electrocautery excision (LEEP) or conventional cold-knife conization (CKC). A total of 223 (72 [32.3%] LSIL/CIN I; 85 [38.1%] HSIL/CIN II; 66 [29.6%] HSIL/CIN III; and 151 [67.7%], HSIL/CIN II + III) LEEP/CKC slides were histologically reviewed. The frequencies of EGI, positive ESM, and multicentricity were significantly higher in the HSIL/CIN II + III group than in the LSIL/CIN I group (P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.025, respectively). Eighteen of the 72 (25%) LSIL/CIN I patients, 44 of the 85 (51.8%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 60 of the 66 (90.9%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.001) showed EGI. In four of the 72 (5.6%) LSIL/CIN I patients, 18 of the 85 (21.2%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 42 of the 66 (63.6%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.001), ESM was positive. Two of the 72 (2.8%) LSIL/CIN I patients, seven of the 85 (8.2%) HSIL/CIN II patients, and 11 of the 66 (16.7%) HSIL/CIN III patients (P = 0.016) were multicentric. The current study showed that EGI, positive ESM and multicentricity were more often associated with HSIL/CIN II + III than with LSIL/CIN I. Moreover, the frequencies of EGI, multicentricity, and positive ESM increased with increasing severity of the cervical lesion. This result may influence the preference for the type of surgical procedure used for patients with cytological diagnosis of HSIL. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  6. Outcomes of Multidisciplinary Management in Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kevin S., E-mail: koh2@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hung, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Robertson, Patricia L. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Garton, Hugh J.; Muraszko, Karin M. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes in pediatric low-grade gliomas managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Methods and Materials: We conducted a single-institution retrospective study of 181 children with Grade I-II gliomas. Log-rank and stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Thirty-four (19%) of patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and because of their favorable prognosis were evaluated separately. In the 147 (81%) of patients without NF1, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 67 {+-} 4% (standard error) and 94 {+-} 2%, respectively. In this population, tumor location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus was associated with worse FFP (39% vs. 76%, p < 0.0003), but there was no difference in OS. Age {<=}5 years was associated with worse FFP (52% vs. 75%, p < 0.02) but improved OS (97% vs. 92%, p < 0.05). In those with tissue diagnosis, gross total resection (GTR) was associated with improved 7-year FFP (81% vs. 56%, p < 0.02) and OS (100% vs. 90%, p < 0.03). In a multivariate model, only location in the optic pathway/hypothalamus predicted worse FFP (p < 0.01). Fifty patients received radiation therapy (RT). For those with less than GTR, adjuvant RT improved FFP (89% vs. 49%, p < 0.003) but not OS. There was no difference in OS between patient groups given RT as adjuvant vs. salvage therapy. In NF1 patients, 94% of tumors were located in the optic pathway/hypothalamus. With a conservative treatment strategy in this population, actuarial 7-year FFP and OS were 73 {+-} 9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Low-grade gliomas in children {<=}5 years old with tumors in the optic pathway/hypothalamus are more likely to progress, but this does not confer worse OS because of the success of salvage therapy. When GTR is not achieved, adjuvant RT improves FFP but not OS. Routine adjuvant RT can be avoided and instead reserved as salvage.

  7. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Vibriosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  9. Strongly luminescing ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) binuclear complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R.; Baucom, D.A.; Rillema, D.P.

    1986-10-08

    Two strongly luminescing complexes, ruthenium(II)/ruthenium(II) homobinuclear complex and ruthenium(II)/platinum(II) heterobinuclear complex, have been prepared and characterized. The organic part of the complex is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2' bipyridine dimer. The luminescence behavior of the homobinuclear and heterobinculear complexes was found to be comparable to that of Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/, although the luminescence maxima were shifted from 615 to 620 nm. These complexes exhibit good stability due to the bidentate chelating capability of the bridging ligand. These new complexes can provide the opportunity for detailed photophysical studies related to donor-acceptor interactions and to the possibility of two simultaneous single-electron transfer events. 17 references, 2 figures.

  10. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  11. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  12. Mod II engine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  13. DUMAND II status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T. (ICRR, University of Tokyo, Japan (JP)); Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P.E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J.G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J.J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O' Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V.Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C.E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V.J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K.K. (University of Bern, Switzerland (CH) Boston University, (USA) University of Hawaii, (USA) University of Kiel, Germany (DE) Kobe University, Japan (JP) Kinki University, Japan (JP) Okayama Science University, Japan (JP) Scripps Institute of Oceanography, (USA) Tohoku University, Japan (JP) ICRR, University of tokyo, Japan (JP) NLHEP Tsukuba, Japan (JP) Vanderbilt University, (USA) University of Washington, (US

    1991-04-05

    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  14. DUMAND II status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, T.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Bosetti, P.; Boynton, P. E.; Bradner, H.; Camerini, U.; Clem, J.; Commichau, V.; Dau, D.; Dye, S.; Grieder, P. K. F.; Hayashino, T.; Hazen, E.; Jaworski, M.; Kitamura, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Koske, P.; Learned, J. G.; Ley, C.; Lord, J. J.; March, R.; Matsuno, S.; Minkowski, P.; Mitsui, K.; O'Connor, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Peterson, V. Z.; Rathlev, J.; Roberts, A.; Roos, C. E.; Sakuda, M.; Samm, D.; Stenger, V. J.; Tanaka, S.; Uehara, S.; Webster, M.; Wilkins, G.; Wilkes, R. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, I.; Young, K. K.

    1991-04-01

    The scientific goals, design, capabilities, and status of the DUMAND II detector system are described. In June, 1989, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel recommended support for construction of DUMAND II to the U.S. Department of Energy. Funding began in 1990, and prototype development for various detector subsystems is under way. Current plans include deployment of the shore cable, junction box and three strings of optical detector modules in 1992, and expansion to the full 9-string configuration in 1993.

  15. Ecuaciones Diferenciales II

    OpenAIRE

    Mañas Baena, Manuel; Martínez Alonso, Luis

    2015-01-01

    En este manual se revisan diferentes aspectos sobre las ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales de utilidad para los físicos. Se elaboraron como notas de clase de la asignatura Ecuaciones II, del plan 1993 de la Licenciatura de Física de la UCM. Actualmente cubre un 75% de la asignatura Métodos Matemáticos II del Grado de Física de la UCM.

  16. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  17. Evaluation of Telomerase (hTert, Ki67 and p16ink4a expressions in low and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PAULA SZEZEPANIAK GOULART

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective : to study the association between the histological grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, CIN II and CIN III and the immunohistochemical expression for p16ink4a, hTert and Ki67, as well as to evaluate the relationship of these markers with the risk of recurrence after surgical treatment. Methods : we studied a historical cohort of 94 women with intraepithelial lesions CIN I (low grade, CIN II and CIN III (high grades submitted to conization or electrosurgical excision of the transformation zone. We evaluated all surgical specimens for immunohistochemical expression of p16ink4a, hTert and Ki67. Results : the mean age was 38.2 years; p16ink4a was absent in most CIN I cases. In patients with CIN II or I/II (association of low and high-grade lesions, we observed p16ink4a ≤10%. In patients with CIN III, we found a higher expression frequency of p16ink4a >50%. In CIN I, the majority had Ki67≤10% and low frequency of Ki67>50%. In the CIN III category, there were fewer patients with Ki67≤10%, and Ki67 was absent in most patients of CIN II and III groups. There was no association between hTert expression and histologic grade. There were no statistically significant differences between the expression of the markers in patients with and without recurrence. Conclusion : there was a statistically significant association of p16ink4a and Ki67 with histological grade. The markers' expression, as for disease recurrence, was not statistically significant in the period evaluated.

  18. Hybrid graded element model for transient heat conduction in functionally graded materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei-Lei Cao; Qing-Hua Qin; Ning Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid graded element model for the transient heat conduction problem in functionally graded materials (FGMs).First,a Laplace transform approach is used to handle the time variable.Then,a fundamental solution in Laplace space for FGMs is constructed.Next,a hybrid graded element is formulated based on the obtained fundamental solution and a frame field.As a result,the graded properties of FGMs are naturally reflected by using the fundamental solution to interpolate the intra-element field.Further,Stefest's algorithm is employed to convert the results in Laplace space back into the time-space domain.Finally,the performance of the proposed method is assessed by several benchmark examples.The results demonstrate well the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading of prostate cancer - An ISUP consensus on contemporary grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egevad, Lars; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2016-06-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has issued guidelines for the grading of prostate cancer based on a consensus conference held in 2014. The recommendations resulting from the 2014 consensus conference were a further development of 2005 ISUP modified Gleason grading. In the 2014 system, morphological criteria are clarified, including updated definitions of Gleason pattern 4. In addition to the continued reporting of Gleason scores, we also recommend that Gleason scores ≤6, 3 + 4 = 7, 4 + 3 = 7, 8 and 9-10, respectively, be reported as five groups, i.e. ISUP grades 1-5. This new grading system has the dual benefit of predicting patient outcome as well as facilitating patient communication. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 7 CFR 868.315 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... safe and suitable as defined in the regulation issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... has been gelatinized by soaking, steaming, and drying. Grades U.S. No. 1 to U.S. No. 6,...