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Sample records for sarmiento formation middle

  1. El Padre Sarmiento y el megalitismo gallego

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    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the observations made by Father Martin Sarmiento (1695-1772 upon the megalithic complex in Galicia are collected and analysed in their historical context. On this basis, his contribution to our knowledge of this phenomenon is discussed, and it is argued that he was the first scholar to consider the monuments as actual sources of information about the past. Lastly, a table with his references to specific megaliths and their location is presented, in the hope that this could be of use for modem archaeological surveys.

    Se recogen y analizan, dentro de su contexto histórico, las referencias del Padre Fray Martín Sarmiento (1695-1772 al megalitismo gallego. A partir de ellas se estudia su aportación al conocimiento de este fenómeno y se comprueba cómo él inaugura la consideración de los monumentos como verdaderos documentos que informan sobre el pasado. Finalmente, se presenta una tabla con sus alusiones más específicas a monumentos megalíticos que podría facilitar eventuales trabajos de prospección arqueológica.

  2. Age and petrogenesis of the Sarmiento ophiolite complex of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C. R.; Mukasa, S. B.; Fuenzalida P., R.

    1992-08-01

    Zircon fractions separated from fine-grained plagiogranites, interpreted to be cogenetic with the mafic rocks of the Sarmiento ophiolite complex in southern Chile, yield slightly to grossly discordant age patterns for which the lower concordia intercept U-Pb ages of 140.7 ± 0.7 Ma (Lolos Fjord) and 137.1 ± 0.6 Ma (Encuentro Fjord) are well constrained. These dates are interpreted as formation ages for the northern portion of the igneous floor of the Rocas Verdes basin, and they are younger than the age of 150 Ma determined for a more southern portion of the floor of this basin on South Georgia Island. Coarse-grained trondjemites within the gabbro units of the Sarmiento complex yield a lower concordia intercept U-Pb age of 147 ± 10 Ma and a poorly defined upper intercept reflecting an inherited zircon component, possibly of Proterozoic age. These rocks are interpreted as remobilized fragments of country rocks entrapped within the essentially mantle-derived rocks of the ophiolite complex.

  3. Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi: três visões sobre a democracia nas Américas Tocqueville, Sarmiento and Alberdi: three visions on Democracy in Americas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Bendicho Beired

    2003-01-01

    Analisaremos comparativamente três importantes ideólogos liberais do século XIX, Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi, que situados em diferentes continentes discutiram o significado da democracia nos marcos da ordem liberal...

  4. Impact of telecommunication technologies on the middle class formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnullova, A.; Absalyamova, S.; Sakhapov, R.; Mukhametgalieva, Ch

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the impact of the information economy on the formation of the middle class. The paper identifies factors contributing to the increase in the share of the middle class in the transition to the information economy. The positive synergetic influence of telecommunication technologies on the formation of the middle class is considered through a possibility of using virtual spaces for labor and educational activities, a possibility of obtaining high returns in the form of dividends on intellectual capital, a qualitative change in the structure of needs, an access to new types of information services, etc. Authors develop a complex model of research of the middle class in the information economy, differing from those available using an expanded list of criteria. In addition to such widely used criteria as income level, level of education and self-identification, the criterion "degree of involvement in the information society" was introduced. The study substantiates that the transition to the information economy made an access to information and communication technologies one of the most significant criteria for social differentiation of society. On the basis of the model, an econometric estimate of the middle class has been carried out, which makes it possible to reveal the share of the middle class in modern society, dynamics of its development, as well as multicollinearity between spending on education, the Gini coefficient, access to information and telecommunication technologies and the size of the middle class.

  5. La comunidad del filicidio: La vida de Dominguito de Domingo Sarmiento y su transposición fílmica

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    Nicolás Suárez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a comparative reading of La vida de Dominguito, by Domingo Sarmiento, and its 1944 filmic transposition, entitled Su mejor alumno and written by Homero Manzi and Ulyses Petit de Murat. To that end, we explore the continuities and changes in the images of Sarmiento and Dominguito that both works posit. Firstly, the movie is presented as a staging of Sarmiento’s image shift from the popular education project to pop culture. Secondly, we suggest that the son image in both works supports a political community based on the ethical ideal of the philia. However, the failure of such communitarian model is determined by the act of filicide, which –through the metaphor of an infant people which cannot outgrow its own infancy– enables a reading of the film related to the sociohistorical context in which Sarmiento’s pop image emerged along with the formation of Peronism

  6. Assessing Middle and High School Mathematics & Science: Differentiating Formative Assessment

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    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of mathematics and science, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  7. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

    2008-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, α95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting

  8. On the Formation of Verb Compounds in Early Middle Japanese

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    Wenchao LI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the formation of verb compounds in Early Middle Japanese, a stage of the Japanese language used in the Heian Period (794–1185. The findings reveal that current verb compounds have come a long way from Old Japanese. Multiple verbs in Old Japanese are assigned to an associate type, rather than a compounding type of relation. Thus, the serial constituents receive equal syntactic weight, giving rise to the extensive use of the coordinate type and succession type of multi-verbs. In Early Middle Japanese, the combinations of the two constituents seem much tighter, giving rise the frequent use of the modifier-predicate V-V. The conclusion emerging from this study is that it was not until Early Middle Japanese that verb compounds in the strict sense appeared. Moreover, two types of verb weakening are observed in Early Middle Japanese: (a transformation of the first verb into a prefix, (b grammaticalization of the second verb into a directional/resultative complement.

  9. Sarmiento, lector de El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes

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    Elena Altuna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1845, Domingo F. Sarmiento elabora en las páginas de su Facundo la dicotomía civilización-barbarie, modelo interpretativo de una cultura nacional profundamente escindida por las guerras civiles y la anarquía. Este complejo panorama se desarrolla entre 1830, fecha en que adviene el fracaso de los proyectos de unidad continental o regional, y 1850, cuando comienzan a consolidarse los Estados, se logra la pacificación social y se fortalecen las economías nacionales con el paulatino crecimiento industrial y el comercio con Europa. Durante este período, dos tendencias dominan el campo intelectual: el liberalismo ideológico en lo político y el romanticismo en el ámbito artístico y literario (Osorio 2000: 41. Para el tema que me interesa desarrollar, acudiré previamente a dos cuestiones ya abordadas por la crítica: las fuentes del Facundo y el origen de los términos de la polaridad en él expuesta.

  10. Shallowing-upward cycles in the Middle Proterozoic Altyn Formation.

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    White, Brian

    1981-11-12

    Phanerozoic carbonate rocks commonly contain cycles, a few metres thick, which were deposited during progressive shallowing of their oceanic environment 1 . Each cycle represents a deepening of water in a nearshore area, followed by the accumulation of sediments up to sea level. The causes of the water deepening which begins each cycle are rarely known. Possibilities include tectonic activity that affected the depositional basin and changes in ocean volume due to the expansion and contraction of ice sheets. I report here that similar cycles occur in the Middle Proterozoic Altyn Formation, part of the Belt Supergroup 2 . The cycles are probably related to vertical tectonic activity which influenced sedimentation in the Belt basin. The presence of shallowing-upward cycles in the Altyn Formation shows that such cycles are not confined to the Phanerozoic. Other Precambrian sequences should be examined to see if they too contain cycles. Where such cycles are found they may give important information about Precambrian tectonism and glaciation.

  11. Middle Miocene carnivorans from the Monarch Mill Formation, Nevada

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    Kent Smith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed coniferous and hardwood forest and chaparral-sclerophyllous shrubland, and suggests that the area had been uplifted to 2700–2800 m paleoaltitude before dropping later to near its present elevation of 1600 m. Thus, the local fauna provides a rare glimpse at a medium- to high-altitude vertebrate community in the intermountain western interior of North America. The local fauna includes the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 25 families of mammals. Carnivorans, the focus of this study, include six taxa (three of which are new belonging to four families. Canidae are represented by the borophagine Tomarctus brevirostris and the canine Leptocyon sp. indet. The earliest record and second North American occurrence of the simocyonine ailurid Actiocyon is represented by A. parverratis sp. nov. Two new mustelids, Brevimalictis chikasha gen. et sp. nov. and Negodiaetictis rugatrulleum gen. et sp. nov., may represent Galictinae but are of uncertain subfamilial and tribal affinity. The fourth family is represented by the felid Pseudaelurus sp. indet. Tomarctus brevirostris is limited biochronologically to the Barstovian land mammal age and thus is consistent with the age indicated by other members of the Eastgate local fauna as well as by indirect tephrochronological dates previously associated with the Monarch Mill Formation. Actiocyon parverratis sp. nov. extends the temporal range of the genus Actiocyon from late Clarendonian back to the Barstovian. The Eastgate local fauna improves our understanding of mammalian successions and evolution, during and subsequent to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

  12. Paleosols and paleoenvironments of the middle Miocene, Maboko Formation, Kenya.

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    Retallack, Gregory J; Wynn, Jonathan G; Benefit, Brenda R; Mccrossin, Monte L

    2002-06-01

    The middle Miocene (15 Ma) Maboko Formation of Maboko Island and Majiwa Bluffs, southwestern Kenya, has yielded abundant fossils of the earliest known cercopithecoid monkey (Victoriapithecus macinnesi), and of a kenyapithecine hominoid (Kenyapithecus africanus), as well as rare proconsuline (Simiolus leakeyorum, cf. Limnopithecus evansi) and oreopithecine apes (Mabokopithecus clarki, M. pickfordi), and galagids (Komba winamensis). Specific habitat preferences can be interpreted from large collections of primate fossils in different kinds of paleosols (pedotypes). Fossiliferous drab-colored paleosols with iron-manganese nodules (Yom pedotype) are like modern soils of seasonally waterlogged depressions (dambo). Their crumb structure and abundant fine root-traces, as well as scattered large calcareous rhizoconcretions indicate former vegetation of seasonally wet, wooded grassland. Other fossiliferous paleosols are evidence of nyika bushland (Ratong), and early-successional riparian woodland (Dhero). No fossils were found in Mogo paleosols interpreted as saline scrub soils. Very shallow calcic horizons (in Yom, Ratong, and Mogo paleosols) and Na-montmorillonite (in Mogo) are evidence of dry paleoclimate (300-500 mm MAP=mean annual precipitation). This is the driest paleoclimate and most open vegetation yet inferred as a habitat for any Kenyan Miocene apes or monkeys. Victoriapithecus was abundant in dambo wooded grassland (Yom) and riparian woodland (Dhero), a distribution like that of modern vervet monkeys. Kenyapithecus ranged through all these paleosols, but was the most common primate in nyika bushland paleosols (Ratong), comparable to baboons and macaques today. Mabokopithecus was virtually restricted to riparian woodland paleosols (Dhero), and Simiolus had a similar, but marginally wider, distribution. Habitat preferences of Mabokopithecus and Simiolus were like those of modern colobus monkeys and mangabeys. A single specimen of Komba was found in dambo wooded

  13. Regional conflict formations: is the Middle East next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2007-01-01

    As Iraq is plunging into civil war, politics and violence in the Middle East are increasingly perceived to be highly interconnected and entwined. This article offers an attempt to understand the nature and scope of this regional interconnectedness involving three of the region's states—Iraq, Syria

  14. Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi: três visões sobre a democracia nas Américas Tocqueville, Sarmiento and Alberdi: three visions on Democracy in Americas

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    José Luis Bendicho Beired

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaremos comparativamente três importantes ideólogos liberais do século XIX, Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi, que situados em diferentes continentes discutiram o significado da democracia nos marcos da ordem liberal. Explicaremos os argumentos e conceitos desenvolvidos em algumas de suas obras mais importantes, em articulação às posições políticas e ideológicas por eles sustentados nos contextos específicos em que atuaram.This article analyses comparatively three important ideologists of different continents of XIXth, that studied the concept of Democracy in the liberal context. It explains concepts and propositions of most representative works of those thinkers, articulated to their political and ideological visions in the specific contexts in which they lived.

  15. Edition and Traslation of the «Carta a lord Burghley» by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa

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    Andrés Eichmann Oehrli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the following article we present an unpublished and unknown text of Galician discoverer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. The letter, wrote in Latin, was send to Lord Burghley, the first minister of Elizabeth Tudor. Its content links chro-nicles and legends of Spain and Galicia to the genealogy of Sarmiento de Gamboa. Here, we offer the biographical context of the letter, a brief study of the sources, apart from the transcription of the original and the translation of the text into Spanish.

  16. De la independencia a la natural barbarie americana. Una lectura del Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento

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    Maura Brighenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lectura del "Facundo" de Domingo F. Sarmiento y, en particular, de su más general visión de la historia y de la realidad argentina y latinoamericana a partir del esquema dicotómico de civilización y barbarie que tendrá mucha suerte en las narraciones de los procesos del modernización latinoamericanos por lo menos hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A través del análisis de algunos entre los múltiples niveles narrativos del "Facundo" se quiere mostrar como tal imagen dicotómica se va cristalizando en el texto. Partiendo del espacio infinito y vacío de la pampa y pasando por una antropología del gaucho - de su manera de vivir y de conducir la guerra - Sarmiento conduce el lector hasta la forma típicamente americana de despotismo, el caudillismo, llegado en Argentina a su epopeya final con el régimen de Juan M. de Rosas. En la última parte se intenta injertar el esquema dicotómico del Facundo al interior de la más general reflexión del Occidente sobre la modernidad y sus alteridades, a través por un lado del prisma orientalista y por el otro de las mismas fuentes del pensamiento moderno europeo y en particular de Locke y Hobbes.

  17. Menispermaceae from the Cerrejon Formation, middle to late Paleocene, Colombia.

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    Doria, Gabriela; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Herrera, Fabiany

    2008-08-01

    The origin and processes creating the high diversity of plant species in neotropical rain forests and their floristic composition and multistratitified forest structure are still uncertain. Here, we studied one of the most common leaf morphotypes of the Cerrejón flora (middle-late Paleocene, ca. 60-58 Ma), Guajira, Colombia, that contains one of the oldest records of neotropical rain forest floras. Fifty-seven leaf specimens were carefully examined with a focus on general morphology, venation patterns, and cuticular characteristics. The analysis allowed us to recognize four new species that were assigned to the fossil-leaf genus Menispermites on the basis of an ovate leaf shape with cordate to truncate bases, actinodromous primary venation, brochidodromous secondary venation, percurrent tertiary venation, regular polygonal reticulate fourth and fifth venation, well-developed polygonal areoles, entire margin, and the presence of a fimbrial vein. This set of characters suggests a possible affinity with the pantropical angiosperm family Menispermaceae. The predominantly climbing habit of this family suggests that the Cerrejón Paleocene tropical rain forest was already multistratified. These findings represent the earliest record for the family in northern South America.

  18. Assessing Middle and High School Social Studies & English: Differentiating Formative Assessment

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    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer

    2010-01-01

    For middle and high school teachers of social studies and English, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  19. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... legislation. The fossils are preserved in clay ironstone concretions and almost two-thirds are isolated skulls preserved three-dimensionally. Bird fossils of this age and degree of preservation are rare in an international context. The fossils indicate a very diverse assemblage consisting of both marine...... Clay Formation deposits derive from just after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum, a period of global elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison between this bird assemblage and the recently revised assemblage from the older (earliest Ypresian) Fur Formation of Denmark...

  20. The formation placement and palaeoenvironment of the Middle Miocene Los Atajos Member, Trinidad

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    Wilson, Brent; Farfan, Philip; Hughes, Chantelle

    2017-07-01

    The age, palaeoenvironment and formation placement of the conglomeratic Los Atajos Member of central Trinidad have long been unclear. Seven samples (four from calcareous silts near the member's base exposed by building work at the Los Atajos Community Centre, and three from the underlying calcareous claystones of the Brasso Formation) were examined for calcareous microfossils. These indicate a conformable succession encompassing an overall regression. The oldest of the claystone samples, of uppermost early Middle Miocene Globorotalia fohsi fohsi Zone age (N11), contained an upper bathyal benthic foraminiferal assemblage, while the younger claystone samples yielded abundant, shallow neritic Hanzawaia carstensi. The recovery of the planktonic foraminifera Globorotalia mayeri but absence of Globigerinoides subquadratus suggest a Middle Miocene age (Globorotalia mayeri planktonic foraminiferal Zone; N14) for both the uppermost Brasso claystone sample and the Los Atajos Member. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Los Atajos is dominated by Rosalina subaraucana, with subdominant Cibicides ex gr. aknerianus and C. floridanus sensu Galloway and Heminway, and common Elphidium spp. This faunal succession has a close affinity with that of parts of the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation, especially the N10 Guaracara Limestone Member and the clays on which it sits. However, the Los Atajos Member assemblage differs markedly from that of the overlying Late Miocene San José Calcareous Silt Member of the Manzanilla Formation, from which the Los Atajos is separated by an unconformity of Globorotalia menardii (N15) Zone age. On these grounds, the Los Atajos Member is here placed within the Brasso Formation. The low diversity, high dominance benthic foraminiferal fauna and the associated ostracod assemblage in the Los Atajos are indicative of inner to shallower middle neritic palaeodepths in a carbonate-prone palaeoenvironment with marine vegetation and strong current action

  1. Reference section for the Minturn Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian), northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Custer County, Colorado

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    Lindsey, D.A.; Clark, R.F.; Soulliere, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This reference section of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation was measured in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range; the section provides a basis for comparison with the type Minturn and with possibly equivalent strata elsewhere in southern Colorado. The name "Minturn" was first applied to strata of Middle Pennsylvanian age near the town of Minturn in central Colorado (Tweto, 1949, p. 194-228; Tweto and Lovering, 1977, p. 33–53), about 180 km north of the section described, and has been extended to strata of approximately the same age that contain marine limestones in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range (Brill, 1952; Bolyard, 1959; Scott and Taylor, 1974). The Minturn reference section continues upward into the principal reference section of the overlying Pennsylvanian and Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation (Lindsey and Schaefer, 1984), and these two sections together provide a continuous record of upper Paleozoic strata in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range.

  2. Correspondencia inédita y otras contribuciones para ampliar el epistolario de Martín Sarmiento

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    Santos Puerto, José

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the need to revise and extend the Correspondence of Martin Sarmiento, according to the original letters known. We explain and reflect on the possible whereabouts of some letters that are now lost or misplaced. Twelve letters that were not included in the Sarmiento’s Epistolary are published in a final addendum. Seven letters were sent by Sarmiento to his brother, and the other five letters to friends. The annex also includes the title of Cronista General de Indias and the designation as Abbot of Ripoll and his presentation to the Pope.

    En este estudio se señala la necesidad de revisar y ampliar el Epistolario del Padre Martín Sarmiento, teniendo en cuenta los originales existentes. Por ello se da cuenta de las cartas originales conocidas y se reflexiona sobre el posible paradero de algunas que actualmente están perdidas o traspapeladas. En un anexo final se editan doce cartas que no aparecieron en el Epistolario, once de ellas originales e inéditas. Siete se remitieron a familiares, y las otras cinco a amigos y correligionarios. En el anexo también se incorporan los títulos de Cronista General de Indias y el nombramiento y presentación ante el Papa para la abadía de Ripoll.

  3. Perceptions and attitudes of formative assessments in middle-school science classes

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    Chauncey, Penny Denyse

    No Child Left Behind mandates utilizing summative assessment to measure schools' effectiveness. The problem is that summative assessment measures students' knowledge without depth of understanding. The goal of public education, however, is to prepare students to think critically at higher levels. The purpose of this study was to examine any difference between formative assessment incorporated in instruction as opposed to the usual, more summative methods in terms of attitudes and academic achievement of middle-school science students. Maslow's theory emphasizes that individuals must have basic needs met before they can advance to higher levels. Formative assessment enables students to master one level at a time. The research questions focused on whether statistically significant differences existed between classrooms using these two types of assessments on academic tests and an attitude survey. Using a quantitative quasi-experimental control-group design, data were obtained from a sample of 430 middle-school science students in 6 classes. One control and 2 experimental classes were assigned to each teacher. Results of the independent t tests revealed academic achievement was significantly greater for groups that utilized formative assessment. No significant difference in attitudes was noted. Recommendations include incorporating formative assessment results with the summative results. Findings from this study could contribute to positive social change by prompting educational stakeholders to examine local and state policies on curriculum as well as funding based on summative scores alone. Use of formative assessment can lead to improved academic success.

  4. From Sarmiento to Martí and Hostos: Extricating the Nation from Coloniality

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    Thomas Ward

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines constructions of  race, nation and mestizaje in work of Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí and Eugenio  Maria de Hostos. The first championed the prevailing nineteenth-century view that humanity  was being debilitated by a constant battle between  civilization and barbarism while the two Antilleans questioned it in their search for a society  liberated from coloniality. Martí denied the notion  of privilege based on Europeanness, proclaiming  that whites, blacks, indigenous and mixed-race  peoples could all claim equal rights under natural  law. Hostos agreed with Martí but took his recommendation one step further by proposing race  mixing, with all ethnic groups equally forming a  new society. Therefore Martí’s negation of racial  differences becomes with Hostos a quest for a  society that would eventually become homogeneous through miscegenation. The study concludes  that there is a timelessness inherent to Martí and  Hostos’s work that still speaks to us today in the  midst of a new awareness of ethnicity’s impact on  society. Resumen:De Sarmiento a Martí y Hostos: Rescatando al país de la colonialidadEl presente artículo examina las construcciones de  raza, nación y mestizaje en las obras de Domingo  Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí y Eugenio María de  Hostos. El primero defendía la construcción deci monónica de que la humanidad había sido debilitada por una constante batalla entre civilización y  barbarie mientras los dos antillanos la cuestionaban  en su búsqueda de una sociedad libre de la colonialidad. Martí niega la noción de privilegio basado en  lo europeo y proclama que los blancos, negros,  indígenas y personas de raza mezclada podrían  reclamar la igualdad de derechos bajo leyes naturales. Hostos estuvo de acuerdo con Martí pero llevó  su recomendación un paso más allá, proponiendo  que la mezcla de razas, con todos los grupos

  5. Achievement and motivation in the middle school science classroom: The effects of formative assessment feedback

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    van Evera, William C.

    2004-11-01

    Formative assessment feedback is increasingly viewed as essential to learning. Yet, existing studies on feedback have focused heavily on knowledge of results (KR) feedback rather than information-rich formative assessment feedback that is more commonly used to encourage and guide learning. This study was designed to investigate the effects of information-rich formative assessment feedback on performance and motivation of middle school science students. Using a within subjects crossover design, treatment students received written formative assessment feedback on all homework and class-work assignments. Control students received completion scores for their work but no feedback. Dependent measures included two multiple-choice unit tests and a multipart motivation survey which assessed self-efficacy, goal orientation, affective responses, and preferences regarding feedback. Results indicated effects sizes of .7 for low achievers and .4 for middle level achievers on the performance measure as a result of the feedback intervention. These students also experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy. High achievers experienced reduced performance following the feedback intervention with an effect size of -.7. Survey analysis revealed no improvement in motivation-related variables for high achievers.

  6. Comparing Two Low Middle School Social and Emotional Learning Program Formats: A Multilevel Effectiveness Study.

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    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Sousa, Vanda

    2017-03-01

    Understanding which factors are relevant for the effectiveness of social and emotional learning programs is of key importance in designing interventions. This study investigated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based, social and emotional learning program for low middle school students (5th and 6th grades) and compared two program delivery formats for the intervention: curriculum (a semi-structured format) and pre-package (fixed structure).The program also analyzed differential gender effects. There were 982 participants (M age  = 11.22; SD = 1.02, 46.8 % girls): 318 in the control condition, 355 students in the intervention delivered with a curriculum format and 309 in the intervention delivered in a pre-package format, assessed at pretest, posttest and follow-up eight months later. Multilevel analyses identified positive intervention results in social awareness, self-control, self-esteem, social isolation and social anxiety. The pre-packaged format led to better results in self-esteem and social isolation. Boys gained more in social awareness in both program delivery formats. These findings support the program's effectiveness and the importance of designing the intervention to match program delivery formats with developmental needs.

  7. Annual Cycle of GW-induced CO2 Cloud Formation in Mars' Middle Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, E.; Medvedev, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) of lower atmospheric origin influence the dynamical and thermal structure of the Martian middle and upper atmosphere. Recently, using the Max Planck Institute Martian General Circulation Model (MPI-MGCM), incorporating the Yigit et al 2008 whole atmosphere nonlinear GW parameterization, Yigit et al 2015 have demonstrated that GWs facilitate high-altitude CO2 ice cloud formation. In this study, using the same modeling framework, we analyze the annual cycle of cloud formation along with the associated variations of GW activity. CO2 ice cloud variations in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT) during one Martian year appreciably coincide with GW effects, suggesting that GW processes significantly affect CO2 ice cloud formation in the Martian MLT

  8. La utopía identitaria en Argirópolis de Domingo F. Sarmiento

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    Eugênio Rezende de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora el contenido utópico de Argirópolis, obra del argentino Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1811-1888 que fue publicada en 1850. Esta propone la reunión bajo la forma de una Confederación, de lo que fuera antes el antiguo Virreinato del Río de la Plata —territorio que corresponde hoy a Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay y una parte de Bolivia—. Dicha unión tendría como base la creación de un Congreso General, una Constitución unificada y la construcción de una nueva capital en un lugar «neutro» —en la isla de Martín García— que se denominaría Argirópolis, o «ciudad del Plata». Más allá de lo que aparentemente pueda sugerir el texto, donde sobresale el panfleto político de cuño liberal, este estudio demostrará cómo la utopía de Argirópolis sintetizó y simbolizó el ideal y anhelo de una nueva nación para el «desierto» argentino, una nueva identidad para el contexto platense.

  9. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    .1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20...... turnover markers, with concomitant increases in leg bone mass. No changes in bone formation and resorption markers were seen after prolonged submaximal or high-intensity intermittent swimming training. Thus, soccer training appears to provide a powerful osteogenic stimulus in middle-aged women.......PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14...

  10. FORMATION OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER PSYCHOLOGY IN MIDDLE AGES PERIOD

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    Veronika Olegovna Mokhova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors

  11. Using Reflective Practice to Incorporate Formative Assessment in a Middle School Science Classroom: A Participatory Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of using reflective practice to guide our action research study of incorporating formative assessment into middle school science teaching and learning. Using participatory action research, we worked collaboratively to incorporate formative assessment into two instructional units, and then engaged in…

  12. Sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Cambrian Daegi Formation (Korea), and its bearing on the regional stratigraphic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Lee, Yong Il

    2006-10-01

    The sediments that comprise the Middle Cambrian Daegi Formation in eastern central Korea are interpreted to have been deposited in a carbonate ramp setting. The Daegi Formation consists of nine lithofacies; argillaceous rock, ribbon rock, oolitic limestone, skeletal limestone, microbial limestone, intraclastic limestone, micritic limestone, bioturbated limestone and crystalline limestone, which are grouped into three facies associations presenting, from base up, outer ramp, grain shoal and inner ramp facies associations. Two depositional sequences can be distinguished in the Daegi Formation. Sequence 1 in the lower part of the Daegi Formation comprises a lower transgressive systems tract (TST) and an upper highstand systems tract (HST). The TST consists of terrigenous deposits with subordinate limestones, while the HST contains various types of limestone. Sequence 2 comprises the upper half of the Daegi Formation and was deposited during a TST. The sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Daegi Formation suggests that the sediments were deposited during one 3rd-order sea-level change, during the middle to late Middle Cambrian. The sequence stratigraphic framework of the Daegi Formation can be excellently correlated with coeval deposits in North China, the Zhangxia and the lower part of the overlying Gushan formations, which belong to the same tectonic block as the Korean Peninsula, the Sino-Korean Block (SKB). The almost identical sequence stratigraphic frameworks in two separate basins suggest that the sequence stratigraphic development on the SKB was mainly influenced by eustatic changes during the Middle Cambrian.

  13. Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi: três visões sobre a democracia nas Américas

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Bendicho Beired

    2003-01-01

    Analisaremos comparativamente três importantes ideólogos liberais do século XIX, Tocqueville, Sarmiento e Alberdi, que situados em diferentes continentes discutiram o significado da democracia nos marcos da ordem liberal. Explicaremos os argumentos e conceitos desenvolvidos em algumas de suas obras mais importantes, em articulação às posições políticas e ideológicas por eles sustentados nos contextos específicos em que atuaram.This article analyses comparatively three important ideologists of...

  14. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  15. PECULIARITIES OF BIOGENIC SUBSTANCES REGIME FORMATION ON THE WESTERN SGELF OF THE MIDDLE CASPIY

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    G. A. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investgation of conditions of hydrochemical regime formation in the north-westen part of the Middle Caspiy.Methods. Literature date on biogenic flow of the Volga and the data of expeditionalhydrochemical observations over 1978-1987 (January, March, May, July, September, October in the regions of Daghestan coast of the Middle Caspiy–dopatin, coastal waters of the Terek and Sulak, Makhachkala, Caspiysk, Izberbash, Derbent, coastal waters of the Samur on the skylines of Ometers and at the bottom as for period with the largest number of continuous observation have been used for the analysis.Results. It was supposed in the paper that the content of of biogenic substances in the nerth Caspian waters depended not only upon coming with the Volga flow, but upon the other factors, regulating the modification in sea environment.Main conclusions. Knowledge of mechanism of water object functioning in the conditions of climate change andantropogenetic burden, understanding of the reaction of water object mechanism on these changes permits to plan agricultural activity in zones of its forecasting influence more rationally.

  16. Sarmiento strikes back with his own version on the life and death of Chacho Peñaloza

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    María Celina Ortale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the discursive extrategies that Sarmiento used for the composition of Ángel Vicente Peñaloza´s biography, killed by Mitre forces in November 1863, when he was the governor of San Juan and appointed “Director of War” by Mitre to restrain the chieftain. The execution of Penaloza, considered as an emblem of the failing federalism, generated an important reaction in the media of the time; Hernández produced a leaflet in which described the life of this emblematic figure and accused Sarmiento of being his “barbarous killer”. To Samiento, this fact meant the retirement from the public life in his province, since under Mitre recomendations went to the Unites States in diplomatic mission. Once there, in 1866 he will give form to his version about Peñaloza, composing his last text as a self defense and at the same time as a propagandistic text in the vespers of his presidential candidature.

  17. Martín Sarmiento, el benedictino gallego que en repetidas ocasiones rechazó las ofertas del rey

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    Santos Puerto, José

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review some activities and appointments of Martín Sarmiento, Benedictine monk of the Saint Martin´s Abbey in Madrid. We will know details on his election in 1748 for the abbey of the monastery. We will investigate the reasons that led him not to accept the inherent salaries in the title of Cronista General de Indias, who was granted to him by Fernando VI in 1750. And also we will verify how it was designated by the king abbot of Ripoll in 1755 and why he resigned on the following year.En este artículo se recuerdan algunas actividades y nombramientos del benedictino Martín Sarmiento. Conoceremos detalles sobre su elección en 1748 para la abadía del monasterio de San Martín de Madrid, su casa de profesión. Indagaremos las razones que le llevaron a no querer cobrar los sueldos inherentes al título de cronista general de Indias, que le fue concedido por Fernando VI en 1750. Y averiguaremos cómo fue designado por el Rey abad de Ripoll en 1755 y por qué renunció al año siguiente.

  18. A NEW SPECIMEN OF NOTHOSAURUS FROM THE LATEST ANISIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC BESANO FORMATION (GRENZBITUMENZONE OF ITALY

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    SILVIO RENESTO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A nearly complete but disarticulated skeleton of a small sized nothosaur is described. The specimen was collected in 2003 from an outcrop of the Besano Formation (Grenzbitumenzone of Swiss authors of latest Anisian (Middle Triassic age, in the Monte San Giorgio Area, northern Italy. The osteology of the postcranial skeleton supports the assignment to the genus Nothosaurus, and also excludes its belonging to Nothosaurus giganteus/Paranothosaurus amsleri already known from coeval localities of the Besano Formation in the Swiss part of the Monte San Giorgio area. Despite the lack of most of the skull, which contains diagnostic characters at the species level for Nothosaurus, the few preserved cranial elements suggest similarities with N. juvenilis which skull, and only known part, is also of comparable size. This specimen is particularly significant because it improves the knowledge of the osteology of N. juvenilis and because the second Nothosaurus species, smaller than N. giganteus/P. amsleri, suggests coexistence of sympatric species characterized by size and, probably, trophic differentiation within the genus Nothosaurus in the Monte San Giorgio area as occurred in the coeval Germanic Basin. 

  19. Distribución y diversidad de hábitats en el humedal de la Reserva Natural Presidente Sarmiento, San Juan, Argentina Distribution and habitats diversity on the wetland of President Sarmiento Natural Reserve, San Juan, Argentina

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    Daniel Germán Flores

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el Área Natural Protegida Presidente Sarmiento (APN, ubicada en la depresión intermontaña del valle de Zonda, región del centro-oeste de Argentina, se cartografiaron los factores relieve, consistencia y estado de humedad de los suelos y vegetación, con el fin de contribuir al manejo del humedal. Éste se ubica en la porción distal de un extenso abanico aluvial, en coincidencia con la zona de descarga de agua. Se efectuó un análisis multidisciplinar para establecer relaciones entre la diversidad de hábitats y relieves, la vegetación y los suelos. Se identificaron y clasificaron genéticamente 10 ambientes regionales en la cuenca, donde el ANP ocupa 2 de estos 10 ambientes. A escala local, con fotos aéreas y trabajo de campo, se identificaron 7 sitios con sus variaciones en consistencia de suelos y vegetación. Se clasificaron 37 especies agrupadas en 18 familias. Las Fabaceae y Asteraceae son predominantes. En la reserva, el tamarindo (Tamarix gallica resultó ser la especie exótica más adaptable; invade y desplaza a las especies nativas. La metodología de trabajo resultó ser muy útil, comenzando desde lo regional hasta el análisis del relieve local.In the Natural Area Protected President Sarmiento (APN, situated in an intermountain depression of an arid region of the Zonda valley, a multidisciplinary analysis was performed, to stablish a relationship between habitat diversity, relief, soils and vegetation. This wetland, Provincial Park Reserve President Sarmiento, is lies in a desertic area of central-western part of Argentina. Ten regional environment units within the basin, and 7 sites within the Park were identified and classified. The sites are located in the distal part of an extensive alluvial fan. The survey of the vegetation identified a total of 37 plant species grouped into 18 families. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae are dominants. The tamarindo (Tamarix gallica was the exotic flora most adaptable to this environment

  20. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  1. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

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    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  2. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation...

  3. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of middle Miocene paleosols bearing Kenyapithecus and Victoriapithecus, Nyakach Formation, southwestern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, J G; Retallack, G J

    2001-04-01

    Paleosols in the middle Miocene (15 Ma) Nyakach Formation at Kaimogool, near Sondu, southwestern Kenya have yielded specimens of the early cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus macinnesi and the early kenyapithecine Kenyapithecus africanus, and can be used as evidence for the environmental mosaic occupied by these primates. Five distinct types of paleosols (pedotypes) are recognized in the Nyakach Formation section at Kaimogool South. The most common paleosols are reddish brown, silty calcareous profiles with blocky structure and large root traces (Ratong pedotype) which are interpreted as soils of well-drained, dry bushland or thicket (nyika). Weakly developed paleosols associated with paleochannels (Dhero pedotype) represent wooded grassland early in the ecological succession from streamside flooding. One of these paleosols has yielded a fossil flora of grasses and small-leaved dicots like those of modern semi-arid wooded grassland. Crumb structured, calcareous paleosols with iron-manganese nodules (Yom pedotype) are interpreted to represent seasonally waterlogged, wooded grassland (dambo or vlei). Thick, red clayey, calcareous paleosols with blocky ped structure and large root traces (Tut pedotype) are interpreted as soils of well-drained dry woodland. Other blocky-structured, gray to brown calcareous paleosols with iron-manganese nodules (Chido pedotype) are interpreted as soils of seasonally waterlogged, riparian dry woodland. Fossil soils, plants and gastropods are evidence of an unusually dry (300-500 mm mean annual precipitation) habitat for apes, consisting of a vegetational mosaic dominated by dry woodland, bushland and thickets with few areas of seasonally waterlogged grassland. Fossils of V. macinnesi are rare from Nyakach, but were found in paleosols representative of bushland and thicket habitats (Ratong). Fossils of the ape K. africanus were found within paleosols indicative of dry woodland (Tut). Other paleosol types representative of seasonally dry dambo

  4. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

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    Engkilde, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  5. New theropod, thyreophoran, and small sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Three new dinosaur tracks are described from the Middle Jurassic Bagå Formation of Bornholm, Denmark. The tracks are all preserved as natural casts on the underside of fluvial sandstone blocks originating from the old Hasle Klinkefabrik’s clay pit, now called Pyritsøen. The new tracks are from...... a medium-sized theropod, a thyreophoran, and a small sauropod. Together with a hyreophoran track and large sauropod tracks described in 2005, the Middle Jurassic dinosaur fauna of Bornholm now comprises theropods, two sizes of sauropods and at least one type of thyreophoran dinosaur. This is important...

  6. Carnivores from the Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation (13-12 Ma, Kenya

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    Pickford, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The late Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation has yielded several interesting carnivore fossils. Among these are a huge creodont, Megistotherium osteothlastes, at 12 Ma, possibly the youngest record of the species, an amphicyonid, two species of mustelids (an otter and a honey badger, two kinds of viverrids (one about the size of a civet, one the size of a genet and an extremely small herpestid the size of a dwarf mongoose. It has also yielded remains of a moderate sized percrocutid. Perhaps the most interesting carnivore is a new genus and species of bundont viverrid that is intermediate in size and morphology between Early Miocene Orangictis on the one hand and Plio-Pleistocene Pseudocivetta on the other. This lineage of bundont viverrids appears to have been restricted to Africa.La Formación Mioceno medio final de Ngorora (Kenia ha suministrado carnívoros muy interesantes. Entre los que se encuentran un enorme creodonto, Megistotherium osteothlastes, de 12 Ma, que posiblemente es el registro más moderno de la especie, un amphicyonido, dos especies de mustélidos (una nutria y un melivorino, dos diferentes tipos de vivérridos (uno de la talla de una civeta y el otro de la de una jineta y un herpéstido diminuto de la talla de una mangosta enana. También hay fósiles de un percrocútido de talla moderada. Tal vez el carnívoro más interesante es un nuevo género y especie de vivérrido bunodonto que presenta una talla y morfología intermedia entre Oragictis del Mioceno inferior y Pseudocivetta del Plio-Pleistoceno. Esta línea de vivérridos bunodontos parece estar restringida a Africa.

  7. Diagenesis and fracture development in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin; implications for reservoir quality in the middle member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation

  8. Genealogía de un origen: Túbal, el falsario y la Atlántida en la Historia de los Incas de Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa

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    González Díaz, Soledad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article proposes a political reading of two texts that are connected to each other: the History of the Incas by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa and the Antiquitatum Variarum by Annio de Viterbo, a collection of spurious texts from the end of the 15th century. Doing a synthesis between the Antiquitatum and the platonic myth of Atlantis, Sarmiento argued that the Indians were descendants of Túbal lineage, the grandson of Noah and founder of the Hispanic monarchy which had come to the Indies after the Universal Flood. It is proposed that the History of the Incas as well as the Antiquitatum were part of an official current of imperial representation of the past promoted by the Catholic Kings, that was projected to Spanish and Indies chronicles during the 16th century.El presente artículo propone una lectura política de dos libros vinculados entre sí: la Historia de los Incas de Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa y la Antiquitatum Variarum de Annio de Viterbo, una colección de textos espurios de fines del siglo XV. Haciendo una síntesis entre la Antiquitatum y el mito platónico de la Atlántida, Sarmiento argumentó que los indios descendían de la estirpe de Túbal, el nieto de Noé y fundador de la monarquía hispánica, que había llegado a las Indias después del Diluvio Universal. Se propone que tanto la Historia de los Incas como la Antiquitatum formaron parte de una corriente oficial de representación del pasado de corte imperial promovida por los Reyes Católicos, que se proyectó a las crónicas hispanas y a las de Indias en el transcurso del siglo XVI.

  9. Depositional History and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation (Yeongweol Group), Taebaeksan Basin, mid-east Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoo Jin; Kwon, Yi Kyun

    2017-04-01

    The Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation consists of numerous meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles which were deposited on a shallow-marine carbonate platform. Many diagnostic sedimentary textures and structures such as supratidal laminite, tepee structure, and solution-collapsed breccia are observed, which enable to infer the dry climate and high salinity conditions during deposition of the formation. In order to understand its depositional history, this study focuses on vertical and spatial stacking patterns of the second- to third-order sequences through the detailed outcrop description and geologic mapping. A total 19 lithofacies have been recognized, which can be grouped into 5 facies associations (FAs): FA1 (Supratidal flat), FA2 (Supratidal or dolomitization of peritidal facies), FA3 (Intertidal flat), FA4 (Shallow subtidal to peritidal platform), FA5 (Shallow subtidal shoal). Global mega-sequence boundary (Sauk-Tippecanoe) occurs in solution-collapsed breccia zone in the lower part of the formation. Correlation of the shallowing-upward cycle stacking pattern across the study area defines 6 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences. Each depositional sequences comprises a package of vertical and spatial staking of shallow subtidal cycles in the lower part and peritidal cycles in the upper part of the formation. According to sequence stratigraphic interpretation, the reconstructed relative sea-level curve of the Yeongweol platform is very similar to that of the Taebaek platform. Based on the absence of siliciclastic sequence such as the Jigunsan Formation and the lithologic & stratigraphic differences, however, the Yeongweol and Taebaek groups might not belong to a single depositional system within the North China platform. The Yeongweol Group can be divided by the four subunits into their unique lithologic successions and geographic distributions. The Eastern subunit of the Yeongweol Group is composed dominantly of carbonate rocks with a high

  10. Porosity and reservoir potentiality of the Cherahil Formation limestone (middle-upper Eocene) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njahi, Zahra; Kassabi, Nadhem; Touir, Jamel

    2017-07-01

    During the middle and upper Eocene, the deposits in the Gulf of Gabes correspond to the Cherahil Formation, which is sub-divided into three units, which are as follows from base to top: the Lower Cherahil A, the Siouf and the Upper Cherahil B members. The Siouf member has a lateral equivalent in the Souar Formation named Reineche member. The Cherahil Formation has never been considered by oil companies as a particular drilling target in the Gulf of Gabes (offshore east Tunisia) despite the presence of hydrocarbon at the bottom of Cherahil Formation in Sidi Behara and Sidi Litayem oil fields in Sfax Area (onshore east Tunisia) and in its equivalent carbonate beds in Jebel Trozza (Central Tunisia). Therefore, the evaluation of porosity in the carbonate levels of Cherahil Formation in 20 drilling wells were performed on well logging by applying Wyllie method. The obtained results show that the studied carbonates are characterized by an economically important total porosity average ranging between 5% and 55%, and both vertical and lateral variations. The vertical porosity variation was controlled by the sea-level fluctuation that, in turn, controlled the evolution of carbonate sedimentary environments and relative facies. The lateral porosity variation followed the Tunisian middle-upper Eocene paleogeography changes controlled by NW-SE synsedimentary tectonic trends. Considering the important features of the Cherahil Formation and the coexistence of components of an oil system in the Gulf of Gabes, this formation can be an important potential reservoir and subsequently a new petroleum exploration target in the Gulf of Gabes.

  11. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Transformation in technological patterns associated with the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition between 50 and 40 ka in Western Europe and their relationship with the Neanderthal and Anatomically Modern Human populations and behaviors are issues that continue to stimulate heated debate...

  12. CALCAREOUS PLANKTON BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND AGE OF THE MIDDLE MIOCENE DEPOSITS OF LONGANO FORMATION (EASTERN MATESE MOUNTAINS, SOUTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated calcareous plankton biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils and an accurate fieldwork, allowed us the reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Longano Formation (Orbulina Marls. In particular the correlation between the bioevents recognised in the Orbulina Marls sequence and those recorded in astronomically calibrated Middle Miocene sections, offered the possibility to date the passage from the shallow-water Cusano Formation to the deep-water deposits of the Longano Formation at about 13.21 Ma and the successive onset of terrigenous deposits of the Pietraroia Formation at 10.54 Ma. In addition, an high resolution study of the terrigenous sequence, showed that this sedimentary event is not abrupt but it is characterised by a progressive increase, bed by bed, of the siliciclastic fraction up to the deposition of the sandstones. The recognition in all the studied sections of the base of the first Acme (AB1 of Paragloborotalia siakensis dated at 13.21 Ma, just above the phosphate-rich interval (this interval marks the transition between Cusano and Longano Formations, proved that the transgression which led to the deposition of the Orbulina Marls was synchronous in all the south-eastern Matese Mountains. 

  13. Para un catálogo atractivo : Libros y políticas editoriales para las bibliotecas populares. La propuesta de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

    OpenAIRE

    Planas, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Se expone una hipótesis de trabajo para abordar el estudio de los escritos de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento sobre las bibliotecas populares. En ese contexto, el presente ensayo explora una cuestión específica: ¿qué libros para las bibliotecas populares? A través de un análisis crítico de los textos del autor, se intenta mostrar que los lineamientos que perfilan las características de las colecciones de estas instituciones deben identificarse en los vínculos que mantienen los múltiples núcleos te...

  14. The Brief but Fruitful Apostolate of Martin Sarmiento de Hojacastro as Bishop of Puebla and his Indian Defense against the «Encomenderos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with other religious from the Order of San Francisco, and with the support of the exemplary Juan de Zumarraga, fray Martin Sarmiento de Hojacastro, not only would become General Commissioner of the Order of San Francisco in the New Spain, but it also become titular of the Bishopric of Tlaxcala Puebla, initiating a tough fight against abuses of the encomenderos over the Indians. This research aims to show, by the historical and legal documentary technique, part of the work of this eminent prelate in shaping not only the city of Puebla de los Angeles, but his protection of indigenous.

  15. Paleogeoformas lacustres en los lagos Musters y Colhué huapí, su relación genética con un paleolago Sarmiento previo, centro-sur del Chubut

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio F González Díaz; Inés Di Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    El reconocimiento de paleogeoformas lacustres acrecionales y de erosión en la costa este del lago Musters, como así también, en la costa este del adyacente lago Colhué Huapí y fuera del ámbito lagunar al sur del cerro Puricelli en posiciones altimétricas similares, permitió relacionarlas genéticamente a nivel regional, con un cuerpo lagunar previo, aquí denominado Paleolago Sarmiento; generado por la inundación de la depresión preexistente del bajo de Sarmiento, luego de la captura y desvío d...

  16. Hispanismo, indigenismo y americanismo en la construcción de la unidad nacional y los discursos identitarios de Bolívar, Martí, Sarmiento y Rodó

    OpenAIRE

    Serna Arnáiz, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, José Martí y José Enrique Rodó dedicaron su vida a la construcción de la patria, como lo había hecho su mentor, Bolívar, y todos ellos vieron en la literatura y en el periodismo literario una forma de servicio a la nación. Sarmiento, Martí y Rodó fueron tocados asimismo por el regeneracionismo y el positivismo, o, si se quiere, en el caso de los dos primeros, por un romanticismo de acción, alejado del europeo. En el presente ensayo pretendemos analizar y contrastar...

  17. Stratigraphic reconnaissance of the Middle Jurassic Red Glacier Formation, Tuxedni Group, at Red Glacier, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are implementing ongoing programs to characterize the petroleum potential of Cook Inlet basin. Since 2009 this program has included work on the Mesozoic stratigraphy of lower Cook Inlet, including the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group between Tuxedni and Iniskin bays (LePain and others, 2013; Stanley and others, 2013; fig. 5-1). The basal unit in the group, the Red Glacier Formation (fig. 5-2), is thought to be the principal source rock for oil produced in upper Cook Inlet, and available geochemical data support this contention (Magoon and Anders, 1992; Magoon, 1994). Despite its economic significance very little has been published on the formation since Detterman and Hartsock’s (1966) seminal contribution on the geology of the Iniskin–Tuxedni area nearly 50 years ago. Consequently its stratigraphy, contact relations with bounding formations, and source rock characteristics are poorly known. During the 2014 field season, a nearly continuous stratigraphic section through the Red Glacier Formation in its type area at Red Glacier was located and measured to characterize sedimentary facies and to collect a suite of samples for analyses of biostratigraphy, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, and sandstone composition (fig. 5-3).The poorly known nature of the Red Glacier Formation is likely due to its remote location, steep terrain, and the fact that the type section is split into two segments that are more than 3 km apart. The lower 375 m segment of the formation is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Lateral Glacier and the upper 1,009 m segment is on the ridge between Red Glacier and Boulder Creek (fig. 5-3). Structural complications in the area add to the difficulty in understanding how these two segments fit together.

  18. Uranium-Lead Ages of Lake Margin Tufa Calcite From the Middle Miocene Barstow Formation, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. M.; Rasbury, E. T.; Montañez, I. P.; Pedone, V. A.; Hemming, S. R.; Lanzirotti, A.; Becker, M. L.; Hanson, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Barstow Formation crops out in the Mud Hills near the city of Barstow in the Mojave Desert. The deposits consist mostly of sandstones and mudstones with intercalated ash and carbonate horizons. Localized deposits of well-laminated to spongy non-laminated limestone occur throughout the Barstow Formation and are referred to as tufa deposits. The Barstow Formation has excellent mammalian fossil preservation and represents the type section for the Barstovian North American Land Mammal Age. Ashes within the Barstow Formation have been dated by Ar-based techniques and constrain it to be middle Miocene. However, the ages of the carbonate layers have not previously been constrained by any radiometric technique. \\We collected carbonate samples from different horizons within the middle member of the Barstow Formation and focused on pristine calcite samples for U-Pb analyses. We characterized our samples on three different scales to determine which samples should provide the best U-Pb ages. Polished slabs from our hand samples were evaluated with phosphor imaging technology to identify areas of high radionuclide concentration. Using transmitted light, polarized light, and cathodoluminescence petrography we carefully selected samples that did not have a complicated alteration history. Fission-track analyses were used to help identify uranium incorporation on the thin section scale. Synchrotron-based techniques, such as x-ray florescence (XRF) mapping, helped us to see U and other trace element concentrations on the micron scale. Phosphor imaging proved to be the most helpful technique for sample selection. \\The tufa deposits are enriched in U, with up to about 170 ppm as measured by isotope dilution and over 500 ppm as measured by in situ XRF. Based on isotope dilution measurements, 238U/204Pb ratios range between 400 and 6500, making the tufa deposits excellent candidates for U-Pb dating. Our most precise age thus far is 16.36 +/- 0.16 Ma, giving a 2-sigma uncertainty

  19. Adolescent perceptions of violence: formative research findings from a social marketing campaign to reduce violence among middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, G P; Bell-Ellison, B A; Loomis, W; Tucci, M

    2007-05-01

    To identify the specific barriers and benefits of violent behaviours as noted by middle school youth and to develop a social marketing campaign that attends to the needs and wants of the target audience. A non-experimental, qualitative study design was used to assess youth perceptions of violence in a large, southeast urban school district. Using a social marketing approach, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted with middle school youths, to gain an understanding of perceived barriers and benefits of violent behaviours. Additionally, interviews assessed youth preferences for an effective spokesperson for an anti-violence campaign. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes that were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted that the majority of violence occurs at school, during school hours and most of the youths believed the use of violence was necessary to defend themselves from other peers or to protect family members. Another key finding pertained to adolescent views on violent people; although the majority of respondents reported engaging in violent acts, they did not view themselves as violent. Results were used to inform the development of a social marketing campaign designed to reduce youth violence among middle school students in a large, urban central Florida school district. Findings from the formative research led to the creation and pre-testing of five potential campaign brands. The campaign slogan that tested best with the target audience emphasized the choice youth have to either engage in violent behaviour and suffer the consequences or to 'rise above' physical conflict and reap the benefits.

  20. Hinterland drainage closure and lake formation in response to middle Eocene Farallon slab removal, Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Cassel, Elizabeth J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Canada, Andrew S.

    2017-12-01

    ash beds in the Dead Horse Formation at Copper Basin in northern Elko County indicate intermittent ash bed deposition between 45.2 Ma and 38.6 Ma, and an episode of lacustrine deposition between 39.8 Ma and 38.6 Ma that post-dates the main phase of Lake Elko. δD values of volcanic glass sampled from dated ash beds reflect changes in the hydrogen isotope compositions of local Eocene waters, and systematically vary by 80-102‰ according to their depositional environment. The Elko Formation and overlying volcanic strata are overlain regionally by a pronounced unconformity of ∼20 m.y. In the Copper Basin area, deposition continued locally into the Oligocene in the hanging wall of a ductile detachment. The geochronologic and isotopic framework presented here permits reanalysis of the Piñon Range carbonate proxy record that was previously interpreted to record both regional uplift and the middle Eocene climatic optimum. New data suggest instead that isotope values of hydration waters within the Elko Formation were strongly influenced by evaporation, and a change from lacustrine to non-lacustrine conditions can account for the δ18O shift that was interpreted to reflect regional uplift. Moreover, the end of Elko Formation deposition predated the middle Eocene climatic optimum. We interpret the overall record of drainage ponding and paleovalley inundation, progressively more evaporative lacustrine conditions, increasingly proximal volcanism, and subsequent prolonged unconformity to reflect the surface effects of progressive NE to SW removal of the Farallon slab.

  1. An occurrence of the protocetid whale "Eocetus" wardii in the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.; Osborne, J.E.; Alford, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two protocetid whale vertebrae, here referred to “Eocetus” wardii, have been recovered from the riverbed of the Pamunkey River in east-central Virginia. Neither bone was found in situ, but both were found with lumps of lithified matrix cemented to their surfaces. Most of this matrix was removed and processed for microfossils. Specimens of dinoflagellates were successfully recovered and this flora clearly demonstrates that both vertebrae came from the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation, which crops out above and below river level in the area where the bones were discovered. These vertebrae are the oldest whale remains reported from Virginia and are as old as any cetacean remains known from the western hemisphere.

  2. Major factors controlling fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation tight oil reservoir, Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Deyu; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Liu, Dongdong; Yan, Lin; Zhang, Yunzhao

    2017-09-01

    Natural fractures in seven wells from the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar Basin were evaluated in light of regional structural evolution, tight reservoir geochemistry (including TOC and mineral composition), carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcite-filled fractures, and acoustic emission (AE). Factors controlling the development of natural fractures were analyzed using qualitative and/or semi-quantitative techniques, with results showing that tectonic factors are the primary control on fracture development in the Middle Permian Lucaogou Formation of the Junggar Basin. Analyses of calcite, dolomite, and TOC show positive correlations with the number of fractures, while deltaic lithofacies appear to be the most favorable for fracture development. Mineral content was found to be a major control on tectonic fracture development, while TOC content and sedimentary facies mainly control bedding fractures. Carbon and oxygen isotopes vary greatly in calcite-filled fractures (δ13C ranges from 0.87‰ to 7.98‰, while δ18O ranges from -12.63‰ to -5.65‰), indicating that fracture development increases with intensified tectonic activity or enhanced diagenetic alteration. By analyzing the cross-cutting relationships of fractures in core, as well as four Kaiser Effect points in the acoustic emission curve, we observed four stages of tectonic fracture development. First-stage fractures are extensional, and were generated in the late Triassic, with calcite fracture fills formed between 36.51 °C and 56.89 °C. Second-stage fractures are shear fractures caused by extrusion stress from the southwest to the northeast, generated by the rapid uplift of the Tianshan in the Middle and Late Jurassic; calcite fracture fills formed between 62.91 °C and 69.88 °C. Third-stage fractures are NNW-trending shear fractures that resulted from north-south extrusion and thrusting in a foreland depression along the front of the Early Cretaceous Bogda Mountains. Calcite fracture

  3. In VitroStreptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation and In Vivo Middle Ear Mucosal Biofilm in a Rat Model of Acute Otitis Induced by S. pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens of otitis media (OM) that exists in biofilm, which enhances the resistance of bacteria against antibiotic killing and diagnosis, compared to the free-floating (planktonic) form. This study evaluated biofilm formation by S. pneumoniae on an abiotic surface and in the middle ear cavity in a rat model of OM. In vitro biofilm formation was evaluated by inoculation of a 1:100 diluted S. pneumoniae cell suspension in a 96-well microplate. Adherent cells were quantified spectrophotometrically following staining with crystal violet by measurement of optical density at 570 nm. The ultrastructure of pneumococcal biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For in vitro biofilm study, S. pneumoniae cell suspensions containing 1×10(7) colony forming units were injected through transtympanic membrane into the middle ear cavity of Sprague Dawley rats. The ultrastructure of middle ear mucus was observed by SEM 1 and 2 weeks post-inoculation. The in vitro study revealed robust biofilm formation by S. pneumoniae after 12-18 hours of incubation in high glucose medium, independent of exogenously supplied competence stimulating peptide and medium replacement. Adherent cells formed three-dimensional structures approximately 20-30 µm thick. The in vivo study revealed that ciliated epithelium was relatively resistant to biofilm formation and that biofilm formation occurred mainly on non-ciliated epithelium of the middle ear cavity. One week after inoculation, biofilm formation was high in 50% of the treated rats and low in 25% of the rats. After 2 weeks, biofilm formation was high and low in 25% and 37.5% of rats, respectively. The results imply that glucose level is important for the S. pneumoniae biofilm formation and S. pneumoniae biofilm formation may play important role in the pathophysiology of OM.

  4. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Salad Hersi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded, nodular, bioclastic (mainly larger foraminifera packstones and wackestones deposited in a logoonal lagoonal environment. Unit III is defined by medium to thickly bedded, bioclastic packestones to grainstones and subordinate, laterally confined conglomerates. Prominent sedimentary structures in Unit III include hummocky and swaly cross-stratificiation, erosional surfaces, dewatering-induced deformations and laterally amalgamating beds. This unit represents sub-tidal sand shoals deposited in a storm-dominated shelf (between the fair-weather wave-base and storm-base. Unit IV is extensively burrowed, nodular, bioclastic wackestone to rudstone which is similar to Unit II in many aspects. Unit IV was deposited on the basinward side of the Unit III sand shoals below the reach of the storm-generated waves and currents. The uppermost Unit V is characterized by poorly-cemented bioclastic (large foraminiferal rudstones with clay and silt-size quartz matrix. Bioclasts are generally intact with no apparent reworking. Deposition of Unit V is also envisaged as a low-energy, outershelf environment.

  5. In Vitro Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation and In Vivo Middle Ear Mucosal Biofilm in a Rat Model of Acute Otitis Induced by S. pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens of otitis media (OM) that exists in biofilm, which enhances the resistance of bacteria against antibiotic killing and diagnosis, compared to the free-floating (planktonic) form. This study evaluated biofilm formation by S. pneumoniae on an abiotic surface and in the middle ear cavity in a rat model of OM. Methods In vitro biofilm formation was evaluated by inoculation of a 1:100 diluted S. pneumoniae cell suspension in a ...

  6. Para un catálogo atractivo: libros y políticas editoriales para las bibliotecas populares. La propuesta de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento For an attractive catalog: books and editorial policies for popular libraries. The proposal by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Planas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una hipótesis de trabajo para abordar el estudio de los escritos de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento sobre las bibliotecas populares. En ese contexto, el presente ensayo explora una cuestión específica: ¿qué libros para las bibliotecas populares? A través de un análisis crítico de los textos del autor, se intenta mostrar que los lineamientos que perfilan las características de las colecciones de estas instituciones deben identificarse en los vínculos que mantienen los múltiples núcleos temáticos analizados por Sarmiento, a saber: el examen del comercio y la industria del libro en América, la organización de proyectos editoriales, la toma de posición frente a la lectura de novelas, entre otros. A partir de un artículo concreto, se describe la manera en que Sarmiento entiende la relación entre los lectores y las lecturas en el contexto específico de una biblioteca popular. En un balance final, se realizan dos observaciones. Primero: la elección de lecturas no es una prescripción aislada, sino un complejo de observaciones sobre la presencia del libro y la lectura en América Latina, especialmente en Chile y en la Argentina. Segundo, el autor apela a la constitución de un catálogo capaz de atraer a los lectores. Esta finalidad, es prioritaria en su proyecto.It is shown a work hypothesis to study the writtings by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento about popular libraries. In this context, the present essay is centered in a specific question: what books for popular libraries? Through a critical analysis of the author texts, it is intended to show that the lines which define the characteristics of the collections of that institutions must be sought in the ties maintained by the multiple thematic nucleus analyzed by Sarmiento, that is: the examination of the trade and industry of books in America, the organization of editorial projects, his position about reading novels, among others. From a concrete article, it is described the way

  7. Para un catálogo atractivo: libros y políticas editoriales para las bibliotecas populares. La propuesta de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento For an attractive catalog: books and editorial policies for popular libraries. The proposal by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Planas

    2009-01-01

    Se expone una hipótesis de trabajo para abordar el estudio de los escritos de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento sobre las bibliotecas populares. En ese contexto, el presente ensayo explora una cuestión específica: ¿qué libros para las bibliotecas populares? A través de un análisis crítico de los textos del autor, se intenta mostrar que los lineamientos que perfilan las características de las colecciones de estas instituciones deben identificarse en los vínculos que mantienen los múltiples núcleos te...

  8. [Taphonomy of the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta (Heterobranchia: Streptacididae) from the Middle Pennsylvanian, La Joya Formation, Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez E, Catalina; Buitrón S, Blanca; Vachard, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Gastropods are an important component in most of the fossil record; however, investigations have focused mainly on the characterization of the tafofacies and signatures in determined environments. We present qualitative and quantitative taphonomic data for the gastropod cf. Donaldina robusta assemblages from the La Joya Formation of the Sierra Agua Verde, Sonora State, (NW) Mexico. We analyzed 176 shells. Good preservation received ahigh taphonomic grade (A) and poor preservation a D. The shells were complete in 72% of cases (taphonomic grade B). Less than 10% are corroded or are parallel to the layer (grade A). This rock is petrographycally classified as wackestone, sedimentologically it is characterized by middle sorting (grade B) and low grading (grade A). The fossiliferous assemblage grades as A and B. Biostratinomic features of the skeletal assemblage are characteristic of sedimentologic concentrations of autochthonous-parautochthonous elements at the accumulation site. There was minimal reworking and transport in an environment of low energy, locally produced during a short period of accumulation.

  9. Eustatic control on epicontinental basins: The example of the Stuttgart Formation in the Central European Basin (Middle Keuper, Late Triassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Nowak, K.; Berner, U.; Heunisch, C.; Bandel, K.; Röhling, H.-G.; Wolfgramm, M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of the Stuttgart Formation ('Schilfsandstein'), commonly considered as a type-example of the Carnian Pluvial Event, was controlled by high frequent 4th order sequences that resulted in pre-, intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions from Tethyan waters into the epicontinental Central European Basin (CEB). The pre-Schilfsandstein transgression flooded the CEB trough gates to the Southeast and resulted in a wide-spread inland sea that was characterised by increased biological productivity, predominantly oxic conditions and enabled the immigration of euryhaline marine fauna with plankton, ostracodes, fishes, bivalves and the gastropods Omphaloptychia suebica n. sp. and Settsassia stuttgartica n. sp. The rather short-term intra- and post-Schilfsandstein transgressions flooded the CEB from the Southwest and Southeast and established a shallow brackish inland sea that stretched up to North Germany. Both, the 4th and 3rd order sequences derived from the succession in the CEB correlate well with those derived from successions of Tethyan shelfs. Therefore pronounced circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles are evidenced and may have had considerable impact on prominent middle Carnian events: Reingraben turnover, Carnian Pluvial Event, Carnian Crisis and Mid Carnian Wet Intermezzo. The broad circum-Tethyan evidence of 106-year scale cycles suggests glacioeustatic sea-level changes even in the Triassic Greenhouse period.

  10. Estado-Nación: visión y construcción conceptual desde el pensamiento de Domingo F. Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelini, Lisandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de este artículo, se pretende responder a cuáles fueron los ejes centrales en la visión y construcción conceptual de Domingo F. Sarmiento, respecto a la proyección de un diseño que permitiese insertar el espacio geográfico de la cuenca del río de la Plata a la línea evolutiva de lo que se consideraba la "civilización". Como objetivos proponemos en primer lugar, describir brevemente el contexto en el cual se desarrolla el pensamiento sarmientino, tratando de evidenciar cómo las especificidades del devenir histórico de este espacio se reflejan en él mismo. En segundo lugar, analizar y explicar las ideas centrales a partir de las cuales el autor entiende que debe configurarse este espacio. Tercero, se plantearán ciertos límites y oposiciones a su proyecto político en el último tercio del siglo XIX.Throughout this article, we pretend to answer which were the main axes of the conceptual vision and construction, as regards the projection of a pattern that allowed inserting the geographical space of the River Plate basin to the evolutionary line of what was considered "civilization". As aims we propose in the first place, to describe briefly the context in which Sarmiento´s thought develops, trying to evidence how the specifics of the historical coming of this space are reflected in itself. In the second place, to analyze and explain the main ideas from which the author understands that this space must be configured. Third, to put forward limits and opposition to his political project in the last third of the XIX century.

  11. A brief lithostratigraphic review of the Abrahamskraal and Koonap formations of the Beaufort Group, South Africa: Towards a basin-wide stratigraphic scheme for the Middle Permian Karoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael Oliver; Rubidge, Bruce Sidney

    2014-12-01

    The basal strata of the Beaufort Group of the South African Karoo Basin, comprising the western Abrahamskraal and eastern Koonap formations, contain the most time extensive record of Middle Permian fossil tetrapods and hold the key to understanding Middle Permian biodiversity change in the continental realm. To determine faunal stratigraphic ranges a reliable lithostratigraphic framework for Middle Permian Beaufort deposits is essential. Until now this has proved difficult to achieve, largely due to the homogeneity of the fluvial succession coupled with structural complexity as a result of Cape Fold Belt orogenesis. Accordingly, the Abrahamskraal Formation has been only locally subdivided on the basis of sandstone packages but regional stratigraphic subdivision has not yet achieved satisfactorily. Collation of stratigraphic sections from around the Karoo Basin for this study demonstrates the presence of four sandstone packages are present within the Abrahamskraal Formation in the south-western corner of the basin. These sandstone packages are given member status, based upon the nomenclature of Le Roux (1985) with the addition of the newly recognised Grootfontein Member. The Combrinkskraal and Grootfontein Members occur in the lower half of the Abrahamskraal Formation and are laterally persistent along the southern margin of the basin. The Koornplaats Member is more restricted to the south west corner of the basin, where it quite thick, suggesting the narrowing of the highly channelized area. The overlying Moordenaars Member, more extensive towards the north than underlying packages, indicates subsequent northwesterly expansion of the locus of active channelization with time. Although thin sandstone packages in the more easterly positioned and stratigraphically equivalent Koonap Formation, this does not facilitate lithostratigraphic subdivision of this part of the stratigraphic succession and may indicate a different form of fluvial architecture. Our study provides

  12. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-06-22 to 2012-07-20 (NCEI Accession 0156920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156920 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-07-25 to 2009-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0144251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144251 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-07-25 to 2009-08-13. These...

  14. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-28 to 2011-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0144248)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144248 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from Sarmiento de Gamboa in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-01-28 to 2011-03-14. These...

  15. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  16. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  17. On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: a five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, Seth J; Branje, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12-20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status) decreased, whereas the representation of the high-commitment statuses (2 variants of a [fore]closed identity: "early closure" and "closure," and achievement) increased. We also found support for the individual difference perspective: 63% of the adolescents remained in the same identity status across the 5 waves. Identity progression was characterized by 7 transitions: diffusion→moratorium, diffusion→early closure, moratorium→closure, moratorium→achievement, searching moratorium→closure, searching moratorium→achievement, and early closure→achievement. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. High-resolution stratigraphic forward modeling: A case study of the lower-middle San Andres formation, Permian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuster, M.W. (KSEPL (Shell Research), Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Childers, D.W. (Shell Western Exploration and Production Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    This study has attempted to calibrate Shell's two-dimensional (2-D) basin modeling program as an exploration tool by simulating the stratigraphy of a mixed carbonate/clastic third-order depositional sequence. The lower-middle San Andres Formation was selected because available log, core, and outcrop data from the Northwest Shelf area, Permian basin, provided an excellent calibration set. A regional stratigraphic cross section from the Cato-Chaveroo to the Wasson fields was constructed delineating lithology and porosity distribution. Approximately 10 shoaling-upward depositional cycles were interpreted. A higher frequency, five-in-one cyclicity was also interpreted based on core and outcrop data. The observed stratigraphy was simulated using a composite eustasy consisting of third-order (2,000,000 yr), fourth-order (100,000 yr), and fifth-order (20,000 yr) sinusoids each at five-meter amplitudes. Subsidence input was constrained by back-stripped tectonic subsidence curves calculated from well data. Sedimentation parameters were interactively derived. New empirically based algorithms were used to model Dunham lithofacies, environmental facies, and sabkha anhydrite distribution. Synthetic log and 2-D synthetic seismic profiles were constructed from the simulation output. The simulation results suggest that (1) relative sea level is the dominant control on the observed depositional cyclicity, (2) the distribution of regional seal facies (anhydrite) reflects falling sea level and prolonged exposure, (3) limestone-dolomite trends on the shelf are grossly related to environment and (4) the distribution of grainstones and packstones (potential reservoirs) occurs as fourth- and fifth-order offlapping and aggradational pods. The synthetic log signatures compared to [open quotes]real[close quotes] logs substantiate the interpreted depositional cyclicity, but also point out the difficulty in interpreting high-order cycles based on log data alone.

  19. Stratigraphic sections, depositional environments, and metal content of the upper part of the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, Northern Sangre De Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.F.; Walz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calcareous upper part of the 2,000-meter-thick Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation (Lindsey and others, 1985) in the northern Sangre de Cristo Range is a key stratigraphic interval for correlating rocks and mapping the structure of the range. The stratigraphy of this complex and heretofore poorly known interval is reported here in order to provide a basis for correlation among the structural blocks in the range. Inferred depositional environments of the upper part of the Minturn Formation are described briefly.

  20. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY, CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE MIDDLE DEVONIAN (GIVETIAN TO EARLY CARBONIFEROUS (TOURNAISIAN LIPAK FORMATION IN THE PIN VALLEY OF SPITI (NW INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERICH DRAGANITS

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bed-by-bed lithostratigraphic sections combined with sequence stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy provide new information on the depositional environment and age of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley (Spiti. The formation comprises mixed siliciclastic and calcareous sediments at lower levels, richly fossiliferous limestones with two distinct sandstone incursions at higher levels, and dark mudstones followed by a thin siltstone interval. The upper limit of the Lipak Formation is defined by the angular unconformity below the sandstones of the Permian Gechang Formation. Lithologic correlation with sections in upper Lahaul indicates that, in the Pin Valley, the formation has been truncated just below its characteristic gypsum horizon. The lower boundary of the Lipak Formation is gradational from coastal arenites of the Muth Formation; the mappable boundary is drawn at the first appearance of dark carbonaceous, argillaceous siltstone and shale.Sedimentary structures, microfacies and conodont faunas indicate a general shallow marine depositional environment of the Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley; five sequence stratigraphic units have been distinguished. Conodont data demonstrate that the lowest 33 m of the Lipak Formation of the Pin Valley is mid to late Early varcus Subzone with characteristic species of Icriodus and Bipennatus. A previously unrecognised hiatus at c. 33 m above the base, at the boundary of sequence stratigraphic units S1 and S2, represents the interval Middle varcus Subzone to at least the end of the late Famennian Early expansa Zone. Because this hiatus does not correspond to a mappable boundary, no division of the Lipak Formation into named stratigraphic units is suggested, but we refer informally to the sediments represented by cycle S1 as Lipak A, and the sediments represented by cycles S2-S5 as Lipak B. Determination of S1 as Early varcus Subzone provides a maximum age for the gradationally underlying Muth Formation

  1. Nuevos profesores eméritos de San Marcos: Dra. Luz Sarmiento Bendezú y el Dr. Hernando De Macedo Ruiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Manosalva Bacigalupo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El día martes 17 de diciembre del año 2002, en el recinto histórico de la Capilla de la Virgen de Loreto del Centro Cultural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos del Parque Universitario, en presencia del Dr. Manuel Burga Díaz, Rector de nuestra Cuatricentenaria Casa de Estudios, el Vicerrector Académico Dr. Raúl Izaguirre Maguiña, la Vicerrectora Administrativa, Dra. Beatriz Herrera García, decanos, autoridades de nuestra Facultad, profesores, compañeros de promoción, familiares y amigos, se rindió un emotivo homenaje a dos grandes maestros forjadores de Escuelas de Investigación y docencia, que han contribuido positivamente al desarrollo de la zoología en la antigua Facultad de Ciencias y posteriormente en la Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas: la Dra. Luz Sarmiento Bendezú y el Dr. Hernando de Macedo Ruíz.

  2. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  3. Geochronological and lead-isotope evidences for rapid crust formation in middle-proterozoic time: The Labrador example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerer, Urs

    1988-01-01

    Extensive U-Pb geochronological studies in the Grenville and Makkovik provinces have shown that eastern Labrador is underlain by two distinct crustal blocks. In order to substantiate the juvenile character of the middle-Proterozoic crustal block, the isotopic compositon of lead in leached k-feldspars from the same rocks were analyzed. The results of the analysis are briefly discussed.

  4. Middle Cambrian siliceous sponge-calcimicrobe buildups (Daegi Formation, Korea): Metazoan buildup constituents in the aftermath of the Early Cambrian extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongsun; Cho, Seong-Hyeon; Choh, Suk-Joo; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2012-05-01

    Numerous decimetre- to metre-scale carbonate buildups dominated by siliceous sponges and the calcimicrobe Epiphyton are reported from the Middle Cambrian (Series 3) Daegi Formation of Korea. These siliceous sponge-Epiphyton buildups consist predominantly of grey micritic boundstones with dark clots and/or white clumps. The boundstones contain sponge spicule networks interpreted as the calcified remains of siliceous sponges. The white clumps and dark clots in the boundstones represent variously preserved Epiphyton. Siliceous sponges form constructional pore space and are commonly encrusted by Epiphyton. The sponges were probably the primary frame-builders, providing substrates for the attachment and subsequent growth of Epiphyton. Epiphyton is considered to be a binder when covering the surface of siliceous sponges, and a subordinate frame-builder when filling depositional voids created by siliceous sponges or growing on top of other Epiphyton growth bundles. The siliceous sponge-Epiphyton buildups of the Daegi Formation show similarities to previously described Late Cambrian (Furongian) anthaspidellid-calcimicrobe buildups from Iran and the USA. Together with recently reported examples from the Zhangxia Formation of eastern China, the sponge-Epiphyton buildups from Korea represent some of the oldest metazoan-calcimicrobe buildups, after the extinction of most archaeocyaths at the end of the Early Cambrian (Series 2). This implies that the incorporation of metazoans in Middle Cambrian (Series 3) carbonate buildups occurred much earlier than previously known. The buildup-forming siliceous sponges described in this study demonstrate that their role in Early Phanerozoic carbonate buildups has been grossly underestimated.

  5. Investigating the Efficacy of a Professional Development Program in Formative Classroom Assessment in Middle School English Language Arts and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. Christina; Meyer, J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teachers who engage in formative classroom assessment using practices that accurately measure student learning should be better positioned to diagnose the instructional needs of their students and to act on that information. For this reason, there has been increased interest in formative classroom assessment in recent years. Although…

  6. THE SECEDA DRILL HOLE IN THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC BUCHENSTEIN BEDS (LIVINALLONGO FORMATION, DOLOMITES, NORTHERN ITALY A PROGRESS REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER BRACK

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available First results and basic geological information of the Seceda Coring Project are reported. The Seceda project started with drilling of a well for scientific purposes. The core material is currently studied by an international group of geoscientists from different universities. Fundamental topics of the project are a thorough sedimentological and cyclostratigraphic analysis of the complete succession of Middle Triassic pelagic Buchenstein Beds in the northwestern Dolomites (Southern Alps, Italy as well as their temporal relationship with coeval carbonate platforms. Complementary studies focus on stratigraphic correlation tools including bio-, litho- and magnetostratigraphy. 

  7. On the formation of deposits of natural gas in the Rotliegendes (New Red) of the Middle European depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzer, H.; Katzung, G.

    1985-01-01

    With hitherto proved gas reserves of more than 4 billions m/sup 3/, the sediments of the Rotliegendes are representing the most important gas bearing complex in Middle and North-Western Europe. The generation, migration and accumulation of the natural gas is caused by complicated, interlocking processes of the coalification of the organic matter of the Silesian, of the and development of the reservoir rocks, of the thermal influence and the tectonic development. On the base of the reached level of knowledge, the premises for the detection of further deposits are outlined. (orig.).

  8. El obispo Lope de Barrientos y la sociedad judeoconversa : su intervención en el debate doctrinal en torno a la "Sentencia-Estatuto" de Pero Sarmiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de integración de los judeoconversos en la sociedad hispanocristiana resultó profundamente controvertido, y constituyó una de las cuestiones más relevantes de la Castilla del siglo xv. Los años centrales de la centuria decimoquinta estuvieron marcados por una interesante polémica doctrinal en torno a la llamada «Sentencia-Estatuto» de Pero Sarmiento, que ordenaba la exclusión de los judíos y de los judeoconversos de todos los oficios públicos de la ciudad de Toledo. En este debate intervino el obispo de Cuenca Lope de Barrientos, una de las personalidades más destacadas del panorama político y eclesiástico de la Castilla de mediados del siglo xv. Junto a otras destacadas figuras del momento (Fernán Díaz de Toledo, Alonso de Cartagena, Juan de Torquemada, Barrientos defendió la plena integración de los judeoconversos en la sociedad hispanocristiana, así como la necesidad de tolerancia hacia ios recién convertidos al cristianismo en tanto durase el proceso de adoctrinamiento en su nueva religión. El debate se prolongó durante la segunda mitad del siglo xv, imponiéndose a la larga quienes propugnaban la adopción de medidas restrictivas para con la actuación pública de los cristianos nuevos, que cristalizarían en el apartamiento de los judaizantes y de sus descendientes del ejercicio de oficios públicos y en la aparición de los «estatutos de limpieza de sangre», ya en vísperas de la Modernidad.The integration process of the jewish converts in the christian spanish society was highiy controversial and it suppoused one of the most relevant sub¡ects in the Castile of the XV century. The central years of that century were characterized by an interesting doctrinal debate around the so —called Pero Sarmiento's «Sentencia-Estatuto», that ordered the exclusión of jewish and convert jewish from all civil service jobs of the city of Toledo. The bishop of Cuenca, Lope de Barrientos, one of the most relevant

  9. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  10. Educadoras, lectoras y socias: La irrupción de las mujeres en un espacio de sociabilidad masculino. La Sociedad Sarmiento de Tucumán (Argentina entre 1882 y 1902 Teachers, Readers and Partners: The Emergence of Women in a Sphere of Male Sociability. The Sarmiento Society of Tucumán (Argentina between 1882 and 1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vignoli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1882 se creó en San Miguel de Tucumán un espacio de sociabilidad que reunía a alumnos, egresados y maestros de dos instituciones educativas implantadas en la provincia durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX en el marco del despliegue del naciente Estado central, la Escuela Normal y el Colegio Nacional. Se trata de la Sociedad Sarmiento que se constituyó en un ámbito literario que permitía a sus miembros una suerte de continuidad de sus estudios ante la ausencia de una universidad. La Sociedad llevó a cabo importantes emprendimientos, entre los que destacan la creación de una biblioteca y la edición de dos publicaciones periódicas, El Porvenir y El Tucumán Literario. A partir de estos proyectos se fue moldeando una experiencia de sociabilidad masculina, con una fuerte impronta liberal, que se desarrolló en constante tensión con las posibilidades de incluir en el proyecto a las recién llegadas al mundo de la educación, de la literatura y de la lectura: las mujeres. La preocupación central del artículo es examinar las vías a través de las cuales estas se incorporaron a ese espacio y asumieron el desafío de comenzar a expresarse con su propia voz.In 1882, a sphere of sociability was created in San Miguel de Tucumán that brought together students, graduates and teachers from two educational institutes established in the province during the second half of the 19th century within the framework of the emergence of the nascent central state, the Teachers' College and the National College. Known as the Sarmiento Society, it constituted a literary sphere that enabled its members to achieve a sort of continuity in their studies in the absence of a university. The Society embarked on various major endeavors, including the creation of a library and the edition of two periodic publications, El Porvenir and El Tucumán Literario. These projects shaped an experience of male sociability, with a strong liberal imprint, that developed in

  11. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  12. [The anatomical features of the middle ear exerting the influence on the formation of exudative otitis media in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matroskin, A G; Rakhmanova, I V; Dreval', A A; Kislyakov, A N; Vladimirov, A I

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the anatomical features of the structure of the middle ear and eustachian tube in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age that may be responsible for the formation of exudates (fluids). We have examined 150 temporal bones obtained from the children's cadavers that were allocated to three groups as follows: 50 temporal bones obtained at weeks 26-30 weeks of gestation (group 1), 44 bones 31-36 weeks of gestation (group 2), and 37-40 weeks of gestation (full-term babies, group 3),The analysis of the data obtained on an individual bases revealed either increase or decreases in the selected characteristics of the eustachian tube in comparison with the respective average values as well as the well apparent predominance of a single change or a combination of alteration of several parameters in one case in 26-30 weeks and 31-36 weeks groups. No significant changes were found in group 1. It is concluded that the presence of a single change or a combination of two or three abnormal changes in the parameters of the bone structures of the eustachian tube can affect the development of the secretory process in the middle ear especially in the children born after 36 weeks of pregnancy.

  13. Geochemical Analysis of Parasequences within the Productive Middle Member of the Eagle Ford Formation at Lozier Canyon near Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Timothy E.

    The middle member of the Eagle Ford formation is a heterogeneous, carbonate-shale unit that is a focus of unconventional oil and gas exploration in southern Texas. Exploration results have been mixed because of the apparent heterogeneity of the member. In this study, the extent of heterogeneities in the Eagle Ford on the "bedding-scale" were examined by evaluating changes in organic and inorganic geochemistry. Samples were collected vertically in outcrop covering four non-consecutive parasequences. These samples were analyzed using a Rock Eval 6 Analyzer(TM) to determine source rock generative potential and a Niton(TM) XRF to evaluate inorganic geochemistry to identify changes in paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, and clastic influx. From pyrolysis data, it is determined that Parasequence 1 potentially displays an increase in source rock potential, Parasequence 2 potentially displays a constant source rock potential, and Parasequences 3 and 4 potentially display overall decreases in source rock potential during deposition. From the inferred paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, and clastic influx, it is determined that Parasequence 1 experienced a potential increase in oxygen abundance, Parasequence 2 experienced a potential decrease in oxygen abundance, and Parasequences 3 and 4 potentially experienced increases in oxygen abundance during deposition. It is concluded that geochemical heterogeneities do exist on a bedding scale within the parasequences of the middle member of the Eagle Ford. Additional comprehensive sampling and analysis is recommended in the future in order to tie these data to subsurface data for economic application.

  14. The Single Sex Debate for Girls in Science: a Comparison Between Two Informal Science Programs on Middle School Students' STEM Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne M.; Nzekwe, Brandon; Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are policy debates regarding the efficacy and legality of single sex formal and informal education programs. This issue is particularly poignant in science education due to the historical marginalization of women in these fields. This marginalization has resulted in women being positioned as a stigmatized group within many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related fields. Research points to adolescence as the age where this sense of marginalization begins to develop. As a result, policy responses have utilized various frameworks such as: increased access for women, changing pedagogy to address women's learning styles, changing the language and culture of science to prevent marginalization of stigmatized groups, and finally exploring the role that individual identity plays in the marginalization of women. This study adds to the policy debate as it applies to single sex education by comparing middle school participants' STEM identity formation during two informal science learning environments (an all girls' STEM camp and a co-educational STEM camp). Additionally, this study focuses on the influence of camp activities within two informal science education programs: particularly the provision of role models and authentic STEM research activities, as means to improve STEM identity and make these fields relevant to the lives of middle school students. The results indicate that both camps improved girls' STEM identities. These findings suggest that the single sex environment is not as important to STEM identity as the pedagogy used within the program.

  15. Measured sections and discussion of the main turbidite member, Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Custer and Saguache counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulliere, S.J.; DeAngelis, B.L.; Lindsey, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Turbidites are sediments deposited by turbid density currents. The turbidites described here are interpreted as prodelta deposits that formed in front of fan deltas and alluvial fans during the uplift of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Pennsylvanian time. Laterally extensive, lenticular sand bodies deposited by turbidity flows crop out in the Middle Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation in the northern Sangre de Crísto Range, Custer and Saguache Counties, Colo. (figs. 1, 2). One of the turbidite-bearing intervals, informally designated the "main turbidite member," lies 90.6 m above the base of the Minturn; it reaches 150 m in thickness and extends more than 13 km along strike. The internal stratigraphy and sedimentary structures of the main turbidite member are described from the measured sections presented here.

  16. The influence of theory on the formation of the infirmary during antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drampalos, Efstathios; Stogiannos, Vasileios; Psyllakis, Panagiotis; Sadiq, Mohammad; Michos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The modern infirmary is the evolutional product of the dialectic interface between medical theories at each time and the outcome of their application in clinical practice. The infirmary as we know it today did not exist during antiquity, but the different precursors of the modern hospital emerged as a result of the interaction between medical theory and practice. During antiquity the Hippocratic work decisively contributed to the creation of the Asklipieion, an institution with predetermined structure created to heal diseases. Later in antiquity new types of infirmaries appeared along with the evolution of private practice for physicians. Establishment of the first modern hospitals was an outstanding contribution of Islamic medicine during reign of the Islamic Empire. Although there was little progress in the development of medical theory in medieval West, evolution of the infirmary continued and was mostly influenced by Christian religion and charity. In Constantinople large medieval infirmaries were built, but patient care was frequently offered in monasteries by clergymen. Later on medicine and treatment of diseases were taken over by physicians and taught in universities, and medical theory continued on its course of evolution. It is obvious that the modern infirmary is not only a place for treating diseases, but rather the upshot of a series of advancements in science, the relations between people or even countries, and the way humanity perceives its nature and the future. Our research is focused on the interactive relationship between the evolution of medical theory and the infirmary as an institution during antiquity and the Middle Ages with particular emphasis on the Western World.

  17. El imaginario tecnológico de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento: representaciones y arquetipos de América (1845-1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azcona Pastor, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the technical dimension of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento’s imaginary and its influence on the construction of representations concerning nature, human types, progress of nations, and scientific personalities. As we will see, the influential Argentine statesman and writer creates, from a technologistic perspective, a wide variety of images and archetypes which can be traced in different publications. The aim of this paper is then to present these different types of symbolic features as a result of his technological attitude and to expose them according to a division that comprises four categories: the first one is devoted to images of an hostile nature; the second one examines the human archetypes he considers; the third one deals with the model nations (in particular, as a result of his trip to the United States, and the fourth one focuses on the treatment of scientists and engineers as heroes and agents of progress.El artículo examina la dimensión técnica del imaginario de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento y su influencia en la construcción de representaciones sobre la naturaleza, los tipos humanos, el progreso de las naciones, la educación y los personajes científicos. Como se verá, el influyente estadista argentino crea desde una mirada tecnologista una amplia variedad de imágenes y arquetipos que pueden reconocerse en diversas obras. El propósito del trabajo es pues la presentación de estos símbolos como un resultado de su actitud tecnológica y su exposición siguiendo una división que comprende cuatro categorías: la primera dedicada a las imágenes de una naturaleza hostil; la segunda a los arquetipos humanos; la tercera a las naciones modelo (en especial, como resultado de su viaje a Estados Unidos y la cuarta al tratamiento de la figura del científico y del tecnólogo como héroes y agentes del progreso.

  18. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  19. The Suitability of Limestone from Pilaspi Formation (Middle-Late Eocene for Building Stone in Koya Area, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemn M. Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of limestone rocks has a crucial importance when stones are used for constructing modern structure. The purpose of this study is to clarify the links between physical, mechanical properties of limestone rocks, also their quality to use as building materials. A total of six limestone rock samples were collected from three different outcrops locations within Pilaspi Formation in Koya area. Engineering geological and geotechnical properties of the limestone rocks in the study area were determined based on the field studies and laboratory tests. The field studies included observations/ measurements of rock mass characteristics such as color, grain size, orientation, bedding thickness and weathering state of the rock materials also spacing, persistence, roughness and infilling material of the discontinuities. Laboratory tests were carried out for determining water content, water absorption, density, uniaxial compressive strength, slake durability and porosity of the rock materials. The study results go well with the national and international standards (Iraqi Standards, 1989; American Society for Testing and Materials, 2004; International Society for Rock Mechanics, 1981 and have shown that the limestone rocks are acceptable for building stone.

  20. Low functional evenness in a post-extinction Anisian (Middle Triassic) paleocommunity: A case study of the Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation), south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, Ashley A.; Fraiser, Margaret L.; Tong, Jinnan

    2015-10-01

    Functional diversity, defined as the abundance and distribution of traits present in a community, has important implications for the functioning of ecosystems in the wake of events of major disturbance. Here, we examine the functional diversity of a Middle Triassic paleocommunity in the wake of the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). Field data was collected and analyzed for a highly diverse invertebrate marine fossil assemblage, the Middle Triassic (Anisian) Leidapo Member (Qingyan Formation) of Qingyan, south China. Previously interpreted to represent a fully restructured paleocommunity in the aftermath of the PTME, our results indicate that the fauna of Leidapo Member had high taxonomic diversity and high functional richness, however was functionally uneven. Despite the presence of 24 different functional groups, the paleocommunity was numerically and ecologically dominated by one functional group consisting of mostly attached epifaunal suspension feeding brachiopods. The overwhelming dominance of this Anisian paleocommunity by one functional group implies that either, 1) resource availability in the community was uneven, and/or 2) strong environmental or niche filtering was in effect. As such, while the Anisian Leidapo Member paleocommunity was deposited in a fairly stable shallow water paleoenvironment, this biotic assemblage would have been very vulnerable to biotic and environmental perturbations. While it is uncertain whether or not this pattern is typical of paleocommunities in the aftermath of the PTME, these results imply that some Anisian paleocommunities may not have been as fully restructured as previously thought, and may have been inherently unstable due to the numerous biotic and environmental changes present in the Triassic.

  1. Rapid de novo aneurysm formation after clipping of a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant with an MYH11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Karsy, Michael; Schmidt, Richard H; Taussky, Philipp; Park, Min S; Bollo, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The authors report the case of a previously healthy 6-month-old girl who presented with right arm and leg stiffening consistent with seizure activity. An initial CT scan of the head demonstrated acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns extending into the left sylvian fissure. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a 7 × 6 × 5-mm saccular aneurysm of the inferior M2 division of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent left craniotomy and microsurgical clip ligation with wrapping of the aneurysm neck because the vessel appeared circumferentially dysplastic in the region of the aneurysm. Postoperative angiography demonstrated a small remnant, sluggish distal flow, but no significant cerebral vasospasm. Fifty-five days after the initial aneurysm rupture, the patient presented again with an acute intraparenchymal hemorrhage of the left anterior temporal lobe. Angiogram revealed a circumferentially dysplastic superior division of the M2 branch, with a new 5 × 4-mm saccular aneurysm distinct from the first, with 2 smaller aneurysms distal to the new ruptured aneurysm. Endovascular parent vessel occlusion with Onyx was performed. Genetic testing revealed a mutation of the MYH11. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of rapid de novo aneurysm formation in an infant with an MYH11 mutation. The authors review the patient's clinical presentation and management and comprehensively review the literature on this topic.

  2. The role of internal waves in the formation of layered structure at exchange flows between two closed basins (Middle and southern basins of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bidokhti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Layered structures in the oceans have always attracted the attention of oceanographers. The formation of these structures have been attributed to phenomena such as double – diffusive convection, internal waves and turbulent modulated mixing .In this paper, the vertical structures of temperature, salinity, density and the layered structure in the middle parts of Caspian Sea have been studied. Counters of iso-quantities of these physical properties, show the existence of regular structures, which indicate that internal waves which are produced by exchanging flow between two basins, as a result of horizontal density gradients (usually from north basin to south basin may generate these layers. Froude number of this flow is about one. The length of wave of the internal waves is found to be about 200 km and the flow velocity associated with this gravity drive flow is about 0.2 m/s, the frequency of these waves is of order of inertial frequency. The normal modes of these waves have a near steady structure and can fold the inflow front from the North Caspian sea to South Caspian Sea basins, then the layered structure are formed. The thickness of these layers so formed is found to be about 10-20 m. These are in agreement with the values predicted by the model of Wong et al, (2001. In these waters density ratio is negative. Thus, double – diffusive convection does not often happen and cannot produce these layered structures.

  3. The low-grade Canal de las Montañas Shear Zone and its role in the tectonic emplacement of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex and Late Cretaceous Patagonian Andes orogeny, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, M.; Fosdick, J. C.; Warren, C.; Massonne, H.-J.; Fanning, C. M.; Cury, L. Fadel; Schwanethal, J.; Fonseca, P. E.; Galaz, G.; Gaytán, D.; Hervé, F.

    2012-02-01

    The Canal de las Montañas Shear Zone (CMSZ), southern Patagonian Andes (51-52°S), is a low-grade mylonite belt generated from felsic ignimbritic, pelitic and basaltic protoliths of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin. The different types of rock fabrics across the CMSZ are thought to be associated with relatively intermediate and high strain conditions, characterized by the development of a narrow western belt of S-Ć-type mylonites and phyllonites interpreted as the metamorphic sole thrust of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex. Highly strained rocks of the CMSZ display a reverse, continent-ward tectonic transport, with a minor dextral component of shearing. Transitional pumpellyite-actinolite and upper greenschist facies metamorphic conditions at ca. 5-6 kbar and 230-260 °C indicate that the primary shearing event occurred in a subduction zone setting. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe chronology yielded ages of ca. 85 Ma on syntectonic phengite which are interpreted as representing cooling synchronous with mica crystallization during the main compressive deformational event. The 78-81 Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of cross-cutting plutonic and hypabyssal rocks and 40Ar/39Ar amphibole age of ca.79 Ma from lamprophyric dikes within the fold-thrust belt constrain an upper age limit of the ophiolite tectonic emplacement deformation.

  4. LA RAZA EN LAS NARRATIVAS FUNDACIONALES DE LA NACIÓN ARGENTINA. SARMIENTO, SU ESTIGMA Y SU LEGADO PARA LA POLITIZACIÓN RACIAL DE LA REPÚBLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el impacto de las narrativas nacionales fundacionales en el modo en que lo ‘diverso’, ‘la alteridad’ o la ‘diferencia’ irrumpen en la vida política de hoy. Para ello se busca primero recuperar una serie de debates antropológicos sobre la ‘raza’ como categoría analítica, los cuales permiten replantear su complejo vínculo con la racializacion como sistema de clasificación y el racismo como ideología política. Posteriormente, se correlacionan los resultados con un corpus discursivo de Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, entre cuyas finalidades performativas figura la construcción simbólica de su ‘nación cívica’. Finalmente, ello conduce a un debate acerca de las potencialidades de una ‘repolitización’ de la raza en una clave republicana, que subvierta las fronteras internas de la nación cívica, en vez de aceptarlas.

  5. HOW MIDDLE MANAGERS CONTRIBUTE TO STRATEGY FORMATION PROCESS: CONNECTION OF STRATEGY PROCESSES AND STRATEGY PRACTICES/COMO GERENTES DE NÍVEL MÉDIO CONTRIBUEM PARA O PROCESSO DE FORMAÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIA: CONEXÃO ENTRE PROCESSOS ESTRATÉGICOS E PRÁTICAS ESTRATÉGICAS/CÓMO GERENTES DE NIVEL MEDIO CONTRIBUYEN AL PROCESO DE FORMACIÓN DE ESTRATEGIA: CONEXIÓN ENTRE PROCESOS ESTRATÉGICOS Y PRÁCTICAS ESTRATÉGICAS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosalia Aldraci Barbosa Lavarda; María Teresa Canet-Giner; Fernando Juan Peris-Bonet

    2010-01-01

    ... strategy formation process. The main goal of this research is to analyse the relationship between the integrative strategy formation process and the roles of middle management under the strategy-as-practice perspective...

  6. The interaction of assessment format and sex in assessing the knowledge structure coherence of middle school students' understanding of the concept of force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleigh, Sharon

    This study focuses on the impact of assessment format on the identification of students' ideas surrounding the concept of force and the consistency with which students apply those ideas across contexts. It is in response to the debate in conceptual change literature regarding students' knowledge structure coherence. Empirical studies in this field typically rely on an interview assessment format. The current study examined the potential of a constructed response assessment format as another possible instrument for data collection involving larger sample populations. The current study specifically compared how the two assessment formats (constructed response and interview assessment) assessed 45 students in the ninth grade in a single school in Arizona. The analysis explored possible biases and interactions by sex, order of assessment, and preference for assessment format because the literature suggests that these factors may potentially affect the performance and coding of assessments. Although small differences between the two assessments were found, the differences were not statistically significant overall or for any subgroup. More specifically, there were no apparent significant biases in the two formats with regard to one another and student sex. However it was found that girls are more likely to express multiple-best match meanings than boys in both assessments. This may be an influence in the diversity found in previous studies concerning students' knowledge structures. These findings suggest that the constructed response format could be administered on a larger scale to assist in the identification of factors contributing to the differences in findings across prior studies in this field. Additionally, these results suggest the potential of this constructed response format for helping teachers conduct formative assessments to guide instructional decisions.

  7. Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: Implications for the effect of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvissel, O.-K.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Stordal, F.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Santee, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the effects of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere and in particular upon the nitrogen family and ozone, we have modeled the chemical and dynamical middle atmosphere response to the introduction of a chemical pathway that produces HNO3 by conversion of N2O5 upon hydrated water clusters H+·(H2O)n. We have used an ensemble of simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole-Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) chemistry-climate model. The chemical pathway alters the internal partitioning of the NOy family during winter months in both hemispheres, and ultimately triggers statistically significant changes in the climatological distributions of constituents including: i) a cold season production and loss of HNO3 and N2O5, respectively, and ii) a cold season decrease and increase in NOx/NOy-ratio and O3, respectively, in the polar regions of both hemispheres. We see an improved seasonal evolution of modeled HNO3 compared to satellite observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), albeit not enough HNO3 is produced at high altitudes. Through O3changes, both temperature and dynamics are affected, allowing for complex chemical-dynamical feedbacks beyond the cold season when the pathway is active. Hence, we also find a NOxpolar increase in spring-to-summer in the southern hemisphere, and in spring in the northern hemisphere. The springtime NOxincrease arises from anomalously strong poleward transport associated with a weaker polar vortex. We argue that the weakening of zonal-mean polar winds down to the lower stratosphere, which is statistically significant at the 0.90 level in spring months in the southern hemisphere, is caused by strengthened planetary waves induced by the middle and sub-polar latitude zonal asymmetries in O3and short-wave heating.

  8. Evidence of Early to Middle Ordovician arc volcanism in the Cordillera Oriental and Altiplano of southern Peru, Ollantaytambo Formation and Umachiri beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Carlotto, Victor; Cárdenas, José

    2006-11-01

    Volcanic rocks of intermediate to predominantly mafic composition are exposed in the Cordillera Oriental and Altiplano of southern Peru in two localities: (1) the Ollantaytambo Formation, which crops out near Cusco, and (2) the Umachiri beds in the Departamento de Puno. The most notable unit in the Ollantaytambo Formation is an approximately 100 m thick succession of lapilli tuffs that originated by hydroclastic fragmentation. These volcanic rocks are of calc-alkaline basaltic to andesitic composition. The tuffs are overlain by fine-grained volcaniclastic sandstones and shales, which grade into quartz-rich turbidites. The Umachiri beds consist of monomict lapilli tuffs with varying lapilli abundance and size, formed by hydroclastic fragmentation, and volcaniclastic sandstones. The rocks have a uniform basaltic andesite composition and tholeiitic affinity. Chondrite-normalized element patterns of both volcanigenic units show a moderate enrichment of LREE and a weak negative Eu anomaly. Pronounced negative Nb and Ta anomalies indicate magma evolution in an arc environment. In contrast, the overlying epiclastic sandstones and shales in the Ollantaytambo Formation reflect upper crustal sources. Our data indicate that the deposition of the lapilli tuffs of the Ollantaytambo Formation and Umachiri beds likely was connected to the westward-lying Ordovician magmatic arc on the Arequipa Massif. If the Ordovician active margin in southern Peru had the same east-dipping subduction polarity as the active Gondwana margin in Argentina and Chile, the sedimentary basin in which the Ollantaytambo Formation and Umachiri beds were deposited was in a backarc position.

  9. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts of Laurentian affinity from blocks of limestone in the Rosroe Formation, South Mayo Trough, western Ireland and their palaeogeographic implication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouge, Svend; Harper, David A. T.; Sevastopulo, George D.

    2016-01-01

    with, respectively, the Tourmakeady Formation (Floian-Dapingian) and Srah Formation (Darriwilian) in the Tourmakeady Volcanic Group in the eastern part of the South Mayo Trough and probably are derived from the same or similar laterally equivalent short-lived carbonate successions that accumulated...... at offshore 'peri-Laurentian' islands, close to and along the Laurentian margin. During collapse of the carbonate system in the late Mid Ordovician, the blocks were transported down a steep slope and into deep-water by debris flows, mixing with other rock types now found in the coarse polymict clastics...

  10. Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, S.N.; King, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater table, and ponding of upstream timber. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the composition of floodplain vegetation communities along the degraded river reach, (2) to isolate relationships among these communities, geomorphic features, and environmental variables and (3) evaluate successional changes based on current stand conditions. Vegetation communities were not specifically associated with predefined geomorphic features; nevertheless, hydrologic and geomorphic processes as a result of channelization have clearly affected vegetation communities. The presence of valley plugs and continued degradation of upstream reaches and tributaries on the impacted study reach has arrested recovery of floodplain plant communities. Historically common species like Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Quercus spp. L. were not important, with importance values (IV) less than 1, and occurred in less than 20% of forested plots, while Acer rubrum L., a disturbance-tolerant species, was the most important species on the site (IV = 78.1) and occurred in 87% of forested plots. The results of this study also indicate that channelization impacts on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River are more temporally and spatially complex than previously described for other river systems. Rehabilitation of this system necessitates a long-term, landscape-scale solution that addresses watershed rehabilitation in a spatially and temporally hierarchical manner. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic Learning Progressions Framework: Developing an Embedded Formative and Summative Assessment System to Improve Learning Outcomes for Elementary and Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeratan, Kavita L.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with two other research organizations, the authors integrate principles of the BEAR Assessment System with Universal Design for Learning principles to develop and validate learning progressions and an aligned, universally designed formative and summative classroom assessment system for promoting conceptual understanding of number…

  12. Trilobites, scolecodonts and fish remains occurrence and the depositional paleoenvironment of the upper Monte Alegre and lower Itaituba formations, Lower - Middle Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Luciane Profs; Nascimento, Sara; Scomazzon, Ana Karina; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the scolecodonts, trilobite pygidium fragments and fish remains of an outcropped region in the southern Amazonas Basin, comprising the uppermost section of the Monte Alegre Formation and the basal section of the Itaituba Formation. These, correspond to part of the marine portion of the Tapajós Group, related to an intracratonic carbonate platform. The Monte Alegre Formation includes a deposition of fluvial-deltaic and aeolian sandstones, siltstones and shales of interdunes and lakes, intercalated with transgressive carbonates of a shallow restrict nearshore marine environment. The Itaituba Formation comprises a thickest deposit of marine carbonates, representing the establishment of widespread marine conditions, and is the richest interval containing organisms of shallow marine environment in the Pennsylvanian of the Amazonas Basin. The associated fauna includes brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, crinoids, echinoids, bryozoans, corals, foraminifers, sponges, ostracods, trilobites, scolecodonts, fish remains and conodonts, mainly in the packstones, and subordinately in the wackestones and mudstones. Conodonts Neognathodus atokaensis, Diplognathodus orphanus, Idiognathodus incurvus, and foraminifers Millerella extensa, Millerella pressa, Millerella marblensis, Eostaffella ampla, Eostaffella pinguis and Eostaffella advena characterizes a predominant Atokan age to the analyzed profile. The fossil association herein presented is taxonomically diversified and biologically interesting, comprising an important and well preserved, for the first time occurrence of two molds and two fragments of Proetida trilobites. Well preserved Eunicida and Phyllodocida scolecodonts and paleonisciform fish remains. These fossils help in the paleoenvironmental establishment of the studied interval in the Amazonas Basin and as a potential biostratigraphic and paleoecological tool to correlate regionally and globally the Pennsylvanian.

  13. Seismic Characterization of Hypogenic Karst Systems Associated with Deep Hydrothermal Fluids in the Middle-Lower Ordovician Yingshan Formation of the Shunnan Area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Xiu; Chen, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    Two fundamental forms of hypogenic karst systems (lateral stratiform hypogenic and cross-formational fault-vein hypogenic karst system) are distinguished mainly by differential effects of preexisting faults. In seismic cross sections, hypogenic karst systems are expressed as complex string-beads-like seismic reflections associated with faults. In this study, a new seismic characterization workflow was developed including seismic amplitude thresholding, fault interpretation, pickup, and merge ...

  14. Sedimentology of SPICE (Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion): A high-resolution trace fossil and microfabric analysis of the middle to late Cambrian Alum Shale Formation, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven; Fishman, Neil; Ahlberg, Per; Maletz, Jorg; Jackson, Allison; Kolte, Ketki; Lowers, Heather; Mackie, James; Newby, Warren; Petrowsky, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The Cambrian Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core from Scania, southern Sweden, consists of black siliciclastic mudstone with minor carbonate intercalations. Four facies comprise three siliciclastic mudstones and one fine-grained carbonate. The facies reflect deposition along a transect from deep ramp to basin on a Cambrian shelf. The three mudstone facies contain abundant clay clasts and laterally variable siltstone laminae. Bed-load transport processes seem to have dominated deposition on this deep shelf. These sedimentary rocks record mainly event deposition, and only relatively few, thin laminae probably resulted from suspension settling. The Alum Shale Formation deep shelf did not show a bioturbation gradient, but fecal strings are common and Planolites burrows are rare in all mudstone facies. Evidence for biotic colonization indicates that this mudstone environment was not persistently anoxic, but rather was most likely intermittently dysoxic. The Alum Shale Formation in the Andrarum-3 core shows an overall decrease of grain size, preserved energy indicators, and carbonate content upsection interpreted to reflect a deepening upward. The succession can also be divided into four small-scale fining-upward cycles that represent deepening, and four overlying coarsening-upward cycles that represent upward shallowing.

  15. Formation of stratospheric nitric acid by a hydrated ion cluster reaction: chemical and dynamical effects of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvissel, O. K.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Stordal, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to Improve our understanding of the effects of energetic particle precipitation upon the nitrogen family (NOy) and ozone (O3), we have modelled the chemical and dynamical middle atmosphere response to the introduction of a chemical pathway that produces nitric acid (HNO3) by conversion of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) upon hydrated water clusters H+•(H2O)n. We have used an ensemble of simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole-Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) chemistry-climate model. The introduced chemical pathway alters the internal partitioning of NOy during winter months in both hemispheres, and ultimately triggers statistically significant changes in the climatological distributions of constituents including: i) a cold season production of HNO3 with a corresponding loss of N2O5, and ii) a cold season decrease in NOx/NOy-ratio and an increase of O3, in polar regions. We see an improved seasonal evolution of modelled HNO3 compared to satellite observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), albeit not enough HNO3 is produced at high altitudes. Through O3 changes, both temperature and dynamics are affected, allowing for complex chemical-dynamical feedbacks beyond the cold season when the introduced pathway is active. Hence, we also find a NOx polar increase in spring-to-summer in the SH, and in spring in the NH. The springtime NOx increase arises from anomalously strong poleward transport associated with a weaker polar vortex. In the southern hemisphere, a statistical significant weakening of the stratospheric jet is altered down to the lower stratosphere, and we argue that it is caused by strengthened planetary waves induced by mid-latitude zonal asymmetries in O3 and short-wave heating.

  16. The Lower and Middle Cambrian Leithsville Formation within the Wallkill River Valley, Sussex County, New Jersey: Its stratigraphy and archaeological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, M.C. (Hunter College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    The Leithsville Formation occurs as series of northeast-southwest trending outcrops within the Hamburg and Unionville Quadrangles of northwestern New Jersey. The lower Califon Member, approximately 30 feet thick, is best developed in structural sags and topographic lows on the Precambrian surface and where the Hardyston Formation (Lower Cambrian) is thin or absent. It occurs as dark gray, coarsely crystalline, stylolitic dolomite. Vugs bearing quartz, orange calcite, and clots of sphalerite are common. Archaeocyathus is present near the base of the section, which is greater than 30 feet thick in the Vernon Valley. Approximately 120 feet of the Hamburg Member occurs in the study area. The lower unit is a series of finely laminated, thinly bedded alternating phyllitic shales and dolomites that grade upward to thicker cycles of dense, dark gray dolomite with intermittent olive green sandstone units. At several locales, this unit is followed by a series of greenish-gray to reddish-brown alternating shales and dolomites, which bear mud cracks and ripple marks. A distinct rubble zone and unconformity-bounded chert sequence occurs near the top of this member. Measured sections of the poorly exposed upper Wallkill Member have revealed 70 feet of coarse grained, medium gray, stylolitic dolomite with abundant algal stromatolites. Several chert-bounded unconformities occur midway in the section, which is internally brecciated and sulfide-rich. Chert occurring as pods within this member has been the focus of prehistoric mining activity within the axis of the valley.

  17. Seismic Characterization of Hypogenic Karst Systems Associated with Deep Hydrothermal Fluids in the Middle-Lower Ordovician Yingshan Formation of the Shunnan Area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fundamental forms of hypogenic karst systems (lateral stratiform hypogenic and cross-formational fault-vein hypogenic karst system are distinguished mainly by differential effects of preexisting faults. In seismic cross sections, hypogenic karst systems are expressed as complex string-beads-like seismic reflections associated with faults. In this study, a new seismic characterization workflow was developed including seismic amplitude thresholding, fault interpretation, pickup, and merge display to enhance the description of the spatial distribution and coupling of hypogenic karst system and faults. The results suggest that the lateral stratiform hypogenic karst systems are predominantly developed at the top of the secondary faults, presenting an overall of “layered distribution and finger-like interaction” features. The cross-formational fault-vein hypogenic karst systems are developed around faults and characterized by dendritic distribution. Furthermore, we infer that the development pattern of hypogenic karst systems has been produced by the interplay of the faults, preexisting epigenic karst systems, and lateral carrier-beds, which together combine the complex hydrothermal migration pathways of fluids with the characteristics of vertical and horizontal combined pathways. In addition, some possible controlling factors (e.g., sequence stratigraphic boundaries, paleogeomorphology, and sedimentary facies that can influence the development of these hypogenic karst systems have been discussed in detail.

  18. Trace and rare earth elemental geochemistry of carbonate succession in the Middle Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Pingquan Section: Implications for Early Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hua

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of redox-sensitive trace elements, such as uranium (U, vanadium (V, molybdenum (Mo, cobalt (Co, chromium (Cr and rare earth elements (REE+Y were determined in a given carbonate succession in the Gaoyuzhuang Formation (~1.56 Ga, which spans depths from outer shelf to intertidal, to explore the Early Mesoproterozoic ocean redox conditions. The values of the Zr-normalized redox-sensitive trace element concentrations and some relevant ratios show obvious changes from bottom to top in the succession. Samples from the outer shelf setting (M1 interval demonstrate significantly enhanced values in Zr-normalized redox-sensitive trace element concentrations and relevant ratios (the peaks of Mo/U, V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios larger than 8, 4.25, and 7, respectively. Authigenic framboidal pyrites were also found within oncolite-like carbonate concretions and surrounding host rocks in this interval. These all indicate a euxinic state in the outer shelf environment. Less enrichment of Zr-normalized redox-sensitive elemental abundances and a mild decrease in the values of geochemical ratios were present in the inner shelf environment (M2 interval (the V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios fall into a range of 2.5-4.25 and 4-5, respectively, suggesting dysoxic conditions dominant in the inner shelf setting. Samples from the shallower subtidal and intertidal settings (M3 and M4 intervals are mostly invariable with much lower values of Zr-normalized redox-sensitive elements and relevant ratios, with the V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios typically near or less than 2 and 5 respectively, indicative of oxic conditions in the high-energy subtidal/intertidal zones. A remarkable negative Ce anomaly exhibited in the shale-normalized REE+Y diagram in the M4 interval may provide evidence in support of the hypothesis. Taken together, our results suggest a relatively shallow chemocline in the Early Mesoproterozoic ocean: the transitions between euxinic, dysoxic and oxic may occur in quiet

  19. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong; FRIIS, Henrik; Haile, Beyene Girma; Xi, Ke-Lai; Zhang, Hu-Na

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeabilityof low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of the Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag has been investigated by detailed core descriptions, thin section analyses, fluid inclusion analyses, carbon and oxygen isotope analyses, mercury injection, po...

  20. Hummocky cross-stratification-like structures and combined-flow ripples in the Punta Negra Formation (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera): A turbiditic deep-water or storm-dominated prodelta inner-shelf system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilici, Giorgio; de Luca, Pedro Henrique Vieira; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2012-08-01

    Turbidity-current and storm-induced deposits may exhibit similarities, in particularly when the latter is laid down by a combination of oscillatory and unidirectional flows. Recent progress in facies analysis helps to discriminate the sedimentary effects of oscillatory from unidirectional components of the flow. On the basis of detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, strata geometry, and palaeocurrent data, the present study reinterprets the Punta Negra Formation (PNF) (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera), previously considered as a depositional system of deep-water, as a storm-dominated prodeltaic shelf depositional system. In the sandstone beds of the PNF, planar, low-angle and undulating laminations with weakly asymmetric hummocky and swaley bedforms, combined-flow ripples, accretionary hummocky cross-stratification-like (HCS-like), and anisotropic HCS-like suggest the action of oscillatory currents combined with unidirectional currents in forming the deposits. Different hypotheses on the origin of the oscillatory currents have been examined. The most convincing interpretation is that the oscillatory component of the velocity is attributed to storm-induced waves. The palaeocurrent data indicate offshore current directions, suggesting that the unidirectional flow was a gravity-induced bottom current. Inverse grading at the base and overlying normally graded divisions of the sandstone beds testify to waxing-waning behaviour of the depositional flows; interbedding of sedimentary structures (undulating laminations, low-angle and parallel laminations, and combined-flow ripples) in the lower and intermediate divisions of the beds indicate fluctuations of flow velocity. This organisation of the sedimentary structures permits association of the unidirectional component with hyperpycnal bottom currents. The terrestrial origin of the hyperpycnal flows is suggested by the abundance of terrestrial plant remains, the mineralogical and textural immaturity of the

  1. The effects of Vaseline gauze strip, Merocel, and Nasopore on the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and the incidence of major postoperative bleeding after endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Piao Wang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Among patients who had undergone ESS for rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, the incidence of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and major postoperative bleeding in the patients who received Vaseline gauze packing was equivalent to the incidence of these complications in the patients who received Merocel. Nasopore was not superior to the other two nonabsorbable packing materials.

  2. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    The Hazad Member (Middle Eocene) of the Ankleswar Formation in Cambay Basin, India, is traditionally reported as .... derived from acid igneous and high rank metamorphic source rocks (Mohan et al. 1990). 3. Materials .... middle and upper part of the successions in the central and eastern part of the basin, respectively.

  3. Volunteers as Middle Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertz, Courtney

    1978-01-01

    Additional volunteer middle managers to work with extension agents in Four-H Clubs are needed for effective organizational structure and quality programs. The article discusses the value of these middle managers and their recruitment, selection, training, use, recognition, and evaluation. (MF)

  4. The Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  6. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  7. The Rugose Coral Fauna from the Upper Part of the Heyuanzahai Formation in Western Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xunlian

    1994-01-01

    The material studied here is from the Malutang-Heyuanzhai region of Shidian County, Yunnan Province, China. In this region Devonian is well developed and may be divided into eight formations. They include the Lower Devonian Xiangyangsi Formation, the Wangjiacun Formation, the Shabajiao Formation, the Middle Devonian Xibiantang Formation and Malutang Formation, the upper Middle to lower Upper Devonian Heyuanzhai Formation and the Upper Devonian Dujiacun Formation. Rugose corals are known from ...

  8. Middle Turbinate Osteoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daneshi, Ahmad; Jalessi, Maryam; Heshmatzade-Behzadi, Ashkan

    2010-01-01

    Osteoma is the most common benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. Turbinate osteomas are very rare and only four middle turbinate, one superior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported...

  9. Middle School Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Teddy J.; Clements, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    After viewing and discussing slides of Van Gogh's and Munch's paintings and studying the principles of color, middle school students had to execute two drawings, one showing any emotion and the second depicting an expressionistic self-portrait. (RM)

  10. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  11. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  12. Middle ear cholesteatoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C G; Meyerhoff, W L; Burns, D K

    1985-01-01

    Topical otic preparations now in clinical use contain a variety of antibiotics and solvents that may produce severe inflammation if they reach the middle ear cavity. This report describes the response of the chinchilla middle ear to direct application of one such preparation that appears to act as a nonspecific irritant. Cortisporin otic suspension (containing neomycin, polymyxin B, hydrocortisone, and propylene glycol) was introduced into the bullae of 32 chinchillas that were kept alive for four days to five months before histologic examination of their temporal bones. All the experimental animals had tissue damage and inflammation within the middle ear. The changes observed included proliferation of ciliated and secretory columnar cells, formation of granulation tissue, bone erosion, and osteoneogenesis. Some areas of the mucosa underwent metaplasia to stratified squamous epithelium; this metaplastic epithelium, however, did not produce keratin. In the majority of animals kept for two months or more, cholesteatoma was identified in the middle ear. The cholesteatomas appeared to develop as a result of penetration of external canal epidermis through intact tympanic membranes or as the result of migration of epidermis through perforations. The experimental cholesteatomas behaved like those seen clinically in humans, with extensive erosion of bony structures within the middle ear.

  13. Evidence for an Early-Middle Miocene age of the Navidad Formation (central Chile: Paleontological, paleoclimatic and tectonic implications Evidencias de una edad miocena temprana-media de la Formación Navidad: Implicancias paleontológicas, paleoclimáticas y tectónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor M Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The age of the Navidad Formation in central Chile has always been controversial, mainly due to the conflicting age ranges indicated by its macro- and microfossils. Macrofossils are generally interpreted as having been reworked from older, Early to Middle Miocene strata, whereas a Late Miocene-Pliocene age has been accepted on the basis of planktonic foraminifer index species. The results of this study, however, indicate that the macrofossils occur in situ, which necessitates a complete revision of the geochronological data. It is concluded that the evidence for an Early to Middle Miocene age is overwhelming, and that the planktonic foraminifer index species must have appeared in the SE Pacific earlier than elsewhere. These include Globoturborotalia apertura, Globorotalia puncticulata (Deshayes, Globorotalia spheriomizea (Walters, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg, and Neogloboquadrina acostaensis (Blow. An Early to Middle Miocene age for the Navidad Formation correlates well with a reinterpretation of its depo-sitional environment as a continental shelf instead of a deepwater continental slope, global and regional paleoclimatic events, and the tectonic development of the Andes Range.La edad de la Formación Navidad en Chile central siempre ha sido controversial, debido a los distintos rangos de edad indicados por los macro- y microfósiles. En general, se considera que los macro-fósiles han sido retrabajados de estratos del Mioceno Temprano a Medio, y se aceptó una edad miocena tardía para esta unidad sobre la base de especies indicadoras de foraminíferos planctónicos. Sin embargo, los resultados de este estudio indican que los macrofósiles ocurren in situ, lo cual hace necesario una revisión completa de los datos geocronológicos. Se concluye que la evidencia por una edad miocena temprana a media es contundente, y que los foraminíferos planctónicos que indicarían una edad miocena tardía aparecieron más temprano en el SE del oc

  14. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  15. Montessori and Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes the School of the Woods' (Houston, Texas) middle school environment, a learning environment developed to create trust and community, provide meaningful work, and allow adolescents to create a vision for their future. Explains the school's philosophy in terms of adolescent psychology, trust, and curriculum. (TJQ)

  16. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  17. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Abstract. Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion. Key words: Carcinoma, breast, metastasis, temporal bone, ...

  18. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 7. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom. Gautam R Desiraju. General Article Volume 12 Issue 7 July 2007 pp 44-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/07/0044-0060. Keywords.

  19. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    organs including the skull and brain. Metastasis to the temporal bone is extremely rare. 1. An unusual presentation of isolated metastasis with middle ear effusion is reported. Case report. A 45 year old woman presented with a short history of blockage and pain in the right ear. She also complained of a feeling of pulsation in ...

  20. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    administration, e.g. the administrative buildings and the sealing of products, were abandoned. The economic decline of the Middle Bronze Age affected the social stratification as well. The changes in social stratification appear in a series of completely new burial customs which show the prevalence of social...

  1. The Forgotten Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness of the importance of early childhood education and high school as intervention points in the educational lives of America's children. Less attention has been paid to the importance of the upper elementary grades and middle school and the role they must play in the preparation of students for…

  2. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Chemistry occupies a unique middle position between physics and mathematics on the one side and biology, .... The late nineteenth century saw the zenith of the industrial revolution, the emergence of capitalism and colo- .... of the processes occurring in living systems. Chemists were slow to recognize the ...

  3. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  4. Middle School Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Kallio, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of primary resources in the teaching of middle school social studies. Describes a lesson in which students were given a copy of the Declaration of Independence, written in everyday language, and were asked to discuss and evaluate it. Suggests another activity based on Thomas Jefferson's writings. (SG)

  5. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Palynostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of the Rævekløft, Gule Horn and Ostreaelv Formations (Lower–Middle Jurassic, Neill Klinter Group, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppelhus, Eva B.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Neill Klinter Group of Jameson Land, East Greenland contains rich and diverse palynomorph assemblages. Spores, pollen and freshwater algae dominate most of the samples, but dinoflagellatecysts and acritarchs also form important components. The ages suggested by the palynomorphs from the Rævekløft, Gule Horn and Ostreaelv Formations span the period from the Early Pliensbachian to the early Aalenian. The number of palynomorphs identified totals 136,including 83 miospore and 53 microplankton species; they are grouped into seven palynological assemblage zones.In general, there is good agreement between the palynological and sedimentological data, and the palynological data has refined the understanding of the depositional palaeoenvironments ofthe Neill Klinter Group. In some cases, the boundaries of the palynological assemblage zones are congruent with major sequence stratigraphic surfaces and the palynological data thus supportthe sequence stratigraphic interpretation. In other cases, however, regional correlation indicates that the zone boundaries cross important sequence stratigraphic surfaces, such as sequenceboundaries; such behaviour is thought to reflect the facies-dependent nature of certain of the palynological assemblage zones. The pattern of palynological events in East Greenland has alsobeen recognised on the mid-Norwegian shelf.

  6. Formative Assessment in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Heidi; Lui, Angela; Palma, Maria; Hefferen, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is crucial to students' growth as dancers. When used within the framework of formative assessment, or assessment for learning, feedback results in actionable next steps that dancers can use to improve their performances. This article showcases the work of two dance specialists, one elementary and one middle school teacher, who have…

  7. Primer registro de cráneos asignados a Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae procedentes de la Formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno Medio-tardío, Chile First record of skulls assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae from the Bahía Inglesa formation (middle-late Miocene, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cráneos de los Spheniscidae (como los de todas las aves, aunque escasos en el registro paleontológico, muestran importantes caracteres a nivel taxonómico. Hasta el momento se conocían solo seis cráneos en todo el mundo: Paraptenodytes antarctica y una nueva especie de Spheniscidae procedentes de las formaciones Gaiman (Mioceno temprano y Puerto Madryn (Mioceno tardío de Argentina, respectivamente; Spheniscus megaramphus y 3S. urbinai de la formación Pisco (Mioceno tardío de Perú, Marplesornis novaezealandiae del Plioceno de Nueva Zelanda y un resto de Sphenicidae cf Spheniscus procedente de la formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno medio-tardío. De esta última unidad provienen cinco restos craneanos recientemente descubiertos en la localidad de Caldera (Región de Atacama, Chile, los cuales fueron descritos y asignados preliminarmente a Palaeospheniscus. Estos materiales constituyen el primer registro de cráneos para la especie y significan un importante aporte al conocimiento de la avifauna fósil de Chile y en particular de la formación Bahía InglesaAlthough the skulls of the Spheniscidae are unusual in the paleontologic record, they show important features useful in the systematics of the group, as well as in the rest of the birds. Until now, fossil occurrences were restricted to six skulls: Paraptenodytes antarctica and one new species from the Gaiman formation (Early Miocene and Puerto Madryn formation (late Miocene of Argentina, respectively; Spheniscus megaramphus and S. urbinai from the Pisco Formation (Late Miocene, Perú; Marplesornis novaezealandiae from New Zealand (Pliocene; and Spheniscidae cf. Spheniscus from the Bahía Inglesa Formation (Middle-Late Miocene, Chile. Five new materials have been exhumed from this last unit. These skulls, which come from the Caldera locality (Region of Atacama, Chile, have been preliminarily assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae, constituting the first skulls described for

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. Updated ...

  9. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factors...... sets may also play important roles during pathologic pneumatization of the middle ear air cell system in common middle ear diseases. In addition, this study suggests that the control of growth rate and wall thickness from resorptive as well as formative signals all originate from the inner lining cells...

  10. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  11. Theoretical Basis for Studying the New Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashyna Svitlana Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to clarify the content of the economic category “the new middle class”, to define its specific features and basic functions. Various classification and functional characteristics of the middle class are given. The necessity of combining sociological and political-economic approaches to the definition of the middle class as a socio-status and socio-economic group is shown. Formation of the socio-economic type of the owner of intellectual capital is identified as the attributive feature of the middle class. A conclusion is drawn on the economic realization of the right to property for intellectual capital in the form of rent. It is proved that the formation of the new middle class reflects the objective orientation of social production to overcome social contradictions. However, the tendency to overcome the class antagonisms of previous social types does not reduce the depth of contradictions between labor and capital and does not indicate a change in the essence of capital. Attention is paid to the socio-cultural features of the new middle class, which are viewed through changes in the way and style of life, its motivational orientation to the post-economic value system is determined.

  12. Herpetofauna del Parque Provincial Presidente Sarmiento, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanabria, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La herpetofauna del P.P.P.S. se relevó desde octubre de 2004 a la actualidad, mediante visitas periódicas al área protegida. Se recorrieron los diferentes sectores realizando caminatas al azar. Los reptiles se capturaron con lazo para su posterior identificación. Los anfibios fueron monitoreados mediante recorridas nocturnas posteriores a las lluvias y visitas periódicas de las aguadas permanentes. Durante la época reproductiva se registraron los cantos de advertencia con un grabador digital, lo que permitió la identificación de especies que no pudieron ser capturadas. Posterior a la identificación del material colectado, se procedió a la liberación de los individuos. Se elaboró una lista de especies pertenecientes a la herpetofauna del parque en base a la revisión de la Colección Zoológica del Instituto y Museo de Ciencias Naturales - UNSJ, citas bibliográficas y trabajos de campo no sistemático.

  13. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-30

    Report Number 12 ‘ MOSQUITOES OF MIDDLE AMERICA FINAL REPORT For the period 1 Aug 1963 — 30 Sept 1976 Q ’io ~ n: 2:1~~~; Ph D Supported by U.S. ARMY...Janeiro area, Dec 1975-Mar 1976. Barr , A. Ral ph , School of Public Health , University of California , Los Angeles. — Pupae of North American...lnsti tut o Nacional Pars Programas Especiales de Salud , Bogota , Colom- bia .—Topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Colombia, 1964- 1 966. Morales Ayala

  14. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  15. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  16. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  17. A Photography Primer for Middle School Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles L.

    Project PHOTO provides a format for middle school students to learn about photography with three different types of techniques: sun prints, can cameras, and pinhole cameras. Additional topics and activities include film developing, contact prints and enlarging, history of photography, photographic composition, types of cameras, a photography word…

  18. Developing Oral Language Skills in Middle School English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…

  19. Rodents from the Middle Oligocene of Turkish Thrace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünay-Bayraktar, E.

    1989-01-01

    Associations of Middle Oligocene rodent teeth are described from five localities in the Lignite-Sandstone Formation of the Ergene basin. The Muroidea are the most abundant as well as the most diverse group in these associations. In rodent faunas of Western Europe the Theridomyoidea dominate. So

  20. Modernity, cosmopolitanism, and the emergence of middle classes in Tonga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms of social organization. In Tonga, middle classes both reproduce aspects of the older rank-based system

  1. An enigmatic hawker dragonfly from the Middle Jurassic of China (Odonata, Aeshnoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Di-Ying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The aeshnopteran Propecymatophlebia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Middle Jurassic Hiafanggou Formation of Inner Mongolia in China, on the basis of a complete forewing. It confirms the remarkable palaeodiversity of the stem group of the hawker dragonflies in Central Asia in the period between the Middle Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous.

  2. Residential mobility of urban middle classes in the field of parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterman, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    There is common understanding that gentrifiers and new middle classes more generally share an urban orientation and may share a ‘metropolitan habitus’. The urban geography of Western metropolises and the formation and reproduction of specific middle-class groups are intrinsically connected. The

  3. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  4. Facies pattern of the middle Permian Barren Measures Formation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pension fall-out over a vast area. The channel-fills, within the laminated silty sandstone–grey shale, indicate occasional development of channelised flow. 3.7 Jamunia Shale. In the Jamunia River section, the Jamuniatanr. Sandstone is conformably overlain by about 100 m thick dark grey shale (ShCARB) rich in carbon-.

  5. In search of middle Indonesia: middle classes in provincial towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Berenschot, W.

    2014-01-01

    The post-1998 surge in local politics has moved the provincial town back to centre stage. This book examines the Indonesian middle class (now 43%!) up close in the place where its members are most at home: the town. Middle Indonesia generates national political forces, yet it is neither particularly

  6. Identity Formation in Adolescence: Change or Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study of 923 early to middle adolescents (50.7% boys; 49.3% girls) and 390 middle to late adolescents (43.3% boys and 56.7% girls) is to provide a comprehensive view on change and stability in identity formation from ages 12 to 20. Several types of change and stability (i.e., mean-level change, rank-order…

  7. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  8. Calculus in the Middle School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; McCoy, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an example of how middle school teachers can lay a foundation for calculus. Although many middle school activities connect directly to calculus concepts, the authors have decided to look in depth at only one: the concept of change. They will show how teachers can lead their students to see and appreciate the calculus…

  9. Culture and characterization of rat middle-ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, C A; Ponec, M; van Muijen, G N; Wijsman, M C; Koerten, H K; Grote, J J

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to design a method for the culture of rat middle-ear epithelium and to apply the method to investigate the characteristics of this epithelium. Culture of explants of middle-ear epithelium in the presence of the epidermal growth factor was successful, whereas serial cultivation required 3T3 feeder cells in addition to the epidermal growth factor. Cultured middle-ear epithelium was studied by phase-contrast microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and combined light and scanning electron microscopy (LM/SEM). These techniques showed similarity between the cultured and the natural middle-ear epithelium. Explants and outgrowths showed both flat polygonal and ciliated epithelial cells. In serial cultivation, however, only the first of these cell types was observed. Frequently, a single primary cilium was found on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed cross-linked envelopes whose formation was promoted by ionophore X537A. Cytokeratin was demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase methods, using an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. The model described here permits study of the differentiation of middle-ear epithelium in vitro and may be of future value for the study of chronic middle-ear diseases.

  10. Modeling the Middle Jurassic ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Brunetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present coupled ocean–sea-ice simulations of the Middle Jurassic (∼165 Ma when Laurasia and Gondwana began drifting apart and gave rise to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Since the opening of the Proto-Caribbean is not well constrained by geological records, configurations with and without an open connection between the Proto-Caribbean and Panthalassa are examined. We use a sea-floor bathymetry obtained by a recently developed three-dimensional (3D elevation model which compiles geological, palaeogeographical and geophysical data. Our original approach consists in coupling this elevation model, which is based on detailed reconstructions of oceanic realms, with a dynamical ocean circulation model. We find that the Middle Jurassic bathymetry of the Central Atlantic and Proto-Caribbean seaway only allows for a weak current of the order of 2 Sv in the upper 1000 m even if the system is open to the west. The effect of closing the western boundary of the Proto-Caribbean is to increase the transport related to barotropic gyres in the southern hemisphere and to change water properties, such as salinity, in the Neo-Tethys. Weak upwelling rates are found in the nascent Atlantic Ocean in the presence of this superficial current and we discuss their compatibility with deep-sea sedimentological records in this region.

  11. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  13. Echinoderms from Middle and Upper Ordovician rocks of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Middle and Upper Ordovician limestones of Kentucky, especially the Lexington Limestone, have yielded a diverse silicified echinoderm fauna, including: Stylophora-Enoploura cf. E. punctata; Paracrinoidea-A mygdalocystites; Crinoidea, Inadunata-Hybocrir/us tumidus, Hybocystites problem,aticus, Carabocrinus sp., Cupulocrinus sp., Heterocrinus sp.; Cyclocystoidea-Cyclocystoides sp. A rhombiferan cystoid, A mecystis laevis, from the Edinburg Formation, Virginia, is also discussed. No new taxa are introduced.

  14. Middle Managers and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1998-01-01

    ) middle managers, and (iii) workers. The project has been based partly on interviews in a small number of European companies at the forefront of environmental management and ditto educational and training institutions, and partly on more large-scale questionnaire surveys. This paper briefly describes...... the background of the overall project, and in more detail a questionnaire-based survey on environmental attitudes and training interests among middle managers in Danish companies.......It has long been realised that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organisations. So far, however, there has been little information about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even leading...

  15. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, since the return to constitutional rule in 1992, Ghana has emerged as one of the most stable countries in the West African sub-region and has become a beacon of democracy for other African countries to emulate. This political stability has been largely attributed to the positive role of the educated middle class ...

  16. The coupling of dynamics and permeability in the hydrocarbon accumulation period controls the oil-bearing potential of low permeability reservoirs: a case study of the low permeability turbidite reservoirs in the middle part of the third member of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Yan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between permeability and dynamics in hydrocarbon accumulation determine oilbearing potential (the potential oil charge) of low permeability reservoirs. The evolution of porosity and permeability of low permeability turbidite reservoirs of the middle part of the third member of t...

  17. Kinetics of network formation by telechelic polypeptides with trimeric nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.; Wolf, de F.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of transient network formation by monodisperse telechelic polypeptides with collagen-like end blocks and a random coil middle block. Upon cooling, the end blocks associate reversibly into triple helices, leading to gels with well-defined, trimeric crosslinks. Formation of

  18. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  19. AED in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  20. Digtets formater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Kallesøe; Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve; Skriver, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Løppenthin, Olga Ravn, Mikkel Thykier, Caspar Eric, and Simon Grotrian are discussed. By using the format as a point of departure rather than applying a more conventional practice of close reading, the authors argue for a broad-spectred approach to literary analysis which focuses on aspects of the conception......The article examines how key terminology of textual criticism can be taken as a starting point for the investigation of material aspects of contemporary poetry. The concepts in question are ‘text’ and ‘work’ as defined by Johnny Kondrup (2013). The authors take the view that the categorical...

  1. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  2. Middle School: Lessons from the Rand Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Carolyn E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a recent study by the Rand Corporation that concluded that there is cause for middle schools to worry. Commissioned by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, one of four major philanthropies supporting the middle school movement, the Rand investigation is clear in its assessment: The American middle school leaves adolescents…

  3. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  4. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  5. Secondary middle turbinate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval, E-mail: bruninha86@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Secondary middle turbinate is an anatomical variant rarely observed in the nasal cavity, firstly described by Khanobthamchai et al. as a bone structure originating from the lateral nasal wall and covered by soft tissue. In most cases reported in the literature, this variant is bilateral, occurring without associated complications. In the present report, the authors describe the case of patient of their institution with such anatomical variation. (author)

  6. Rhinoplasty for Middle Eastern noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan

    2009-04-01

    Rhinoplasty remains one of the most challenging operations, as exemplified in the Middle Eastern patient. The ill-defined, droopy tip, wide and high dorsum, and thick skin envelope mandate meticulous attention to preoperative evaluation and efficacious yet safe surgical maneuvers. The authors provide a systematic approach to evaluation and improvement of surgical outcomes in this patient population. A retrospective, 3-year review identified patients of Middle Eastern heritage who underwent primary rhinoplasty and those who did not but had nasal photographs. Photographs and operative records (when applicable) were reviewed. Specific nasal characteristics, component-directed surgical techniques, and aesthetic outcomes were delineated. The Middle Eastern nose has a combination of specific nasal traits, with some variability, including thick/sebaceous skin (excess fibrofatty tissue), high/wide dorsum with cartilaginous and bony humps, ill-defined nasal tip, weak/thin lateral crura relative to the skin envelope, nostril-tip imbalance, acute nasolabial and columellar-labial angles, and a droopy/hyperdynamic nasal tip. An aggressive yet nondestructive surgical approach to address the nasal imbalance often requires soft-tissue debulking, significant cartilaginous framework modification (with augmentation/strengthening), tip refinement/rotation/projection, low osteotomies, and depressor septi nasi muscle treatment. The most common postoperative defects were related to soft-tissue scarring, thickened skin envelope, dorsum irregularities, and prolonged edema in the supratip/tip region. It is critical to improve the strength of the cartilaginous framework with respect to the thick, noncontractile skin/soft-tissue envelope, particularly when moderate to large dorsal reduction is required. A multitude of surgical maneuvers are often necessary to address all the salient characteristics of the Middle Eastern nose and to produce the desired aesthetic result.

  7. Anther Wall Formation in Solanaceae Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARRIZO GARCÍA, CAROLINA

    2002-01-01

    Anther wall formation was studied in 32 species belonging to 27 genera of Solanaceae. Dicotyledonous and basic types of wall formation were observed, as well as several deviations due to subsequent periclinal divisions in the layers formed (middle layers and sometimes the endothecium). One type of wall formation was observed in each species. Some genera are uniform in their type of wall formation, while others are heterogeneous; a similar situation was observed at the tribal level. Summarizing all reported information on anther wall formation in the Solanaceae, 64 % of species show the basic type, while the remaining 36 % show the dicotyledonous type. Thus, neither type predominates, and no single type characterizes genera, tribes or the entire family. PMID:12451025

  8. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  9. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  10. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  11. Tympanoplasty without use of gelfoam in the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In usual technique of tympanoplasty almost all of otologic surgeons use gelfoam in the middle ear for support of graft against margin of tympanic membrane perforation. In this study we use technique that we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. We compared results of graft taking rate in two techniques. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study during 2 years 181 patients with COM underwent tympanoplasty with underlay grafting. In 83 patients used gelfoam in the middle ear for tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy (CCTM, OCTM. In 98 patients we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. Results: In 83 patients with use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 59 (71.1% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (91% and in 24 (28.9% cases with OCTM was 20 (83%. In 98 patients without use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 61 (62.2% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (89% and in 37 (37.8% cases with OCTM were 31 (84%. Conclusion: In this study, results of graft taking rate were similar in 2 groups. On the other hand, gelfoam entirely reabsorbed during 45 to 54 days in the middle ear and immune system react by a round cell response. This sponge encourages the formation of the fibrous tissue at a higher rate than naturally occurs in the ear. In our technique we had not these problems. Another advantage of this technique is rapid improvement of patient hearing after removing of the external ear canal rosebud. We think this technique could be used in tympanoplasty and tympanomastoidectoy routinely. ‍‍‍

  12. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  13. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  14. The Science of Middle Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an "alteration" or "disturbance" to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the "middle nature" proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of "actively transforming nature into culture." It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native species, maximizing

  15. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  16. Aridification in continental Asia after the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322947359; Abels, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Hoorn, C.; van den Berg, B.C.J.; Guo, Z.; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559

    2014-01-01

    Global climate cooling from greenhouse to icehouse conditions occurred across an enigmatic transitional interval during the Eocene epoch characterized by incipient polar ice-sheet formation as well as short-lived warming events, of which the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is most noticeable.

  17. Obstacles to Developing Digital Literacy on the Internet in Middle School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Jamie; Hunt-Barron, Sarah; Reinking, David

    2013-01-01

    Obstacles, and instructional responses to them, that emerged in two middle school science classes during a formative experiment investigating Internet Reciprocal Teaching (IRT), an instructional intervention aimed at increasing digital literacy on the Internet, are reported in this manuscript. Analysis of qualitative data revealed that IRT enabled…

  18. Sedimentary features and exploration targets of Middle Permian reservoirs in the SW Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration direction and targets for the large-scale Middle Permian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are hot spots and challenges in current exploration researches. The exploration successes of large gas field of Cambrian Longwangmiao Formation in Gaoshiti-Moxi region, Central Sichuan Basin, indicated that prospective sedimentary facies belt was the basis for the formation of large gas fields. In this paper, based on seismic data, outcrop data and drilling data, the tectonic framework and sedimentary features of the Middle Permian in the SW Sichuan Basin were comprehensively studied. The following conclusions were reached from the perspective of sedimentary facies control: (1 during the Middle Permian, this region was in shallow water gentle slope belts with high energy, where thick reef flat facies were deposited; (2 the basement was uplifted during Middle Permian, resulting in the unconformity weathering crust at the top of Maokou Formation due to erosion; the SW Sichuan Basin was located in the karst slope belt, where epigenic karstification was intense; and (3 reef flat deposits superimposed by karst weathering crust was favorable for the formation of large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs. Based on the combination of the resources conditions and hydrocarbon accumulation conditions in this region, it was pointed out that the Middle Permian has great potential of large-scale reef flat karst gas reservoir due to its advantageous geological conditions; the Middle Permian traps with good hydrocarbon accumulation conditions were developed in the Longmen Mountain front closed structural belt in the SW Sichuan Basin and Western Sichuan Basin depression slope belt, which are favorable targets for large-scale reef flat karst reservoirs.

  19. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN PURTSCHER RETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-De La Parra, David; Fromow-Guerra, Jans

    2017-12-27

    To describe paracentral acute middle maculopathy associated with Purtscher retinopathy, particularly in Purtscher flecken lesions as a retinal complication in a case secondary to fractures of long bones. Case report. A 16-year-old boy with bilateral paracentral scotomata presented with bilateral paracentral acute middle maculopathy as part of Purtscher retinopathy in both eyes as consequence of tibia and fibula fractures. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is one of the optical coherence tomography findings in Purtscher retinopathy.

  20. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  1. Developmental morphology of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, K; Anniko, M

    1997-01-01

    The development of the murine middle ear was monitored both qualitatively and morphometrically by scanning electron microscopy from the 19th gestational day to the adult stage. At birth, the middle ear was less well developed than the inner ear. The tympanic membrane (TM) was obscured by occlusion of the external auditory canal. Ciliated cells and secretory granules were present in the middle ear epithelium already 5 days after birth (DAB). Keratin debris was discerned on the external layer of the TM 9 DAB. By 12 DAB, mesenchymal tissue had resorbed from the middle ear cavity, except around the upper part of the ossicles. The middle ear was immature at birth but developed rapidly until 12 DAB. When compared with the avian middle ear the mouse middle ear was basically similar to that of humans, although in the human the stapedial artery is vestigial whereas in the mouse it persists as an important vessel. In man, there is no orbicular apophysis and no gonial of the malleus. The hypotympanum of the human middle ear is less developed than that of the murine middle ear. The mouse external auditory canal matures postnatally until 12 DAB, while in humans its development is complete at birth.

  2. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-08-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. Other animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author).

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE STATE AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF THE MIDDLE CLASS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Salo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study and represent the current state of the middle class in Ukraine, the problems of its formation and development prospects in the future with the definition of the complementary set of internal and external factors of its formation. Methodology. The survey is based on statistical data from open official sources, which makes it possible to confirm the thesis of the critical proportion of the middle class in Ukraine. Besides, the data are obtained from electronic sources, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. During the study, the paper uses analytical articles on the economic development of the middle class in Ukraine. The results of the survey shows that the middle class is critically low for stable functioning of Ukraine’s modern economy. One of the main problems of the middle class development is the absence of state support of small and medium-sized businesses. The government with the repressive model of the economy in relation to business-oriented monopolization was formed in Ukraine. The distribution of the «shadow» model of social and economic relations leads to the limitation of legal opportunities of employment and income. Besides, it complicates the development of small and mediumsized businesses. As a consequence, the number of entrepreneurs and small business owners are constantly increasing, but due to the absence of a favorable business climate a significant number of small businesses were forced to move into the shadow. The peculiarity of the formation of the middle class in Ukraine is that its social basis in contrast to Western Europe is not the owners, but employees. We have a unique situation, when most of the highly skilled workers (the representatives of the spheres of education, health, public administration, which should be the core of the middle class, in terms of income are on the verge or below the poverty line. The level of wages of such specialists does not even correspond to

  4. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  5. Sex Roles and Depression in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broschart, Kay Richards

    Middle age is a phase of the life cycle marked by poorly defined boundaries and declining status. Studies reveal that depression is more likely to occur during middle age than during any other phase of the life cycle. In addition, research has verified that depression occurs more commonly in women than men. A sociological analysis of factors which…

  6. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  7. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations.

  8. Learning Leadership Skills in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    For middle school students, the essence of 21st-century leadership development is being "in influence" versus being "in control." A core student leadership skill involves listening intently to others, framing others' concerns, and advancing the other person's interests. Creating contexts in which middle school…

  9. Green chemistry education in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-06-01

    The Middle East once dominated the age of alchemy, and today it is experiencing a resurgence by transforming the age of petroleum chemicals into a greener science through Estidama. This green conversion is taking place through green chemical research and education. This report examines and reviews the understudied subject of green chemical education in the Middle East through the lens of context and history.

  10. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Emmanuel; Atta, George

    2015-01-01

    The study used a phenomenological lens to explore middle level classroom goal perceptions and classroom experiences that were pivotal in motivating students to achieve their learning goals. A total of 46 participants (31 students and 15 teachers) from two middle schools in a Midwestern city participated in focus group discussions and one-on-one…

  11. MIDDLE SCHOOL SURVEY OF NEW YORK STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, GEORGE C.; SMITH, GEORGE J.

    TO GATHER INFORMATION ON THE CONCEPT OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL, A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 648 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN NEW YORK STATE, 510 OF WHOM RESPONDED. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) 60 SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAD A MIDDLE SCHOOL IN OPERATION, (2) 170 SCHOOL DISTRICTS WERE STUDYING REORGANIZATION TO INCLUDE IT, (3) 35 DISTRICTS HAD CONSIDERED AND REJECTED IT, (4)…

  12. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  13. Motivating Middle Schoolers Grades 5-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    What motivates middle school students? Hormones and success! There is not much that teachers can do about the hormones, but they sure can affect the success. "Teaching Information and Communication Technology Skills: The Big6 in Middle Schools," a new book from Linworth Publishing, offers classroom teachers and teacher librarians new strategies…

  14. Morality from infancy to middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Fieke Dineke

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, a homogeneous upper middle class sample of firstborn girls and their mothers were followed from infancy (18 and 24 months) to middle childhood (89 months) using questionnaires and observations. The focus of the study was on three components of moral behavior, i.e. empathy,

  15. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  16. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  17. [Comparative ophthalmology in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Norn, O

    2001-01-01

    Descriptions of animal eyes in the Middle Ages in the learned work Physiologus from the 4th century, based on Aristoteles, Plutarc, the Bible etc. are commented on. The modern biologist is horrified, the historian understands the ethical - religious aspects behind the edifying stories concerning the lion, gazelle, eagle, snake, lizard, swallow etc. Medical science and theology were not separated in the Middle Ages.

  18. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  19. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing section of the middle class in Malaysia. Based on research projects I have carried out from the mid-1990s to the present, this article argues that an unpacking of the Malay Muslim middle class over time is important in order to understand the broader...... picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  20. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole participant (S in intransitive clauses and the O of active transitive clauses. The results regarding the discourse behaviour of middle arguments constitute new evidence for the view that middle constructions differ from ordinary intransitive verbs, despite structural similarities, and mark a unique range on the scale of transitivity exhibited by verbs in Estonian.

  1. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  2. Middle ear structure in relation to function : the rat in middle ear research

    OpenAIRE

    Albiin, Nils

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the rat as a model for middle ear re­search. The rat was chosen primarily because the gross structure of its middle ear shows several similarities to that of man. It was considered of great importance to make a thorough structural study of the rat middle ear and to compare the results with those reported for the human middle ear. The thesis therefore includes indepen­dent studies on various aspects of rat middle ear structure and function as well a...

  3. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

  4. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Trace fossils from Bhuban Formation, Surma Group (Lower to Middle Miocene) of Mizoram India and their palaeoenvironmental significance. Raghavendra P Tiwari Chinmoy Rajkonwar Lalchawimawii Paul Lalnuntluanga Jehova Malsawma Victor Z ...

  5. Bajocian ammonites from Msata hill (Lugoba formation) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonites from the Middle Jurassic exposures of the Lugoba Formation at Msata, are described for the first time in Tanzania. Out of a number of ammonite fragments recovered from the bluish-green silty limestone (M3), only three fragments were fairly well preserved to permit their specific identification. Two species were ...

  6. Controlled block copolymer micelle formation for encapsulation of hydrophobic ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, G.J.L.; Vleugels, L.F.W.; Dias, A.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Tuinier, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the formation of polymeric micelles in water using triblock copolymers with a polyethylene glycol middle block and various hydrophobic outer blocks prepared with the precipitation method. We form micelles in a reproducible manner with a narrow size distribution. This suggests that

  7. Field guide to Laramide basin evolution and drilling activity in North Park and Middle Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechesne, Marieke; Cole, James Channing; Martin, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the geologic history of the North Park–Middle Park area and its past and recent drilling activity. Field trip stops highlight basin formation and the consequences of geologic configuration on oil and gas plays and development. The starting point is the west flank of the Denver Basin to compare and contrast the latest Cretaceous through Eocene basin fill on both flanks of the Front Range, before exploring sediments of the same age in the North Park – Middle Park intermontane basin.

  8. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  9. Localization of antileukoprotease in middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B; Ohlsson, K

    1983-01-01

    The localization of antileukoprotease was studied immunohistologically in normal middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at autopsy and in chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa specimens obtained at middle ear surgery for chronic otitis media. In the sections of normal as well as in the sections of chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa, antileukoprotease localization was confined to PAS-positive goblet cells of surface epithelium and to PAS-positive goblet-like cells of submucosal glands and crypts, whereas ciliated mucosal cells and stratified squamous epithelial cells were devoid of anti-leukoprotease. In comparison with normal middle ear mucosa, an increased number of goblet cells--and thus an increased number of cells containing antileukoprotease--was present in the chronically inflamed middle ear mucosa. Since antileukoprotease is a potent inhibitor of granulocyte elastase and Cathepsin G, it was concluded that this proliferation of the respiratory epithelium during inflammatory processes in the middle ear indicates an increased activity of the biologic defence system against the action of granulocyte proteases.

  10. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  11. Some issues in Middle Eastern international migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirageldin, I

    1983-01-01

    2 controversial issues related to the consequences of Middle Eastern international migration were examined: its effect on the development policies of the labor importing countries with a special reference to the case of Kuwait; and its effect on the growth potential of the labor exporting countries with special reference to recent development in Egypt's agricultural reproductivity. A preliminary note comments on the analytical nature of international labor migration in the Middle East and on the public view of emigrants as export commodities. The basic parameters of a desired population parity are interrelated. It is possible to influence the labor ratio (R2) as well as the nonKuwait crude labor participation rate (R3) through a migration policy. Thus, given a policy objective of some desired balance stated in trms of 1 or more of the identified parameters, it is possible to analyze the consequences of alternative migration strategies. It is important to consider the role of relative productivity (R6). An attempt to change R6 has implications for both the design of a migration policy and a national policy of human capital formation. Other factors may not be immediately related to a migration policy. The question then is whether these ratios are sensitive to policy intervention. In a simulation exercise it was assumed that the Kuwaiti crude labor force participation rate (R4) will increase by 13% during a period of 10 years. R4 increases if relatively more people work. Women are 1 segment of the labor force that is not adequately represented, partly because of traditions, lack of skills, and the presence of high fertility. None of these can change in the short run without an active policy of social reform. Yet, the assumption seems to be in the right direction. A policy that attempts to reduce R4 through increasing fertility in Kuwait is clearly against the tide. In sum, the labor importing countries faced with recent unfavorable demographic realities will actively

  12. Return of the Vampire (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann; Katz, Claudia Anne

    1996-01-01

    Presents, in the form of a conversation with a vampire, results of a teacher's research on middle school students' reading preferences. Includes a list of favorite books mentioned, favorite authors mentioned, and how students found these favorite books. (SR)

  13. The Water Conflict in the Middle East

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The water conflict in the Middle East is reaching a crisis peak. The region suffers from a shortage of water, a high rate of population growth and the absence of a clear criteria for sharing waters within the region...

  14. The Middle School Curriculum: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mary F.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes clustering content areas of a middle school curriculum under humanities, technology, and personal study. An interdisciplinary team planning approach could eliminate the schism between academic and other subjects. (MLF)

  15. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  16. Mast cells and middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, L E; Albiin, N; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Widemar, L

    1985-01-01

    The mast cell--an important component of connective tissue--carries in its cytoplasmic granules various biologically active substances, such as heparin, histamine, and a broad spectrum of enzymes. This cell type plays a prominent role in inflammatory and allergic conditions. In the middle ear, the mast cells are mainly localized in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and beneath the tracts of secretory and ciliated cells in the middle ear mucosa. Degranulation of the mast cells by the histamine liberator compound 48/80 causes histamine-rich effusion material to accumulate in the middle ear. Plugging of the eustachian tube and/or tympanic isthmus will bring about a similar accumulation. It would thus seem that mast cells in some way participate in the production of middle ear effusion, probably via their potent mediators.

  17. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  18. The Middle Islamic and Crusader Periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2008-01-01

    The book chapter presents a critical review of the archaeology of Jordan in the middle Islamic periods (8th - 17th centuries CE), presenting a new evaluation of settlement and culture in the period, and assesses the errors of past appraoches.......The book chapter presents a critical review of the archaeology of Jordan in the middle Islamic periods (8th - 17th centuries CE), presenting a new evaluation of settlement and culture in the period, and assesses the errors of past appraoches....

  19. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  20. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  1. New reticulosan sponges from the middle Cambrian of Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Sylvia Beresi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A small assemblage of extremely well-preserved fragments of new sponges has been discovered in calcipelites of the middle Cambrian El Mogallón Formation in the Cerro El Mogallón section, near Arivechi in eastern Sonora, Mexico. The assemblage includes two new reticulosan species referred to Ratcliffespongia arivechensis sp. nov. and Valospongia sonorensis sp. nov., combined with disarticulated remains assigned to Kiwetinokia and additional, currently unidentifiable taxa. The new species represent the first records of these Cambrian genera from Mexico, although they are widely distributed at low latitudes, being previously best known from Utah but extending through Laurentia and South China. This middle Cambrian fauna indicates that there was considerable continuity of the deeper-water hexactinellid sponges between the warm peri-platform of Laurentia and the peri-continental Cambrian platform of Sonora. The new material supports the impression of extremely wide distribution of Cambrian sponge genera, with local diversification at species level within regions, in contrast to much greater generic-level endemism during the Ordovician Period.

  2. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  3. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  4. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  5. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  7. Assisted reproduction and Middle East kinship: a regional and religious comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Inhorn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART and resultant kinship formations in four Middle Eastern settings: the Sunni Muslim Arab world, the Sunni Muslim but officially 'secular' country of Turkey, Shia Muslim Iran and Jewish Israel. This four-way comparison reveals considerable similarities, as well as stark differences, in matters of Middle Eastern kinship and assisted reproduction. The permissions and restrictions on ART, often determined by religious decrees, may lead to counter-intuitive outcomes, many of which defy prevailing stereotypes about which parts of the Middle East are more 'progressive' or 'conservative'. Local considerations – be they social, cultural, economic, religious or political – have shaped the ways in which ART treatments are offered to, and received by, infertile couples in different parts of the Middle East. Yet, across the region, clerics, in dialogue with clinicians and patients, have paved the way for ART practices that have had significant implications for Middle Eastern kinship and family life.

  8. The Tatar Literature of the Late Middle Ages »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.Yu. Minnegulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tatar verbal art of the 15th–18th centuries developed over more than three centuries and reflected, reflects very complicated, contradictory, and tragic periods in the history of the Tatar people. This is a time of the Golden Horde disintegration and formation on its vast territory of the Crimean, Kazan, Astrakhan, Siberian, Nogai, and Kasimov khanates. This is a time of establishing, rise, and conquest of the Tatar States. This is a time of severe colonial oppression, loss of a significant part of the spiritual and material values accumulated over the centuries. Moreover, at this stage of history, and especially after the elimination of Kazan and Astrakhan khanates, the population living in the Crimean khanate gradually begins to separate from the relatively uniform linguistic, cultural, and ethnic Tatar space due to the tangible Ottoman influence. Therefore, we should consider the verbal art of this era in three aspects and under three items: 1 Tatar literature of the Kazan khanate period (middle of the 15th – middle of the 17th centuries, including not only the Kazan khanate’s literature, but also of other Tatar States and, in particular, of the Astrakhan, Siberian, Nogai, Crimean, Kasimov khanates, as well as of the Great Horde; 2 Crimean Tatar verbal art of the 15th–18th centuries, that is, of the Crimean State including not only the Crimean peninsula, but also large areas of the Wes­tern Ciscaucasia, Northern Black Sea coast, as well as areas of the Azov region. Of course, this division of more than three centuries’ literary development is, to some extent, arbitrary. At the same time, it contributes to the formation of a certain idea about the Tatar verbal art’s development during the mentioned centuries.

  9. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class

  10. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  11. Occupational Outlets for Middle Level Training. What Is the Future of Middle Level Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul; Cesnich, Janine

    This project intended to determine whether a middle-level employment base existed in manufacturing and service industries in South Australia and to examine current trends and future directions of middle-level (paraprofessional) vocational training. The study used the following methods: literature review; labor market analysis; surveys of…

  12. The Perceptions of Secondary School Middle Leaders Regarding Their Needs Following a Middle Leadership Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Anthony; Bennett-Powell, Gay

    2014-01-01

    The importance of middle leaders in bringing about improvement in schools is well recognized in the UK, as in many other countries, with the ever-present demand for raising standards and achievement. This article outlines some initial findings and discussion points emerging from the first stage of a project exploring how middle leaders in…

  13. Teaching in the Middle Grades Today: Examining Teachers' Beliefs about Middle Grades Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco, Mike; Cook, Chris M.; Faulkner, Shawn A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the middle school movement in the mid-1960s, middle level advocates have called for a school experience for young adolescents grounded in adolescent development that engages students in meaningful learning (Alexander & Williams, 1965; Eichhorn, 1966). The aim of this exploratory multicase study was to understand middle…

  14. Understanding Middle Leaders: A Closer Look at Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Marsh, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    What is the nature of middle leadership in primary schools? What are middle leaders' understanding and experiences in leading learning and teaching? Set against the policy context of decentralised centralism in Singapore and an emerging worldwide trend of decentralisation as a means to encourage school-based development and innovation, this study…

  15. Compensating for Deviant Middle Ear Pressure in Otoacoustic Emission Measurements, Data, and Comparison to a Middle Ear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Janny R.; de Kleine, Emile; Avan, Paul; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Koopmans, Peter J.; van Dijk, Pim

    Objective: Deviant middle ear pressure has a negative effect on the forward and backward transmission of stimulus and emissions through the middle ear. Resolving this deviant middle ear pressure is expected to lead to better middle ear transmission and, as a result of this, stronger otoacoustic

  16. Globalization and Its Impact on the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Economy of the Middle East,” Review of A Political Economy of the Middle East, Third Edition, by Alan Richards and John Waterbury . Westview Press...will intensify a widening income gap within the developing world.100 As Richards and Waterbury make it clear, what the future holds for the Middle...Review of A Political Economy of the Middle East, Third Edition, by Alan Richards and John Waterbury . Westview Press, 2008. The Middle East Policy 15

  17. Distribution of hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Ostrovskaya, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A study of two classes of hydrocarbons (HCs)—aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic—in suspended matter of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the Northern and Middle Caspian Sea (R/V Nikifor Shurekov, October 2015) is described. It has been determined that oil pollution transported by river runoff and fluid streams flowing from sedimentary formations in the northeastern part are the main sources of hydrocarbons in the river-sea boundaries of the Volga, Terek, and Sulak rivers.

  18. New Middle Permian palaeopteran insects from Lod?ve Basin in southern France (Ephemeroptera, Diaphanopterodea, Megasecoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Prokop; André Nel

    2011-01-01

    Three new palaeopteran insects are described from the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) of Salagou Formation in the Lodève Basin (South of France), viz. the diaphanopterodean Alexrasnitsyniidae fam. n., based on Alexrasnitsynia permiana gen. et sp. n., the Parelmoidae Permelmoa magnifica gen. et sp. n., and Lodevohymen lapeyriei gen. et sp. n. (in Megasecoptera or Diaphanopterodea, family undetermined). In addition the first record of mayflies attributed to family Syntonopteridae (Ephemerop...

  19. The problems of Paleozoic beds and reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mlakar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of paper geologic data from smaller outcrops of Val Gardena Formation in west Slovenia are assembled. Together with the already published information from larger outcrops they permit the reconstruction of the Middle Permian sedimentary basin on which the accent of paper is based. Attention is drawn to general problems of Upper Paleozoic beds, and conclusions regarding lithologic, stratigraphic and structural control of uranium and copper deposits in this part of Slovenia are given.

  20. MIDDLE JURASSIC NAUTILOIDEA FROM WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK BRANGER

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic shelf margin limestones and marly limestones of Western France yield quite numerous Nautilida. This record is here described for the first time in detail, nine genera and more than forty species, whose range rarely exceeds one or two ammonite biozones, constitute a rather precise tool to date Middle Jurassic beds. Each taxon is placed in an accurate biostratigraphical chart; a new genus, Pictonautilus nov. gen., is described. The stratigraphical range of Cenoceras, Digonioceras and Gen. B n. ? (sensu Chirat 1997 is extended up to the Middle Callovian. In the Jurassic successions of Poitou, Nautilida always represent a minor part of the fossil record, they are more abundant in four levels: Middle Aalenian, base of Upper Bajocian, Lower Bathonian and top of Middle Bathonian. Dwarf Nautilida (Paracenoceras and species showing more folded septa and a subventral siphuncle (Pseudaganides or strongly ribbed specimens (Cymatonautilus are characteristic of stable open-shelf environments (Callovian, whereas large shelled nautilus would be mostly present during deepening episodes. The geographical extension of many taxa indicates a provincialism that fits with that of ammonites of the same period.

  1. Temperature variability over the tropical middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the variability of temperature in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8 32' N, 76 52' E, located at the southern part of India, has been carried out based on rocket observations for a period of 20 years, extending from 1970 to 1990. The rocketsonde-derived mean temperatures over Thumba are corrected prior to 1978 and then compared with the middle atmospheric reference model developed from satellite observations and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME satellite data. Temperature variability at every 1 km interval in the 25-75 km region was analysed. The tropical stratosphere is found to be highly stable, whereas considerable variability is noted in the middle mesosphere. The effect of seasonal cycle is least in the lower stratosphere. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in temperature are the primary oscillations in the tropical middle atmosphere. Annual temperature oscillations are dominant in the mesosphere and semi-annual oscillations are strong in the stratosphere. The stratopause region is noted to be the part of the middle atmosphere least sensitive to the changes in solar activity and long-term variability.

  2. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Panconi, M.; Bartolozzi, C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Berettini, S.; Sellari Franceschini, S.; Forli, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neuroscience

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. (orig.)

  3. Subjective Meanings and Identification With Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-01-01

    The "middle-age" life period has not been researched extensively and lacks a theoretical conceptualization. The present study explores subjective experiences of members of this age-group. This is a qualitative research, based on in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, which looks into the life stories of 25 Israeli residents aged 48-64 years. The results indicate that the definition of middle age is not clear-cut, and some participants regard their age negatively. Yet, participants report that this period is characterized by a relief of tasks, broader choice opportunity, a sense of liberation, peace of mind, experience, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. Description of middle age as a peak in life, with concerns about future old age, came up repeatedly. Middle-aged individuals' difficulties to identify with their age-group and the social concept that dichotomizes age into young versus old are discussed. The article calls for further research of and engagement with middle age.

  4. Art Animates: Ideas Inspired by a University-Sponsored Summer Arts Academy for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker, Stephanie; French, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Art can provide a vehicle for animating learning. Teachers bring ideas to life through curriculum, while artists realize their ideas through images, often translating between forms, media and spaces. This paper describes the context, content and format of a residential Summer Arts Academy for gifted and talented middle and high school students,…

  5. The Format Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2002-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of public libraries that investigated trends in audiovisual materials. Highlights include format issues; audiobooks; media budgets for various formats; video collections; DVDs; circulation; collection sizes; music CDs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  6. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning. PMID:24576209

  7. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  8. An Accelerator control middle layer using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Portmann, G J; Terebilo, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab – the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the MiddleLayer software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS and Spear but was written to easily port. Five accelerators presently use this software – Spear, ALS, CLS, and the X-ray and VUV rings at Brookhaven. The Middle Layer fu...

  9. A Primer of Middle Eastern Leadership Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Greaves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is natural for someone looking in on a foreign culture from the outside to interpret what they see and frame their reactions based on their own background and assumptions. With cultures as a different as those of the Middle East and the West, the potential for blunders increases dramatically, made worse by the high political, diplomatic, military, and commercial stakes involved. Leadership culture in this region has been shaped over centuries through a variety of factors, such as reputation, family, and religion, which continue to influence decision making. The present study posits that an understanding of these factors and how they work is crucial for intelligence analysts, policy and decision makers, strategists, and scholars who must find their way through a very unfamiliar cultural landscape in the Middle East. It is hoped that this discussion will in some way assist in the creation of more effective interaction, policies, and analysis associated with the Middle East.

  10. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  11. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crable, B.R.; Plugge, C.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the

  12. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  13. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan; Dr.Sc. Munteanu Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, re...

  14. Ultrastructure of the middle ear mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzer, E

    1984-01-01

    Light- and electron microscopic studies of recent years have definitely concluded that the epithelium of the middle ear is a modified respiratory epithelium with ciliated and secretory cells including goblet cells. Goblet cells are secretory cells completely filled with secretory granules. Secretory cells and ciliated cells are both derived from the basal cell. The subepithelial layer which consists of loose connective tissue is a structure of just as great importance as the epithelial layer. It is still not clear whether the dark granulated cell is the site of production of the serous middle ear effusion or whether it merely represents an immature stage of the mucigen-producing cell.

  15. Innervation of the human middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L; Gulbenkian, S; Barroso, C P

    1998-01-01

    The majority of nerve fibers in the middle meningeal artery and branching arterioles are sympathetic, storing norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). A sparse supply of fibers contain acetylcholinesterase activity and immunoreactivity toward vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptidine histidine...... methionine (PHM), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Only few substance P and neuropeptide K immunoreactive fibers are noted. Electronmicroscopy shows axons and terminals at the adventitial medial border of the human middle meningeal artery, with a fairly large distance to the smooth muscle cells...

  16. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  17. Developing Study Guides for Middle School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Study guides are a popular tool teachers provide to help students prepare for an upcoming test or quiz. They are especially appropriate for middle school students as they transition from reading narrative to informational text. However, some teachers are unfamiliar with various types of study guides. Therefore, this article describes various types…

  18. Arranging Musicals for Middle School Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsky, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Middle school choral students and their teachers can benefit from studying and performing a musical. The students can apply their vocal skills to the exploration of this important genre of American music. Outstanding chores members will have opportunities to perform as soloists and to master dramatic roles. The teachers can express themselves…

  19. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  20. Soldiers and Civilians in Contemporary Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the co-called Arab Spring has spread promising winds across the Middle East and the Northern Afria (MENA) region over the past decade, several countries in the region have nevertheless been caught up in devastating and destructive intra-state conflicts. A prevailing trend am...

  1. Middle managers: their role in management innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Sidhu (Jatinder)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the last 30 years, leaders of innovative companies have been treated as the heroes of business, people who transformed our lives with their vision. That’s true, but as important as great leaders are in building an innovative company, little would happen if effective middle

  2. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with

  3. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  4. Ultra Physical Education in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth

    1987-01-01

    The physical education program at Tilford Middle School (Vinton, IA) emphasizes the development of each student's self-concept through the avenues of mental development, skill awareness and improvement, emotional and social development, and health development. The program is described. (MT)

  5. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 1. Depositional environment and ... These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived ...

  6. Student Perceptions of Middle Grades Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers used student-generated photographs to mediate interviews with middle grades students about their school environment. Findings suggest that school leaders and facilities planners should be responsive to students' needs for both personal and social spaces and be aware of ways the built environment may shape the perceptions students hold…

  7. Twelve Middle-School Teachers' Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deborah Sardo

    1988-01-01

    Case studies described 12 middle-school teachers' instructional yearly, unit, weekly, and daily planning on the basis of a background questionnaire, interview protocols, an analysis of written plans, think-aloud typescripts, and a questionnaire. A process model best characterized teachers long-term planning, while an agenda-formulation model fit…

  8. PARACENTRAL ACUTE MIDDLE MACULOPATHY IN SUSAC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ali S; Viswanathan, Deepa; Williams, David; Davies, Peter

    2017-10-09

    To present the first reported case of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in association with Susac syndrome. Case report. A young female patient presented with unilateral sudden loss of vision of her right eye to count fingers. There were numerous cotton wool spots in a multifocal pattern concentrated around the right macula and optic disk. Clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy, and fluorescein angiography showed features of retinal arteriole vasculitis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple white matter lesions in a pericallosal distribution. High-dose corticosteroid therapy was commenced, and visual acuity gradually improved to 6/6 corrected. The patient reported hearing impairment and was diagnosed with Susac syndrome for which she has responded extremely well to long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Paracentral acute middle maculopathy can occur in association with Susac syndrome. Susac syndrome may present only with multifocal retinal ischemia, and such patients with paracentral acute middle maculopathy should be checked for characteristic magnetic resonance imaging lesions and hearing loss.

  9. Video Games in the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth; Clem, Frances A.

    2008-01-01

    During the fall 2005 semester, an eighth grade teacher in a Laramie, Wyoming, middle school made an urgent plea for more progressive tools for a beginning computers course. Janet Johnson, a veteran teacher returning to the classroom after a hiatus of 10 years, was frustrated with the apparent lack of motivation and engagement by the students. She…

  10. Performance Appraisals Systems in the Middle Eeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Pilati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically examines the logics behind performance appraisal systems in Western contexts in an effort to better understand their applicability in the Middle East (ME). We present a literature review that investigates the major justifications and uses of Performance appraisal systems (PASs...

  11. Middles and argument structure across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marelj, M.

    2004-01-01

    Middles across languages share a core of common semantic characteristics. Yet they exhibit striking differences, as shown on the language-sample that includes Dutch, English, Hebrew, French, Italian, Polish, and Serbo-Croat. The author argues that a single ARB operation, inspired by the

  12. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…

  13. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  14. Middle Grades: Misconceptions in Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Kulm, Gerald; Capraro, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 134 sixth-grade students who were using the Connected Mathematics curriculum were administered an open-ended item entitled, Vet Club (Balanced Assessment, 2000). This paper explores the role of misconceptions and naive conceptions in the acquisition of statistical thinking for middle grades students. Students exhibited misconceptions…

  15. Middle School Physical Education: Good Sport Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenoschok, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Presents a checklist for monitoring middle school students' behavior during athletics. The checklist highlights: sportsmanship (e.g., playing by the rules, being a good loser, and playing fair); respect (refraining from fighting, avoiding alcohol and other drugs, and shaking hands with opponents); and teamwork (practicing hard, not embarrassing…

  16. Collaborative Action Research for Middle Grades Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, John M.; Bishop, Penny A.; Swallow, Meredith; Olofson, Mark; Hennessey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Technology's rapid evolution applies constant pressure to educational organizations, suggesting a need to continually re-envision schools for the digital age. Yet educators often struggle to understand the growing chasm between students' out-of-school and in-school technology lives. This gap is particularly noticeable during the middle grades…

  17. Systems Thinking among School Middle Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Systems thinking is a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts. This study explores systems thinking among school middle leaders--teachers who have management responsibility for a team of teachers or for an aspect of the school's work. Interviews were held with 93 school coordinators, among them year heads, heads of…

  18. Informational Literacy in the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Compares classical literacy (which treats reading and writing as distinct from content subjects) with informational literacy. Discusses seven key informational-literacy teaching practices and class activities that middle grade teachers can use to prepare their students for life in the information age. (SR)

  19. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    of anthropological fieldwork in Northern Ghana 2001-2002, supplemented with two weeks of fieldwork in branches of the Faculty of Islamic Call in Libya and Syria, 2003 and 2005, the paper will document the role which Muslim institutions, resident in Africa as well as in the Middle East, play in furthering...

  20. Nurturing the "golden middle" | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... The aim is to help middle-income countries in Asia shape policies that support small and medium businesses as a pathway to higher incomes and more inclusive growth. Ten proposals were selected on topics ranging from the effects of corruption to women's access to credit. Preliminary findings show that:.

  1. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  2. There and Back Again: A Middle Scholar's Inquiry Excursion (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1996-01-01

    Describes an inquiry project that middle school students complete during the first quarter of the year, and that serves as a foundation for future inquiry undertakings, research papers, and writing workshops. (SR)

  3. Secretory otitis. Histopathology and goblet-cell density in the Eustachian tube and middle ear in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos, M; Bak-Pedersen, K

    1976-05-01

    The histological changes in the middle ear of four children with incipient or mild chronic secretory otitis are described. They consist in vascular dilatation and proliferation, round-cell infiltration, epithelial metaplasia into pseudostratified, columnar, ciliated epithelium posteriorly in the middle ear, formation of abnormal mucous tubular glands, and an increase in goblet-cell density in the osseous tube and middle ear. The causes of these changes were presumably long-lasting tubal occlusion due to a permanent nasogastric tube and protracted catarrhal diseases. The density of goblet cells was determined in various parts of the Eustachian tube and middle ear. The findings were analysed statistically and compared with the density in prematures and newborns, normal children, and normal adults. In the tympanic orifice and in the osseous Eustachian tube the goblet-cell density was greatly increased, whereas the increase in the middle ear varied individually, but was in conformity with the other findings. These cases illustrate that the histopathological changes in the middle-ear mucosa in secretory otitis must be regarded not only from a qualitative, but certainly also from a quantitative point of view.

  4. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  5. State Building, Modernization and Political Islam: The Search for Political Community(s in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. G. Soltan

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate the dynamics involved in identity formation and re-formation is the key to understanding the processes by which nation and state building in the Middle East have adapted to modernization and political Islam. Soltan affirms that four identities–primordial, national, regional and universal– cast the basic scope of Middle East politics. And these, far from facilitating a national consensus or healthy coexistence in each country, have instead found that they interact in an arena of the remnant of the colonial period –the territorial state, whose legitimacy must not only be measured by the commitment to serving much broader Arab or Islamic interests, but whose moral and ideological grounds for existence are often ironically disguised in the supra-national rhetoric of nationalists.The specificity of the Middle East, that is to say the pace and form of its development, the rise of diverse fundamentalist movements, and the historical significance of the globalization process on identity formation, has not benefited greatly by Euro-centric analyses fromthe modernization school. Thus, the author contends that, just as scientific and technological progress continues to set the pace of modernization in the Middle East, needed also is a more comprehensive socio-political approach to fully understand the region’s people’s search for political community in greater terms than security if threechallenges are to be met -democratization, economic development, and bringing peace and stability to the region.

  6. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  7. El despertar del padre : escritura e infancia en Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josiowicz, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    ... : por un lado, en su relación con el lenguaje, como evento que pone en escena el acceso a la letra y, por otro, como trauma, que establece una discontinuidad fundamental en la experiencia del padre...

  8. La Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento [UNGS]: Entre el paternalismo y la politización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Marquina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza el contexto del desarrollo de la UNGS como caso sui generis de universidad creada en los años '90, no sólo frente a las universidades "tradicionales" sino también respecto de otras universidades "nuevas" del conurbano. En particular estudia los cambios en la relación entre autoridades, profesores y estudiantes

  9. Nuevos Miembros: Académico Augusto Galán Sarmiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2004-03-01

    El programa se encargó de identificar los organismos nacionales de ciencia y tecnología ya nacidos o en vía de rápido desarrollo (COLCIENCIAS había surgido a la luz en 1969 y al mismo tiempo estrechar sus vínculos con otras instituciones, dentro de los mismos países, que tuvieran cierta tradición prolongada y estable en temas de investigación. Ella se daba en dos áreas principales, las ciencias agropecuarias y las de la salud que eran, al decir del argentino Amílcar Herrera, las que primero habían establecido una “demanda social” en el desarrollo de nuestros países. Por eso la fundación y puesta en marcha de algunas de ellas databa de comienzos o mediados del siglo XX. Una vez identificados los investigadores y los proyectos de investigación, por incipientes que fueran, el programa disponía de sumas de dinero llamadas “acciones de refuerzo” que permitían, o bien inyectarles nuevos fondos a los proyectos, o bien usarse para financiar viajes que pusieran en contacto a los investigadores con otros de su especialidad, mediante su asistencia a congresos o reuniones internacionales. En esa forma se fue tejiendo, lenta pero afectivamente, esa red invisible de científicos e investigadores que después adquirirían mecanismos de vinculación ya más formales y duraderos...

  10. Characteristics of 419 patients with acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt; da Silva, Maurício Noschang Lopes; Selaimen, Fábio André; Jung, Yuri Petermann; Pauletti, Marcos Guilherme Tibes; Jung, Larissa Petermann; Freitas, Luiza Alexi; da Costa, Sady Selaimen

    Cholesteatoma is a destructive lesion that can result in life-threatening complications. Typically, it presents with hypoacusis and continuous otorrhea as symptoms. Because it is a rare disease, there are few studies in Brazil describing the characteristics of patients with the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media and describe clinical, audiological and surgical characteristics of patients with acquired middle ear cholesteatoma treated at a referral hospital in the public health system. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study, including 1710 patients with chronic otitis media, treated between August 2000 and June 2015, without prior surgery. Detailed clinical history, videotoscopy, and audiometry were performed, in addition to review of medical records to search for surgical data. Cholesteatomas were classified according to their route of formation. Of the patients with chronic otitis media, 419 (24.5%) had cholesteatoma; mean age of 34.49 years; 53.5% female and 63.8% adults. Bilateral cholesteatoma was observed in 17.1%. Anterior epitympanic cholesteatoma corresponded to 1.9%; posterior epitympanic, 32.9%; posterior mesotympanic, 33.7%; two routes, 14.8%; and indeterminate, 16.7%. The mean air-bone gap was 29.84dB and did not differ between routes of formation. There were no correlations between gap size and patient age or duration of symptoms. Of the surgical cases, 16.8% underwent closed tympanomastoidectomy and 75.2% open tympanomastoidectomy. The prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media was 24.5% and it was more common in adults than in children. Posterior mesotympanic cholesteatoma was more frequent, with no difference in mean air-bone gap between the different routes of formation. In patients undergoing surgery, open tympanomastoidectomy was the procedure most frequently chosen. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  11. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  12. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle...

  13. Malaysian skills development and the middle-income trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy......Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy...

  14. Middle Schools: The Heart of Schools in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gwen; Tickle, Les

    1983-01-01

    British middle schools, which were originally developed to minimize ability grouping, are coming under pressure from industry and government to group pupils. The history and response of six middle schools to these pressures are discussed. (IS)

  15. A sourcing strategy for the middle offices in financial institutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George L Ye; Hai Wang

    2015-01-01

    ... for sourcing the functions of middle offices. Outsourcing or co-sourcing of the middle offices implies contracting out the risk management function of a financial institution partially or completely...

  16. Histologic analysis of the effects of three different support materials within rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Salim; Haholu, Abdulah; Gungor, Atila; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Cincik, Hakan; Ozdemir, Taner; Sen, Huseyin

    2009-02-01

    To investigate histologic changes in the mucosa of rat middle ear after implantation of three different support materials. A prospective, controlled animal study. Three types of absorbable materials were implanted into the middle ear cavity of rats: (1) Gelfoam (purified gelatin) (Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, New York, NY), (2) Sepragel (viscoelastic gel composed of cross-linked polymers of hyaluronan) (GENZYME Corp, Ridgefield, NJ), and (3) Nasopore (a biodegradable/fragmentable, synthetic polyurethane foam) (Polyganics, Groningen, The Netherlands). Rats were sacrificed after 3 and 20 days to ascertain early and late histologic changes. The bulla of each rat was excised and prepared for microscopic examination. The histologic changes were evaluated by observation of the middle ear cavity and mucosa in terms of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL), macrophages, giant cells, fibroblasts and other cells, fibrosis, and remnant materials. The histologic appearance of gelfoam-treated middle ears was characterized by more severe acute inflammation in the short-term and prominent fibrosis in the long-term in comparison with sepragel- and nasopore-treated groups. Nasopore appeared to be prone to remnant formation and reorganization by means of fibroblastic activity. Compared with gelfoam, both sepragel and nasopore caused less histologic alterations.

  17. Biostratigraphy of a Middle Miocene-Pliocene sequence from Cumarebo area, Falcon State, northwestern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffuni, G. (INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-03-01

    The southern Caribbean region offers little in the way of continuous sequences for the late Neogene. An upward facies shallowing trend unfavorable for planktonic foraminifers and erosional truncation seems to be almost a rule for such sediments. A fairly complete sedimentary sequence mainly represented by clays, silts, and carbonate rocks from the Cumarebo region, Falcon State, northwestern Venezuela, was chosen to study the biostratigraphy of the late Neogene using foraminifers. More than one hundred surface samples were analyzed throughout. The study of foraminiferal fossil assemblages and other microfossils was also used to define paleoenvironments of deposition. Four formations are involved in this work. From base to top they are the Socorro, Caujarao, El Veral, and Tucupido. From the study of planktonic foraminifers, six biostratigraphic zones were recognized: Globorotalia mayeri Zone, Globorotalia menardii Zone, Globorotalia acostaensis Zone, Globorotalia humerosa Zone, Globorotalia margaritae Zone, and Globorotalia miocenica Zone. These zones indicate that the age of the sequence ranks from late middle Miocene to middle Pliocene. Generally speaking, with some variations, the paleoenvironments of the sequence show a shallowing trend from marine upper-middle bathyal to middle neritic. These results make an important contribution to the stratigraphy and geologic history of the Cumarebo area, which is related to the Agua Salada basin, and may help clarify the paleogeography and paleotectonic evolution of this region for petroleum exploration.

  18. It's A Gassy World: Middle School Students Investigate Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.

    2016-12-01

    When middle school students are asked about our changing earth system, their responses likely include terms like global warming, climate change, and greenhouse gases. However, many students struggle to understand how it all fits together, and sometimes they hear conflicting information or myths about climate change. This activity allows students to explore the impacts of warming oceans and oceans' absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) through a student planned and carried out investigation that begins with a pre-laboratory engagement and exploration piece, includes a laboratory component, and concludes with an explanation where students analyze their data and interpret their results through the claim-evidence-reasoning framework. It's a Gassy World was developed with three-dimensional instruction in mind to introduce middle school students to the relationship between warming oceans and changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in the oceans. Students explore disciplinary core ideas in the Earth and Space Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices. Specifically, students study CO2 as a greenhouse gas and the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 levels on global climate change by planning and carrying out their own investigations. We structured this activity in a 5E format that can take place in four to five days during a climate change unit. After piloting this activity in over 20 formal classrooms and with 5 informal education groups, we have seen how It's a Gassy World helps support inquiry in the classroom and allows students to experience crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices in NGSS. We found that students were engaged and actively learning throughout the activity. Student work and pilot teacher feedback indicated that, through this activity, many students increased their understanding of CO2 as a greenhouse gas and recognized that warmer oceans will

  19. Evaluation of the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Naeimi; Kiarash Ghazvini K; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri MT; Merangiz Kaboli; Mahmood Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia following middle ear surgeries occurs in a significant number of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of bacteremia following middle ear surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients who where candidates for middle ear operation were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from each patient immediately before and after operation for bacteriologic analysis. Demographic and middle ear disease characteristics were also record...

  20. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their pr......The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups...... and their preferences in the late Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, southern Norway, than ever before. The brachiopod faunas are described in the present article, which include a new genus and a new species respectively Wandaasella modheimrensis and Cyclomyonia vikersundi. The brachiopod fauna is largely dominated...... in muddy to marly deposits formed around maximal storm wave base and an orthid-dominated association representing an environment characterised by a fairly coarse or hard bottom substrate formed well above storm wave base but below fair weather wave base....

  1. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A middle ear mold is made of materials such as polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene, silicone... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Modeling Alternative Assessment for Pre-Service Middle Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    College assessment models for our future middle school teachers must be varied, on-going, engaging, equitable and empowering. Traditional assessments do not often model the critical components of what makes assessment appropriate for middle level students. To provide the appropriate model for future middle level teachers, the establishment of…

  4. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  5. The importance of stride length and stride frequency in middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... also found that the better runners have faster stride frequencies and that provincial middle distance runners use lower stride frequencies than international middle distance runners. Key Words: Biomechanics, stride length, stride frequency, maximum oxygen consumption, leg length, middle distance runners, road runners.

  6. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the meanings of middle class amongst those who label themselves middle class. 2559 people were surveyed in Soweto, South Africa biggest township. The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods.

  7. Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career Depression: Implication for Counselling. ... development of adult counselling schemes for the middle-aged persons, individuals should be taught ahead of time to help envision the possible middle-age career and adjustment of female career challenges.

  8. 7 CFR 28.432 - Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Tinged Color. 28.432 Section 28.432... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.432 Middling Tinged Color. Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  9. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  10. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.401 - Good Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Color. 28.401 Section 28.401 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.401 Good Middling Color. Good Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  12. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  14. 7 CFR 28.405 - Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Color. 28.405 Section 28.405 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.405 Low Middling Color. Low Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  15. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  17. 7 CFR 28.434 - Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.434 Section 28.434... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Tinged Cotton § 28.434 Low Middling Tinged Color. Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the...

  18. Bearing-Only Formation Control for Cascade Multirobots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation control method is proposed, which is used to queue multirobots in a single-direction cascade structure. In the cascade formation, each robot is a follower for the previous robot and a leader for the next robot, and the robots in the middle act as both leader and follower. The follower robot can only observe the bearing information of the leader robot. The observability of the cascade leader-follower formation is studied, which shows that the bearing-only observation meets the observability conditions required for the nonlinear system. Based on the bearing-only observations, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF is employed for the state estimation of the leader and the follower robots at all levels, which enables the real-time movement control of the follower robots via the input-output feedback control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can efficiently control the formation of multirobots as desired.

  19. The Stratigraphy of the Cambrian Lancara Formation between the Luna River and the Esla River in the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1969-01-01

    The Lancara Formation is a unit of carbonate sediments of Lower to Middle Cambrian age in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain. The formation is divisible into a Dolomite Member, a Limestone Member and a Griotte Member. The Dolomite Member and the Limestone Member consist mainly of very

  20. Formative Assessment Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Francis; Keeley, Page

    2008-01-01

    Formative assessment probes can be effective tools to help teachers build a bridge between students' initial ideas and scientific ones. In this article, the authors describe how using two formative assessment probes can help teachers determine the extent to which students make similar connections between developing a concept of matter and a…

  1. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...

  2. The post-war Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  3. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  4. Ultrastructural morphology of a middle ear ceruminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Peter; Handisurya, Alessandra; Steurer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of a ceruminous gland adenoma in the middle ear was examined electron microscopically. The epithelial tumor cells displayed apocrine caps, microvilli, cell junctions, secretory granules, vacuoles, lipid droplets and siderosomes, which are the characteristic ultrastructural features of apocrine glands. Concentric membranous bodies of the endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic activity of the tumor cells, intracytoplasmic lumina, ciliated cells and also spiny collagen in the tumor stroma could be seen. The myoepithelial cells are an important tumor marker in the differential diagnosis between ceruminomas and adenomas of the middle ear. The ectopic origin in the modified apocrine ceruminous glands, the specific localization, the clinical features and the extremely rare occurrence of the ceruminoma makes this tumor a unique neoplastic entity. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Nitzburg, George

    2008-10-01

    Eating disorders are generally viewed as afflicting females during adolescence and early adulthood. However, in recent years there has been a growing recognition that these disorders may occur during midlife as well. When eating disorders have been observed in middle age, they have often been believed to be associated with depression. In an Internet survey, responses by middle-aged women (N = 290; aged 45-60 years) indicated that the factors significantly associated with eating pathology-body image dissatisfaction, sociocultural pressures to be thin, and perfectionism-closely parallel those reported for younger people. Furthermore, in the presence of these factors, depression and concerns about the effects of aging on appearance are not significantly related to eating pathology.

  6. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  7. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates.

  8. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Nohemi Sala; Juan Luis Arsuaga; Ana Pantoja-Pérez; Adrián Pablos; Ignacio Martínez; Quam, Rolf M.; Asier Gómez-Olivencia; José María Bermúdez de Castro; Eudald Carbonell

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  9. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Silva Ranhel

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

  10. Potamogeton pusillus agg. in Tajikistan (Middle Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Nobis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The locality of Potamogeton berchtoldii Fieber, the new species to the flora of Tajikistan (Middle Asia, together with its ecological conditions are presented. Additionally, the list of herbarium specimens of P. pusillus L. s. stricto gathered in Tajikistan and few specimens of P. berchtoldii collected from the area of adjacent countries are also provided. Taxonomical position of the species within the Potamogeton pusillus aggregation, the main morphological features of both taxa and possibility of finding other localities are discussed.

  11. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  12. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  13. A relict trematosauroid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Jurassic of the Junggar Basin (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Michael W.; Matzke, Andreas T.; Sun, Ge

    2004-12-01

    A temnospondyl ilium from the uppermost Toutunhe Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of the southern Junggar Basin is described. Among the known temnospondyls it is very unusual in morphology because of its very long and slender shaft. It compares closely only to the ilium of one of the latest known trematosaurids from the Ladinian of southern Germany. The Toutunhe Formation has also yielded vertebrae and skull fragments of temnospondyls which belong to the brachyopid Gobiops from the Upper Jurassic of Mongolia. Brachyopoid ilia do not, however, display a morphology similar to that of the new specimen. It is therefore concluded that this specimen represents a second taxon of temnospondyl from the Toutunhe Formation, which probably represents the latest surviving trematosauroid. The Trematosauroidea, which was hitherto exclusively known from the Lower to early Upper Triassic, therefore joins the Brachyopoidea and possibly the Capitosauroidea as another group of temnospondyls which survived the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  14. [Smoking in public middle schools in Casablanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhier, Zineb; Bennani Othmani, Mohammed; Housbane, Samy; Lembachar, Ihssane; Moumaris, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The transition period between elementary and middle school is a high-risk period for smoking initiation. Hence the importance of primary prevention programs in adolescent populations. The development and implementation of appropriate preventive measures requires information on tobacco use among adolescents. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking among middle school students in Casablanca and to describe associated drug use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in six collèges (middle schools) in Casablanca. The average age of the students was 16.3 years (SD = 2.1). 55% of the students were female. Overall smoking prevalence was 7.5% (CI 95% = 5.5% - 10.1%) ? 11.4% among boys and 4.6% among girls. 52.5% of the smokers began smoking between the ages of 14 and 18. The reasons for smoking included smoking as a way of escaping from problems (30%), relaxation (16%) and experience (7%). Smoking behavior was associated with drug use in 23.3% of smokers, compared to 0.6% among non-smokers (p < 10?3). These results suggest the need for prevention measures aimed at strengthening tobacco control policies in schools and other gathering places for young people.

  15. Electronic bullying among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Limber, Susan P

    2007-12-01

    Electronic communications technologies are affording children and adolescents new means of bullying one another. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyberbullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. The present study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students. A total of 3,767 middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 who attend six elementary and middle schools in the southeastern and northwestern United States completed a questionnaire, consisting of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and 23 questions developed for this study that examined participants' experiences with electronic bullying, as both victims and perpetrators. Of the students, 11% that they had been electronically bullied at least once in the last couple of months (victims only); 7% indicated that they were bully/victims; and 4% had electronically bullied someone else at least once in the previous couple of months (bullies only). The most common methods for electronic bullying (as reported by both victims and perpetrators) involved the use of instant messaging, chat rooms, and e-mail. Importantly, close to half of the electronic bully victims reported not knowing the perpetrator's identity. Electronic bullying represents a problem of significant magnitude. As children's use of electronic communications technologies is unlikely to wane in coming years, continued attention to electronic bullying is critical. Implications of these findings for youth, parents, and educators are discussed.

  16. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2017-01-01

    As of January 2016, 1,633 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and 587 MERS-related deaths have been reported by the World Health Organization globally. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may occur sporadically in communities or may be transmitted within families or hospitals. The number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases among healthcare workers has been increasing. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may also spread through aerosols generated during various dental treatments, resulting in transmission between patients and dentists. As MERS-CoV cases have also been reported among children, pediatric dentists are at risk of MERS-CoV infection. This review discusses MERS-CoV infection in children and healthcare workers, especially pediatric dentists, and considerations pertaining to pediatric dentistry. Although no cases of MERS-CoV transmission between a patient and a dentist have yet been reported, the risk of MERS-CoV transmission from an infected patient may be high due to the unique work environment of dentists (aerosol generation). PMID:28397938

  18. Middle ear mucosa in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiin, N; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E; Cerne, A

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to review thoroughly the literature and summarize it in a standardized fashion; to study the mucosa, including the distribution of mast cells, in all parts of the middle ear cavity in rats; and to compare the experimental findings with those known in humans. Adult, healthy rats were studied by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The ciliated and secretory cells of the rat tympanic cavity are confined to two tracts, one anterior and one inferoposterior to the promontory. The tracts connect the epitympanum with the eustachian tube. The pars flaccida exhibits the highest density of mast cells, but mast cells are also distributed in the subepithelial layer of the tracts and in the floor of the tympanic bulla. The structure of the rat mucosa shows striking similarities to that of humans. Thus, from a morphological point of view, the rat seems to be a suitable model for middle ear studies. However, to be able to compare results obtained in different species and/or different laboratories, the areas of the middle ear from which the specimens have been taken must be carefully defined and presented in a standardized manner.

  19. Laminated sandstones reservoir characterization, Middle Eocene Lower Misoa Formation, Ceuta Field, Maracaibo Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacartegui, F.; Coll, M.C.; Urdaneta, J.; Pinto, J.; Lugo, D. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    This study presents the results of a multidisciplinary, project and methodology used to describe a clastic reservoir, known as C-2/C-3, characterized by thin sandstones units masked by a mainly argillaceous sequence. The area known as Area 2 of the Ceuta field, is located to the southeast of the Maracaibo Lake, comprising an area of 75 km[sup 2]. Sedimentological facies description, characterization and analysis resulted in the identification of seven different lithofacies, of which only two are productive. Additionally, ten sedimentary units were recognized, based on related facies associations and nature of facies contacts. These sedimentary units were deposited by a prograding, fluvially-dominated delta in a large estuarine environmental setting. Integration of sedimentological and petrophysical data were used to recognize and predict prospective intervals from well logs and to characterize them. A deconvolution of MICRO LOG resistivities proved to be the most successful technique to delineate productive intervals, and set the basis for flow unit identification. Production data, integrated with petrophysical and sedimentological parameters, were used to identify and characterize six flow units from the entire sequence. Log correlations, based on the sedimentological framework and stratigraphic sequence analysis techniques, in addition to 3-D seismic interpretations, were used to establish the external geometry and extension of flow units and thus, delineating the areal and vertical limits of the reservoir. Reservoir application of this project include successfull placing of appraisal wells to the south, grass-root drilling to the north, optimization of workover wells over the entire area and a more realistic reserves quantification.

  20. Earliest true moth lacewing from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyu Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new moth lacewing Guithone bethouxi gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation (Inner Mongolia, China. This taxon is characterized by robust body, head retracted under pronotum, and remarkable costal space (expanded basad, narrowed distad. Herein, we propose a detailed definition of the lineages of Ithonidae sensu lato (moth lacewings, giant lacewings, and montane lacewings based on extant groups in order to clarify the systematics of fossil species within the taxon. The comparison shows that Guithone bethouxi gen. et sp. nov. unquestionably represents the earliest true moth lacewing, implying that lineage differentiations within Ithonidae sensu lato must have taken place before the Middle Jurassic. Furthermore the new genus possessing some particular venation characters, such as irrecurrent humeral veinlet and simplified crossveination in radial sector, represents an important intermediate group in the evolution of Ithonidae sensu lato.

  1. Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

    2005-01-01

    Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna(footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both the affected and unaffected sides. The pattern of deformity suggests a partial failure of development of tympanic pathway tissues, but with a preservation of theopercularis pathway. While a definitive proximate cause of the condition could not be determined, the anomalies show similarities to developmental defects in mammalian middle ear formation. PMID:16158670

  2. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis during Bulbil Formation in Lilium lancifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerial bulbils are an important propagative organ, playing an important role in population expansion. However, the detailed gene regulatory patterns and molecular mechanism underlying bulbil formation remain unclear. Triploid Lilium lancifolium, which develops many aerial bulbils on the leaf axils of middle-upper stem, is a useful species for investigating bulbil formation. To investigate the mechanism of bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, we performed histological and transcriptomic analyses using samples of leaf axils located in the upper and lower stem of triploid L. lancifolium during bulbil formation. Histological results indicated that the bulbils of triploid L. lancifolium are derived from axillary meristems that initiate de novo from cells on the adaxial side of the petiole base. Transcriptomic analysis generated ~650 million high-quality reads and 11,871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Starch synthesis and accumulation likely promoted the initiation of upper bulbils in triploid L. lancifolium. Hormone-associated pathways exhibited distinct patterns of change in each sample. Auxin likely promoted the initiation of bulbils and then inhibited further bulbil formation. High biosynthesis and low degradation of cytokinin might have led to bulbil formation in the upper leaf axil. The present study achieved a global transcriptomic analysis focused on gene expression changes and pathways' enrichment during upper bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, laying a solid foundation for future molecular studies on bulbil formation.

  3. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  4. Sedimentary Environment and Geochemical Characteristics of Source Rocks from Later Carboniferous and Middle Permian in Santanghu Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Liu, Yiqun; Li, Zhexuan; Zhang, Qiao

    2018-01-01

    There is a long-term controversy on sedimentary environment of Late Carboniferous-Permian in Santanghu Basin. In this paper, we study on the geochemical characteristics of source rocks from Harjiawu Formation of Upper Carboniferous and Lucaogou Formation of Middle Permian in Santanghu Basin. The results show that the abundance and maturity of organic matter of source rocks in Harjiawu Formation are both high, which shows excellent source rocks. In contrast, the abundance of organic matter from source rocks in Lucaogou Formation is relatively low and the maturity of organic matter is between immature and mature, which suggests good-excellent source rocks. The organic geochemical characteristics indicate the freshwater lacustrine environment of Late Carboniferous, while Lucaogou Formation is the high salinity lacustrine environment. In addition, magmatic-hydrothermal activity may result in the water salinization of Permian.

  5. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  6. [Clinical psychophysiological markers of maladaptive neuropsychic conditions in polyclinic doctors of old and middle age with professional burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the actual in modern medicine problem of professional burnout of polyclinic doctors of middle and elderly age. It is shown that the specificity of the polyclinic doctors' activity provokes the formation of professional burnout syndrome, paired with maladaptive neuro-psychic conditions. We studied the prevalence of this syndrome in polyclinic doctors of middle age and older; its specific versions among the middle-aged doctors were defined, where the level of burnout is associated with aggressive tendencies, and the elderly doctors, where professional burnout is associated with the instability of affective response. Pathogenic markers of compensatory redistribution of information saturation of indicators of electroencephalography to the occipital cortex at professional burnout in polyclinic doctors of the elderly age, reflecting the involution processes in prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain were identified.

  7. Dynamic changes of histone H3 marks during Caenorhabditis elegans lifecycle revealed by middle-down proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Vandamme, Julien; Elisabetta Salcini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    that is transmitted during dauer formation. Collectively, our data describe the dynamics of histone H3 combinatorial code during C. elegans lifecycle and demonstrate the feasibility of using middle-down proteomics to study in vivo development of multicellular organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All......We applied a middle-down proteomics strategy for large scale protein analysis during in vivo development of Caenorhabditis elegans. We characterized post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone H3 N-terminal tails at eight time points during the C. elegans lifecycle, including embryo, larval...... stages (L1 to L4), dauer and L1/L4 post dauer. Histones were analyzed by our optimized middle-down protein sequencing platform using high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry. This allows quantification of intact histone tails and detailed characterization of distinct histone tails carrying co...

  8. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  9. Paleoweathering condition in middle Miocene to early Pliocene period in Japanese Islands: From paleopedology and chemistry of muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, N.; Yoshida, K.; Sasao, E.; Adachi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The middle Miocene to Pliocene is recognized as a period that has changed the East Asian monsoon. In Japanese Islands, the middle Miocene to Pliocene fluvial formations include aluminous clayey horizons with well-preserved pedogenic features and are known as pottery material. These formations, therefore, can be a useful to reconstruct of weathering conditions. Description of paleosols and geochemical research were carried out in the middle Miocene (10-11 Ma) and the early Pliocene (3-4 Ma) sediments in central Japan in order to illuminate the weathering condition in far east Asian margin. Each of the formations was mainly deposited in lacustrine environment. Paleosols can be divided into 11 pedotypes. In the middle Miocene, the main pedotypes are mature paleosols characterized by thick soil horizons with Bt horizons and rich illuviated clay. In the early Pliocene, the pedotypes are divided into weakly developed paleosols characterized by thinner soil horizons, prominent relict beds and rarely illuviated clay, and hydromorphic paleosols characterized by glay clay with mottled reddish color and siderite nodules. The major elemental geochemistry of the lake sediments shows that the Miocene sediments were supplied from severe weathered sources with CIA values of 80-94. The Pliocene sediments show the CIA values of 72-90 showing the relatively weak weathering condition. Behavior of major and REE elements within paleosol profiles shows a marked loss of Na2O without leaching of REE, which should inherit the composition of source rocks, in the middle Miocene. In the early Pliocene, eluviation of Na2O are less reconstructing the weakly developed aleosols. The weathering condition in the middle Miocene to Pliocene in Japanese Islands may be affected by the influence of warm water current and initiation of the Eastern Asian monsoon. The middle Miocene period (10-11 Ma) is considered to have been under the intenser weathering condition than one in the early Pliocene period (3

  10. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  11. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  12. Characterizing bursty star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Najmeh

    2018-01-01

    An ongoing area of research in galaxy evolution is the efficiency of star formation as a function of galaxy halo mass. At low mass, it is believed that supernova feedback can expel gas from the galaxy and shut down star formation. However, there are still significant uncertainties in how the momentum/energy of the supernova couple with the gas and the efficiency with which it drives winds. Particularly uncertain are the parameters of the resulting bursts of star formation —amplitudes, durations, and periods — with important implications for interpreting observations of dwarf galaxies. Some hydrodynamical simulations predict order of magnitude bursts (and quenching) on very short (indicators of dwarf galaxies (H-alpha and ultraviolet luminosities) that trace star formation on different time scales (~5 Myr and ~20 Myr, respectively), as well as their relation to the average galaxies of similar stellar mass, to better constrain the parameters of the star formation bursts. We find that the burst amplitude increases with decreasing stellar mass, with amplitudes ranging two orders of magnitude at stellar masses of 10^7. We also find that the star formation is quenched very rapidly, with e-folding times less than 10 Myr in galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^(7.5). We conclude by comparing our results to recent hydrodynamical simulations and discussing the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function.

  13. Using the internet in middle schools: A model for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, B.; Boorman, M.; Eker, P.; Fletcher, K.; Judd, B.; Trainor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corn, C.; Olsen, J.; Trottier, A. [Los Alamos Middle School, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the Laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and training. The model is characterized by a computer classroom linked with two GatorBoxes and a UNIX-based workstation server. Six additional computers have also been networked from a teacher learning center and the library. The model support infrastructure includes: local school system administrators/lead teachers, introductory and intermediate hands-on teacher learning, teacher incentives for involvement and use, opportunities for student training and use, and ongoing LANL consulting. Formative evaluation data reveals that students and teachers alike are finding the Internet to be a tool that crosses disciplines, allowing them to obtain more, timely information and to communicate with others more effectively and efficiently. A lead teacher`s enthusiastic comments indicate some of the value gained: ``We have just scratched the surface. Each day someone seems to find something new and interesting on the Internet. The possibilities seem endless.``

  14. A Siliceous Microfossil View of Middle Eocene Arctic Paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, C. E.; Koc, N.; Brumsack, H.; Jordan, R. W.; Suto, I.

    2007-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, "The Arctic Coring Expedition" (ACEX) made arguably the most significant discovery of Paleogene siliceous microfossils in nearly 2 decades. 100 m of mm to sub-mm laminated biosiliceous sediments of Middle Eocene age are rich in marine and freshwater siliceous microfossils allowing intriguing insights into central Arctic paleoenvironments during the start of Cenozoic cooling to icehouse conditions. Largely endemic assemblages of marine diatoms and ebridians are preserved along with very high abundances of chrysophyte cysts, the endogenously formed resting stage of freshwater algae. These siliceous microfossil groups imply an overall brackish environment, but variations in group dominance suggest episodic variations in salinity, stratification and trophic status. We synthesize the overall characteristics of the biosiliceous sediments by reporting on broad scale variations in siliceous microfossils and give some exciting insights into the composition of the laminae which may help explain the formation of these sediments. Our results indicate basin-wide paleo-environmental fluctuations on long- and possibly seasonal timescales.

  15. Solar activity forcing of the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar

    Full Text Available Studies on the influence of solar activity in 11-year cycle on middle atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature, pressure and density, and zonal and meridional wind components over three meteorological rocket launching stations, located in the tropics (Thumba, mid-latitude (Volgograd and high-latitude (Heiss Island regions of the northern hemisphere have been carried out. The temperature in all the three regions showed a negative response in the stratosphere and positive association in the mesosphere with the changes in solar activity. The temperature decreases by 2–3% from its mean value in the stratosphere and increases by 4–6% in the mesosphere for an increase in 100 units of solar radio flux. Atmospheric pressure is found to be more sensitive to solar changes. An average solar maximum condition enhances the pressure in the stratosphere by 5% and in the upper mesosphere by 16–18% compared to the respective mean values. Density also showed strong association with the changes in solar activity. Increase in the solar radio flux tends to strengthen winter westerlies in the upper stratosphere over the mid-latitude and summer easterlies in the middle stratosphere over tropics. Larger variability in the zonal wind is noted near stratopause height. Results obtained from the study indicate that there is an external force exerted on the Earth's atmosphere during the period of high solar activity. These results can be incorporated for further studies on the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in association with the changes in solar activity.

  16. Middle Ear Barotrauma in Student Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Heob; Cho, Kyoung Rai

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports the clinical features of middle ear barotrauma in student pilots in the Republic of Korea Air Force. The authors reviewed medical records of student pilots with barotrauma. The grade of barotrauma was assigned using Teed's classification. This study included nasal symptoms, endoscopic findings of the nasal cavity, and clinical course (duration, recurrence). The relationship between middle ear barotrauma and the nasal airway was also evaluated. There were 57 cases in 51 pilots included. There were 49 cases (86.0%) that showed unilateral disease and 4 subjects experienced relapse. Two subjects (3.9%) had chronic rhinosinusitis and four subjects (7.8%) had allergic rhinitis. Ear fullness was reported in all cases, while hearing loss and persistent ear pain were reported in 3 cases (5.3%) and 19 cases (33.3%), respectively. Stuffy nose (26 cases, 45.6%) and rhinorrhea (24 cases, 42.1%) were relatively common. Most cases were Grade 0 (23 cases, 40.3%) or Grade III (27 cases, 47.4%) according to Teed's classification. Septal deviation was observed in 12 cases (21.0%), while turbinate hypertrophy was seen in 53 cases (93.0%) and increased nasal discharge in 33 cases (57.9%). The grade of barotrauma varied significantly according to the severity of turbinate hypertrophy and nasal discharge. The mean duration of disease was 6.8 d. Nasal symptoms and endoscopic findings showed some association with the grade and duration of barotrauma. Most cases resolved within a week; however, barotrauma showed persistence or relapse in some cases.Sohn JH, Cho KR. Middle ear barotrauma in student pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):406-412.

  17. Clumped isotope analyses suggest constant seawater temperatures at the Middle-Late Jurassic transition in the Subboreal realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowski, Hubert; Bajnai, David; Wacker, Ulrike; Fiebig, Jens; Rogov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Clumped isotope analyses were performed on a set of 18 well-preserved belemnite rostra and 4 ammonite shells derived from uppermost Middle-Upper Jurassic strata of the Russian Platform. The aim of the study is to reconstruct palaeoclimatic variations and paleoceanographic changes during and after the Middle-Late Jurassic transition in the Subboreal realm. Previous studies, based on the δ18O values and elemental ratios of belemnite rostra, suggest the presence of a prolonged Late Callovian-Middle Oxfordian cool period with bottom waters at ˜5 °C, followed by a pronounced Late Oxfordian-Late Kimmeridgian warming (by 6.5-9.5 °C) in the epicontinental Middle Russian Sea. The occurrence of cold bottom waters is interpreted as a result of the formation of wide marine connections with the Arctic Sea during a sea-level highstand. As an independent proxy for palaeotemperatures, clumped isotopes could estimate the extent to which the δ18O record is influenced by local salinity variations. Clumped isotope analyses suggest constant bottom water temperatures (˜15 °C) of the Middle Russian Sea during the latest Callovian-earliest Late Kimmeridgian. This questions the previous interpretation of the δ18O record. The Upper Oxfordian-Lower Kimmeridgian decrease in δ18O values, which was previously explained by warming, probably results instead from a decrease in salinity. A decrease in sea level after the Middle-Late Jurassic boundary transgression could have contributed to the enhanced freshwater runoff. Consequently, the limited water exchange in the restricted basin of the Middle Russian Sea probably led to the significant decrease in salinity and water δ18O values.

  18. Lebanon in the Middle East Subordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    the land of Aram;4 the "people of the sea," became the Philistines ; and the Hebrews created their kingdom under the scepter of King David), the ...legislative. Before sunrise, they were taken to an ancient fort at Rashaya to be . held in separate cells. On the same day, M. Helleu, French delegate...R AD-138 031 LEBANON IN THE MIDDLE EAST SUBORDINATE SYSTEM(U) RRMY 1/3, COMMRAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS N S EID 03 JUN 83 SBI-AD

  19. AVICENA : Arabian Physician of Middle Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Martínez, Joaquín; Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina Facultad de Medicina Universidad Autónoma de México D.F., México

    2014-01-01

    Avicena, a physician and philosopher of the Middle Ages, is considered one of the most important thinkers of Arabian medicine. After a paper justification, the author appoints the context, life and work of Avicena. Later he appoints a commentary on particular. En este trabajo se hace una reseña de la vida y obra del médico árabe medioeval Avicena, uno de los más importantes de su cultura y época. Previa justificación del artículo, se hace referencia al contexto, el hombre y su obra, seguid...

  20. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  1. Middle Prut plain's erosion susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor CASTRAVEȚ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The given article is dedicated to Middle Prut Plain’s erosion susceptibility evaluation  using factorial analysis and methodology of principal component analysis implemented byGeographical Informational System GRASS. Susceptibility evaluation is executed in a qualitative mode, and the results have preliminary character, for further quantitative andmore precise study. This type of natural hazards analysis offers information on probable localization and severity of erosion phenomena, as well as their manifestation probabilityin a given place.

  2. The Science of Middle Nature (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Pincetl, S.; Hinners, S.

    2013-12-01

    In the field of biogeochemistry, urbanization is often considered as an 'alteration' or 'disturbance' to the earth's surface and its natural processes. This view is an outcome of the view of nature inherent in earth system science and ecology, in which nature is defined as separate from humans and society. However, other disciplines are based in alternative views of nature in which humans are more integral components of the landscape. Urban planning, landscape architecture, agriculture, and horticulture, for example, more fully integrate the role of landscape design and management in the functioning of human-dominated ecosystems. We suggest that the field of urban biogeochemistry has been somewhat limited by the predominant, disturbance-based view of the role of nature in cities, and that more deeply evaluating and broadening the concept of nature inherent in studies of urban processes can enhance our understanding of the role of urbanization in the earth system. A particularly useful concept is the 'middle nature' proposed by Cosgrove (1993), which serves a purpose of 'actively transforming nature into culture.' It is this view of urban landscapes as middle nature, or transformation of urban space into human-dominated nature with a purpose, that is lacking from the current scientific discourse about the role of biogeochemistry in urban ecosystem services. A scientific evaluation of middle nature implies studying the performance of urban designs to meet intended cultural and environmental goals, including beauty, social equity, governance, and social capital as well as environmental quality. We describe our work in evaluating the transformed urban landscapes of Los Angeles and Salt Lake City from multiple perspectives that focus on urban livability, equity, and beauty as well as the physical impacts of plants and soils on the environment. The outcomes of this process do not necessary meet the traditional demands of biophysical ecology such as utilizing native

  3. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E

    1996-01-01

    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) o...

  4. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the 'creators' of the laws received at the major centres of learning in Europe, and address a number of important questions concerning the creation and development of legal professions and the dynamics between legal practice and theoretical, learned approaches to jurisprudence. Contributors to this volume......This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...

  5. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and When

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N=1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend’s home, and reported alcohol-related problems including conflicts with friends or parents, memory loss, nausea, and doing things they would not normally do. Differences emerged in...

  6. Another window to the subsistence of Middle Pleistocene hominins in Europe: A taphonomic study of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Barba, Rebeca; Soto, Enrique; Sesé, Carmen; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Yravedra, José; Galán, Ana Belén

    2015-10-01

    Cuesta de la Bajada is a Middle Pleistocene site (MIS 8-9) in which some of the earliest evidence of Middle Paleolithic stone tool tradition is documented. The small format tool assemblage, dominated by simple flakes and scrapers, is associated to abundant remains of equids and cervids, in which both percussion and cut marks are well represented. The anatomical distribution of these bone surface modifications indicate primary access to fleshed carcasses by hominins. Hunting is further supported by the analysis of age profiles, in which prime adults are predominant both in equids and cervids. The taphonomic analysis of the site adds more information to human predatory behaviors as documented in other Middle Pleistocene sites and is one of the best examples of hunting documented in the Middle Pleistocene European archaeological record.

  7. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  8. A Middle-Upper Miocene fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau

    2007-01-01

    The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... development sedimentation rate outpaced the formation of accommodation space and fluvial activity increased again. During periods when the general sedimentation rate was in balance with the creation of accommodation space the environment changed frequently between lake deposition and intermittent vigorous...

  9. Underemployment. An Ordinary Way of Life in Fields of Andalusia in the Late Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes BORRERO FERNÁNDEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the underemployment affecting the majority of the rural population of southern Castile in the final centuries of the Middle Ages. Firstly, we study the formation of the group demanding work in the fields: their characteristics and numerical significance in different economic regions. We analyze also the mechanisms and rates of the offer of temporary employment generated in large properties. The consequences of this system: a weak balance between supply and demand caused the impoverishment of the peasantry.

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of thermal inversion layers in the middle atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, B.; Chassefiere, E.

    1993-01-01

    There is some evidence that the thermal structure of the martian middle atmosphere may be altered in a significant way by the general circulation motions. Indeed, while it is well known that the circulation in the meridional plane is responsible for the reversal of the latitudinal thermal gradient at the solstice through the adiabatic heating due to sinking motions above the winter pole, here we want to emphasize that a likely by-product effect could be the formation of warm layers, mainly located in the winter hemisphere, and exhibiting an inversion of the vertical thermal gradient.

  11. Multiple rice body formation in chronic subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis: MR appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J F; Peh, W C; Evans, N S; Smallman, L A; Wong, R W; Thomas, A M

    1996-07-01

    Multiple rice body formation is an unusual complication of chronic bursitis. Clinically and macroscopically, it can resemble synovial osteochondromatosis. Radiographic and MR appearances, however, may allow an accurate pre-operative diagnosis. The imaging features of two middle-aged women with multiple subacromial/subdeltoid bursa rice bodies are described.

  12. Cosmos and Rulership: The Function of Olmec-Style Symbols in Formative Period Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, F. Kent III

    1990-01-01

    States that iconographic investigations of Olmec style art works have produced convincing evidence that rulership during the Early and Middle Formative Period of Mesoamerican prehistory was publicly legitimized by a visual charter. Shows that the charter's naturally derived symbols functioned within a system which stressed the human ruler's access…

  13. The Relationship between Middle Grade Student Belonging and Middle Grade Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Phyllis B.; Ennis, Leslie S.; Hodge, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a middle school initiative to develop student voice, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal relationships and students' sense of belonging. The literature indicated a strong connection between students' sense of belonging in school and positive outcomes in and out of the classroom (Deci &…

  14. Managing Curriculum Change from the Middle: How Academic Middle Managers Enact Their Role in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudhumbu, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that the role of academic middle managers (AMMs) has been a subject of contestation for a long time the world over owing to the fact that there has not been a clear cut articulation of what exactly this role constitutes or means. Such a situation according to literature has tended to affect the way the AMMs enact their role in…

  15. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Middle School Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monix, Demetria Dianna

    2012-01-01

    Research shows the effectiveness of encouraging safe and supportive learning environments for all students. Unfortunately, many of today's classrooms fail to positively implement these learning environments, especially within middle schools. The assumption for students struggling with reading has often been associated with low teacher…

  16. Democratic Leadership in Middle Schools of Chihuahua Mexico: Improving Middle Schools through Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the implementation of a democratic approach to lead and manage middle schools in Chihuahua, Mexico. This research was based on a Likert questionnaire and semistructured interviews to explore the level of involvement of students, teachers, and parents in schools participating in a programme…

  17. Parental Involvement among Middle-Income Latino Parents Living in a Middle-Class Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoa, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Parental involvement has often shared a positive correlation with student academic achievement. To better understand parental involvement dynamics among middle-class Latino families, in-depth parent interviews were conducted among 21 such parents. Results from this study which add to the educational literature include high levels of academic…

  18. Extensional tectonics and sedimentary response of the Early–Middle Cambrian passive continental margin, Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Gao; Tailiang Fan

    2012-01-01

    The fact that several half-grabens and normal faults developed in the Lower–Middle Cambrian of Tazhong (central Tarim Basin) and Bachu areas in Tarim Basin, northwest China, indicates that Tarim Basin was under extensional tectonic setting at this time. The half-grabens occur within a linear zone and the normal faults are arranged in en echelon patterns with gradually increasing displacement eastward. Extensional tectonics resulted in the formation of a passive continental margin in the south...

  19. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  1. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  2. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  3. Are healthcare middle management jobs extreme jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A; Parry, Emma; Gascoigne, Charlotte; Moore, Cíara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the incidence of "extreme jobs" among middle managers in acute hospitals, and to identify individual and organizational implications. The paper is based on interviews and focus groups with managers at six hospitals, a "proof of concept" pilot with an operations management team, and a survey administered at five hospitals. Six of the original dimensions of extreme jobs, identified in commercial settings, apply to hospital management: long hours, unpredictable work patterns, tight deadlines with fast pace, broad responsibility, "24/7 availability", mentoring and coaching. Six healthcare-specific dimensions were identified: making life or death decisions, conflicting priorities, being required to do more with fewer resources, responding to regulatory bodies, the need to involve many people before introducing improvements, fighting a negative climate. Around 75 per cent of hospital middle managers have extreme jobs. This extreme healthcare management job model was derived inductively from a qualitative study involving a small number of respondents. While the evidence suggests that extreme jobs are common, further research is required to assess the antecedents, incidence, and implications of these working practices. A varied, intense, fast-paced role with responsibility and long hours can be rewarding, for some. However, multi-tasking across complex roles can lead to fatigue, burnout, and mistakes, patient care may be compromised, and family life may be adversely affected. As far as the authors can ascertain, there are no other studies exploring acute sector management roles through an extreme jobs lens.

  4. The Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boks Marco PM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Psychiatric Case Register Middle Netherlands (PCR-MN registers the mental healthcare consumption of over Dutch 760,000 inhabitants in the centre of the Netherlands. In 2010 the follow-up period was over ten years. In this paper we describe the content, aims and research potential of this case register. Description All mental healthcare institutions in the middle-western part of the province of Utrecht participate in the PCR-MN case register. All in- and out-patients treated in these institutions have been included in the database from the period 2000 to 2010. Diagnosis according to DSM-IV on axis I to IV, visits to in- and out-patient clinics and basic demographics are recorded. A major advantage of this register is the possibility to link patients anonymously from the PCR-MN cohort to other databases to analyze relationships with determinants and outcomes, such as somatic healthcare consumption, mortality, and demographics, which further increases the research potential Conclusions The PCR-MN database has a large potential for scientific research because of its size, duration of follow-up and ability to link with additional databases, and is accessible for academic researchers.

  5. Middle East in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yurtaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the role and importance of the region of the Middle East and North African theater of operations during World War II, not only the battles occured in the region are analyzed, but also the diplomatic efforts of the allies, related to the region. Author shows the role of the North African theater of operations in the context of other battles, parses the Allied landing operation called «Torch». Particular attention is given to the Conference of the three Allied leaders during World War II - Stalin (USSR, Roosevelt (USA and Churchill (UK, which was held in Tehran on November 28 - December 1, 1943. The author focuses on the psychological aspects of the conference, emphasizing that it was in the nature of the meeting of equal members of one family. The article also dismantled symbolic importance of presenting to the people of Stalingrad, on behalf of King George VI and the English people specially made sword on November 29, 1943 in the conference hall of the Soviet embassy in Tehran. According to the analysis, the author emphasizes the special importance of the region of the Middle East as a place to search for compromises on the way to the future world order.

  6. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  7. Nurse middle manager ethical dilemmas and moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda D; Wagner, Nurit; Toren, Orly

    2015-02-01

    Nurse managers are placed in a unique position within the healthcare system where they greatly impact upon the nursing work environment. Ethical dilemmas and moral distress have been reported for staff nurses but not for nurse middle managers. To describe ethical dilemmas and moral distress among nurse middle managers arising from situations of ethical conflict. The Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing-Middle Manager Questionnaire and a personal characteristics questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of middle managers from four hospitals in Israel. Middle managers report low to moderate levels of frequency and intensity of ethical dilemmas and moral distress. Highest scores were for administrative dilemmas. Middle managers experience lower levels of ethical dilemmas and moral distress than staff nurses, which are irrespective of their personal characteristics. Interventions should be developed, studied, and then incorporated into institutional frameworks in order to improve this situation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. NON-TYPICAL MIDDLES IN TAIWAN SOUTHERN MIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ling Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses non-typical middles that involve resultative verbal compounds in Taiwan Southern Min. This paper first applies tests to prove that the patient NP before the compound in question is a subject, not a topic, and thus this compound occurs in a middle construction. Next, this paper distinguishes middles (surface unaccusatives from another type of intransitive compound, deep unaccusatives, which alternate with causatives. The two types differ in that middles retain an implicit agent and thus are paraphrasable by their passive counterparts. Moreover, with an implied agent, middles do not allow another overt agent. As to the derivation stage, this paper proposes a mixed account. Middles are argued to be formed in syntax through verb-incorporation, de-thematization, and NP movement. Even though the implied agent is not available in syntax, it is arbitrarily interpreted at the Conceptual-Intentional interface.

  9. Supertall Asia/Middle East: Technological Responses and Contextual Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Sun Moon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings, with their greater urban and global impacts. Focusing primarily on physical construction, this article examines technological responses for building tall in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts. The architectural transformation and globalization of what was once called the “American Building Type” in Asian and Middle Eastern countries is studied. Sustainable design technology transfer and adjustment in Asian and Middle Eastern climates are presented. Further, future prospects on supertall design in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts are discussed.

  10. Ciliary activity of the middle ear lining in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Y; Nakai, Y; Kihara, S

    1985-01-01

    Since the middle ear lining is an extension and a modification of the respiratory epithelium, it is conceivable that it has a mucociliary system and plays an important role in clearing the middle ear cavity. It has already been noted in morphological investigations that the middle ear mucosa has ciliated cells. To our knowledge, however, ciliary activity has never been observed directly. In our research, we used the photoelectric method to study ciliary activity of the middle ear mucosa directly and quantitatively. We made special reference to the frequency of ciliary beating at various sites within the middle ear cavity. Ciliary activity was found to exist in the eustachian tube and the middle ear, the same as in other respiratory organs, and this activity was stronger in cells distal to the eustachian tube.

  11. Formation of ball lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberg, P.A. (2833 Lawton Drive, Amarillo, Texas (USA))

    A plasma continuum model for the formation of ball lightning is developed based on a substantial number of reports that the ball is often in the discharge column of a previous lightning stroke. The usual method of setting up the plasma equation for a one-component electron plasma is used. An approximate equation for the plasma is derived from the describing equation which is then solved exactly in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. The formation of the ball is based on a nonlinearity of the plasma equation which under certain circumstances permits the field to collapse into a small region. This collapse is interpreted to be ball lightning. The approximate equation derived for the plasma has the same form as a previous equation used to describe the formation of the fireball plasma.

  12. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  13. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social......This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  14. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  15. Control of Ice Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Wen; Sahoo, Venkataraman; Lu, Ming-Chang

    2017-03-28

    Ice formation is a catastrophic problem affecting our daily life in a number of ways. At present, deicing methods are costly, inefficient, and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, the use of superhydrophobic surfaces has been suggested as a potential passive anti-icing method. However, no surface is able to repel frost formation at a very cold temperature. In this work, we demonstrated the abilities of spatial control of ice formation and confinement of the ice-stacking direction. The control and confinement were achieved by manipulating the local free energy barrier for frosting. The V-shaped microgroove patterned surface, which possessed these abilities, exhibited the best anti-icing and deicing performances among the studied surfaces. The insight of this study can be applied to alleviate the impact of icing on our daily life and in many industrial systems.

  16. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  17. Western chapels in Middle Byzantine churches: Meaning and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkević Ida

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine...

  18. Western chapels in Middle Byzantine churches: Meaning and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkević Ida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine times.

  19. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  20. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  1. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  2. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific......A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system...

  3. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  4. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birken Sarah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Discussion Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Summary Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  5. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity...

  6. Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia in the Middle East and Africa — 3- and 6-month efficacy and safety results. The Intercontinental Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes Study.

  7. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  8. Uncovering middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Weiner, Bryan J

    2012-04-03

    Middle managers have received little attention in extant health services research, yet they may have a key role in healthcare innovation implementation. The gap between evidence of effective care and practice may be attributed in part to poor healthcare innovation implementation. Investigating middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation may reveal an opportunity for improvement. In this paper, we present a theory of middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation to fill the gap in the literature and to stimulate research that empirically examines middle managers' influence on innovation implementation in healthcare organizations. Extant healthcare innovation implementation research has primarily focused on the roles of physicians and top managers. Largely overlooked is the role of middle managers. We suggest that middle managers influence healthcare innovation implementation by diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. Teamwork designs have become popular in healthcare organizations. Because middle managers oversee these team initiatives, their potential to influence innovation implementation has grown. Future research should investigate middle managers' role in healthcare innovation implementation. Findings may aid top managers in leveraging middle managers' influence to improve the effectiveness of healthcare innovation implementation.

  9. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...

  10. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Modulated Proterozoic Oxygen and Sustained Earth's Middle Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. T. Johnston; F. Wolfe-Simon; A. Pearson; A. H. Knoll

    2009-01-01

    ... (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O₂ production...

  11. Impact of the vertical dynamics on the thermosphere at low and middle latitudes: GITM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingyu; Deng, Yue; Maute, Astrid; Sheng, Cheng; Lin, Cissi Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the influences of the electric fields at low and middle latitudes on the ionosphere and thermosphere are investigated by using the nonhydrostatic Global Ionosphere and Thermosphere Model (GITM). The equatorial ionization anomaly and the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) are well reproduced in the simulation when the electric fields are included. The term analysis of the continuity equation of the neutral mass density shows that the daytime upward vertical wind near the geomagnetic equator tends to increase the local neutral mass density at 400 km altitude, while the divergence in the meridional wind associated with the meridional ion-drag force tends to transport the neutral mass density away from the geomagnetic equator which might contribute to the formation of the ETA trough. The vertical dynamics is modulated by the vertical forces including ion-drag force and pressure gradient force acting on the neutrals, and the changing vertical dynamics can also feedback to vertical ion-drag and pressure gradient forces, particularly near the geomagnetic equator. The daytime vertical ion-drag force near the geomagnetic equator is generally upward, while the daytime vertical pressure gradient force near the geomagnetic equator is reduced at most times after adding in the electric fields at low and middle latitudes. Meanwhile, the sudden introduction of the electric fields at low and middle latitudes induces an acoustic wave.

  12. An exploratory study on the utilisation of resilience by middle adolescents in reconstituted families following divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette Ebersohn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year thousands of core families disintegrate through divorce, and in the ensuing restructuring of the family system the child has to cope with various development challenges, such as divided membership of two micro family systems and complexities that result at the mesosystemic level. Achieving positive development outcomes in the presence of challenging living circumstances entails complex interactive processes. The aim of the study was to understand the concomitant, reciprocal and/or responsive dynamics of middle adolescents' use of their inherent resilience potential in their movement back and forth between their two reconstituted family systems after the parents' divorce. The study was grounded in the qualitative interpretivist paradigm, and used a multiple case study as research design and a narrative format for description. A purposive sample of four white Afrikaans-speaking middle adolescents participated in the research. Findings revealed that middle adolescents of divorced parents utilise their resilience potential in a systemic manner, which requires a solid base provided by the meso system. Hence the utilisation of resilience relies at the very minimum on a functional relationship of cooperation between the biological parents.

  13. A new Middle Ordovician reef assemblage from north-central China and its palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mirinae; Sun, Ning; Choh, Suk-Joo; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2014-08-01

    A new Middle Ordovician microbial boundstone incorporating the problematic coralline fossil Amsassia is reported from the Jinghe Formation of north-central China, Sino-Korean Block. The reefs are dominated by microbial masses composed of aggregated peloids and micrites. The subordinate small-module favositoid coral-like organism Amsassia, characterized by phacelocerioid forms and module increase involving fission, was surrounded by peloidal layers. A few Amsassia are preserved in growth position and are occasionally attached to each other. The peloidal masses that make up these reefs are considered to be microbialite acting as a primary reef builder and binder, whereas Amsassia was a limited framework builder in these reefs. The Jinghe reefs have been previously described as “coral-stromatolite reefs” because of the superficial resemblance of Amsassia to Lichenaria, though their growth characteristics are fundamentally different. Amsassia and Lichenaria show markedly different patterns of palaeobiogeographical initiation and distribution, and all Middle Ordovician “Lichenaria” and “Lichenaria-bearing reefs” reported from north-central China apparently occur outside of the main palaeobiogeographical province of Lichenaria. This study demonstrates the need for re-evaluation of such reports of early corals from the Middle to Late Ordovician of the western margin of Gondwana to clarify the palaeobiogeographical distributions of early coralline organisms.

  14. Survey of Speech-Language Pathology Graduate Program Training in Outer and Middle Ear Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpanos, Yula C; Senzer, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the national training practices of speech-language pathology graduate programs in outer and middle ear screening. Directors of all American Speech-Language-Hearing Association-accredited speech-language pathology graduate programs (N = 254; Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, 2013) were surveyed on instructional formats in outer and middle ear screening. The graduate speech-language pathology program survey yielded 84 (33.1%) responses. Results indicated that some programs do not provide any training in the areas of conventional screening otoscopy using a handheld otoscope (15.5%; n = 13) or screening tympanometry (11.9%; n = 10), whereas close to one half (46.4%; n = 39) reported no training in screening video otoscopy. Outcomes revealed that approximately one third or more of speech-language pathology graduate programs do not provide experiential opportunities in screening handheld otoscopy (36.9%) or tympanometry (32.1%), and most (78.6%) do not provide experiential opportunities in video otoscopy. The implication from the graduate speech-language pathology program survey findings is that some speech-language pathologists will graduate from academic programs without the acquired knowledge or experiential learning required to establish skill in 1 or more areas of screening otoscopy and tympanometry. Graduate speech-language pathology programs should consider appropriate training opportunities for students to acquire and demonstrate skill in outer and middle ear screening.

  15. Systematic Review of Postgraduate Surgical Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Surgical care is recognized as an important component of public health, however, many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are faced with a shortage of trained personnel. In response to this unmet need, many countries have developed local postgraduate training programs in surgery. This study aims to characterize general surgery postgraduate education in LMICs. PubMed, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus databases were searched for articles related to postgraduate general surgery education in LMICs. Studies in other surgical specialties and those published prior to 1990 were excluded. Data were collected on the characteristics of postgraduate training programs. Sixty-four articles discussed postgraduate surgical education in LMICs. Programs in 34 different countries and 6 different regions were represented. Nine countries were low-income, 12 were low-middle-income, and 13 were upper-middle-income countries. Sixty-four articles described aspects of the local postgraduate training program. Prior to postgraduate training, residents complete an undergraduate medical degree with 19 programs describing a pre-training experience such as internship. Surgical curricula were broad-based to prepare trainees to work in low-resource settings. At the completion of postgraduate training, examination formats varied including oral, written, and clinical exams. Postgraduate general surgery programs ranged from 2.5 to 7 years. Postgraduate surgical education is one mechanism to increase surgical capacity in LMICs. Different strategies have been employed to improve surgical education in LMICs and learning from these programs can optimize surgical education across teaching sites.

  16. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  17. [Risk sharing methods in middle income countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotai, András; Kaló, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage

  18. Carrascolendas: A Formative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosa, Luis M.

    A formative research project sought to test viewer reactions to two pilot programs of the Carrascolendas series. A total of 360 Puerto Rican-American, Cuban-American, Mexican-American, and Anglo-American children in grades 1, 2, and 3 were observed as they watched the programs. Results indicated that there was high eye contact during the…

  19. Generic file format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgate, Nick

    2002-11-01

    The Generic File Format (GFF) is a file format developed within the UK ASW community for the interchange and storage of underwater sonar data. Originally developed for the interchange of time-series data between analysis systems, it has been extended to provide for storage of processed acoustic data (e.g., power and DEMON spectrum, lofargram grey-scale), nonacoustic data (e.g., own-ship dynamics, sensor configuration) and event data (e.g., tracker output, sonar intercepts). The format employs the chunk concept, as used in the WAV and AIFF file formats, to provide extendability (including local variants) while providing a measure of backward compatability. However, the basic concept has been adapted to allow for the mixing in the one file of multiple channels of different sample-rates and data-types through the inclusion of a data frame concept and multiple data blocks. Chunk cross-referencing has been employed to ensure data consistency. A provision is made in the header of the file to store details of the sensor and processing for the data (e.g., the number of hydrophones, beam direction, FFT size) so that an analysis system does not need to know about the sensor or other system from which the data originated.

  20. The Formation of Trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, R. Rhodes; Umphres, Mark D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are a number of factors important in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) including the nature of aquatic humus and the influences of preozonation, bromide, pH, and chlorine. A brief investigation is also conducted into the kinetics of the THM reaction. Several major research needs are represented. (CS)

  1. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains, m......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system......., microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation...... of cells did not depend on pilus expression. Mutation and complementation analysis revealed that the type IV pilus-associated protein PilX, which was recently shown to mediate interbacterial aggregation, indirectly supported microcolony formation by contributing to pilus expression. A large number of Pil...

  2. Microfacies and diagenesis of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma carbonates, southwest Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Galmed, Mahmoud A.; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2017-06-01

    In order to document the microfacies analysis and diagenetic alterations of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation at southwest Riyadh City of central Saudi Arabia, a stratigraphic section was studied in detail at Khashm adh Dhi'bi area. Mudstones, wackstones, packstones, grainstones and boundstones are the main microfacies types in the studied area. These microfacies types with field investigations and fossil content indicated an environment ranging from deep shelf to organic buildup on platform margins for the studied carbonates. Cementation and recrystallization, dissolution, fragmentation and compaction, silicification, dolomitization, and bioerosion were the main diagenetic alterations affected the carbonate rocks of the Dhruma Formation. Cementation and recrystallization are represented by equant calcite crystals, Dog-tooth fringes of thin isopachous calcites and blocky low Mg-calcites. Gastrochaenolites, Trypanites and Meandropolydora spp. were the most bioeroders in coral heads and large bivalves and hardgrounds. These bioeroders indicated a long post-mortem period during the early diagenetic stage.

  3. Middle Miocene benthic foraminifera from the Al Khums area, northwestern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Sherif M.; Al Furjany, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    The present study deals with the benthic foraminifera from three sections cropping out in the Al Khums area, northwestern Libya. Lithostratigraphically, these outcrops belong to the Al Khums Formation, which is locally subdivided into two informal members: An Naggazah and Ras Al Mannubiyah. Detailed investigation of the foraminiferal content led to the recognition of 27 species belonging to 16 genera and 13 families. The absence of index planktonic foraminifera does not enable the recognition of any planktonic biozone within the Al Khums Formation. The presence of the larger benthic foraminifera Borelis melo melo enables the assignment of a Middle Miocene age to this rock unit. The studied sections characterized by the common occurrence of benthic foraminiferal species living in a shallow neritic environment. This conclusion is corroborated by the co-occurrence of large oysters, corals and algae.

  4. Middle Pleistocene age of the fossiliferous sedimentary sequence from Tarija, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Anaya, Federico; Cottle, John M.

    2013-03-01

    The highly fossiliferous sediments of the Tolomosa Formation from Tarija, southern Bolivia, represent one of the most important localities in South America that documents the Great American Biotic Interchange. Over the past several decades, chronostratigraphic studies have indicated a middle Pleistocene age for the Tolomosa Formation from ~ 1.1 to 0.7 Ma. This interval correlates to the Ensenadan South American Land Mammal Age as it is characterized from classic localities in Argentina. Recently, however, a new interpretation based on AMS 14C ages indicates that the fossiliferous sediments from Tarija are latest Pleistocene, i.e., Pleistocene, and not latest Pleistocene. The age of the Tarija Fauna has significant implications with regard to the stage of evolution biochronology for Pleistocene fossil mammals in South America, and in particular, the classic and important reference sections in Argentina.

  5. Pattern formation today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Richardson, Michael K

    2009-01-01

    Patterns are orders embedded in randomness. They may appear as spatial arrangements or temporal series, and the elements may appear identical or with variations. Patterns exist in the physical world as well as in living systems. In the biological world, patterns can range from simple to complex, forming the basic building blocks of life. The process which generates this ordering in the biological world was termed pattern formation. Since Wolpert promoted this concept four decades ago, scientists from molecular biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, theoretical modeling and other disciplines have made remarkable progress towards understanding its mechanisms. It is time to review and re-integrate our understanding. Here, we explore the origin of pattern formation, how the genetic code is translated into biological form, and how complex phenotypes are selected over evolutionary time. We present four topics: Principles, Evolution, Development, and Stem Cells and Regeneration. We have interviewed several leaders in the field to gain insight into how their research and the field of pattern formation have shaped each other. We have learned that both molecular process and physico-chemical principles are important for biological pattern formation. New understanding will emerge through integration of the analytical approach of molecular-genetic manipulation and the systemic approach of model simulation. We regret that we could not include every major investigator in the field, but hope that this Special Issue of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. represents a sample of our knowledge of pattern formation today, which will help to stimulate more research on this fundamental process.

  6. [Urea formation in the after operational liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilov, P N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of resection of the left lobe of the liver (LR, 15-20% og the organ weight) on hepatic urea formation was investigated in 84 albino rats. The objects of study were the surgery left (LLP), inoperable middle (MLP) lobe of the liver, blood (aorta, v. hepatica, v. porta) and choledochal bile. They studied the urea content. Arginase activity was examined in liver homogenate. On the day 3 and day 7 after resection reduced arginase activity was detected. LR caused a decrease of urea in v. hepatica, but increased urea content in the arterial blood and v. porta. Increase in bile urea on day 7 it was replaced by a decrease observed on day 14 of the postsurgery period. The concentration of urea in the liver on the 3rd day after LR was below the norm, and on the 7th and 14th day was within it. The results indicate a violation of urea operated by hepatocytes of the liver and extrahepatic activation mechanisms of the formation of urea.

  7. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Earth's axial tilt (obliquity). Experiments in a GCM (ECHAM5 - MPIOM, OASIS 3 coupled) indicate that temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Sea could have allowed for sea ice during winter in a minimal obliquity setting (22.1°), whereas temperatures are too high to allow sea ice formation under maximum obliquity (24.5°) winter conditions depending on Eocene boundary conditions (atmospheric CO2 concentration). We hypothesize that the combined effect of low temperatures in the sinking areas, an increased latitudinal SST gradient seasonal, and the potential formation of sea ice during obliquity minima results in an initial shallow NADW formation during the middle Eocene. This hypothesis is in accordance with the astronomical imprint observed in the data from IODP Site U1410. Davies, R., Cartwright, J., Pike, J., and Line, C., 2001, Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic deep water formation: Nature, v. 410, no. 6831, p. 917-920. Stoker, M. S., Praeg, D

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  9. Beekeeping from Antiquity Through the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Gene

    2017-01-31

    Beekeeping had its origins in honey hunting-the opportunistic stealing of honey from wild honey bee nests. True beekeeping began when humans started providing artificial cavities within which the bees could build comb for the queen to lay her eggs and the workers could process honey. By 2450 BCE, the Egyptians had developed sophisticated apiculture, and, within two millennia, beekeeping with horizontal hives had spread throughout the Mediterranean. During Europe's Middle Ages, honey and wax became important commodities for trade, and beekeeping in skep, log, box, and tree hives flourished to meet the demand. Other species of honey bees contributed to the development and spread of beekeeping in Asia beginning around 300 BCE. Meanwhile, beekeeping evolved independently in Mesoamerica with the stingless bee Melipona beecheii, as documented by archaeological finds and written accounts that survived Spanish conquest.

  10. Linguistic variation and change: Middle English infinitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Middle English the old inflected infinitive lost its supine function and gradually replaced the uninflected infinitive in all positions, except in the complementation of moal and a limited number of other verbs. According to most linguists, the choice between the to infinitive and the bare infinitive was either lexically or structurally conditioned. The theory of linguistic change as the assertion of weaker or stronger linguistic variants postulates the affinity of stronger variants for more complex, i. e. functionally marked grammaticall environment. The author tests the validity of the theory against the assertion of the English to infinitive at the expanse of the bare infinitive after the Norman Conquest. The results confirm the initial hypothesist that the degree of formal marked­ ness of the infinitive concurred with the degree of the functional markedness of grammatical pa­ rameters.

  11. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  12. Romanian Astronomical Activity in the Middle Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magdalena; Mioc, Vasile

    The authors describe the main astronomical events and personalities in Romania since th Middle Ages, which begun aproximately at the threeshold between the first and second milleniums of ours era and ends only at the beggining of the 19-th century. The contributions by Ioan Vitez, Ioan Honterus, Conrad Haas, Sevastos Kymnitis, Israel Hubner, Constantin Cantacuzino, Hrisant Notara, Nicolae Mavrocordat, Maximilian Hell, Ignatius Bathyanni, Iosif Bede are underlined. The main contacts of Romanian astronomers with foreigners in such areas as teaching and observations are mentioned. The existing today museums of astronomical instruments are also mentioned. Bibliography: 4. The authors ommit to mention in the bibliography the outstanding book by George Stefan Andonie, concerning the History of Mathematics in Romania as well as few other sources.

  13. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  14. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able...... to have their situation – their affectedness - acknowledged in interactions with others and gain considerable attention right after the accident. In addition it demonstrates how the initial acknowledgement decreased over time. In this case the axes of differentiation did not relate to questions of gender......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  15. Best Practice in Middle-School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Wilcox, Kristen C.; Angelis, Janet; Applebee, Arthur N.; Amodeo, Vincent; Snyder, Michele A.

    2013-03-01

    Using socio-ecological theory, this study explores best practice (educational practices correlated with higher student performance) in middle-school science. Seven schools with consistently higher student performance were compared with three demographically similar, average-performing schools. Best practice included instructional approaches (relevance and engagement, inquiry, differentiated instruction, collaborative work, moderate amounts of homework, and integration of language literacy and science) and administrative practices (nurturing a climate of opportunity to succeed in science, offering professional development based on data and dialogue, engaging teachers in standards-based curriculum revision and alignment, and recruiting the right fit of teacher). It is argued that best practice entails multiple levels of teaching and administrative praxis that together form a school-wide socio-ecological system conducive to higher performance.

  16. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  17. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Golovaschenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  18. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation.The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear.Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation.The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium.The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  19. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  20. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  1. Anastomosis between accessory middle cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masao; Uchino, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2017-06-01

    The accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a common variation of the MCA that arises from the anterior cerebral artery. We report a patient with anastomosis of the accessory MCA with the main MCA, an extremely rare variant that we diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Both partial maximum-intensity-projection and partial volume-rendering MR angiographic images obtained at 3 T are useful to identify such rare vascular variation.

  2. BRACHIOPODS FROM THE TYPE-SECTION OF THE BITHYNIAN SUBSTAGE (ANISIAN, MIDDLE TRIASSIC, NORTHWESTERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURIZIO GAETANI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bithynian substage of the Anisian stage (Middle Triassic was established by Assereto in the Gebze area (Kocaeli peninsula, northwestern Turkey, within the middle member of Nodular Limestone formation, now included in the Tepeköy Formation. The rich fauna, represented by conodonts, foraminifera and ammonoids, was described since a long time. The brachiopod fauna occurring in the Bithynian type-section is here revised. It consists of four species: Austriellula kavakensis (Arthaber, 1914, Holchorhynchella edhemi (Toula, 1896, Ptychomentzelia propontica (Toula, 1896, and Angustothyris angustaeformis (Böckh, 1872. The fauna is mostly endemic, with high number of specimens for the first three quoted species. Rare specimens of P. propontica occur also in the lower member of the Nodular Limestone, who delivered the conodont Neogondolella regalis, suggesting an Aegean age. The brachiopod fauna of the Bithynian substage continues upward with rare specimens in the lowermost part of the overlying Pelsonian succession. In the Illyrian, very rare “Rhynchonella” tscharkensis Arthaber, 1914, and Koeveskallina koeveskalyensis (Stur, 1865 were found. The Bithynian brachiopod fauna from Gebze has no counterpart in the Europe and in the surrounding regions, like Northern Caucasus and Aghdarband in Iran, even if some of the ammonoids found in Gebze are also present in the these areas.

  3. Vestibular end organ injury induced by middle ear treatment with ferric chloride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, M S; Park, B R

    2017-02-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and vestibular deficits characterize superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. This study investigated changes in vestibular function, free radical formation, and phosphorylated cJun expression in the vestibular end organs after middle ear treatment with a ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution. A single injection of 70% FeCl3 solution into the unilateral middle ear cavity caused static vestibular symptoms, such as spontaneous nystagmus and head tilt. Asymmetric expression of c-Fos protein was observed in the bilateral vestibular nuclei and prepositus hypoglossal nuclei within 6 h after injection. Histopathologic examinations revealed partial hair cell loss, degeneration of the supporting stroma, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the neuroepithelial layer of the crista ampullaris in FeCl3-treated animals. 5-(And-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester and diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate fluorescence and immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine increased markedly in the sensory neuroepithelial layer and nerve bundles of the crista ampullaris after 2 h. Strong immunoreactivity for phospho-cJun and cJun was observed in the type I hair cells of the crista ampullaris 120 h after injection. Thus, a single short-term treatment with a high concentration of FeCl3 in the unilateral middle ear cavity can induce activation of intracellular signals for cJun protein and oxidative stress through the formation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in vestibular sensory receptors, resulting in vestibular dysfunction. These results suggest that activation of intracellular signals for cJun protein and oxidative stress may be a key component of the pathogenesis of vestibular deficits in patients with superficial siderosis.

  4. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  5. Middle to Late Proterozoic tectonic history of Grenville province at Van Horn, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegaard, K.; Nielsen, K.C.; Manton, W.I. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States). Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    Middle to Late Proterozoic volcanic and sedimentary sequences near Van Horn in west Texas record the pre- and syn-tectonic history of deformation from shallow crustal levels. Pre-deformational sequences include the Carrizo Mountain Group, the Allamoore and Tumbledown formations. The Carrizo Mountain Group is thrust northward, along the Streeruwitz fault, over a para-autochthonous sequence of unmetamorphosed carbonate and polymodal volcanic rocks of Allamoore and Tumbledown formations. Carbonates in the Allamoore Formation were deposited in shallow water and contain diverse stromatolites, desiccation cracks, and halite pseudomorphs. The Tumbledown formation unconformably overlies the Allamoore carbonate succession and consists of volcanic sandstones, agglomerates, pillow breccias, and mafic volcanic flows. Deformation of the pre-orogenic sequences led to deposition of more than 2,500 meters of immature alluvial fan conglomerates and eolian sandstones of the Hazel Formation. Based on clast composition of boulder conglomerates in the Hazel Formation, the principal source rocks were the Allamoore and Tumbledown formations and an unknown rhyolite terrain, with Carrizo Mountain Group lithologies notably absent. Alluvial megasequences in the alluvial fan conglomerates are aggradational and indicate at least two episodes of faulting accompanied Hazel sedimentation. A mismatch between source terrain and corresponding sediment composition, in addition to aggradation of alluvial fan megasequences, along the southern fault-bounded basin margin supports a transpressive regime for this orogenic belt in favor of a purely convergent margin. The Hazel orogenic sequence post-dated a 1,126--1,070 Ma old regional igneous event, whereas the Grenville deformation in the Llano uplift of central Texas pre-dated the igneous event.

  6. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  7. Conformers and pretenders: The case of middle class political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From soon after the Second World War this class has been vocal in advocating for a political dispensation opposed to traditional politics centred on the monarchy. Up to now no coherent study has attempted a critical analysis of middle class opposition politics in Swaziland. This is in spite of the fact that the middle class ...

  8. The Union Defence Force entertainment group in the Middle East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In November 1941, Major Myles Bourke flew from South Africa to Cairo to investigate the possibilities of sending South African concert parties to the Middle East. He was accompanied by Capt (then Lieut) Mrs Sybil Gaiger. Keywords: Major Myles Bourke; South African concert parties; Middle East; ENSA; ME Live ...

  9. The Peril of Ignoring Middle School Student Speech Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of two recent federal court cases in which principals violated student speech rights offers guidance to middle school administrators as they attempt to address student expression. Characteristics of a successful school from the Association for Middle Level Education provide a framework for analyzing these cases in order to prevent…

  10. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  11. Middle School Girls: Perceptions and Experiences with Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the impact a robotics curriculum might have on the experiences and perceptions of middle school girls in two California classrooms. The research found that middle school girls in two different California classrooms felt that their experiences with robotics were personalized experiences…

  12. Do a Dozen Dispatches Constitute a Consensus? (Middle School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Johnson-Kuby, Sue Ann

    1997-01-01

    Reviews mail sent in response to a year's worth of "Middle School" columns in this journal. Notes that the column on a middle scholar's inquiry excursion went completely unnoticed and that the column on portfolio assessment received the most attention. (SR)

  13. Experiences and Perceptions of Middle School Handbell Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the process of music learning and the perceptions of members in a school-based middle school handbell setting. The participants were 39 students and one music teacher in a middle school in Texas. The design of the current study was a case study using observation and interview data. The results…

  14. New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover New Entrepreneurs and High Performance Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa. Auteur(s) : OECD, IDRC. Maison(s) d'édition : OECD, IDRC. 6 février 2013. ISBN : 9789264100251. 114 pages. e-ISBN :.

  15. Normal Foetal Middle Cerebral Arteries Doppler Velocimetry; Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doppler assessment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one method of evaluating foetus before delivery and can determine foetuses at risk in high risk pregnancies. This study was done to determine the normal reference values of foetal middle cerebral artery Doppler indices in our population. One hundred and forty ...

  16. Human Resource Education in the Middle East Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Khalil M.; Hamie, Christine Silva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of human resource development (HRD) education in Middle Eastern countries. In particular, the authors discuss the current state of HRD education, country readiness and challenges that hinder HRD progress in Middle Eastern countries. They argue that HRD programs need to prepare young…

  17. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and Opportunities. Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and Opportunities. Editor(s):. Eglal Rached, Eva Rathgeber et David B. Brooks. Publisher(s):. CRDI. January 1, 1996. ISBN: Épuisé. 295 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502899.

  18. The Image of the Middle East in Secondary School Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, William J.

    Forty-two secondary-level Canadian and American world history, social studies, and geography textbooks on the Middle East are examined for errors in content, oversimplification of complicated issues, and stereotyping. Areas under examination for distortion include Middle East geography and culture, economics, and maldistribution of wealth,…

  19. Response to Intervention in Middle School: A Case Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Smith, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a tiered model of service delivery being implemented in many middle grades schools. The authors provide an overview of RTI and describe the experience and outcomes of RTI implementation at Cheyenne Mountain Junior High. A discussion of lessons learned and implications for other middle schools considering RTI…

  20. Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called "Supercharged!" on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students…

  1. Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of Selected Channels and Programs. Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military ...

  2. Case Studies on Africa and the Middle East | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... These case studies illustrate some of the work IDRC's Rural Poverty and Environment program has supported in Africa and the Middle East. Topics covered include the African Highland Initiative; transboundary water research in the Middle East; Isang Bagsak (participatory development communication); ...

  3. Middle Leadership in Higher Education: A Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.; Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The paper is informed by a research study exploring middle leadership as experienced by Chairpersons of Departments within one faculty in a university in Aotearoa New Zealand. It is argued that middle leadership in higher education needs to be understood as a highly complex relational endeavour, characterised by compromises that are negotiated…

  4. Coping with Verbal and Social Bullying in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Almeida, Angela; Brandwein, David; Rocha, Gabriela; Callahan, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Becoming a victim of verbal and social bullying in middle school can lead to illness, psychological stress, and maladjustment. The coping strategies that students utilize when they are bullied may influence the likelihood and severity of these negative effects. In this study, we examined the predictions made by students in two middle schools about…

  5. Cyberbullying: What Middle School Students Want You to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, J. J.; Wright, V. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing concern because youth are technologically savvy. Much is to be learned about this pervasive phenomenon, especially during the middle school years when cyberbullying often peaks. This focus group study examined cyberbullying attitudes, beliefs, and opinions among middle school students in Alabama and describes…

  6. Multiple meanings of the middle class in soweto, south Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market Soweto shopping centre in 2006). This paper focuses on what middle class identity means to .... of individual virtue which includes good money management' (Urciuoli 1995). Middle class also implied possible advance through ..... London: Routledge Taylor and Francis. Bozzoli, B and History Workshop, 1987. Class ...

  7. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidack, Astri Marie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  8. Attachment in Middle Childhood: An Evolutionary-Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Middle childhood is a key transitional stage in the development of attachment processes and representations. Here I discuss the middle childhood transition from an evolutionary-developmental perspective and show how this approach offers fresh insight into the function and organization of attachment in this life stage. I begin by presenting an…

  9. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  10. American Sign Language: An Innovative Middle School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Karen

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) began at Seminole Middle School in August 2007 as part of the program, D.E.C.A.L (Division of Communication and Law), the brainchild of principal, Dr. Kris Black. Her goal was to offer a program that would entice advanced middle school students from around Broward County to Seminole and the hook she used to entice them…

  11. Exploring Korean Middle School Students' View about Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Il-Ho; Park, Sang-Woo; Shin, Jung-Yun; Lim, Sung-Man

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine Korean middle school students' view about scientific inquiry with the Views about Scientific Inquiry (VASI) questionnaire, an instrument that deals with eight aspects of scientific inquiry. 282 Korean middle school students participated in this study, and their responses were classified as informed, mixed, and…

  12. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  13. Relationship of Middle School Student STEM Interest to Career Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding middle school students' perceptions regarding STEM dispositions, and the role attitudes play in establishing STEM career aspirations, is imperative to preparing the STEM workforce of the future. Data were gathered from more than 800 middle school students participating in a hands-on, real world application curriculum to examine the…

  14. Interreligious transfers in the Middle Ages: the case of astrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the discipline of astrology as an example of manifold interreligious contacts and transfers in the Middle Ages. Over against an image of the Middle Ages as being predominantly Christian and striving to violently suppress science, philosophy, and astrology, it is shown that in

  15. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  16. Pesticide Poisonings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Neupane, Dinesh; London, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.......Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'....

  17. Work and Family Life: Middle School Content Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the middle school content competencies for the Work and Family Studies curriculum within Family and Consumer Sciences in Ohio, is intended to help middle school students develop self-responsibility and competence dealing with the practical problems of early adolescence. (Career awareness and career choice options are…

  18. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  19. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  20. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...