WorldWideScience

Sample records for sargasso sea bermuda

  1. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and personal identity.

  2. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and…

  3. Mimivirus relatives in the Sargasso sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The discovery and genome analysis of Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus, the largest known DNA virus, challenged much of the accepted dogma regarding viruses. Its particle size (>400 nm, genome length (1.2 million bp and huge gene repertoire (911 protein coding genes all contribute to blur the established boundaries between viruses and the smallest parasitic cellular organisms. Phylogenetic analyses also suggested that the Mimivirus lineage could have emerged prior to the individualization of cellular organisms from the three established domains, triggering a debate that can only be resolved by generating and analyzing more data. The next step is then to seek some evidence that Mimivirus is not the only representative of its kind and determine where to look for new Mimiviridae. An exhaustive similarity search of all Mimivirus predicted proteins against all publicly available sequences identified many of their closest homologues among the Sargasso Sea environmental sequences. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses suggested that unknown large viruses evolutionarily closer to Mimivirus than to any presently characterized species exist in abundance in the Sargasso Sea. Their isolation and genome sequencing could prove invaluable in understanding the origin and diversity of large DNA viruses, and shed some light on the role they eventually played in the emergence of eukaryotes.

  4. Analysis of Antoinette’s Tragedy in Wide Sargasso Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英波; 王丹邱

    2015-01-01

    Jean Rhys published Wide Sargasso Sea in 1966,which won her the Royal Society of Literature Award.The article explores the fac-tors contributing to the protagonist Antoinette’s tragedy,namely social factors,family factors and personal factors and demonstrates the inevitability of Antoinette’s tragedy.

  5. Misrepresentations of Sargasso Sea temperatures by Arthur B. Robinson et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keigwin, Lloyd (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA); Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-10-01

    Keigwin (Science 274:1504-1508, 1996) reconstructed the sea surface temperature (SST) record in the northern Sargasso Sea to document natural climate variability in recent millennia. The annual average SST proxy used {delta}{sup 18}O in planktonic foraminifera in a radiocarbon-dated 1990 Bermuda Rise box core. Keigwin's Fig. 4B (K4B) shows a 50-year-averaged time series along with four decades of SST measurements from Station S near Bermuda, demonstrating that the Sargasso Sea is now at its warmest in more than 400 years, and well above the most recent box-core temperature. Taken together, Station S and paleo-temperatures suggest there was an acceleration of warming in the 20th century, though this was not an explicit conclusion of the paper. Keigwin concluded that anthropogenic warming may be superposed on a natural warming trend. In an unpublished paper circulated with the anti-Kyoto 'Oregon Petition,' Robinson et al. ('Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,' 1998) reproduced K4B but (1) omitted Station S data, (2) incorrectly stated that the time series ended in 1975, (3) conflated Sargasso Sea data with global temperature, and (4) falsely claimed that Keigwin showed global temperatures 'are still a little below the average for the past 3,000 years.' Keigwin's Fig. 2 showed that {delta}{sup 18}O has increased over the past 6000 years, so SSTs calculated from those data would have a long term decrease. Thus, it is inappropriate to compare present-day SST to a long term mean unless the trend is removed. Slight variations of Robinson et al. (1998) have been repeatedly published with different author rotations. Various mislabeled, improperly-drawn, and distorted versions of K4B have appeared in the Wall Street Journal, in weblogs, and even as an editorial cartoon-all supporting baseless claims that current temperatures are lower than the long-term mean, and traceable to Robinson's misrepresentation

  6. Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Bermuda's population characteristics, history, government, political situation, economy, and foreign relations were briefly described. Bermuda, a parliamentary British colony, is situated on a group of island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 650 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda was discovered by the Spaniards in 1503; however, it was the British who founded the 1st settlement on the islands in 1612. The current population size is 56,652, and the annual rate of growth is 0.3%. About 2/3 of the population is of African descent, and the remaining inhabitants are of British, American, Portuguese, or Caribbean descent. The literacy rate is 98%, and school enrollment is universal and compulsory for 12 years. The infant mortality rate is 7.1/1000 live births and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Although Bermuda is a British colony, it was granted considerable internal autonomy in 1968. A governor, appointed by the British Crown, is in charge of external affairs, defense, and the country's internal security. Under the constitution, adopted in 1968, the internal affairs of the country are conducted by an elected bicameral legislative body and a premier who represents the majority party in the lower legislative house. The current premier is John W. D. Swan of the United Bermuda Party (UBP). The UBP is supported mainly by the white minority and by a few blacks. The Progressive Labor Party (PLP) is supported primarily by the black majority. The UBP has retained power since it was established in 1965, but at each election, its winning margin decreased. Although there is universal suffrage, only a small proportion of the public participates in elections. Despite the fact that the governor was assassinated in 1972 and there was civil unrest in 1977, the country is politically stable. This political stability is due in part to the government's efforts since the 1950s to promote racial equality, to the government's willingness to recognize labors' right

  7. Diagnosis of Physical and Biological Controls on Phytoplankton Distribution in the Sargasso Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Caixia; Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between physical and biological processes is studied by applying a one-dimensional physical-biological coupled model to the Sargasso Sea. The physical model is the Princeton Ocean Model and the biological model is a five-component system including phytoplankton, zooplankton, nitrate, ammonium, and detritus. The coupling between the physical and biological model is accomplished through vertical mixing which is parameterized by the level 2.5 Mellor and Yamada turbulence closure scheme. The coupled model investigates the annual cycle of ecosystem production and the response to external forcing, such as heat flux, wind stress, and surface salinity, and the relative importance of physical processes in affecting the ecosystem. Sensitivity ex-periments are also carried out, which provide information on how the model bio-chemical parameters affect the biological system. The computed seasonal cycles compare reasonably well with the observations of the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS). The spring bloom of phytoplankton occurs in March and April, right after the weakening of the winter mixing and before the estab-lishment of the summer stratification. The bloom of zooplankton occurs about two weeks after the bloom of phytoplankton. The sen-sitivity experiments show that zooplankton is more sensitive to the variations of biochemical parameters than phytoplankton.

  8. Ocean circulation and biogeochemistry moderate interannual and decadal surface water pH changes in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathalie F. Goodkin,; Bo-Shian Wang,; Chen-Feng You,; Konrad Hughen,; Prouty, Nancy G.; Bates, Nicholas; Scott Doney,

    2015-01-01

    The oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere, lowering surface ocean pH, a concern for calcifying marine organisms. The impact of ocean acidification is challenging to predict as each species appears to respond differently and because our knowledge of natural changes to ocean pH is limited in both time and space. Here we reconstruct 222 years of biennial seawater pH variability in the Sargasso Sea from a brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis. Using hydrographic data from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study and the coral-derived pH record, we are able to differentiate pH changes due to surface temperature versus those from ocean circulation and biogeochemical changes. We find that ocean pH does not simply reflect atmospheric CO2 trends but rather that circulation/biogeochemical changes account for >90% of pH variability in the Sargasso Sea and more variability in the last century than would be predicted from anthropogenic uptake of CO2 alone.

  9. Eukaryotes dominate new production in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, S. E.; Lomas, M. W.; Ward, B. B.; Casey, J. R.; Sigman, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The vast subtropical ocean gyres are considered unproductive “deserts” due to the extremely low concentrations of essential nutrients in their sunlit surface waters. Because of intense upper ocean stratification, phytoplankton growth in the subtropical gyres is limited by the slow supply of nitrate from below, and is assumed to be supported predominantly by “regenerated” nitrogen (N): ammonium and other reduced N sources recycled in surface waters. The phytoplankton assemblage of the subtropical Sargasso Sea is dominated by the prokaryotic cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which occur in very high cell numbers compared to the rarer, and usually larger, eukaryotic algae. Coupling flow cytometry and a new high-sensitivity method for N isotope analysis, we measure the 15N/14N of major phytoplankton taxa and other biologically distinct particle populations collected from the surface waters of the Sargasso Sea during the stratified summer period. We find that the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton show distinct N isotope signatures, indicating that they utilize different sources of N for growth. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have a uniformly low 15N/14N, consistent with the expectation that these phytoplankton rely on regenerated N. However, the 15N/14N of eukaryotic phytoplankton is higher and more variable, with a mean 15N/14N comparable to the new nitrate supply from below, indicating that eukaryotes dominate the consumption of this nitrate and rely on it for more than half of their N requirement. Using our measured 15N/14N values for the various sorted autotrophic populations, we calculate eukaryote-specific summer f-ratios of 0.6-0.67 and total community summer f-ratios of 0.15-0.23. These values are higher than those based on comparison of primary production and sediment-trap derived organic carbon (C) export, and agree well with annual f-ratio estimates implied by geochemical tracers. The high 15N/14N of eukaryotic biomass can

  10. Upper Water Column Dimethylated Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycling in the Sargasso Sea - Assessing the Oceanic DMS Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, D. A.; Dacey, J. W.; Bates, N. R.; Levine, N. M.; Neeley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Once ventilated to the atmosphere, the oxidation products of biologically produced DMS are non sea salt sulfate and methane sulfonate aerosols which potentially exert considerable control on the global climate via alterations in radiative properties, acid-base chemistry, halogen cycles, and aerosol iron availability. The most significant obstacle to assessing and quantifying any associated climate feedbacks, beyond uncertainties associated with flux parameterizations, is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that regulate oceanic near surface DMS concentrations. To assess the seasonal variability in the oceanic DMS source, monthly vertical profiles of DMS and particulate and dissolved DMSP (DMSPp and DMSPd) concentrations and biogeochemical cycling rates were sampled in the Sargasso Sea commencing in September 2005 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS). Clear seasonal cycles are evident for DMS and DMSPp concentrations, although they are poorly correlated to available biomass indicators. DMSPd was consistently low and did not exhibit a clear seasonality. Biological DMS consumption is characterized by seasonal minima and maxima observed above and below the mixed layer depth respectively during strong summertime stratification. No clear seasonal cycles are evident in microbial DMSPd consumption rates or DMS yield but they vary within a relatively narrow range. Modeled phytoplankton DMS production rates are extremely large, negatively correlated to phytoplankton biomass indicators, and peak in the summer confirming that DMS concentrations and turnover processes are also affected by the physical dynamics of the surface mixed layer and by meteorological forcing such as total solar radiation, UV radiation, and wind speed. This research provides the first time-series of open-ocean organic sulfur cycling rates which will not only refine our understanding of the controlling mechanisms but will also serve as a basis for future oceanic and atmospheric

  11. Horizontal and vertical distribution of Chaetognatha in the upper 1000 m of the western Sargasso Sea and the Central and South-east Atlantic.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pierrot-Bultsa, A.C.; Nair, V.R.

    in the Sargasso Sea (Ron Brown Cruise) and twenty along the eastern boundary of the Atlantic (the Polarstern Cruise). Sagitta hispida and Krohnitta mutabbii were restricted to the Sargasso Sea, and Sagitta tasmanica, S. gazellae, Eukrohnia macroneura and Krohnitta...

  12. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  13. All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, Thomas D; Hansen, Michael M; Maes, Gregory E; Castonguay, Martin; Riemann, Lasse; Aarestrup, Kim; Munk, Peter; Sparholt, Henrik; Hanel, Reinhold; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-04-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5000 km back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between samples. Moreover, European and American eels can hybridize, but hybrids have been observed almost exclusively in Iceland, suggesting hybridization in a specific region of the Sargasso Sea and subsequent nonrandom dispersal of larvae. Here, we report the first molecular population genetics study based on analysis of 21 microsatellite loci in larvae of both Atlantic eel species sampled directly in the spawning area, supplemented by analysis of European glass eel samples. Despite a clear East-West gradient in the overlapping distribution of the two species in the Sargasso Sea, we only observed a single putative hybrid, providing evidence against the hypothesis of a wide marine hybrid zone. Analyses of genetic differentiation, isolation by distance, isolation by time and assignment tests provided strong evidence for panmixia in both the Sargasso Sea and across all continental samples of European eel after accounting for the presence of sibs among newly hatched larvae. European eel has declined catastrophically, and our findings call for management of the species as a single unit, necessitating coordinated international conservation efforts.

  14. A Study of Displacement in Jean Rhys' Novel "Wide Sargasso Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Inna Malissa bte Che; Singh, Hardev Kaur A/P Jujar; Mani, Manimangai

    2014-01-01

    "Wide Sargasso Sea," by Jean Rhys, is a novel filled with tragedy; two characters in conflict meet in circumstances not in their best interests but rather for other people. This novel is an illustration of the mad woman in the novel "Jane Eyre," by Charlotte Bronte, as the story of her life before madness is told in the novel…

  15. Race and Gender in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea | Samb | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Race and Gender in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea. ... Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Whites and Blacks refer each to the racial others using stereotypical and over generalizing discourses. ... This paper analyses as well the gender issue within the framework of the patriarchal order ...

  16. Mangrove Retreat with Rising Sea-level, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Joanna C.

    1993-07-01

    Low island mangroves keep up with slow sea-level rise by peat accumulation. Holocene stratigraphic records show that they maintain the same pace as sea-level rise at rates up to 9 cm/100 years. Tide gauge records from Bermuda since 1932 show sea-level rise at a rate of 28 cm/100 years. The largest mangrove area (6·26 acres) at Hungry Bay has for the last 2000 years been building peat at a rate of 8·5 to 10·6 cm/100 years. Retreat of the seaward edge has caused loss of 2·24 acres of mangroves, commencing in the last few hundred years, with a second dieback between 1900 and 1947, and a third dieback in the last decade. The substrate elevation of the seaward margin of mangroves is below mean sea-level, the normal lower limit for mangroves. Present dieback shows problems of erosion indicating that the Bruun Rule of beach erosion with sea-level rise is also appropriate for mangrove swamps. Stratigraphy shows that before 4000 BP sea-level rose at a rate of 25 cm/100 years, from 4000 to 1000 years BP the rate of sea-level rise declined to 6 cm/100 years during which time mangroves established, and in the last 1000 years there was an increase to 14·3 cm/100 years, during which time the mangroves died back. This study indicates that low island mangroves will experience problems with the rates of sea-level rise predicted for the next 50 years.

  17. A Study of Displacement in Jean Rhys’ Novel Wide Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Malissa bte Che Jamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wide Sargasso Sea, by Jean Rhys, is a novel filled with tragedy; two characters in conflict meet in circumstances not in their best interests but rather for other people. This novel is an illustration of the mad woman in the novel Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte, as the story of her life before madness is told in the novel Wide Sargasso Sea. This study attempts to elucidate reasons for the feelings of displacement that the Western husband faces during his stay in the Caribbean, and also to discover to what extent the situation contribute to the oppression faced by Antoinette and imposed on her by her Western husband. There are many concepts amongst the theory of post-colonialism, e.g. otherness, hybridity, and (double alienation. This research’s approach differs slightly from some previous research that has been done on this novel, as it focuses on the husband of Antoinette as the victim.

  18. Marine Spatial Planning Applied to the High Seas - Process and Results of an Exercise Focused on the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, A. N.; Smythe, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Sargasso Sea, at the center of the North Atlantic gyre, is recognized by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity as a globally unique ecosystem threatened by anthropogenic activity. In its stewardship capacity, the Sargasso Sea Commission works within the current system of international organizations and treaties to secure protection for particular species or areas. Without a single governing authority to implement and enforce protective measures across the region, a coordinated management plan for the region is lacking. A research team comprised of 20 advanced undergraduate scientists participating in the spring 2015 SEA Semester: Marine Biodiversity and Conservation program of Sea Education Association (Woods Hole, MA) engaged in a groundbreaking simulated high seas marine spatial planning process resulting in A Marine Management Proposal for the Sargasso Sea. Based on natural and social science research, the interdisciplinary Proposal outlines goals, objectives and realistic strategies that encompass ecological, economic, human use, and future use considerations. Notably, the Proposal is the product of a classroom-based simulation intended to improve emerging scientists' understanding of how research is integrated into the policy process and how organizations work across disciplinary boundaries to address complex ocean management problems. Student researchers identified several discrete management areas and associated policy recommendations for those areas, as well as strategies for coordinated management across the entire Sargasso Sea region. The latter include establishment of a United Nations Regional Ocean Management Organization as well as provisions for monitoring and managing high seas traffic. To make progress toward these strategies, significant attention to the importance of high seas regions for global-scale conservation will be necessary.

  19. Mesoscale and Sub-mesoscale Variability in Phytoplankton Community Composition in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, B.; Richardson, T. L.; Lomas, M. W.

    2016-02-01

    The Sargasso Sea is a highly dynamic physical environment in which strong seasonal variability combines with forcing by mesoscale ( 100 km) eddies. Over four cruises (2011 and 2012), we investigated links between water column structure, nutrient regimes, and phytoplankton community composition at a range of time and space scales in the Sargasso Sea. On all cruises, cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) dominated the phytoplankton numerically and haptophytes were the dominant eukaryotes (up to 60% total chl-a). We demonstrated significant effects of mesoscale and inferred sub-mesoscale forcing on phytoplankton community composition. Downwelling (in anticyclones) was coincident with Prochlorococcus abundances 22-66% higher compared to outside stations. We observed a shift in the taxonomic composition of haptophytes between a coccolithophores dominated community in a cyclone in spring 2012 (C2) and a non-coccolithophore community at BATS. At the center of cyclone C1 (summer 2011), we observed significantly higher haptophyte chl-a (non-coccolithophores) and lower cyanobacteria chl-a biomass at the center and edge as compared to BATS. In summer 2012, downwelling associated with anticyclone AC2 occurred at the edge of the eddy and we found significantly lower Synechococcus abundances and higher eukaryote chl-a compared to the center of AC2 and BATS. These along-transect nuances demonstrate the significance of small-scale perturbations that significantly alter phytoplankton community structure. Therefore, while seasonality in the North Atlantic is the primary driver of broad-scale trends in phytoplankton community composition, the effect of transient events must be considered when studying planktonic food webs in the Sargasso Sea.

  20. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, L.; Alfredsson, H.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sarga......European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However...

  1. Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti-Rausch, Bridget E.; Lomas, Michael W.; Lachenmyer, Eric M.; Goldman, Emily A.; Bell, Douglas W.; Goldberg, Stacey R.; Richardson, Tammi L.

    2016-04-01

    The Sargasso Sea is a dynamic physical environment in which strong seasonal variability combines with forcing by mesoscale (~100 km) eddies. These drivers determine nutrient, light, and temperature regimes and, ultimately, the composition and productivity of the phytoplankton community. On four cruises (2011 and 2012; one eddy per cruise), we investigated links between water column structure and phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso at a range of time and space scales. On all cruises, cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) dominated the phytoplankton numerically, while haptophytes were the dominant eukaryotes (up to 60% of total chl-a). There were substantial effects of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale forcing on phytoplankton community composition in both spring and summer. Downwelling (in anticyclones) resulted in Prochlorococcus abundances that were 22-66% higher than at 'outside' stations. Upwelling (in cyclones) was associated with significantly higher abundances and POC biomass of nanoeukaryotes. In general, however, each eddy had its own unique characteristics. The center of anticyclone AC1 (spring 2011) had the lowest phytoplankton biomass (chl-a) of any eddy we studied and had lower nitrate+nitrite (N+N deep mixed layer, yet had relatively low nutrient concentrations. We observed a shift in the taxonomic composition of haptophytes between a coccolithophore-dominated community in C2 (98% of total haptophyte chl-a) and a non-coccolithophore community at BATS. In summer 2012, downwelling associated with anticyclone AC2 occurred at the edge of the eddy (not at the center), where AC2 interacted with a nearby cyclone. At the edge, we found significantly lower Synechococcus abundances and higher eukaryote chl-a compared to the center of AC2 and BATS. These along-transect nuances demonstrate the significance of small-scale perturbations that substantially alter phytoplankton community structure. Therefore, while seasonality in the North

  2. Picoplankton contribution to biogenic silica stocks and production rates in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jeffrey W.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Baines, Stephen B.; Collier, Jackie L.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.

    2017-05-01

    Picocyanobacteria in the Sargasso Sea accumulate significant amounts of Si, a finding which questions how we interpret previous regional measurements of biogenic silica (bSi) production and the role of diatoms in the open ocean. The picoplankton (stock and its rate of production. The 100 m integrated bSi stock and bSi production rate in the stock and bSi production in cells stocks, which is masked by a dynamic bSi pool driven by larger cells. While a significant fraction of bSi production is attributable to picoplankton, their contributions are likely to have been included in previous analyses, making prior regional budgets still relevant. However, our understanding of the factors controlling regional bSi production and our interpretations of particulate matter elemental ratios (e.g., Si:C) may require revision.

  3. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. II. Protozooplankton and copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    larvae and ostracods. Most of the recorded metazoan groups responded numerically to the frontal features (i.e. the surfacing of the isotherms) with high abundance in the STCZ compared with areas north and south of this. Juvenile copepod growth and egg production peaked in the STCZ, with a weight......The oligotrophic Sargasso Sea in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean is influenced by a complex set of oceanographic features that might introduce nutrients and enhance productivity in certain areas. To increase our understanding of the variability in plankton communities and to determine...... the potential reasons why Atlantic eels Anguilla spp. use this area for spawning, we investigated the distribution and productivity of the zooplankton community across the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the Sargasso Sea in March and April 2007. The vertical and horizontal distributions of protozoans...

  4. Abyssal Scavenging Communities attracted to Sargassum and fish in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Aharon G.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2013-02-01

    Deep-sea communities rely on epipelagic surface production as a primary source of energy and food. The flux of phytodetritus drives many abyssal ecological processes but the flux of large particles such as nekton carcasses, macroalgae, and wood may also be important. Recent baited camera experiments noted that some abyssal fish consumed spinach and phytoplankton placed on the seafloor. To evaluate if fish or other scavengers would consume natural plant or macroalgal material falling to the deep-sea floor we conducted camera experiments using Sargassum or mackerel bait in the Sargasso Sea. A benthic community of invertebrates was attracted to Sargassum, which naturally falls to the seafloor in this area. In five instances it was observed that an isopod Bathyopsurus sp. removed a piece of Sargassum from the main clump and left the field of view with it. An ophiuroid is also observed handling a piece of Sargassum. The group of scavengers attracted to mackerel bait was very different and was dominated by large ophidiid fish. In contrast to studies elsewhere in the abyssal North Atlantic, only a small number of rattails are observed, which could be related to water depth or an ichthyofaunal zonal change between oligotrophic and eutrophic regions.

  5. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, Håkan; Feunteun, Eric; Økland, Finn; Gargan, Patrick; Amilhat, Elsa; Metcalfe, Julian; Lobon-Cervia, Javier; Sjöberg, Niklas; Simon, Janek; Acou, Anthony; Vedor, Marisa; Walker, Alan; Trancart, Thomas; Brämick, Uwe; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day(-1). Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management.

  6. Qualitative assessment of the diet of European eel larvae in the Sargasso Sea resolved by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Lasse; Alfredsson, Hanna; Hansen, Michael M; Als, Thomas D; Nielsen, Torkel G; Munk, Peter; Aarestrup, Kim; Maes, Gregory E; Sparholt, Henrik; Petersen, Michael I; Bachler, Mirjam; Castonguay, Martin

    2010-12-23

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake spawning migrations of more than 5000 km from continental Europe and North Africa to frontal zones in the Sargasso Sea. Subsequently, the larval offspring are advected by large-scale eastward ocean currents towards continental waters. However, the Sargasso Sea is oligotrophic, with generally low plankton biomass, and the feeding biology of eel larvae has so far remained a mystery, hampering understanding of this peculiar life history. DNA barcoding of gut contents of 61 genetically identified A. anguilla larvae caught in the Sargasso Sea showed that even the smallest larvae feed on a striking variety of plankton organisms, and that gelatinous zooplankton is of fundamental dietary importance. Hence, the specific plankton composition seems essential for eel larval feeding and growth, suggesting a linkage between eel survival and regional plankton productivity. These novel insights into the prey of Atlantic eels may furthermore facilitate eel larval rearing in aquaculture, which ultimately may replace the unsustainable use of wild-caught glass eels.

  7. Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea as a Hypertext of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre: A Postmodern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Herischian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study gains significance as the findings can shed more lights on the postmodern concept of hypertextuality to show that there is no originality in literature and any literary work can be the repetition, continuation, or mixture of previous texts. In the case of this study, that is to show, how a twentieth-century literary work like Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea can be the parody of Brontë’s nineteenth-century novel Jane Eyre. Moreover, such a postmodern perspective widens various ways of concentration on the literary works, so that, one could interpret in what ways two texts are united and grafted which results in either parody or pastiche. This study attempts to demonstrate mostly those focused aspects in Wide Sargasso Sea and Jane Eyre that highlight the concept of hypertextuality, including the analyses of Rochester’s character in the novels, as a Byronic hero in Jane Eyre and an anti-Byronic hero in Wide Sargasso Sea; and also the study of the characters of Jane Eyre and Antoinette Cosway, as women narrator of the novels as well as focusing on the dream texts of the novels. Key words: Hypertextuality, bildungsroman, Byronic hero, parody

  8. Distribution and potential sources and sinks of copper chelators in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, J. W.; Zika, R. G.; Brand, L. E.

    1990-01-01

    Copper speciation has been studied at an oligotrophic station in the southwestern Sargasso Sea to determine the distribution of Cu binding ligands and evaluate their potential sources and sinks. Speciation was studied using a ligand exchange/liquid-liquid partition procedure used in a previous study in Florida coastal waters [ MOFFET and ZIKA (1987a) Marine Chemistry, 21, 301-313]. Copper speciation was dominated by organic complexation at all depths studied (16-950 m). Complexation was greatest in the region of the chlorophyll maximum. In this region, speciation was dominated by two ligands or ligand classes; L 1, with K cond. = 10 13.2, concentration = 2 nM, and a weaker but more abundant ligand class, L 2 with Kincond. = 10 9.7, concentration = 80 nM. From 140 to 16 m, [Cu(II)] free/[Cu(II)] total increases by a factor of 20, due to a decrease in [L 1] to a value below the ambient Cu concentration. Exposure of water from 140 m to sunlight indicated that photochemical decomposition of L 1 may account for the decrease. Below the chlorophyll maximum there is a gradual increase in [Cu(II)] free/[Cu(II)] total suggesting that the ligands are of recent biological origin rather than derived from refractory materials. Cultures of a ubiquitous marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. produced a ligand with K cond. comparable to L 1, indicating that a biological source is plausible.

  9. Seasonal expression of the picocyanobacterial phosphonate transporter gene phnD in the Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Ilikchyan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In phosphorus-limited marine environments, picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus spp. can hydrolyze naturally occurring phosphonates as a P source. Utilization of 2-aminoethylphosphonate (2-AEP is dependent on expression of the phn genes, encoding functions required for uptake and C-P bond cleavage. Prior work has indicated that expression of picocyanobacterial phnD, encoding the phosphonate binding protein of the phosphonate ABC transporter, is a proxy for the assimilation of phosphonates in natural assemblages of Synechococcus spp. and Prochlorococcus spp (Ilikchyan et al. 2009. In this study, we expand this work to assess seasonal phnD expression in the Sargasso Sea. By RT-PCR, our data confirm that phnD expression is constitutive for the Prochlorococcus spp. detected, but in Synechococcus spp., phnD transcription follows patterns of phosphorus availability in the mixed layer. Specifically, our data suggest that phnD is repressed in the spring when P is bioavailable following deep winter mixing. In the fall, phnD expression follows a depth dependent pattern reflecting depleted P at the surface following summertime drawdown, and elevated P at depth.

  10. Overestimation of heterotrophic bacteria in the Sargasso Sea: direct evidence by flow and imaging cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieracki, Michael E.; Haugen, Elin M.; Cucci, Terry L.

    1995-08-01

    Accurate measurements of bacterial biomass in the ocean are needed for modeling marine microbial food webs and global biogeochemical cycling. We present direct evidence that previous estimates of heterotrophic bacteria biomass in the oligotrophic ocean are confounded by the presence of the abundant photosynthetic procaryote, Prochlorococcus. The chlorophyll autofluorescence of these photosynthetic bacterial cells is very faint and fades rapidly under epifluorescence microscopy. Detection and enumeration of these cells thus far has almost exclusively been by flow cytometry. Using a cooled, charge-coupled device (CCD) camera we were able to image these cells for direct biovolume measurements. A double-exposed image of DAPI-stained Prochlorococcus cells shows that they are indistinguishable from heterotrophic bacteria in standard slide preparations. At two Sargasso Sea stations Prochlorococcus could cause an overestimation of surface (top 150 m) integrated heterotrophic bacterial biovolume (biomass) of 18 and 22% determined by standard microscope methods. At the subsurface chlorophyll maximum Prochlorococcus was 33 and 43% of the heterotrophic bacterial biovolume (biomass) at these stations. Prochlorococcus cell size increased from 0.05 μm 3 in the surface mixed layer to about 0.2 μm 3 below 100 m, confirming previous interpretations of flow cytometric light scatter measurements. Shifting biomass from the heterotrophic bacteria pool to the primary producer compartment has significant implications for ecosystem structure and trophic transfer in marine food webs.

  11. Abundance of broad bacterial Taxa in the Sargasso Sea explained by environmental conditions but not water mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Martiny, Jennifer Bellanca Hughes; Munk, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and picoalgae were determined by flow cytometry. Linear multiple-regression models determining the relative effects of eight environmental variables and of water mass explained 35 to 86% of the variation in abundance of the quantified taxa, even though only one to three variables......To explore the potential linkage between distribution of marine bacterioplankton groups, environmental conditions, and water mass, we investigated the factors determining the abundance of bacterial taxa across the hydrographically complex Subtropical Convergence Zone in the Sargasso Sea. Based...

  12. “There is Always The Other Side”:Deconstruction of English Identity and Masculinity-Intertextuality between Wide Sargasso Sea and Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Juan-juan

    2015-01-01

    Jean Rhys’Wide Sargasso Sea is the classic revisionary novella of Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre. It rewrites the tragic story of Mr. Rochester’s voiceless and lunatic ex-wife, Berthe Mason. This paper turns to the intertextual relationship between the two texts and argues that the subversive rewriting of Wide Sargasso Sea destabilizes and deconstructs Mr. Rochester’s English iden⁃tity and masculinity, which are manifestly presented in the pre-text. It therefore renders the young Mr. Rochester problematic and insufficient, reveals“the other side”of the story and articulately tells the truth about who is really the mad one.

  13. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity.

  14. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel in the incubation water. Over the three-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon (POC increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived cobalt (Co, manganese, and nickel were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Copper (Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1 atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2 these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3 growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic

  15. Species composition and diversity of fish larvae in the Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Sargasso Sea from morphology and DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala, Daniel Jiro; Munk, Peter; Riemann, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Specific regions of otherwise oligotrophic oceans seem to attract fish spawning and sustain significant abundances of fish larvae. The Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre is known as the spawning area of the Atlantic eels, but numerous other fish species also spawn in the area. In...

  16. Toward the Autonomous Recording and Transmission of Seismic Data from the Oceans: Testing the Son-O-Mermaid Float in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. D.; Simons, F. J.; Vincent, H. T.; Nolet, G.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the deployment of two new Son-O-Mermaid floats into theSargasso Sea during a cruise aboard the R/V Atlantic Explorer, whichdeparted from Bermuda in May of 2015. Son-O-Mermaid is a freelyfloating and autonomous oceangoing system composed of a surface buoyconnected to a length of cable from which a three-hydrophone array issuspended. The main objective of the Son-O-Mermaid project is torecord signals suitable for global tomography in the deep ocean andprovide the seismic community with an abundance of novel raypaths frompreviously unsampled regions of the Earth. The Son-O-Mermaid float,with its ability to continually record, analyze, and transmit seismicdata from the oceans in near-real time has the potential torevolutionize the field of seismology. We analyze new data returnedfrom this deployment, a previous Son-O-Mermaid test, as well as theongoing MERMAID mission in the time, spectral, and wavelet domains. Afull description of the float and deployment report will be presented.A short-term goal of the project is determining realistic magnitude,distance, and pressure relationships for teleseismic earthquakes thatare recorded in the water column. Our analysis of this question isaided by synthetics created using SPECFEM2D and guided by the data,especially noise records recorded by Son-O-Mermaid and MERMAID fromoceans throughout the world. Synthetics provide an idealized waveformuseful for understanding the often very messy and noisy arrivalscommon in midcolumn acoustic recordings. Notably, synthetics allowthe confirmation or rejection of unlikely phases which are matched toearthquake databases after arrivals are detected by automatic pickingalgorithms. Additionally, marine-acoustic processing techniques willbe improved once the underwater acoustic field is better modeled usingrealistic signal-to-noise ratios and noise spectra returned fromSon-O-Mermaid and MERMAID missions. This analysis, particularly whenimplemented in the wavelet domain, is proving

  17. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Sargasso Sea from CAPE HENLOPEN and other platforms from 21 January 1988 to 10 December 1988 (NODC Accession 0000407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Sargasso sea from CAPE HENLOPEN, CAPE HATTERAS, and WEATHERBIRD from 21 January 1988 to 10...

  18. Mechanisms for Variation of Cellular P Stoichiometry: Diverse Cellular Phosphorus Allocation Strategies Across Microbial Groups from the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popendorf, K.; Duhamel, S.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus is the least abundant of the three major macronutrients that define the canonical Redfield ratio, but its place in the backbone of nucleic acids and as an energy trafficking molecule lays a lower bound of cellular phosphorus content that is essential for all life. In addition to forming DNA, RNA, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), significant amounts of cellular phosphorus may also be allocated to the production of phospholipids and polyphosphate. These latter two biochemicals in particular may occur in significant but highly variable amounts across different microbial groups, and the variation in cellular allocation to these biochemicals may be a contributing factor in defining the elemental stoichiometry of microbes. We investigated this variation in cellular phosphorus allocation across the most abundant microbial groups in the P-depleted Sargasso Sea: Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria. By coupling radioisotope tracing of phosphate and ATP with cell sorting flow cytometry and subsequent biochemical extractions, we made novel measurements of the P allocation to DNA, phospholipids, and polyphosphate in individual microbial groups from environmental populations. These results provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms of variation in stoichiometry and different microbial strategies for adaptation to low-P environments.

  19. Dynamics of Superoxide Production and Decay in Natural Trichodesmium Colonies from the Sargasso Sea: Implications for Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, C. M.; Buchwald, C.; Diaz, J. M.; Dyhrman, S.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the biogeochemistry of the ocean, where they serve a critical role in the cycling of carbon and metals. Research in the past decade has introduced phytoplankton and, most recently, heterotrophic bacteria as significant sources of ROS, including superoxide, within both photic and aphotic regions of the ocean. ROS are both beneficial and detrimental to life. For instance, superoxide is a vital inter- and intra-cellular signaling molecule, yet at high concentrations it induces lipid peroxidation and initiates programmed cell death (PCD). In fact, superoxide has been implicated in PCD in the nitrogen-fixing diazotroph Trichodesmium, presumably leading to the demise of blooms within oligotrophic marine systems. Here, we explore the rates of superoxide production and decay by natural Trichodesmium populations obtained from various surface waters in the Sargasso Sea. We investigate also the role of light and colony density and morphology (puff v. raft) on superoxide fluxes. We find that Trichodesmium colonies produce extracellular superoxide at extremely high rates in the dark that are on par with those of the toxic raphidophyte Chattonella. The rates of superoxide production, however, rapidly decline with increasing cell density pointing to a role for superoxide in cell signaling in these organisms. We also find extremely rapid extracellular superoxide degradation by Trichodesmium. Together, this likely reflects a need for these organisms to maintain ROS at levels that will support signaling but below the threshold level that triggers PCD or oxidative damage. We also show differences in the effect of light on superoxide fluxes as a function of Trichodesmium colony morphology, suggesting differences in either colony physiology or associated bacterial symbionts. These findings point to complex physiological, ecological, and physical influences on ROS dynamics in phytoplankton that require further exploration.

  20. A dynamic model of oceanic sulfur (DMOS) applied to the Sargasso Sea: Simulating the dimethylsulfide (DMS) summer paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, S. M.; Simó, R.; Anderson, T. R.; Gabric, A.; Cropp, R.; Pacheco, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    A new one-dimensional model of DMSP/DMS dynamics (DMOS) is developed and applied to the Sargasso Sea in order to explain what drives the observed dimethylsulfide (DMS) summer paradox: a summer DMS concentration maximum concurrent with a minimum in the biomass of phytoplankton, the producers of the DMS precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain this mismatch: a succession in phytoplankton species composition towards higher relative abundances of DMSP producers in summer; inhibition of bacterial DMS consumption by ultraviolet radiation (UVR); and direct DMS production by phytoplankton due to UVR-induced oxidative stress. None of these hypothetical mechanisms, except for the first one, has been tested with a dynamic model. We have coupled a new sulfur cycle model that incorporates the latest knowledge on DMSP/DMS dynamics to a preexisting nitrogen/carbon-based ecological model that explicitly simulates the microbial-loop. This allows the role of bacteria in DMS production and consumption to be represented and quantified. The main improvements of DMOS with respect to previous DMSP/DMS models are the explicit inclusion of: solar-radiation inhibition of bacterial sulfur uptakes; DMS exudation by phytoplankton caused by solar-radiation-induced stress; and uptake of dissolved DMSP by phytoplankton. We have conducted a series of modeling experiments where some of the DMOS sulfur paths are turned "off" or "on," and the results on chlorophyll-a, bacteria, DMS, and DMSP (particulate and dissolved) concentrations have been compared with climatological data of these same variables. The simulated rate of sulfur cycling processes are also compared with the scarce data available from previous works. All processes seem to play a role in driving DMS seasonality. Among them, however, solar-radiation-induced DMS exudation by phytoplankton stands out as the process without which the model is unable to produce realistic DMS simulations

  1. Storm impact on sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea based on daily cloud-free satellite data reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Taylor; Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying

    2016-12-01

    Upper ocean responses to tropical storms/hurricanes have been extensively studied using satellite observations. However, resolving concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a (chl a) responses along storm tracks remains a major challenge due to extensive cloud coverage in satellite images. Here we produce daily cloud-free SST and chl a reconstructions based on the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method over a 10 year period (2003-2012) for the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea regions. Daily reconstructions allow us to characterize and contrast previously obscured subweekly SST and chl a responses to storms in the two main storm-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Statistical analyses of daily SST and chl a responses revealed regional differences in the response time as well as the response sensitivity to maximum sustained wind speed and translation speed. This study demonstrates that SST and chl a responses clearly depend on regional ocean conditions and are not as universal as might have been previously suggested.

  2. Phosphorus cycling in the Sargasso Sea: Investigation using the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate, enzyme-labeled fluorescence, and turnover times

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Sohm, Jill A.; Cutter, Gregory A.; Lomas, Michael W.; Paytan, Adina

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations in surface water of vast areas of the ocean are extremely low (oxygen isotopic signature of dissolved phosphate (δ18OPO4) to investigate biogeochemical cycling of P in the Sargasso Sea, Atlantic Ocean. Additional techniques for studying P dynamics including 33P-based DIP turnover time estimates and percent of cells expressing alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity as measured by enzyme-labeling fluorescence are also used. In surface waters, δ18OPO4 values were lower than equilibrium by 3-6‰, indicative of dissolved organic phosphorous (DOP) remineralization by extracellular enzymes. An isotope mass balance model using a variety of possible combinations of enzymatic pathways and substrates indicates that DOP remineralization in the euphotic zone can account for a large proportion on P utilized by phytoplankton (as much as 82%). Relatively short DIP turnover times (4-8 h) and high expression of AP (38-77% of the cells labeled) are consistent with extensive DOP utilization and low DIP availability in the euphotoc zone. In deep water where DOP utilization rates are lower, δ18OPO4 values approach isotopic equilibrium and DIP turnover times are longer. Our data suggests that in the euphotic zone of the Sargasso Sea, DOP may be appreciably remineralized and utilized by phytoplankton and bacteria to supplement cellular requirements. A substantial fraction of photosynthesis in this region is supported by DOP uptake.

  3. Physical, nutrient, chlorophyll a and plankton abundance data collected from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/Vs OCEANUS and ENDEAVOR in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. Shelf from 2004 to 2005 (NODC Accession 0053611)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical and biologic parameters were measured in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. shelf aboard the R/V Endeavor from 13 May to 31 May, 2004 and...

  4. L’image du père et du jardin : Jane Eyre de Charlotte Brontë  et WideSargasso Sea de Jean Rhys Of Father Figures and Gardens: Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre and Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Baranowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Though no father actually appears as a character either in Jane Eyre or in Wide Sargasso Sea, the father figure looms large in both novels, as a complex, protean and paradoxical entity, playing a crucial part in the fate of the protagonists. Jane Eyre and Antoinette Cosway are orphaned at an early age, Rochester’s father is depicted as remote and insensitive; the surrogate fathers —Antoinette’s stepfather, Jane’s uncles— mostly fail when they try to replace the missing one. Rochester himself is an ambiguous character who appears in both novels as a son, lover and husband on the one side, as a father figure on the other. In Wide Sargasso Sea he acquires through his marriage to the heiress Antoinette Cosway a legal authority which he eventually uses to destroy his wife; in Jane Eyre he first appears as the wealthier, more knowledgeable, stronger character before he discovers a female counterpart who does more than merely hold her ground.These different aspects of the father figure are closely linked to the motif of the garden which mirrors the inner development of the —mostly— female characters. It is not entirely similar to nature itself, though it is part of it; the latter means in both novels lethal dangers and elemental violence, whereas the garden is a sheltered place. In Wide Sargasso Sea, the debased garden of Coulibri simultaneously conveys a distorted, though by no means untrue reflection of the father figure and a sanctuary from the harshness of the outside world. It also means a place of peace and of simple joys for Jane Eyre, making up for the deprived life at the Lowood boarding school; but contrasting with Coulibri it does not preclude the contact with the outside world which she actually longs for. Hence the garden mirrors the crucial moments and experiences in the lives of both heroines, including love, married life and loss.

  5. The mean sea surface height and geoid along the Geosat subtrack from Bermuda to Cape Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.; Joyce, Terrence M.; Schubert, David M.; Caruso, Michael J.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of near-surface velocity and concurrent sea level along an ascending Geosat subtrack were used to estimate the mean sea surface height and the Earth's gravitational geoid. Velocity measurements were made on three traverses of a Geosat subtrack within 10 days, using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). A small bias in the ADCP velocity was removed by considering a mass balance for two pairs of triangles for which expendable bathythermograph measurements were also made. Because of the large curvature of the Gulf Stream, the gradient wind balance was used to estimate the cross-track component of geostrophic velocity from the ADCP vectors; this component was then integrated to obtain the sea surface height profile. The mean sea surface height was estimated as the difference between the instantaneous sea surface height from ADCP and the Geosat residual sea level, with mesoscale errors reduced by low-pass filtering. The error estimates were divided into a bias, tilt, and mesoscale residual; the bias was ignored because profiles were only determined within a constant of integration. The calculated mean sea surface height estimate agreed with an independent estimate of the mean sea surface height from Geosat, obtained by modeling the Gulf Stream as a Gaussian jet, within the expected errors in the estimates: the tilt error was 0.10 m, and the mesoscale error was 0.044 m. To minimize mesoscale errors in the estimate, the alongtrack geoid estimate was computed as the difference between the mean sea level from the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission and an estimate of the mean sea surface height, rather than as the difference between instantaneous profiles of sea level and sea surface height. In the critical region near the Gulf Stream the estimated error reduction using this method was about 0.07 m. Differences between the geoid estimate and a gravimetric geoid were not within the expected errors: the rms mesoscale difference was 0.24 m rms.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of SAR11 populations in the euphotic and mesopelagic zones of the northwestern Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Craig A; Morris, Robert; Parsons, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Bacterioplankton belonging to the SAR11 clade of a-proteobacteria were counted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) over eight depths in the surface 300 m at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site from 2003 to 2005. SAR11 are dominant heterotrophs in oligotrophic systems; thus...... correlated with seasonal mixing and stratification of the water column. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data generated from a decade of samples collected at BATS were combined with the FISH data to model the annual dynamics of SAR11 subclade populations. 16S rRNA gene clone...

  7. Spring-summer imbalance of dissolved inorganic carbon in the mixed layer of the northwestern Sargasso Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, O.; Monfray, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre des Faibles Radioactivites; Bates, N.R. [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)

    1995-02-01

    The surface concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS) decreased gradually by ca. 30 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} from April to October in 1989. This decrease occurred almost in the absence of measurable nitrate in the mixed layer. Although ancillary data about the C system point to the possible importance of lateral transport, horizontal gradients in surface DIC and the mean flow in the area indicate that local effects should prevail in the seasonal drawdown of DIC. On the basis of an one-dimensional model, we hence estimate the mixed layer budget of DIC for this period, from surface data, temperature profiles, and concomitant meteorological records. According to model uncertainties, the drawdown should be mostly explained (71-93%) by a net community production (NCP) averaging 1.4-2.3 mgC m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, and to a lesser extent, by outgassing of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. These losses are partially compensated by mixing with DIC-rich waters of the thermocline. This NCP must be regarded as a lower estimate, since the mean flow from the northeast should bring waters with slightly higher DIC to the mixed layer at the BATS site. The model, which is sensitive to short-term variations in atmospheric forcing (<1 day), indicates that this layer has never reached the nitrocline for spring-summer 1989, even as a hurricane passed through the region. Hence, the surface NCP should not have been supported by unsampled, pulse-like supplies of deep nutrients. Wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen measured concurrently on Bermuda could contribute to the biological N requirement. According to historical estimates, N{sub 2} fixation seems however insufficient to meet the remaining demand. Comparison between NCP and primary production measured in situ suggests that most of photosynthetically fixed C is not respired in the mixed layer. 77 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Temporal dynamics of dissolved combined neutral sugars and the quality of dissolved organic matter in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stuart J.; Carlson, Craig A.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Nelson, Norm B.; Siegel, David A.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNS) were assessed in the upper 250 m at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site between 2001 and 2004. Our results reveal a regular annual pattern of DCNS accumulation with concentrations increasing at a rate of 0.009-0.012 μmol C L -1 d -1 in the surface 40 m from March to July and reaching maximum mean concentrations of 2.2-3.3 μmol C L -1. Winter convective mixing (between January and March) annually exported surface-accumulated DCNS to the upper mesopelagic zone (100-250 m), as concentrations increased there by 0.3-0.6 μmol C L -1. The exported DCNS was subsequently removed over a period of weeks following restratification of the water column. Vertical and temporal trends in DCNS yield (% of DOC) supported its use as a diagenetic indicator of DOM quality. Higher DCNS yields in surface waters suggested a portion of the DOM accumulated relatively recently compared to the more recalcitrant material of the upper mesopelagic that had comparably lower yields. DCNS yields and mol% neutral sugar content, together, indicated differences in the diagenetic state of the surface-accumulated and deep pools of DOM. Seasonally accumulated, recently produced DOM with higher DCNS yields was characterized by elevated mol% of galactose and mannose+xylose levels. Conversely, more recalcitrant DOM from depths >100 m had lower DCNS yields but higher mol% of glucose. Lower DCNS yields and elevated mol% glucose were also observed in the surface waters during winter convective mixing, indicating an entrainment of a diagenetically altered DOM pool into the upper 100 m. A multivariate statistical analysis confirms the use of DCNS as an index of shifts in DOM quality at this site.

  9. Net community production of oxygen derived from in vitro and in situ 1-D modeling techniques in a cyclonic mesoscale eddy in the Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mouriño-Carballido

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the disagreement traditionally reported between in vitro incubation and in situ estimates of oxygen net community production (NCP could be explained, at least partially, by undersampling episodic pulses of net autotrophy associated with mesoscale dynamics. In this study we compare in vitro incubation estimates of net community production with in situ estimates, derived from oxygen profiles and a 1-D model, within a cyclonic eddy investigated in the Sargasso Sea in summer 2004. The in vitro NCP rates measured at the center of the eddy showed a shift from net autotrophy (7±3 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 to net heterotrophy (−25±5 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 from late June to early August. The model-derived NCP rates also showed a temporal decline (19±6 to −3±7 and 11±8 mmol O2 m−2 d−1, but they were systematically higher than the in vitro estimates and reported net autotrophy or balance for the sampling period. In this comparison episodic pulses in photosynthesis or respiration driven by mesoscale eddies can not explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in situ estimates of NCP. This points to methodological artefacts or temporal or submesoscale variability as the mechanisms responsible for the disagreement between the techniques, at least in this dataset.

  10. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  11. A Choice between Imprisonment and Freedom---The Motivation Analysis of Antoinette in Wide Sargasso Sea%囚禁或自由--《茫茫藻海》中安托瓦内特的动机解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦铭

    2014-01-01

    运用马斯洛的需求层次理论,阐释《茫茫藻海》中主人公安托瓦内特最后走到火烧阁楼这一步的深层次动机,指出了她由于各个层次的需求得不到满足,导致精神彻底崩溃,最后为了自我实现的诉求,以“飞蛾扑火”之姿在大火中得到自由。%This article analyzes the heroine of Wide Sargasso Sea Antoinette ’ s deep motivation to burn the attic from the per-spective of Maslow ’ s theory of “hierarchy of needs”, and points out that due to all levels of her needs are not satisfied , she suffers a mental collapse.Finally, for her pursuit of self -actualization, like a flying moth darts into the fire, she gets freedom in the fire.

  12. 克里奥尔人的悲剧命运——《藻海无边》的人类学阐释%Creoles' Tragic Fates——On Wide Sargasso Sea from Anthropological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许佳媛; 原一川; 许汉卿

    2011-01-01

    Antoinette's family in Wide Sargasso Sea are typical representatives of Creole.They are not white;they are not black,either.They are minority group in the then society both from physiological and psychological perspectives.They are marginalized in the then society.The whole family tragically dies.Their tragic fates are identical with the archetypes of sacrifice in anthropological study.The root cause of violence and death lies in the system of scapegoat.Their tragic deaths are due to that the operation and maintain of black and white mainstream social ideology lie in not only the propaganda and commotion,but also sacrifices.%简·里斯在小说《藻海无边》中主要塑造了安托瓦内特一家人作为克里奥尔人的典型代表。,他们被赋予了不同的话语能力,然而悲剧性的结局却几近相同。文章从人类学的角度对其悲剧命运进行了阐释,认为他们的悲剧命运不是偶然的,不论从先天的生理特征还是后天的心理特征来说,他们自始至终都游离于主流权利话语之外。殖民者白人和本地土著黑人为了维持他们群体的各自意义系统的稳定,一切不满足他们神话标准的个体都会被强制驱逐与边缘化,安托瓦内特一家人正是他们献祭的替罪羊。

  13. Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅骧

    2004-01-01

    The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida

  14. New Chemical, Bio-Optical and Physical Observations of Upper Ocean Response to the Passage of a Mesoscale Eddy off Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, J. D.; Jannasch, H. W.; Dickey, T.; McGillicuddy, D.; Brzekinski, M.; Sakamoto, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    A mesoscale eddy advected across the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site over a 30-day period centered on July 14, 1995. Temperature and current measurements along with biogeochemical measurements were used to characterize the biological response of the upper ocean associated with the introduction of nitrate into the euphoric layer due to the doming of isotherms associated with the eddy. Complementary shipboard data showed an anomalous water mass, which extended from a depth of approximately 50 to 1000 m, manifesting as a cold surface expression and warm anomaly at depth. Although mesoscale eddies are frequently observed in the Sargasso Sea, the present observations are particularly unique because of the high-temporal-resolution measurements of the new instrumentation deployed on the mooring. Analyzers that measure nitrate plus nitrite were placed at depths of 80 and 200 m and bio-optical sensors were located at depths of 20, 35, 45, 71, and 86 m. Peak nitrate values of nearly 3.0 microns at 80 m and chlorophyll alpha values of 1.4 mg/cu m at 71 m were observed, as well as a 25- to 30-meter shoaling of the 1% light level depth. A Doppler shift from the inertial period (22.8 hours) to 25.2 hours was observed in several time series records due to the movement of the eddy across the mooring. Inertial pumping brought cold, nutrient-rich waters farther into the euphotic zone than would occur solely by isothermal lifting. Silicic acid was depleted to undetectable levels owing to the growth of diatoms within the eddy. The chlorophyll alpha values associated with the eddy appear to be the largest recorded during the 8 years of the ongoing U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Study (BATS) program.

  15. Invasive ants of Bermuda revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Wetterer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For 60+ years, two of the world’s most widespread and destructive invasive ant species, the African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala from tropical Africa and the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile from subtropical South America, have been engaged in an epic battle on the islands of Bermuda. Both species are completely intolerant of the other and are also well-known for killing off native invertebrates, particularly other ants. Here I surveyed sites across Bermuda in 2016, including resurveys of the locations previously surveyed in 1963, 1966, 1973, 1986, and 2002, to provide an update on this conflict. The status of all other ant species present in the islands, including previous records from literature, is also provided. In addition, I surveyed ants nesting in red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle trees to evaluate whether this arboreal habitat may serve as a refuge for previously overlooked ant species. In 2016, L. humile occurred at most surveyed sites in Bermuda, including all ten resurveyed sites. Pheidole megacephala was present at only two resurveyed sites, a lower proportion of sites than any of the five earlier surveys. Still, P. megacephala occupied substantial areas, particularly in and around Hamilton, the capital of Bermuda. This survey increased the number of ant species with verified records from Bermuda to 25, including four exotic species recorded for the first time: Cardiocondyla minutior, Pheidole navigans, Strumigenys emmae, and Strumigenys membranifera. I found five ant species nesting in mangroves: L. humile plus four Old World exotics, C. minutior, Cardiocondyla obscurior, Monomorium floricola, and Plagiolepis alluaudi. It appears that L. humile may be better suited to the subtropical climate of Bermuda than P. megacephala, except perhaps in warmer and sunnier habitats, such as plantings along urban streets and in open parks, where P. megacephala may hold the advantage. The dataset on the new ant records from 2016 is

  16. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  17. Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene reveals temporal variation, depth-specific composition, and persistent dominance of the same viral phoH genes in the Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn B. Goldsmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene, a host-derived auxiliary metabolic gene, was used to track viral diversity throughout the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site in the summer (September and winter (March of three years. Viral phoH sequences reveal differences in the viral communities throughout a depth profile and between seasons in the same year. Variation was also detected between the same seasons in subsequent years, though these differences were not as great as the summer/winter distinctions. Over 3,600 phoH operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% sequence identity were identified. Despite high richness, most phoH sequences belong to a few large, common OTUs whereas the majority of the OTUs are small and rare. While many OTUs make sporadic appearances at just a few times or depths, a small number of OTUs dominate the community throughout the seasons, depths, and years.

  18. The Victim of the Conflict between New Society and Old Society---An Interpretation of Wide Sargasso Sea from the Perspective of Postcolonialism%新旧社会冲突的牺牲者:从后殖民解读《藻海无边》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏梅花

    2014-01-01

    Wide Sargasso Sea narrates the story taking place in the West Indies. It depicts the transitional period to establish new order after the disintegration of slavery. My paper starts with the influence of social changes on each class and race to interpret the conflicts be-tween the black representing the new society and the white hero representing the old society. Antoinette without common roots has not on-ly been deserted by old society, but also not been accepted by new society. She has been in a state of suspension and eventually ended in death.%《藻海无边》是发生在加勒比地区奴隶制解体后,强烈要求建立新秩序的过渡时期。本文通过《藻海无边》中社会变革对各阶层各民族的影响入手来对代表新社会的黑人群体及代表旧社会的男主人公白人的解读,阐释了在新旧秩序交替时期,没有共同根基的安托瓦内特既被旧社会遗弃又不为新社会所接纳,从而处于一种悬置状态,最终自我灭亡。

  19. AEROCE - 10 Years of Atmospheric Chemistry at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AEROCE) was a comprehensive multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional research program that focused on a number of aspects of the atmospheric chemistry over the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO). These included: ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere; aerosol physical and chemical properties (especially for sulfur and nitrogen species and mineral aerosol) and related precipitation chemistry; the role of aerosols in climate; and chemical air/sea exchange. Two major themes of AEROCE research were designed to (1) understand the role of anthropogenic emissions and natural processes in the ozone budget and oxidizing capacity of the troposphere over the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) and (2) characterize the physical and chemical properties of aerosols that are important to the radiative properties of the atmosphere and to climate; to study the processes that affect these properties; and to assess the relative importance of natural and human sources. AEROCE focused on the atmosphere over the NAO because it is the ocean region that is most likely to be affected by atmospheric transport from the continents. The AEROCE station at Bermuda was an extremely important part of this program. Bermuda is the recipient of relatively clean marine air from the central North Atlantic as well as pollutants and natural continental materials from North America, Europe, and Africa. Seasonally, the highest ozone concentrations occur during the spring and are associated with transport off the North American continent. The highest daily ozone values occur under conditions of large-scale subsidence from the mid-troposphere in association with the passage of cold fronts across Bermuda. During the 1996 spring intensive field experiment, AEROCE researchers found that these high ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of downmixing from the stratosphere and production from precursors associated with North American pollution. The highest

  20. Bermuda Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bermuda Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  1. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Type Onions which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural...

  2. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  3. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  4. 伯莎为何会“疯”?--论《藻海茫茫》女主角身份认同失败问题%Why is Bertha “Crazy” ? A Discussion on the Female Protagonist's Failure of Identification in Wilde Sargasso Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳洋

    2014-01-01

    《藻海茫茫》因其特有的后殖民色彩而备受读者和批评家的关注。伯莎的“疯癫”及其纵火的行为,大多数评论者认为是遗传其母亲的缘故。此篇文章则认为这种“疯癫”是身份认同失败后身份迷失分裂的结果,伯莎分别在内部空间与外部空间中寻求认同却都以失败告终。其内部空间的认同在于与亲人的认同,外部空间的认同则为与黑人群体及白人群体的认同,内、外部空间身份认同的双重失败导致了伯莎偏激异常的心理及一系列行为,最终纵火而亡。%Wilde Sargasso Sea is known by readers and critics for its post - colonialism .Most people think that Bertha's mother is responsible for the craziness of Bertha and her act of arson .However ,this essay puts forward a new cause : her craziness and her act of arson is the loss caused by her failure to identify herself .In the novel ,Bertha has tried to search for identity from inner space and exterior space but failed .The identification in the inner space lies in that with her relatives and the identification in the exterior space is that with black people and white people .The double failure of identification in the two spaces results in her extreme and abnormal behavior and finally her arson and death .

  5. Vernon Bermuda Workshop: A Course in Sub-tropical Island Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, educators in central Connecticut developed the Vernon Bermuda Workshop as a means of introducing middle- and high-school students to subtropical island ecology. Each year, after months of classroom preparation, approximately 20 top students spend one week at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (St. George's, Bermuda) studying the local flora and fauna in both the field and laboratory. The curriculum includes an additional array of activities, ranging from historical and ecological tours to spelunking, and culminates in a series of field-observation-related presentations. I am responsible for the meteorological and oceanographic components of the curriculum. In the field, my students collect time-series of biophysical variables over the course of a day, which they use to interpret diurnal patterns and interactions amongst the variables. I also add remote-sensing and phytoplankton biology components to the curriculum - in previous years, my students have studied time-series of Sea WIFS imagery collected at Bermuda during our trip. I have been an Instructor for this Workshop since 2003. The Workshop provides an outreach activity for GSFC Code 616.

  6. Chemical Contaminants Found in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, S. N.; Seaton, P. J.; Mead, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic is becoming increasingly more abundant in the marine environment. Plastic ingestion has been shown to be a source of exposure to a variety of harmful compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates, which are known for their negative physiological effects on the endocrine system as well as their ability to adsorb and leach from plastic into the bodies of marine organisms. The physiological effects of these compounds on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) still remain unknown. This study investigated the presence of toxicants on marine plastic samples collected from Bermuda, the Sargasso Sea, and the North Atlantic Ocean. Gas chromatography/triple quadruple mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed PAHs were present on many plastic debris samples. Plastic additives such as phthalates and (BPA) were also found. ΣPAH concentrations for anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene for 2013 environmental plastic samples averaged 26.7ng/g of plastic. This study also examined the presence of these compounds in fluids from the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine from two adult loggerhead turtles. GC/MS analysis also showed the presence of BPA and phthalates on plastic samples, as well as in two out of the six gastrointestinal fluids samples. Average ΣPAH concentration for GI fluids for the loggerheads in the study was 58.7 ng/mL. This study showed plastic could be a significant source of PAHs in sea turtles and the first to detect PAHs in sea turtle GI fluid. Loggerhead sea turtles are a long living species and could accumulate high concentrations of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals throughout their lifetime.

  7. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  8. Naise võim Bermudas : kubjas kukutati / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritanniale kuuluva Bermuda saare parlamendivalimised vallandasid sündmuste ahela, mis võivad muuta asumaa poliitikat. Ametist tagandati peaminister Jennifer Meredith Smith ja uueks peaministriks sai senine tööminister William Alexander Scott

  9. Observations and analyses of upper ocean responses to tropical storms and hurricanes in the vicinity of Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W. J.; Dickey, T. D.

    2008-08-01

    A circular region within a radius of 400 km of Bermuda has been struck by 188 tropical storms or hurricanes from 1851 through 2005 and by 20 since 1995. Here we describe new direct and remote sensing observations and analyses of recent events near the Bermuda Testbed Mooring including Hurricane Fabian (2003), Tropical Storm Harvey (2005) and Hurricane Nate (2005). The most impressive upper ocean response of the recent events was produced by Hurricane Fabian when SST cooling exceeded 3.5°C, vertical mixing occurred to a depth of greater than 130 m, and upper ocean currents reached 100 cm s-1. Fabian also triggered an ocean color event visible in SeaWiFS satellite images. Related implications include improved estimates of the roles of tropical cyclones in driving meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and testing of hypotheses concerning warming of the tropical oceans which could cause more intense tropical storms and hurricanes.

  10. Meltwater pulse recorded in Last Interglacial mollusk shells from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstern, Ian Z.; Rowe, Mark P.; Lohmann, Kyger C.; Defliese, William F.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Brewer, Aaron W.

    2017-02-01

    The warm climate of Bermuda today is modulated by the nearby presence of the Gulf Stream current. However, iceberg scours in the Florida Strait and the presence of ice-rafted debris in Bermuda Rise sediments indicate that, during the last deglaciation, icebergs discharged from the Laurentide Ice Sheet traveled as far south as subtropical latitudes. We present evidence that an event of similar magnitude affected the subtropics during the Last Interglacial, potentially due to melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Using the clumped isotope paleothermometer, we found temperatures 10°C colder and seawater δ18O values 2‰ lower than modern in Last Interglacial Cittarium pica shells from Grape Bay, Bermuda. In contrast, Last Interglacial shells from Rocky Bay, Bermuda, record temperatures only slightly colder and seawater δ18O values similar to modern, likely representing more typical Last Interglacial conditions in Bermuda outside of a meltwater event. The significantly colder ocean temperatures observed in Grape Bay samples illustrate the extreme sensitivity of Bermudian climate to broad-scale ocean circulation changes. They indicate routine meltwater transport in the North Atlantic to near-equatorial latitudes, which would likely have resulted in disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. These data demonstrate that future melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a potential source of the Last Interglacial meltwater event, could have dramatic climate effects outside of the high latitudes.

  11. Investigating Bermuda's pollution history through stable isotope analyses of modern and museum-held gorgonian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M; Murdoch, Thaddeus J T; Conti-Jerpe, Inga; Fogel, Marilyn

    2017-01-15

    For centuries, Bermuda has been challenged with wastewater management for the protection of human and environmental health. By quantifying the δ(15)N of the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina sampled from 30 sites throughout Bermuda we show that sewage-derived nitrogen is detectable on nearshore coral reefs and declines across the lagoon to the outer rim. We also sampled gorgonians from two museum collections representing a 50y time-series (1958-2008). These samples revealed an increase in δ(15)N of >4.0‰ until the mid-1970s, after which δ(15)N values slowly declined by ~2.0‰. A δ(15)N chronology from a gorgonian skeleton exhibited a similar decline over the last 30-40years of approximately 0.6‰. We conclude that policies have been effective in reducing sewage impacts to Bermudian reefs. However, significant sources of sewage pollution persist and are likely have a strong impact on harbor and nearshore coral communities and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvements of high-throughput culturing yielded novel SAR11 strains and other abundant marine bacteria from the Oregon coast and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series study site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich; Tripp, Harry James; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing (HTC) of marine bacterioplankton using sterilized natural sea water as media yielded isolates of many abundant but previously uncultured marine bacterial clades. In early experiments, bacteria from the SAR11 cluster (class Alphaproteobacteria), which are presumed to be the most abundant prokaryotes on earth, were cultured. Although many additional attempts were made, no further strains of the SAR11 clade were obtained. Here, we describe improvements to the HTC technique, which led to the isolation of 17 new SAR11 strains from the Oregon coast and the Sargasso Sea, accounting for 28% and 31% of all isolates in these experiments. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region showed that the isolates from the Oregon coast represent three different subclusters of SAR11, while isolates from the Sargasso Sea were more uniform and represented a single ITS cluster. A PCR assay proved the presence of proteorhodopsin (PR) in nearly all SAR11 isolates. Analysis of PR amino-acid sequences indicated that isolates from the Oregon coast were tuned to either green or blue light, while PRs from strains obtained from the Sargasso Sea were exclusively tuned to maximum absorbance in the blue. Interestingly, phylogenies based on PR and ITS did not correlate, suggesting lateral gene transfer. In addition to the new SAR11 strains, many novel strains belonging to clusters of previously uncultured or undescribed species of different bacterial phyla, including the first strain of the highly abundant alphaproteobacterial SAR116 clade, were isolated using the modified methods.

  13. New production in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Pinghe

    2002-01-01

    [1]Dugdale, R. C., Goering, J. J., Uptake of new and regenerated nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnology and Oceanog-raphy, 1967, 12: 196-206.[2]Eppley, R. W., Peterson, B. J., Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean, Nature, 1979, 282: 677-680.[3]Allen, C. B., Kanda, J., Laws, E. A., New production and photosynthetic rates within and outside a cyclonic mesoscale eddy in the North Pacific Subtropical gyre, Deep-Sea Research Ⅱ, 1996, 43(6): 917-936.[4]Jenkins, W. J., Tritium-helium dating in the Sargasso Sea: A measurement of oxygen utilization rates, Nature, 1977, 196: 291-292.[5]Spitzer, W. S., Jenkins, W. J., Rates of vertical mixing, gas exchange and new production: Estimates from seasonal gas cy-cle in the upper ocean near Bermuda, Journal of Marine Research, 1989, 47: 169-196.[6]Sarmiento, J. L., Thiele, G., Key, R. M. et al., Oxygen and nitrate new production and remineralization in the North At-lantic Subtropical Gyre, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 18303-18315.[7]Ku, T. L., Luo, S., Kusakabe, M. et al., 228Ra-derived nutrient budgets in upper equatorial Pacific and the role of "new" silicate in limiting productivity, Deep-Sea Research II, 1995, 42(2/3): 479-497.[8]Wheeler, P. A., Rates of nitrate assimilation at the equator during the US-JGOFS spring time series: Estimates of new pro-duction, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 1992, 73: 281.[9]Huang, Y., Xie, Y., Chen, M. et al., Distribution feature of 228Ra in surface seawater of the Nansha sea area, in Isotopes Marine Chemistry of Nansha Islands Waters (in Chinese), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1996, 70-78.[10]Reid, D. F., Key, R. M., Schink, D., Radium, thorium and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manga-nese-oxide-coated fiber, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1979, 43: 223-226.[11]Shi, W., Qiu, X., Huang, Y., Distribution of dissolved 226Ra in the Jiulongjiang-Xiamen bay

  14. Communities of constructional lips and cup reef rims in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Martin L. H.; Stevens, Jo-Anne

    1991-01-01

    Constructional lips and cup reef rims are little studied reef features typical of very turbulent conditions. The relatively low diversity community of these structures consists of three components, and algal mat dominated by Herposiphonia secunda, an encrusting calcareous biota characterised by crustose coralline algae and the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma corrodens, which together are the main hermatypic components, and an endolithic component with very abundant boring sponges, polychaetes, crustaceans and sipunculids. In northerly areas of Bermuda, the hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis is a prominent member of the community while to the south the urchin Echinometra lucunter is abundant. On the south side of Bermuda the community traps sediment which is deposited in the void spaces. The environment shows reduced grazing and this may account for the presence of several relict and rare species.

  15. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  16. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  17. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  18. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  20. Chemical contamination of a coral reef by the grounding of a cruise ship in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross J

    2007-07-01

    Bulk metal analyses of surficial sediments collected around the Norwegian Crown cruise ship grounding site in Bermuda indicated significant but localized contamination of reef sediments by copper and zinc, caused by the stripping of the tri-butyltin (TBT)-free antifouling (AF) paint (Intersmooth 460) from the underside of the hull. Highest copper and zinc values were found in heavily compacted and red-pigmented sediments inside the impact scar and were comparable to levels found close to slip ways of local boat yards where AF paints from hull stripping and cleaning processes are washed into the sea. The re-distribution of AF contaminated sediments by storms and deposition on nearby reefs constitutes a significant ecological risk that could delay recovery processes and reduce the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Whilst the ecotoxicological effects of AF paint particles interspersed with sediment is unknown, and in need of further study, it is argued that the significance of AF paint contamination of grounding sites has been overlooked.

  1. Sea Education Association's sailing research vessels as innovative platforms for long-term research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, P.; Carruthers, E. A.; Engels, M.; Goodwin, D.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Lea, C.; Schell, J.; Siuda, A.; Witting, J.; Zettler, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sea Education Association's (SEA) two research vessels, the SSV Corwith Cramer and the SSV Robert C. Seamans are unique in the research world. Not only do these ships perform advanced research using state of the art equipment, they do so under sail with high school, undergraduate, and graduate students serving as both the science team and the crew. Because of SEA's educational mission and reliance on prevailing winds for sailing, the vessels have been studying repeated tracks for decades, providing valuable long-term data sets while educating future marine scientists. The Corwith Cramer has been collecting data in the North Atlantic between New England, the Sargasso Sea, Bermuda, and the Caribbean since 1987 while the Robert C. Seamans has been operating in the Eastern Pacific between the US West Coast, Hawaii, and French Polynesia since 2001. The ships collect continuous electronic data from hull mounted ADCP, chirp, and a clean flowing seawater system logging temperature, salinity, in-vivo chlorophyll and CDOM fluorescence, and beam attenuation. The ships also periodically collect data from profiling CTDs with chlorophyll and CDOM fluorometers, transmissometers, and dissolved oxygen and PAR sensors. In addition to electronic data, archived long term data sets include physical samples from net tows such as marine plastic debris and tar, and plankton including Halobates (a marine insect), leptocephali (eel larvae), and phyllosoma (spiny lobster larvae). Both vessels are 134' brigantine rig tall ships and are designated sailing school vessels (SSV) by the US Coast Guard, and both have received instrumentation grants from NSF to provide high quality, reliable data that is submitted to the NSF R2R archives. Students sailing on these ships spend time on shore at the SEA campus in Woods Hole, MA taking classes in oceanography, nautical science, maritime studies and public policy. Each student is required to write a proposal for their research before heading to sea, and

  2. Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery between 20110607 and 20110627

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants,...

  3. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy.

  4. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  5. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandley, Matthew C; Wang, Yuezhao; Guo, Xianguang; Nieto Montes de Oca, Adrián; Fería Ortíz, Manuel; Hikida, Tsutomu; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2010-06-30

    Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism). The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces) longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  6. Bermuda as an evolutionary life raft for an ancient lineage of endangered lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Brandley

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands are well known for harboring diverse species assemblages and are frequently the basis of research on adaptive radiation and neoendemism. However, a commonly overlooked role of some islands is their function in preserving ancient lineages that have become extinct everywhere else (paleoendemism. The island archipelago of Bermuda is home to a single species of extant terrestrial vertebrate, the endemic skink Plestiodon (formerly Eumeces longirostris. The presence of this species is surprising because Bermuda is an isolated, relatively young oceanic island approximately 1000 km from the eastern United States. Here, we apply Bayesian phylogenetic analyses using a relaxed molecular clock to demonstrate that the island of Bermuda, although no older than two million years, is home to the only extant representative of one of the earliest mainland North American Plestiodon lineages, which diverged from its closest living relatives 11.5 to 19.8 million years ago. This implies that, within a short geological time frame, mainland North American ancestors of P. longirostris colonized the recently emergent Bermuda and the entire lineage subsequently vanished from the mainland. Thus, our analyses reveal that Bermuda is an example of a "life raft" preserving millions of years of unique evolutionary history, now at the brink of extinction. Threats such as habitat destruction, littering, and non-native species have severely reduced the population size of this highly endangered lizard.

  7. Heading south or north: novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Deneudt, K.; Goethals, Peter; Moens, Tom; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J.; Nolting, Carsten; Reubens, Jan; Schollema, Peter Paul; Winter, Hendrik V.; Mouton, Ans

    2016-01-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is a critically endangered fish species that migrates from coastal and freshwater habitats to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. However, the exact migration routes and destination of European eel are still unknown. We are the first to observe southward migrating sil

  8. Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Hansen, Michael Møller; Maas, Gregory E.;

    2010-01-01

    and steering their drift. The majority of the more westerly distributed American eel larvae are likely to follow a westerly/northerly drift route entrained in the Antilles/Florida Currents. European eel larvae are generally believed to initially follow the same route, but their more easterly distribution close...

  9. Differential timing of gene expression regulation between leptocephali of North Atlantic eels in the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatchez, Louis; Saint-Cyr, Jérôme; Maes, Gregory E.;

    2011-01-01

    The unique life-history characteristics of North Atlantic catadromous eels have long intrigued evolutionary biologists, especially with respect to mechanisms that could explain their persistence as two ecologically very similar but reproductively and geographically distinct species. Differential ...

  10. Oceanic Environmental Background Observations in the Sargasso Sea during September 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    current speed by counting the number of revolutions of a Savonius rotor over a chosen sampling time interval. Current direction is determined each...adColicn, instantaneous values of temperature, conductivity and pressure. The VACM measures current sp, eec using a Savonius rotor) and direction (using a

  11. Sea level differences across the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The sea level differences between the Sargasso Sea and the slope waters across the Gulf Stream region, averaged between 73 and 61 deg W, and the comparable areas across the Kuroshio extension region, averaged between 143 and 156 deg E, were estimated using the Geosat altimeter data obtained between November 1986 and December 1988. The sea-level differences between the two regions showed a strong correlation between the northwest Atlantic and Pacific, dominated by annual cycles that peak in late-September to mid-October, with about 9 cm (the Gulf Stream region) and about 6.9 cm (Kuroshio region) amplitudes.

  12. Long-term trends in aerosol and precipitation composition over the western North Atlantic Ocean at Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, W. C.; Moody, J. L.; Galloway, J. N.; Prospero, J. M.; Cooper, O. R.; Eckhardt, S.; Maben, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, emissions of SO2 and NOx (NO + NO2) from anthropogenic sources in the United States (US), Canada, and Europe have decreased significantly suggesting that the export of oxidized S and N compounds from surrounding continents to the atmosphere overlying the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) has also decreased. The chemical compositions of aerosols and precipitation sampled daily on Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W) from 1989 to 1997 and from 2006 to 2009 were evaluated to quantify the magnitudes, significance, and implications of associated tends in atmospheric composition. The chemical data were stratified based on FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) retroplumes into four discrete transport regimes: westerly flow from eastern North America (NEUS/SEUS); easterly trade-wind flow from northern Africa and the subtropical NAO (Africa); long, open-ocean, anticyclonic flow around the Bermuda High (Oceanic); and transitional flow from the relatively clean open ocean to the polluted eastern North America (North). Based on all data, annual average concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- associated with aerosols and annual volume-weighted-average (VWA) concentrations in precipitation decreased significantly (by 22% and 49%, respectively) whereas annual VWA concentrations of NH4+ in precipitation increased significantly (by 70%). Corresponding trends in aerosol and precipitation NO3- and of aerosol NH4+ were insignificant. Nss SO42- in precipitation under NEUS/SEUS and Oceanic flow decreased significantly (61% each) whereas corresponding trends in particulate nss SO42- under both flow regimes were insignificant. Trends in precipitation composition were driven in part by decreasing emissions of SO2 over upwind continents and associated decreases in anthropogenic contributions to nss SO42- concentrations. Under NEUS/SEUS and Oceanic flow, the ratio of anthropogenic to biogenic contributions to nss SO42- in the column scavenged by precipitation were relatively

  13. Magnetic Properties of Bermuda Rise Sediments Controlled by Glacial Cycles During the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roud, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments from ODP site 1063 (Bermuda Rise, North Atlantic) contain a high-resolution record of geomagnetic field behavior during the Brunhes Chron. We present rock magnetic data of the upper 160 mcd (hematite (maxima in HIRM and S-Ratio consistent with a reddish hue) and exhibit higher ARM anisotropy and pronounced sedimentary fabrics. We infer that post depositional processes affected the magnetic grain size and mineralogy of Bermuda rise sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene. Hematite concentration is interpreted to reflect primary terrigenous input that is likely derived from the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A close correlation between HIRM and magnetic foliation suggests that changes in sediment composition (terrigenous vs. marine biogenic) were accompanied by changes in the depositional processes at the site.

  14. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Kissoon, Shivnarine; Wilson, Clyde; Jayaratne, Padman; Smith, Ashley; Golding, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes. The MLST analysis confirmed most isolates were of the sequence types linked to clonal complex 17 (CC17) that is widely associated with outbreaks in hospitals. Infection control measures, antibiotic stewardship, and surveillance activities will continue to be a priority in hospital on the Island. PMID:28267763

  15. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations.

  16. 百慕大保险市场结构研究%Study on the Structure of Bermuda Insurance Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 王晓曦

    2015-01-01

    百慕大与美国以及欧洲保险市场并称为世界三大保险市场,在全球保险以及再保险市场具有举足轻重的地位。论文对百慕大保险市场现状和结构进行研究,首先回顾了百慕大保险市场的发展历程,而后阐述了百慕大保险市场监管和税收方面优势和特征以及这些优势对保险公司组建的积极影响,进而利用翔实地统计数据分析了百慕大保险市场的公司数量、公司类型和公司规模。对于百慕大保险市场在全球再保险市场中的地位和作用以及百慕大保险市场经营绩效和信用评级状况,论文也给予了详细论述。%Bermuda insurance market, US insurance market and the European insurance are the three most important insurance markets in the world. This article provides an economic review and statistical analysis of the Bermuda in-surance market. It begins with a brief history of the Bermuda market to set the stage for the subsequent discussions. The discussion then turns to the Bermuda regulatory and tax systems and their effects on company formation in Ber-muda. The advantages of Bermuda as an insurance domicile are then outlined. The statistical analysis provides an overview of the structure of the Bermuda market in terms of the number, type, and size of firms. The role of Ber-muda insurers in the global reinsurance market is discussed and analyzed. The article also analyzes the performance and the financial ratings of Bermuda ( re) insurance companies.

  17. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  18. Effects of wet deposition on optical properties of the atmosphere over Bermuda and Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Deborah L.; Keene, William C.; Moody, Jennie L.; Maring, Hal; Galloway, James N.

    2003-02-01

    Substantial spatial and temporal variabilities in chemical and physical properties of aerosols complicate attempts to model associated influences on global climate. Although wet deposition is the major mechanism by which most aerosols are removed from the atmosphere, direct effects of precipitation on radiative properties of the atmosphere are not well understood. To address this issue, attenuation coefficients for total insoluble constituents (ACt) and for nonvolatile (at 500°C) insoluble constituents (ACnv; primarily crustal dust) of precipitation at Bermuda and Barbados were measured at six wavelengths between 414 and 859 nm. Coefficients for volatile (at 500°C) insoluble constituents (ACv; primarily carbonaceous species) were calculated by difference. Between April and September, ACt at Bermuda was dominated by mineral constituents transported from North Africa, whereas carbonaceous species from North America were relatively low and exhibited no systematic seasonal variability. ACt and ACnv at Barbados were dominated by mineral dust, especially between April and September. Relative to ACv, ACnv decreased more rapidly with increasing wavelength. The wavelength dependencies of ACs for volatile and nonvolatile constituents at Bermuda were statistically indistinguishable from those at Barbados. The optical and chemical characteristics of precipitation were compared with scattering and absorption by ambient aerosols in associated air parcels to evaluate the influence of scavenging on the radiative properties of air. Although discernible relationships were evident, the small number of cases limited their applicability as reliable empirical predictors. However, these data do provide useful constraints for validating models of aerosol scavenging and wet removal on the optical properties of the troposphere.

  19. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  20. Cloning and functional identification of stress-resistant BeDREB genes from Bermuda grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yongli; WANG Zizhang; LIU Qiang; ZHANG Shuping

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB)proteins,specifically binding to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE),have been identified as a group of important transcription activators of plants which regulate the expression of genes in response to drought,high-salt and low- temperature stresses.Two DREB-like genes from Bermuda grass that are induced by low-temperature or high-salt stresses were cloned using RT-PCR and RACE methods,and were named BeDREB1 and BeDREB2,respectively (GenBank accession No:AY462117 and AY462118).They contained an ORF of 753 bp encoding 251 amino acids,showing the typical characteristics of the DREB gene family.Interestingly,these two genes isolated from Bermuda grass induced either by low-temperature stress or high-salt stress shared 97.8% homology.Furthermore,it was demonstrated that both BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 could bind to the wild-type DRE element to activate the transcription of the reporter gene HIS3,driven by a promoter carrying DRE cis-element in yeast strain 4721,in the presence of 3-AT.RT-PCR showed that BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 genes could be greatly induced by low-temperature and high-salt stresses,respectively.Their expressions were changed following the inducible time.In conclusion,all results indicate that BeDREB1 and BeDREB2 genes isolated from treated Bermuda grass are new members'of the DREB transcription activator family,which may play very important roles in signal transduction related to stresses.

  1. Patterns of ecological specialization among microbial populations in the Red Sea and diverse oligotrophic marine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Luke R

    2013-05-11

    Large swaths of the nutrient-poor surface ocean are dominated numerically by cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus), cyanobacterial viruses (cyanophage), and alphaproteobacteria (SAR11). How these groups thrive in the diverse physicochemical environments of different oceanic regions remains poorly understood. Comparative metagenomics can reveal adaptive responses linked to ecosystem-specific selective pressures. The Red Sea is well-suited for studying adaptation of pelagic-microbes, with salinities, temperatures, and light levels at the extreme end for the surface ocean, and low nutrient concentrations, yet no metagenomic studies have been done there. The Red Sea (high salinity, high light, low N and P) compares favorably with the Mediterranean Sea (high salinity, low P), Sargasso Sea (low P), and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (high light, low N). We quantified the relative abundance of genetic functions among Prochlorococcus, cyanophage, and SAR11 from these four regions. Gene frequencies indicate selection for phosphorus acquisition (Mediterranean/Sargasso), DNA repair and high-light responses (Red Sea/Pacific Prochlorococcus), and osmolyte C1 oxidation (Red Sea/Mediterranean SAR11). The unexpected connection between salinity-dependent osmolyte production and SAR11 C1 metabolism represents a potentially major coevolutionary adaptation and biogeochemical flux. Among Prochlorococcus and cyanophage, genes enriched in specific environments had ecotype distributions similar to nonenriched genes, suggesting that inter-ecotype gene transfer is not a major source of environment-specific adaptation. Clustering of metagenomes using gene frequencies shows similarities in populations (Red Sea with Pacific, Mediterranean with Sargasso) that belie their geographic distances. Taken together, the genetic functions enriched in specific environments indicate competitive strategies for maintaining carrying capacity in the face of physical stressors and low nutrient availability. 2013 The

  2. Patterns of ecological specialization among microbial populations in the Red Sea and diverse oligotrophic marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Luke R; Field, Chris; Romanuk, Tamara; Ngugi, David; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Stingl, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Large swaths of the nutrient-poor surface ocean are dominated numerically by cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus), cyanobacterial viruses (cyanophage), and alphaproteobacteria (SAR11). How these groups thrive in the diverse physicochemical environments of different oceanic regions remains poorly understood. Comparative metagenomics can reveal adaptive responses linked to ecosystem-specific selective pressures. The Red Sea is well-suited for studying adaptation of pelagic-microbes, with salinities, temperatures, and light levels at the extreme end for the surface ocean, and low nutrient concentrations, yet no metagenomic studies have been done there. The Red Sea (high salinity, high light, low N and P) compares favorably with the Mediterranean Sea (high salinity, low P), Sargasso Sea (low P), and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (high light, low N). We quantified the relative abundance of genetic functions among Prochlorococcus, cyanophage, and SAR11 from these four regions. Gene frequencies indicate selection for phosphorus acquisition (Mediterranean/Sargasso), DNA repair and high-light responses (Red Sea/Pacific Prochlorococcus), and osmolyte C1 oxidation (Red Sea/Mediterranean SAR11). The unexpected connection between salinity-dependent osmolyte production and SAR11 C1 metabolism represents a potentially major coevolutionary adaptation and biogeochemical flux. Among Prochlorococcus and cyanophage, genes enriched in specific environments had ecotype distributions similar to nonenriched genes, suggesting that inter-ecotype gene transfer is not a major source of environment-specific adaptation. Clustering of metagenomes using gene frequencies shows similarities in populations (Red Sea with Pacific, Mediterranean with Sargasso) that belie their geographic distances. Taken together, the genetic functions enriched in specific environments indicate competitive strategies for maintaining carrying capacity in the face of physical stressors and low nutrient availability.

  3. Population Structure of Montastraea cavernosa on Shallow versus Mesophotic Reefs in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems remain largely unexplored with only limited information available on taxonomic composition, abundance and distribution. Yet, mesophotic reefs may serve as potential refugia for shallow-water species and thus understanding biodiversity, ecology and connectivity of deep reef communities is integral for resource management and conservation. The Caribbean coral, Montastraea cavernosa, is considered a depth generalist and is commonly found at mesophotic depths. We surveyed abundance and size-frequency of M. cavernosa populations at six shallow (10m and six upper mesophotic (45m sites in Bermuda and found population structure was depth dependent. The mean surface area of colonies at mesophotic sites was significantly smaller than at shallow sites, suggesting that growth rates and maximum colony surface area are limited on mesophotic reefs. Colony density was significantly higher at mesophotic sites, however, resulting in equal contributions to overall percent cover. Size-frequency distributions between shallow and mesophotic sites were also significantly different with populations at mesophotic reefs skewed towards smaller individuals. Overall, the results of this study provide valuable baseline data on population structure, which indicate that the mesophotic reefs of Bermuda support an established population of M. cavernosa.

  4. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  5. Assemblages of hydroids (Cnidaria) from three seamounts near Bermuda in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Dale R.

    2000-06-01

    Three seamounts flanking the oceanic island of Bermuda were sampled for hydroids. Collecting was undertaken by submersible (SDL-1) and by dredge at depths between 48 and 107 m on the summits of Argus and Challenger banks. A shallower collection (rhodoliths, limestone reefs, and areas of calcareous sand. Hydroids were ubiquitous, but quite sparse, on firm substrata. None was collected on sandy bottoms. Of 45 species identified from the two oceanic banks, over half (25) were found on both. On Bowditch Seamount, samples were obtained at depths between 1285 and 1381 m by dredge and grab. Of four species found, only one ( Filellum serratum) occurred in shallower collections from Argus and Challenger banks. Most species (43 of 48) from the three seamounts have been reported elsewhere in the Western Atlantic Tropical region, and many (38 of 48) are known from Bermuda. No endemics were discovered, and no relicts or exotics were recognized. Gonophores in >70% of the species are fixed sporosacs instead of free medusae. This conforms with a hypothesis that invertebrates of oceanic islands and seamounts tend to have short-lived pelagic larval stages, ensuring the greatest retention and conservation of propagules.

  6. Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities from reefs of Bermuda: Species composition and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, A.; Mathers, S. M.; Thomas, M. L. H.

    1984-04-01

    Sessile invertebrate coelobite communities attached to the walls and roof of cavities in coralgal reefs on the annular rim of the Bermuda platform near North Rock (4 sites) and in the algal cup reef tract on the south shore (3 sites) have been studied by belt photo-transects and direct sampling. Irradiance measurements reveal a light gradient which appears to exert a strong influence on the composition, relative coverage and zonation of the attached biotic communities. Two main communities are recognised from cluster analysis and relative areal coverage data. Near the cavity entrances is a community dominated by crustose coralline algae, with subsidiary ascidians, demosponges, bryozoans and Foraminifera. Species richness is high and there is total biotic coverage of walls and roof. This community grades laterally into an exclusively animal community characterised by encrusting sponges and Foraminifera, with subsidiary bryozoans and unidentified branching organisms. Coverage varies from 100% to 30%, the substrate often exhibiting high micro-relief from the branching growth forms of the Foraminifera. Species richness is high at North Rock sites, less so on the south shore. The distribution of coelobite species is compared with that described from previous studies in Bermuda, Grand Cayman and Madagascar.

  7. The Bermuda Triangle mysteries: an explanation based on the diffraction of heat waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njau, E.C. [Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Studies based on actual meteorological records [E.C. Njau, Nuovo Cimento 15C, 17-23 (1992)] as well as analytical methods [E.C. Njau, Proc. Ind. Natn. Sci. Acad., 61A (4) (1995); Renewable Energy 4, 261-263 (1994)] have established the continuous existence of a series of large-scale, Eastward-moving heat waves along the Earth`s surface, whose individual crests and troughs are stretched approximately along the geographical North-South direction. In moving across the American continent, these waves encounter a line of physical barriers formed by the lofty Rocky and Andes ranges of mountains, which is continuous except for a significant gap or opening between Colombia and Mexico. This line of physical barriers consistently maintains a maximum height of 3000-4000 m between latitudes 40{sup o}S and 55{sup o}N except for a significant opening or slit located between Mexico and Colombia where the maximum height hardly exceeds 600 m. The Eastward-moving heat waves are thus incident obliquely on an approximately single-slit barrier when crossing the American continent and those parts of the waves which filter through this single slit essentially form some kind of single-slit diffraction (heat) patterns in, around and past the Bermuda Triangle. These diffraction heat patterns give rise to corresponding weather and ocean patterns which, to a large extent, account for the mysteries already noted in the Bermuda region. (Author)

  8. Function-Based Intervention for an Adolescent with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Bermuda: Moving across Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Amina M.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Bartley, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Saida, a 16-year-old girl in Bermuda, attended a special alternative high school program for students with serious behavior problems. She had been receiving special education for her behavioral problems since the age of 5. Saida regularly used profanity in response to teacher directives, particularly in social studies class. A functional…

  9. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    the diatom communities at 10 m and > 100 m (in the deep chlorophyll maximum, DCM) than in other parts of the frontal region. Thorpe displacements supported the hypothesis of elevated mixing intensities around these stations, as did vertical mixing rates inferred from stratification and vertical current shear...... influence the plankton food web, as indicated by elevated values/concentrations of (1) primary production, (2) variable fluorescence (F-v/F-m) and (3) total seston. In addition, the fraction of the total biomass of both copepods and nauplii found closest to the DCM in the frontal region correlated...

  10. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. I. Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemann, Lasse; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Kragh, Theis

    2011-01-01

    . With the aim of improving the understanding of physical and lower trophic level processes in the area, we carried out field studies of physical, chemical and biological characteristics along 3 transects crossing thermal fronts associated with the STCZ in March to April 2007. Thermal and chemical stratification...

  11. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patches of eel larvae are found in the frontal region of the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ), but to date no clear evidence of why this region might confer advantage to the larvae has been presented. This study demonstrates that there may be localized p...

  12. Localised mixing and heterogeneity in the plankton food web in a frontal region of the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Joøgen; Christensen, Jens Tang;

    2014-01-01

    influence the plankton food web, as indicated by elevated values/concentrations of (1) primary production, (2) variable fluorescence (F-v/F-m) and (3) total seston. In addition, the fraction of the total biomass of both copepods and nauplii found closest to the DCM in the frontal region correlated...

  13. Evidence for aggregation and export of cyanobacteria and nano-eukaryotes from the Sargasso Sea euphotic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Lomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pico-plankton and nano-plankton are generally thought to represent a negligible fraction of the total particulate organic carbon (POC export flux in oligotrophic gyres due to their small size, slow individual sinking rates, and tight grazer control that leads to high rates of recycling in the euphotic zone. Based upon recent inverse modeling and network analysis however, it has been hypothesized that pico-plankton, including the cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, and nano-plankton contribute significantly to POC export, via formation and gravitational settling of aggregates and/or consumption of those aggregates by mesozooplankton, in proportion to their contribution to net primary production. This study presents total suspended particulate (>0.7 μm and particle size-fractionated (10–20 μm, 20–53 μm, >53 μm pigment concentrations from within and below the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic, collected using Niskin bottles and large volume in-situ pumps, respectively. Results show the indicator pigments for Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and nano-eukaryotes are; (1 found at depths down to 500 m, and; (2 essentially constant, relative to the sum of all indicator pigments, across particle size fractions ranging from 10 μm to >53 μm. Based upon the presence of chlorophyll precursor and degradation pigments, and that in situ pumps do not effectively sample fecal pellets, it is concluded that these pigments were redistributed to deeper waters on larger, more rapidly sinking aggregates likely by gravitational settling and/or convective mixing. Using available pigment and ancillary data from these cruises, these Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and nano-plankton derived aggregates are estimated to contribute 2–13% (5 ± 4%, 1–20% (5 ± 7%, and 6–43% (23 ± 14% of the total sediment trap POC flux measured on the same cruises, respectively. Furthermore, nano-eukaryotes contribute equally to POC export and autotrophic biomass, while cyanobacteria contributions to POC export are one-tenth of their contribution to autotrophic biomass. These field observations provide direct evidence that pico- and nano-plankton represent a significant contribution to the total POC export via formation of aggregates in this oligotrophic ocean gyre. We suggest that aggregate formation and fate should be included in ecosystem models, particularly as oligotrophic regions are hypothesized to expand in areal extent with warming and increased stratification in the future.

  14. Evidence for aggregation and export of cyanobacteria and nano-eukaryotes from the Sargasso Sea euphotic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Lomas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pico-plankton and nano-plankton are generally thought to represent a negligible fraction of the total particulate organic carbon (POC export flux in oligotrophic gyres due to their small size, slow individual sinking rates, and tight grazer control that leads to high rates of recycling in the euphotic zone. Based upon recent inverse modeling and network analysis however, it has been hypothesized that pico-plankton, including the cyanobacteria Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, and nano-plankton contribute significantly to POC export, via formation of aggregates and consumption of those aggregates by mesozooplankton, in proportion to their contribution to net primary production. This study presents total suspended particulate (> 0.7 μm and particle size-fractionated (10–20 μm, 20–53 μm, > 53 μm pigment concentrations from within and below the euphotic zone in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic, collected using Niskin bottles and large volume in-situ pumps, respectively. Results show the indicator pigments for Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and nano-eukaryotes are; (1 found at depths down to 500 m, and; (2 essentially constant, relative to the sum of all indicator pigments, across particle size fractions ranging from 10 μm to > 53 μm. Based upon the presence of chlorophyll precursor and degradation pigments, and that in-situ pumps do not effectively sample fecal pellets, it is concluded that these pigments were redistributed to deeper waters on larger, more rapidly sinking aggregates. Using available pigment data and ancillary cruise data, these Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and nano-plankton derived aggregates are estimated to contribute 2–13% (5 ± 4%, 1–20% (5 ± 7%, and 6–43% (23 ± 14% of the total sediment trap POC flux measured on the same cruises, respectively. Furthermore, nano-eukaryotes contribute equally to POC export and autotrophic biomass, while cyanobacteria contributions to POC export are one-tenth of their contribution to autotrophic biomass. These field observations provide direct evidence that pico- and nano-plankton represent a significant contribution to the total POC export in this oligotrophic ocean gyre. We suggest that this pathway should be included in ecosystem models, particularly as oligotrophic regions are hypothesized to expand in areal extent with warming and increased stratification in the future.

  15. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, H.; Feunteun, E.;

    2016-01-01

    Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology.......Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology....

  16. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A J; Laine, E P; Lipkin, J; Heath, G R; Akers, S A

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10/sup -7/ cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35/sup 0/ for smectite and 31/sup 0/ for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed.

  17. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  18. Temporal patterns and behavioral characteristics of aggregation formation and spawning in the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Richard S.; Kadison, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau ( Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin ( Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub.

  19. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, LK; Okal, MN; Borg-Karlson, AK; Fillinger, U; Lindh, JM

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  20. Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef system to seasonal changes in biological processes and ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, N.R.; Amat, A.; Andersson, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the potential impact of ocean acidification on ecosystems such as coral reefs, surprisingly, there is very limited field data on the relationships between calcification and seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, contemporaneous in situ datasets of seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification rates from the high-latitude coral reef of Bermuda over annual timescales provide a framework for investigating the present and future potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO

  1. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  2. Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef system to seasonal changes in biological processes and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Amat, A.; Andersson, A. J.

    2010-08-01

    Despite the potential impact of ocean acidification on ecosystems such as coral reefs, surprisingly, there is very limited field data on the relationships between calcification and seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, contemporaneous in situ datasets of seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification rates from the high-latitude coral reef of Bermuda over annual timescales provide a framework for investigating the present and future potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems in their natural environment. A strong correlation was found between the in situ rates of calcification for the major framework building coral species Diploria labyrinthiformis and the seasonal variability of [CO32-] and aragonite saturation state Ωaragonite, rather than other environmental factors such as light and temperature. These field observations provide sufficient data to hypothesize that there is a seasonal "Carbonate Chemistry Coral Reef Ecosystem Feedback" (CREF hypothesis) between the primary components of the reef ecosystem (i.e., scleractinian hard corals and macroalgae) and seawater carbonate chemistry. In early summer, strong net autotrophy from benthic components of the reef system enhance [CO32-] and Ωaragonite conditions, and rates of coral calcification due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In late summer, rates of coral calcification are suppressed by release of CO2 from reef metabolism during a period of strong net heterotrophy. It is likely that this seasonal CREF mechanism is present in other tropical reefs although attenuated compared to high-latitude reefs such as Bermuda. Due to lower annual mean surface seawater [CO32-] and Ωaragonite in Bermuda compared to tropical regions, we anticipate that Bermuda corals will experience seasonal periods of zero net calcification within the next decade at [CO32-] and Ωaragonite thresholds of ~184 μmoles kg-1 and 2.65. However, net autotrophy of the reef

  3. Feedbacks and responses of coral calcification on the Bermuda reef system to seasonal changes in biological processes and ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bates

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential impact of ocean acidification on ecosystems such as coral reefs, surprisingly, there is very limited field data on the relationships between calcification and seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, contemporaneous in situ datasets of seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification rates from the high-latitude coral reef of Bermuda over annual timescales provide a framework for investigating the present and future potential impact of rising carbon dioxide (CO2 levels and ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems in their natural environment. A strong correlation was found between the in situ rates of calcification for the major framework building coral species Diploria labyrinthiformis and the seasonal variability of [CO32-] and aragonite saturation state Ωaragonite, rather than other environmental factors such as light and temperature. These field observations provide sufficient data to hypothesize that there is a seasonal "Carbonate Chemistry Coral Reef Ecosystem Feedback" (CREF hypothesis between the primary components of the reef ecosystem (i.e., scleractinian hard corals and macroalgae and seawater carbonate chemistry. In early summer, strong net autotrophy from benthic components of the reef system enhance [CO32-] and Ωaragonite conditions, and rates of coral calcification due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In late summer, rates of coral calcification are suppressed by release of CO2 from reef metabolism during a period of strong net heterotrophy. It is likely that this seasonal CREF mechanism is present in other tropical reefs although attenuated compared to high-latitude reefs such as Bermuda. Due to lower annual mean surface seawater [CO32-] and Ωaragonite in Bermuda compared to tropical regions, we anticipate that Bermuda corals will experience seasonal periods

  4. Dissolved organic matter in anoxic pore waters from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.; Spiker, E. C.; Szeverenyi, N.M.; Maciel, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter and dissolved inorganic chemical species in anoxic pore water from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda sediments were studied to evaluate the role of pore water in the early diagenesis of organic matter. Dissolved sulphate, titration alkalinity, phosphate, and ammonia concentration versus depth profiles were typical of many nearshore clastic sediments and indicated sulphate reduction in the upper 100 cm of sediment. The dissolved organic matter in the pore water was made up predominantly of large molecules, was concentrated from large quantities of pore water by using ultrafiltration and was extensively tudied by using elemental and stable carbon isotope analysis and high-resolution, solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that this material has a predominantly polysaccharide-like structure and in addition contains a large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups (e.g., carboxyl groups). The 13C nulcear magnetic resonance spectra of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter resemble those of the organic matter in the surface sediments of Mangrove Lake. We propose that this high-molecular-weight organic matter in pore waters represents the partially degraded, labile organic components of the sedimentary organic matter and that pore waters serve as a conduit for removal of these labile organic components from the sediments. The more refractory components are, thus, selectively preserved in the sediments as humic substances (primarily humin). ?? 1986.

  5. Parrotfish sex ratios recover rapidly in Bermuda following a fishing ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Shay; Luckhurst, Brian E.; Box, Stephen J.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Parrotfishes are an ecologically and commercially important teleost group whose grazing contributes to maintaining coral-dominated states on hermatypic reefs. However, overfishing has skewed sex ratios of Atlantic parrotfishes because fishing has disproportionate impacts on larger individuals, and males are generally larger than females. Whether protection from fishing may allow sex ratios to return to equilibrium is unknown, as fishing can induce irreversible ecological and/or evolutionary shifts. Bermuda banned trap fishing in 1990, creating a unique opportunity to analyse long-term responses of Atlantic parrotfishes to release from fishing. We found that sex ratios of four common parrotfishes were initially skewed, with male proportions ranging from 0.04 to 0.18. However, male proportions rebounded within 3-4 yr, equilibrating at values ranging from 0.36 to 0.54, similar to those reported at unfished sites in the region. Our results are encouraging for regional efforts to recover lost grazing function by restoring overfished herbivore populations.

  6. Mapping of IgE-binding regions on recombinant Cyn d 1, a major allergen from Bermuda Grass Pollen (BGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Prem L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon; subfamily Chloridoideae is an important source of seasonal aeroallergens in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Improved approaches to diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases require a thorough understanding of the structure and epitopes on the allergen molecule that are crucial for the antigen-antibody interaction. This study describes the localization of the human IgE-binding regions of the major group 1 pollen allergen Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from Bermuda grass pollen (BGP using a Lambda gt11 expression vector. The gene encoding the Cyn d 1 allergen was isolated by screening the library with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against grass group 1 allergen. In order to characterize the IgE epitopes on Cyn d 1, seven overlapping fragments and three deletion mutants were cloned and over-expressed in E. coli. The recombinant fragments and deletion mutants were evaluated for their comparative IgE reactivity with sera of non atopic individuals and grass pollen allergic patients by ELISA and a dot-blot assay. Results Analysis of IgE binding regions by overlapping fragments and deletion mutants identified two major allergenic regions corresponding to amino acids 120–170 and 224–244. Deletion of either or both regions led to a significant reduction in IgE binding, emphasizing the importance of the C-terminal region on Cyn d 1 in epitope-IgE interaction. Conclusion Anti-Cyn d 1 IgE antibodies from allergic human sera recognize two epitopes located at the C-terminal end of the molecule. These data will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for BGP hypersensitivity.

  7. 百慕大投资基金监管法律制度解析%Analysis of Bermuda Legal Regime of Investment Fund Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛彦国

    2015-01-01

    Bermuda is the preferred domicile to a wide range of hedge funds, private equity funds, trust funds and mutual funds. The relevant laws of Bermuda investment fund regulation include Monetary Authority Act, Invest-ment Funds Act, Companies Act, Limited Partnership, Exempted Partnerships Act and Partnership Act, etc. The Bermuda Monetary Authority is the principal regulator of investment fund in Bermuda. There are three main structures used for investment fund formation in Bermuda:company,partnership and unit trust. Bermuda investment fund regu-lation includes investment fund regulation and fund related parties regulation. Bermuda investment fund should meet regulation requirement,ongoing. In addition,there are regulation requirement for funds not domiciled in Bermuda too.%百慕大是众多对冲基金、私募股权基金、信托基金和共同基金的理想设立地。与百慕大投资基金监管有关的法律主要包括《金融监管局法》、《投资基金法》、《公司法》、《有限合伙企业法》、《豁免合伙企业法》和《合伙企业法》等。百慕大金融管理局是百慕大投资基金的主要监管机构。百慕大投资基金的组织形式主要有三种:公司、合伙和单位信托;监管包括对基金的监管和对基金有关当事人的监管。百慕大投资基金还要符合持续性监管要求,此外,对境外投资基金也有一定监管要求。

  8. Soil genesis on the island of Bermuda in the Quaternary: the importance of African dust transport and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Skipp, Gary; Herwitz, Stanley R.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of terra rossa, red or reddish-brown, clay-rich soils overlying high-purity carbonate substrates, has intrigued geologists and pedologists for decades. Terra rossa soils can form from accumulation of insoluble residues during dissolution of the host limestones, addition of volcanic ash, or addition of externally derived, long-range-transported (LRT) aeolian particles. We studied soils and paleosols on high-purity, carbonate aeolianites of Quaternary age on Bermuda, where terra rossa origins have been debated for more than a century. Potential soil parent materials on this island include sand-sized fragments of local volcanic bedrock, the LRT, fine-grained (N/YbN, GdN/YbN that can be distinguished from African dust and lower Mississippi River valley loess. Bermuda soils have Sc-Th-La, Cr-Ta-Nd, and Eu/Eu*, LaN/YbN, GdN/YbN that indicate derivation from a combination of LRT dust from Africa and local volcanic bedrock. Our results indicate that soils on islands in a very broad latitudinal belt of the western Atlantic margin have been influenced by African LRT dust inputs over much of the past –500 ka.

  9. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  10. Differences in Academic Achievement of Students Involved in Extracurricular Activities in Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in the United States and Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Anderson P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in the academic performance of students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States and Bermuda based on their level of involvement in school music organizations--band or choir--and school sports--varsity or intramural--as measured by standardized achievement and ability tests.…

  11. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  12. An Intercomparison of Dissolved Iron Speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) Site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, K.N.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe) was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The

  13. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  14. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-06-05

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  15. The roles of temperature and light in black band disease (BBD) progression on corals of the genus Diploria in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kristin; Jones, Ross; Gibbs, David; Richardson, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    On Bermuda reefs the brain coral Diploria labyrinthiformis is rarely documented with black band disease (BBD), while BBD-affected colonies of Diploria strigosa are common. D. labyrinthiformis on these reefs may be more resistant to BBD or less affected by prevailing environmental conditions that potentially diminish host defenses. To determine whether light and/or temperature influence BBD differently on these two species, infection experiments were conducted under the following experimental treatments: (1) 26 °C, ambient light; (2) 30 °C, ambient light; (3) 30 °C, low light; and (4) 30 °C, high light. A digital photograph of the affected area of each coral was taken each day for 7 days and analyzed with ImageJ image processing software. The final affected area was not significantly different between species in any of the four treatments. BBD lesions were smaller on both species infected under ambient light at 26 °C versus 30 °C. Low light at 30 °C significantly reduced the lesion size on both species when compared to colonies infected at the same temperature under ambient light. Under high light at 30 °C, BBD lesions were larger on colonies of D. strigosa and smaller on colonies of D. labyrinthiformis when compared to colonies infected under ambient light at the same temperature. The responses of both species suggests that BBD progression on both D. strigosa and D. labyrinthiformis is similarly influenced by a combination of light and temperature and that other factors present before infections become established likely contribute to the difference in BBD prevalence in Bermuda. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyses and simulations of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Felix at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: 13-23 August 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedler, S. E.; Dickey, T. D.; Doney, S. C.; Price, J. F.; Yu, X.; Mellor, G. L.

    2002-12-01

    The center of Hurricane Felix passed 85 km to the southwest of the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM; 31°44'N, 64°10'W) site on 15 August 1995. Data collected in the upper ocean from the BTM during this encounter provide a rare opportunity to investigate the physical processes that occur in a hurricane's wake. Data analyses indicate that the storm caused a large increase in kinetic energy at near-inertial frequencies, internal gravity waves in the thermocline, and inertial pumping, mixed layer deepening, and significant vertical redistribution of heat, with cooling of the upper 30 m and warming at depths of 30-70 m. The temperature evolution was simulated using four one-dimensional mixed layer models: Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP), K Profile Parameterization (KPP), Mellor-Yamada 2.5 (MY), and a modified version of MY2.5 (MY2). The primary differences in the model results were in their simulations of temperature evolution. In particular, when forced using a drag coefficient that had a linear dependence on wind speed, the KPP model predicted sea surface cooling, mixed layer currents, and the maximum depth of cooling closer to the observations than any of the other models. This was shown to be partly because of a special parameterization for gradient Richardson number (RgKPP) shear instability mixing in response to resolved shear in the interior. The MY2 model predicted more sea surface cooling and greater depth penetration of kinetic energy than the MY model. In the MY2 model the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is parameterized as a function of a locally defined Richardson number (RgMY2) allowing for a reduction in dissipation rate for stable Richardson numbers (RgMY2) when internal gravity waves are likely to be present. Sensitivity simulations with the PWP model, which has specifically defined mixing procedures, show that most of the heat lost from the upper layer was due to entrainment (parameterized as a function of bulk Richardson number RbPWP), with the

  17. Seitse paika, mis peidavad mõistatusi / Till Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Till

    2009-01-01

    Kayaikhtiyo stuupa Birmas, Nazca Peruus, püramiidid Egiptuses, Meoto-Iwa Jaapanis, Stonehenge Inglismaal, Machu Picchu Peruus ja Bermuda kolmnurk Sargasso meres on paigad, mille lahtiseletamise üle on murdnud pead mitu põlvkonda inimesi

  18. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed.

  19. Water type and irrigation time effects on microbial metabolism of a soil cultivated with Bermuda-grass Tifton 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Furlan Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006 after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization, PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1; TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1 for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.

  20. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU may be a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  1. Apparent oxygen utilization rates calculated from tritium and helium-3 profiles at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Stanley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present three years of Apparent Oxygen Utilization Rates (AOUR estimated from oxygen and tracer data collected over the ocean thermocline at monthly resolution between 2003 and 2006 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site. We estimate water ages by calculating a transit time distribution from tritium and helium-3 data. The vertically integrated AOUR over the upper 500 m, which is a regional estimate of export, during the three years is 3.1 ± 0.5 mol O2 m−2 yr−1. This is comparable to previous AOUR-based estimates of export production at the BATS site but is several times larger than export estimates derived from sediment traps or 234Th fluxes. We compare AOUR determined in this study to AOUR measured in the 1980s and show AOUR is significantly greater today than decades earlier because of changes in AOU, rather than changes in ventilation rates. The changes in AOU are likely a methodological artefact associated with problems with early oxygen measurements.

  2. Field comparison of Bermuda-hay infusion to infusions of emergent aquatic vegetation for collecting female mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R

    2007-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in east-central Alabama in 2003 and 2004 to compare the attractiveness of selected gravid-trap infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Comparisons were made among infusions of the following plants: Bermuda hay, Cynodon dactylon, and 3 species of emergent aquatic plants typical of Culex larval habitats, i.e., soft rush, Juncus effusus; a common sedge, Rhynchospora corniculata; and broad-leaf cattail, Typha latifolia. Experiments were conducted at a site in Lee County, AL, with an abundance of common nuisance mosquitoes, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Carbon dioxide-baited miniature light traps were operated concurrently with gravid traps to provide an activity index of mosquito species at the site. Gravid traps with hay infusion collected the greatest numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex restuans females (2003). The results indicate that hay infusion is highly attractive to Cx. quinquefasciatus and is the infusion of choice for collecting females of this species in gravid traps. In the case of Ae. albopictus, infusions were not determined to be significantly different from one another in their attractiveness to gravid females. In general, females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. restuans demonstrated selectivity when choosing an oviposition site, whereas Ae. albopictus females did not. Factors associated with the oviposition biology of the latter species most likely account for their lack of preference for any single infusion type.

  3. Influence of the Bermuda High on interannual variability of summertime ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Jia, Beixi; Wang, Sing-Chun; Estes, Mark; Shen, Lu; Xie, Yuanyu

    2016-12-01

    The Bermuda High (BH) quasi-permanent pressure system is the key large-scale circulation pattern influencing summertime weather over the eastern and southern US. Here we developed a multiple linear regression (MLR) model to characterize the effect of the BH on year-to-year changes in monthly-mean maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) metropolitan region during June, July, and August (JJA). The BH indicators include the longitude of the BH western edge (BH-Lon) and the BH intensity index (BHI) defined as the pressure gradient along its western edge. Both BH-Lon and BHI are selected by MLR as significant predictors (p control whether or not low-ozone maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico can enter southeastern Texas and affect air quality. This mechanism also applies to other coastal urban regions along the Gulf Coast (e.g., New Orleans, LA, Mobile, AL, and Pensacola, FL), suggesting that the BH circulation pattern can affect surface ozone variability through a large portion of the Gulf Coast.

  4. Comparison of diatom records of the Heinrich event 1 in the Western North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Isabelle M; Abrantes, Fatima G [LNEG-Marine Geology Unit, Estrada da Portela - Alfragide, Apartado 7586 - 2720-866 Amadora (Portugal); Keigwin, Lloyd D, E-mail: igil@whoi.ed [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, McLean 207A, MS08, Woods Hole - Ma. 02543 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is a climate event resulting from the release into the North Atlantic of a huge volume of sea ice and icebergs from the northern hemisphere ice sheets. We present here high-resolution diatom records from the Bermuda Rise (Sargasso Sea) and the Laurentian Fan (South of Newfoundland) to assess its impacts on North Atlantic surface circulation and its timing. The event is composed of three phases: the two first correspond to major pulses of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and the third phase relates to its immediate aftermath. At both sites, diatom abundances start to rise at 16.8 ka. This increase is marked by diatom species thriving in cold environments over the Laurentian Fan, while brackish and fresh water diatom species characterize this increase over the Bermuda Rise. This last record implies icebergs migration to subtropical latitudes and nutrient-rich meltwater to support such diatom productivity. During the second phase of the event, both sites record maximum diatom abundances, when sea ice conditions are dominant over the Laurentian Fan and the contribution of brackish-fresh water diatoms culminates over the Bermuda Rise. The persistence of lower salinity related diatom species over the Bermuda Rise suggests a continuous injection of cold fresh water by cold-core rings, as observed nowadays. The last phase witnesses the persistence of low salinity water over the Laurentian Fan, while a decrease towards the disappearance of diatoms in the sediment occurs over the Bermuda Rise. Regarding the relationship between IRD and diatom abundance, it appears that a critical amount of icebergs is necessary to stimulate diatom productivity. The disturbances induced by H1 appear to end {approx}14.6 ka over the Bermuda Rise, while over the Laurentian Fan, the high diatom production persists until 14.1 ka and the salinity anomaly until 13.8 ka.

  5. Inversion Schemes to Retrieve Atmospheric and Oceanic Parameters from SeaWiFS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P.-Y.; Frouin, R.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation focuses on two key issues in satellite ocean color remote sensing, namely the presence of whitecaps on the sea surface and the validity of the aerosol models selected for the atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS data. Experiments were designed and conducted at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography to measure the optical properties of whitecaps and to study the aerosol optical properties in a typical mid-latitude coastal environment. CIMEL Electronique sunphotometers, now integrated in the AERONET network, were also deployed permanently in Bermuda and in Lanai, calibration/validation sites for SeaWiFS and MODIS. Original results were obtained on the spectral reflectance of whitecaps and on the choice of aerosol models for atmospheric correction schemes and the type of measurements that should be made to verify those schemes. Bio-optical algorithms to remotely sense primary productivity from space were also evaluated, as well as current algorithms to estimate PAR at the earth's surface.

  6. Variation in larval properties of the Atlantic brooding coral Porites astreoides between different reef sites in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Putron, Samantha J.; Lawson, Julia M.; White, Kascia Q. L.; Costa, Matthew T.; Geronimus, Miriam V. B.; MacCarthy, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has documented phenotypic differences among larvae released from corals with a brooding reproductive mode, both among species and within broods from a single species. We studied larvae released from the common Atlantic coral Porites astreoides in Bermuda to further evaluate phenotypic variability. Inter-site differences were investigated in larvae from conspecifics at a rim and patch reef site. Larvae were collected daily for one lunar cycle from several colonies per site each year over 5 yr. Larval volume varied with reef site of origin, with colonies from the rim reef site producing larger larvae than colonies from the patch reef site. This inter-site variation in larval size could not be explained by corallite size and may be a response to different environmental conditions at the sites. Larvae from both reef sites also varied in size depending on lunar day of release over 4 yr of study. Regardless of site of origin, smaller larvae were released earlier in the lunar cycle. Over 1 yr of study, lipid and zooxanthellae content and settlement success after 48 h covaried with larval size. However, there may be a trade-off between larger larvae and reduced fecundity. Overall, larvae released from colonies from the rim reef site were larger and had greater settlement success than those from colonies from the patch reef site. This study documents larval phenotypic variability and a distinct inter-site difference in larval ecology among conspecifics within the same geographic area, which may have implications for recruitment success, population dynamics, and resilience.

  7. ONE AND TWO STAGE AUTOHYDROLYSIS PRETREATMENTS FOR ENZYME HYDROLYSIS OF COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS TO PRODUCE FERMENTABLE SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Myoung Lee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal Bermuda grass (CBG is an agricultural residue with considerable potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic-based ethanol. The treatment of biomass with water at high temperature, termed autohydrolysis, can be used to recover sugars in the filtrate and to improve enzyme digestibility of the pretreated solids. The effect of a two- stage autohydrolysis process with respect to total sugar recovery relative to a one stage process was investigated. CBG was subjected to lab scale one-stage (150, 160, and 170 C and two-stage (150/170 C and 160/170 C isothermal autohydrolysis processes followed by enzyme hydrolysis on the residual solids with different loadings (5 to 30 FPU/g. Two-stage autohydrolysis (160/170 C solubilized 94.2% of the hemicellulose based on the original CBG material but only 17.7% of the cellulose and 30.4% of the lignin. Increases in the severity factor (a combination of time and temperature of autohydrolysis pretreatments decreased the recoverable carbohydrates and total solids. Two-stage autohydrolysis enhanced enzyme digestibility of the cellulose in pretreated solids relative to one-stage autohydrolysis, especially at higher values of FPU/g. The overall total theoretical sugar recovery achievable by the two stage process was 57.8% and for the one stage process only 51.6% with 30 FPU/g. This marginal increase would have to be considered relative to increased complexity of operations when deciding whether to implement one or two stage autohydrolysis.

  8. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  9. Water quality, isoscapes and stoichioscapes of seagrasses indicate general P limitation and unique N cycling in shallow water benthos of Bermuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Fourqurean

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Striking spatial patterns in stable isotope ratios (isoscapes and elemental ratios (stoichioscapes of seagrass leaves and the water column nutrients indicate general P-limitation of both water column and benthic primary productivity on the Bermuda Platform, and they highlight the role of the Bermuda Islands as a source of N and P. We found consistent differences among the four seagrass species (Syringodium filiforme, Thalassia testudinum, Halodule sp. and Halophila decipiens in the N, P, δ13C and δ15N of leaf tissues. The δ15N of seagrass leaves was especially variable, with values from −10.1 to 8.8‰, greatly expanding the reported range of values for all seagrass species globally. Spatial patterns from both the water column and the seagrass leaves indicated that P availability was higher near shore, and δ15N values suggest this was likely a result of human waste disposal. Spatially-contiguous areas of extremely depleted seagrass δ15N suggest unique N sources and cycling compared to other seagrass-dominated environments. Seagrass N : P values were not as far from the stoichiometric balance between N and P availability as in the water column, and there were no strong relationships between the water column N : P and the seagrass N : P. Such isoscapes and stoichioscapes provide valuable ecogeochemical tools to infer ecosystem processes as well as provide information that can inform food web and animal movement studies.

  10. Verification of Geosat sea surface topography in the Gulf Stream extension with surface drifting buoys and hydrographic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, J.; KäSe, R. H.; Stammer, D.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Krauss, W.

    1990-03-01

    Altimeter data from Geosat have been analyzed in the Gulf Stream extension area. Horizontal maps of the sea surface height anomaly relative to an annual mean for various 17-day intervals were constructed using an objective mapping procedure. The mean sea level was approximated by the dynamic topography from climatological hydrographic data. Geostrophic surface velocities derived from the composite maps (mean plus anomaly) are significantly correlated with surface drifter velocities observed during an oceanographie experiment in the spring of 1987. The drifter velocities contain much energy on scales less than 100 km which are not resolved in the altimetric maps. It is shown that the composite sea surface height also agrees well with ground verification from hydrographic data along sections in a triangle between the Azores, Newfoundland, and Bermuda, except in regions of high mean gradients.

  11. C : N : P stoichiometry at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study station in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P availability determine the strength of the ocean's carbon (C uptake, and variation in the N : P ratio in inorganic nutrients is key to phytoplankton growth. A similarity between C : N : P ratios in the plankton biomass and deep-water nutrients was observed by Alfred C. Redfield around 80 years ago and suggested that biological processes in the surface ocean controlled deep ocean chemistry. Recent studies have emphasized the role of inorganic N : P ratios in governing biogeochemical processes, particularly the C : N : P ratio in suspended particulate organic matter (POM, with somewhat less attention given to exported POM and dissolved organic matter (DOM. Herein, we extend the discussion on ecosystem C : N : P stoichiometry but also examine temporal variation of stoichiometric relationships. We have analysed elemental stoichiometry in the suspended POM and total (POM + DOM organic matter (TOM pools in the upper 100 m, and in the exported POM and sub-euphotic zone (100–500 m inorganic nutrient pools from the monthly data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site located in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean. C : N : P ratios in the TOM pool were more than twice that in the POM pool. Observed C : N ratios in suspended POM were approximately equal to the canonical Redfield Ratio (C : N : P = 106 : 16 : 1, while N : P and C : P ratios in the same pool were more than twice the Redfield Ratio. Average N : P ratios in the subsurface inorganic nutrient pool were ~ 26 : 1, squarely between the suspended POM ratio and the Redfield ratio. We have further linked variation in elemental stoichiometry with that of phytoplankton cell abundance observed at the BATS site. Findings from this study suggest that the variation elemental ratios with depth in the euphotic zone was mainly due to different growth rates of cyanobacterial cells. These time-series data have also allowed us to examine the

  12. Comparing Chemistry and Census-based Estimates of Net Ecosystem Calcification on a Rim Reef in Bermuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis A Courtney

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef net ecosystem calcification (NEC has decreased for many Caribbean reefs over recent decades primarily due to a combination of declining coral cover and changing benthic community composition. Chemistry-based approaches to calculate NEC utilize the drawdown of seawater total alkalinity (TA combined with residence time to calculate an instantaneous measurement of NEC. Census-based approaches combine annual growth rates with benthic cover and reef structural complexity to estimate NEC occurring over annual timescales. Here, NEC was calculated for Hog Reef in Bermuda using both chemistry and census-based NEC techniques to compare the mass-balance generated by the two methods and identify the dominant biocalcifiers at Hog Reef. Our findings indicate close agreement between the annual 2011 census-based NEC 2.35±1.01 kg CaCO3•m-2•y-1 and the chemistry-based NEC 2.23±1.02 kg CaCO3•m-2•y-1 at Hog Reef. An additional record of Hog Reef TA data calculated from an autonomous CO2 mooring measuring pCO2 and modeled pHtotal every 3-hours highlights the dynamic temporal variability in coral reef NEC. This ability for chemistry-based NEC techniques to capture higher frequency variability in coral reef NEC allows the mechanisms driving NEC variability to be explored and tested. Just four coral species, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Millepora alcicornis, and Orbicella franksi, were identified by the census-based NEC as contributing to 94±19% of the total calcium carbonate production at Hog Reef suggesting these species should be highlighted for conservation to preserve current calcium carbonate production rates at Hog Reef. As coral cover continues to decline globally, the agreement between these NEC estimates suggest that either method, but ideally both methods, may serve as a useful tool for coral reef managers and conservation scientists to monitor the maintenance of coral reef structure and ecosystem services.

  13. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  14. 《大学英语》课程中”The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon”课堂教学设计案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柔新; 林昊

    2015-01-01

    在任务型教学法基本理念的指导下,对《新视"大学英语院读写教程3》中的第十单元Section A:The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon进行课堂设计.围绕教学目的,设计出由浅入深、环环相扣的任务链.使学生通过对目标语言的使用来完成学习任务,最终达到学习语言和掌握语言的目的,充分体现了学生的主体性以及注重协作学习的理念.

  15. 《大学英语》课程中“The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon”课堂教学设计案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柔新; 林昊

    2015-01-01

    在任务型教学法基本理念的指导下,对《新视野大学英语:读写教程3》中的第十单元Section A: The Bermuda Triangle Phenomenon进行课堂设计。围绕教学目的,设计出由浅入深、环环相扣的任务链。使学生通过对目标语言的使用来完成学习任务,最终达到学习语言和掌握语言的目的,充分体现了学生的主体性以及注重协作学习的理念。

  16. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  17. An intercomparison of dissolved iron speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Nicolle Buck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction between the datasets was the number of ligand classes observed: a single ligand class was characterized in the June 2010 profile while two ligand classes were observed in the November 2011 profile. To assess the role of differing interpretation approaches in determining final results, analysts exchanged titration data and accompanying parameters from the profiles for reinterpretation. The reinterpretation exercises highlighted the considerable influence of the sensitivity (S parameter applied on interpretation results, consistent with recent intercalibration work on interpretation of copper speciation titrations. The potential role of titration data structure, humic-type substances, differing dissolved Fe concentrations, and seasonality are also discussed as possible drivers of the one versus two ligand class determinations between the two profiles, leading to recommendations for future studies of Fe-binding ligand cycling in the oceans.

  18. Downward export of respiratory carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen by diel-migrant mesozooplankton at the JGOFS Bermuda time-series station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hans G.; Roman, Michael R.; Youngbluth, Marsh J.

    1995-07-01

    Published calculations suggest that downward fluxes of respiratory carbon (RC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) associated with diel-migrant zooplankton are significant forms of export production. In this study, we examined variability in downward fluxes of RC and DIN due to diel-migrant mesozooplankton (200-2000 μm) on seven occasions between 25 March and 8 April 1990 at the JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) station off Bermuda. Downward fluxes due to migrators crossing 150 m ranged from 6 to 41 mgC m -2 day -1 (RC) and 2 to 5 mgN m -2 day -1 (DIN). In comparison to gravitational fluxes of POC and PON measured with particle traps at 150m during the same period, mesozooplankton RC flux was 18-70% of POCflux and mesozooplankton DIN flux was 17-82% of PON flux. If the RC and DIN fluxes due to migrators are considered in calculations of export production, the percentage of the production exported below 150 m over the study period would increase by an average of 25% for carbon and 21% for nitrogen. These results support the contention that metabolic activities of diel-migrant zooplankton should be included in calculations of export of carbon and nitrogen out of the mixed layer.

  19. Re-description of Echiniscus cavagnaroi Schuster & Grigarick, 1966 (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada: Echiniscoidea: Echiniscidae) from type material, with new records from Hawaii and Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harry A

    2016-06-13

    The description of Echiniscus cavagnaroi Schuster & Grigarick, 1966 (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada: Echiniscoidea: Echiniscidae) is emended with new morphometric measurements of the holotype and eleven paratypes. The length of Cirrus A in the holotype (25.2 μm) was only half the 50 μm reported in the original description. Moreover, the largest values for Cirrus A length and Cirrus A to body length ratio for any specimen (40.6 μm, 21%) were also lower than in the original description. Variation in the presence or absence of spines was considerably greater than originally described. Spines C, Dd and E were not present on all specimens (C present in 67%, Dd in 67%, E in 50%). The length of spines Dd and E, when present, varied greatly among specimens. The geographical range of E. cavagnaroi is expanded by new records from the Hawaiian Islands and Bermuda. The species has been reported from southern China; however, the published description of these specimens differs markedly from type specimens in several respects. The presence of E. cavagnaroi sensu stricto in China needs to be confirmed. The high variability in presence or absence and length of spines in Echiniscus cavagnaroi underscores the importance of assessing variability in these characteristics when identifying unknown specimens or describing new species in the genus. This requires using as many specimens as possible and fully reporting variability.

  20. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  1. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  2. Silicate:nitrate ratios of upwelled waters control the phytoplankton community sustained by mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical North Atlantic and Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bibby

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies in sub-tropical gyres physically perturb the water column and can introduce macronutrients to the euphotic zone, stimulating a biological response by which phytoplankton communities can become dominated by large phytoplankton. Mesoscale eddies are therefore important in driving export in oligotrophic regions of the modern ocean. The character and magnitude of the biological response sustained by eddies are, however, variable. Here we present data from mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea (Atlantic and the waters off Hawai'i (Pacific, alongside mesoscale events that affected the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS over the past decade. From this analysis, we suggest that the phytoplankton community structure sustained by mesoscale eddies is predetermined by the relative abundance of silicate over nitrate (Si* in the upwelled waters. We present data that demonstrate that mode-water eddies (MWE in the Sargasso Sea upwell locally formed waters with high Si* to the euphotic zone, and that cyclonic eddies in the Sargasso Sea introduce waters with low Si*, a signature that originated in the iron-limited Southern Ocean. We propose that this phenomenon can explain the observed abundance of large-diatom species in MWE and small prokaryotic phytoplankton in cyclonic features. In contrast to the Atlantic, cyclonic eddies in waters off Hawai'i induce North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW that has high Si* and therefore also appears capable of establishing diatom populations. These observations suggest that the structure of phytoplankton communities sustained by eddies may not be directly related to the physical nature of the eddy but rather to the chemical composition of the upwelled waters. This paper links the biological production and export efficiency of mesoscale eddies to events in spatially and temporally disparate locations.

  3. Isotopic equilibration between dissolved and suspended particulate lead in the Atlantic Ocean - Evidence from Pb-210 and stable Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrell, Robert M.; Boyle, Edward A.; Hamelin, Bruno

    1992-01-01

    Vertical profiles of, on one hand, the stable Pb isotopic composition, and on the other, the ratio of total Pb to Pb-210 in suspended particles, are noted to closely track contemporaneous depth variations in these ratios for dissolved Pb throughout the upper 2 km of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. A simple flux model suggests that the effect of deep ocean scavenging processes on the flux and isotopic composition of Pb sinking on large particles was minor throughout the preanthropogenic, and most of the anthropogenic era: but it has become more important as surface inputs decrease to preleaded gasoline levels, perhaps exceeding the contribution of surface-derived Pb flux in the next decade.

  4. Computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the anatomy of Microhedyle remanei (Marcus, 1953), an interstitial acochlidian gastropod from Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neusser, Timea P; Hess, Martin; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Schrödl, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the highly enigmatic and aberrant acochlidian opisthobranch gastropods is mainly hindered by the lack of reliable anatomical data. Due to their small size, marine interstitial acochlidian species are not suitable for anatomical investigations by dissecting. The tinyness and complexity of, e.g., opisthobranch central nervous and reproductive systems make data derived from older paraffin-based histology and interpretation by hand-based graphical reconstruction questionable. In a former study, a hermaphroditic member of the basal acochlidian genus Hedylopsis ("Hedylopsacea") has been examined in detail. The present study uses the gonochoric Microhedyle remanei (Microhedylidae) as a model organism of the other traditional major acochlidian subgroup, the "Microhedylacea." More than 20 specimens with up to 2 mm body length were extracted from coarse subtidal sand near Castle Roads, Bermuda Islands. Their central nervous, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and genital systems were reconstructed three-dimensionally from serial semithin histological sections using AMIRA software. The radula was analyzed by SEM. Our specimens closely resemble the original description of M. remanei (Marcus, 1953; as Unela) from Brazil; apparent differences regarding the number of visceral loop ganglia or details of male genitalia are assumed to be due to oversights by the former author or because of different ontogenetic stages. Microhedyle remanei differs from all congeners due to the lack (vs. presence) of eyes; further distinguishing features are discussed. In contrast to members of the hedylopsacean Hedylopsidae, Acochlidiidae, and Tantulidae, M. remanei shows a nervous system with numerous precerebral accessory "ganglia" that are not differentiated into cortex and medulla. While all Microhedylidae previously were thought to lack a heart, M. remanei shows a two-chambered heart, as is usual for opisthobranchs. The oocytes of M. remanei are yolky and large in

  5. Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS): a decade-scale look at ocean biology and biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Deborah K.; Carlson, Craig A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Johnson, Rodney J.; Michaels, Anthony F.; Knap, Anthony H.

    The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) commenced monthly sampling in October 1988 as part of the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) program. The goals of the US JGOFS time-series research are to better understand the basic processes that control ocean biogeochemistry on seasonal to decadal time-scales, determine the role of the oceans in the global carbon budget, and ultimately improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on ecosystems. The BATS program samples the ocean on a biweekly to monthly basis, a strategy that resolves major seasonal patterns and interannual variability. The core cruises last 4-5 d during which hydrography, nutrients, particle flux, pigments and primary production, bacterioplankton abundance and production, and often complementary ancillary measurements are made. This overview focuses on patterns in ocean biology and biogeochemistry over a decade at the BATS site, concentrating on seasonal and interannual changes in community structure, and the physical forcing and other factors controlling the temporal dynamics. Significant seasonal and interannual variability in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton production, biomass, and community structure exists at BATS. No strong relationship exists between primary production and particle flux during the 10 yr record, with the relationship slightly improved by applying an artificial lag of 1 week between production and flux. The prokaryotic picoplankton regularly dominate the phytoplankton community; diatom blooms are rare but occur periodically in the BATS time series. The increase in Chl a concentrations during bloom periods is due to increases by most of the taxa present, rather than by any single group, and there is seasonal succession of phytoplankton. The bacterioplankton often dominate the living biomass, indicating the potential to consume large amounts of carbon and play a major ecological role within the microbial food web. Bacterial biomass, production, and

  6. On Rochester’ s Inferiority Compensation in Wide Sargasso Sea%优越情结的悲剧--《藻海无边》中罗切斯特的自卑补偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓军; 叶雅观

    2013-01-01

    根据阿德勒的自卑理论,《藻海无边》中主人公安托瓦内特和罗切斯特的婚姻悲剧部分源于主人公罗切斯特未能对自卑感做出适度的补偿,对自卑过度补偿导致优越情结。剖析其对自卑感补偿不当最终酿成悲剧,从一个侧面更好地阐释人物的心理特征和个性,把握他们的婚姻悲剧。%According to the theory of Alfred Adler ’ s Inferiority Complex , the thesis holds that marriage tragedy of Antoinette and Rochester is partly due to Rochester ’ s improper compensation for inferiority feelings .It is Rochester ’ s overcompensation that leads to the result of superiority complex .Analysis of the tragedy of Rochester ’ s inappropriate compensation will help to have a bet-ter examination of the character ’ s psychology and personality and understanding of the marriage tragedy .

  7. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  8. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  9. Notes on the zoogeography of the Atlantic sea turtles of the genus Lepidochelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archie Carr

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The sea turtle Lepidochelys kempi has an extensive range in coastal waters of the United States, and in parts of Florida is abundant as a seasonal resident. All known populations are sexually immature, and the breeding area of the species is not known. The present paper suggests the necessity of assuming a distant origin for the North American population, examines fragmentary evidence bearing on the coronary assumption of migratory movement, and somewhat hesitantly proposes the coast of northwestern Africa as a possible site of nesting. Spreading into American waters may occur via the Gulf Stream system. New records extend the range of the genus to northern Mauretania and into the MediterraneanLa tortuga marina Lepidochelys kempi tiene amplia distribución en el litoral de los Estados Unidos, y abunda como visitante en la costa occidental de Florida, si bien en la costa oriental hay un trecho desde Melbourne hasta Miami en que no ha sido registrada. Tampoco ha sido registrada en las Bahamas ni en las Antillas, aunque un ejemplar recogido en Cuba, mencionado por AGUAYO (1 parece ser la especie africana L. olivacea, que se debe considerar como visitante y ocasional de esas islas; también existe por 10 menos un ejemplar registrado en las cercanías de Bermuda, y queda la posibilidad de que la "batalí" de Trinidad sea una u otra especie de Lepidochelys. L. olivacea, que se debe considerar como visitante y ocasional de esas islas; también existe por lo menos un ejemplar registrado en las cercanías de Bermuda, y queda la posibilidad de que la "batalí" de Trinidad sea una u otra especie de Lepidochelys. Todas las poblaciones conocidas en aguas norteamericanas son sexualmente inmaturas, y no se conoce el criadero de la especie. En este trabajo el autor sugiere la necesidad de suponer un punto de origen distante para estas poblaciones; examina los fragmentos disponibles de evidencia que apoyan la suposición corolaria de movimientos migratorios, y

  10. Simulating transoceanic migrations of young loggerhead sea turtles: merging magnetic navigation behavior with an ocean circulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Verley, Philippe; Shay, Thomas J; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2012-06-01

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida, USA, undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the Sargasso Sea before returning to the North American coast. Loggerheads possess a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields elicit changes in swimming direction along the migratory pathway. In some geographic areas, however, ocean currents move more rapidly than young turtles can swim. Thus, the degree to which turtles can control their migratory movements has remained unclear. In this study, the movements of young turtles were simulated within a high-resolution ocean circulation model using several different behavioral scenarios, including one in which turtles drifted passively and others in which turtles swam briefly in accordance with experimentally derived data on magnetic navigation. Results revealed that small amounts of oriented swimming in response to regional magnetic fields profoundly affected migratory routes and endpoints. Turtles that engaged in directed swimming for as little as 1-3 h per day were 43-187% more likely than passive drifters to reach the Azores, a productive foraging area frequented by Florida loggerheads. They were also more likely to remain within warm-water currents favorable for growth and survival, avoid areas on the perimeter of the migratory route where predation risk and thermal conditions pose threats, and successfully return to the open-sea migratory route if carried into coastal areas. These findings imply that even weakly swimming marine animals may be able to exert strong effects on their migratory trajectories and open-sea distributions through simple navigation responses and minimal swimming.

  11. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  12. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  13. Ecological regime shift drives declining growth rates of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S.; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A.G.; Santos, Armando J.B.; Bortolon, Luis Felipe Wurdig; Meylan, Anne B.; Meylan, Peter A.; Gray, Jennifer; Hardy, Robert; Brost, Beth; Bresette, Michael; Gorham, Jonathan C.; Connett, Stephen; Crouchley, Barbara Van Sciver; Dawson, Mike; Hayes, Deborah; Diez, Carlos E.; van Dam, Robert P.; Willis, Sue; Nava, Mabel; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Crowder, Andrew; Pollock, Clayton; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Muñoz Tenería, Fernando A.; Herrera-Pavón, Roberto; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Lorences, Armando; Negrete-Philippe, Ana; Lamont, Margaret M.; Foley, Allen M.; Bailey, Rhonda; Carthy, Raymond R.; Scarpino, Russell; McMichael, Erin; Provancha, Jane A.; Brooks, Annabelle; Jardim, Adriana; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; González-Paredes, Daniel; Estrades, Andrés; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Martínez-Souza, Gustavo; Vélez-Rubio, Gabriela M.; Boulon, Ralf H.; Collazo, Jaime; Wershoven, Robert; Hernández, Vicente Guzmán; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta C.; Claydon, John A.B.; Metz, Tasha L.; Gordon, Amanda L.; Landry, Andre M.; Shaver, Donna J.; Blumenthal, Janice; Collyer, Lucy; Godley, Brendan J.; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Bethel, Thomas L.; Kenyon, Lory

    2017-01-01

    Somatic growth is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. Growth dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled growth rate data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 growth increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015. Using generalized additive mixed models, we evaluated covariates that could affect growth rates; body size, diet, and year have significant effects on growth. Growth increases in early years until 1999, then declines by 26% to 2015. The temporal (year) effect is of particular interest because two carnivorous species of sea turtles – hawksbills, Eretmochelys imbricata, and loggerheads, Caretta caretta – exhibited similar significant declines in growth rates starting in 1997 in the West Atlantic, based on previous studies. These synchronous declines in productivity among three sea turtle species across a trophic spectrum provide strong evidence that an ecological regime shift (ERS) in the Atlantic is driving growth dynamics. The ERS resulted from a synergy of the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – the strongest on record – combined with an unprecedented warming rate over the last two to three decades. Further support is provided by the strong correlations between annualized mean growth rates of green turtles and both sea surface temperatures (SST) in the West Atlantic for years of declining growth rates (r = -0.94) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) for all years (r = 0.74). Granger-causality analysis also supports the latter finding. We discuss multiple stressors that could reinforce and prolong the effect of the ERS. This study

  14. Global sea-level fluctuations during the Last Interglaciation (MIS 5e)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Paul J.; Hollin, John T.; Neumann, A. Conrad; O'Leary, Michael J.; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2007-09-01

    The geomorphology and morphostratigraphy of numerous worldwide sites reveal the relative movements of sea level during the peak of the Last Interglaciation (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, assumed average duration between 130±2 and 119±2 ka). Because sea level was higher than present, deposits are emergent, exposed, and widespread on many stable coastlines. Correlation with MIS 5e is facilitated by similar morphostratigraphic relationships, a low degree of diagenesis, uranium-thorium (U/Th) ages, and a global set of amino-acid racemization (AAR) data. This study integrates information from a large number of sites from tectonically stable areas including Bermuda, Bahamas, and Western Australia, and some that have experienced minor uplift (˜2.5 m/100 ka), including selected sites from the Mediterranean and Hawaii. Significant fluctuations during the highstand are evident at many MIS 5e sites, revealed from morphological, stratigraphic, and sedimentological evidence. Rounded and flat-topped curves derived only from reef tracts are incomplete and not representative of the entire interglacial story. Despite predictions of much different sea-level histories in Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Western Australia due to glacio- and hydro-isostatic effects, the rocks from these sites reveal a nearly identical record during the Last Interglaciation. The Last Interglacial highstand is characterized by several defined sea-level intervals (SLIs) that include: (SLI#1) post-glacial (MIS 6/5e Termination II) rise to above present before 130 ka; (SLI#2) stability at +2 to +3 m for the initial several thousand years (˜130 to ˜125 ka) during which fringing reefs were established and terrace morphology was imprinted along the coastlines; (SLI#3) a brief fall to near or below present around 125 ka; (SLI#4) a secondary rise to and through ˜+3-4 m (˜124 to ˜122 ka); followed by (SLI#5) a brief period of instability (˜120 ka) characterized by a rapid rise to between +6 to +9 m during

  15. MONOGENEA OF EXOTIC FISHES I.DESCRIPTION OF Salsuginus bermudae FROM Gambusia affinis FOR THE FIRST TIME IN CHINA%外来鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅰ.食蚊鱼寄生百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae首次在我国检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向英; 丁雪娟

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a newly recorded monogenean in China, Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles, 1987, found on the gills of an exotic fish, Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The shape of our specimens basically agrees with the original description except for the dimensions of the whole worms, the shape of the connective bars and the number of the marginal hooks.%记录采自广东广州食蚊鱼Gambusia-affinis鳃上的1种单殖吸虫——百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles,1987.所获标本与Rand & Wiles的原始描述基本一致,但在量度、边缘小钩数量、联结片的结构上略有差异.伴盐虫属及百慕大伴盐虫均为我国首次报道.

  16. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  17. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  18. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  19. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  20. All That Unplowed Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  1. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  2. The Caspian Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostianoy, Andrey; Kosarev, A.

    The systematic description of the knowledge accumulated on the physical oceanography, marine chemistry and pollution, and marine biology of the Caspian Sea forms the basis of this book. It presents the principal characteristic features of the environmental conditions of the sea and their changes in the second half of the 20th century. At present, the principal problems of the Caspian Sea are related to the interannual sea level changes and their forecast and to the estimation of the intensity of the chemical pollution of the sea and its impact upon the biota.

  3. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...... suggests that SEA professionals need to consider 'democratic effectiveness' as well as 'environmental effectiveness' in both 'direct' and 'indirect' outputs. The effectiveness of SEA depends critically on the context within which SEA legislation and guidelines are understood and implemented......, and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  4. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr...

  6. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  7. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  8. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  9. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  10. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  11. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  12. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...... the Danish energy sector) are starting to get it right. Lessons for SEA implementation in similar contexts are proposed....

  13. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  14. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-07

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  15. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  16. Somalia ... From the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    from the Sea, p. 7. 65. Robert D. Heinl, Jr., “Inchon, 1950,” in As- sault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare, ed. Merrill L...Mohamed Haji. Historical Dictionary of Somalia. New ed. Lanham, Md.: Scare- crow , 2003. Natsios, Andrew S. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Four Horsemen of

  17. SEA in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available in a number of them. Despite these trends, however, the opportunities that SEA can offer to facilitate sustainable development are not being realized. In this chapter, the authors describe the emergence of SEA in the post-colonial, democratic context...

  18. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    dioxide in intermediate layers falls from approx. 1000 mu atm in the southern end to approx. 500 mu atm in the northern Red Sea. Temperature in Atlantis II deep and brine level in Discovery deep in the Red Sea seem to be increasing in recent years...

  19. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...... in the implementation of SEA in the sector, and they concern, e.g., strategic choices in transmission network development and ministerial choices on location of energy production units. The paper outlines the roots of the dilemmas as well as their implications for timing and content of SEA. The verdict is that we (in...... the Danish energy sector) are starting to get it right. Lessons for SEA implementation in similar contexts are proposed....

  20. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  1. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...

  2. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  3. Diversification at the narrow sea-land interface in the Caribbean: phylogeography of endemic supralittoral Ligia isopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMateos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies have provided valuable insights into the evolutionary histories and biodiversity of different groups in the Caribbean, a region that harbors exceptional terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Herein, we examined phylogeographic patterns of the poorly dispersing supralittoral isopod Ligia sampled from 35 localities in the Caribbean Sea and adjacent areas, as well as from Veracruz (Gulf of Mexico, the type locality of L. baudiniana (the only currently recognized native Ligia species in the Caribbean. We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of four mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16S rDNA, 12S rDNA and COI and Parsimony analyses of one nuclear gene (NaK. We found a well-supported and highly divergent clade of Ligia that is distributed in the Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, southern Florida, Bermuda, and the Pacific coast of Central America and Colombia, but not in the Gulf of Mexico. A characteristic appendix masculina distinguishes this clade from other lineages of Ligia. Large divergences within this clade suggest that it constitutes a cryptic species complex. Genetically and morphologically, the specimens from the type locality of L. baudiniana were indistinguishable from the non-native species L. exotica. Some phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area may be consistent with the proto-Antillean or GAARlandia vicariant hypotheses, but uncertainty concerning divergence times and aspects of the geological history precludes stronger biogeographical inferences. Passive overwater dispersal appears to have played an important role in shaping phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Caribbean Sea. These patterns, however, do not correspond with predicted biogeographic patterns based on population connectivity of marine organisms with larval dispersal, and do not reflect the southeast to northwest colonization pattern that has been proposed for the colonization of the Caribbean from South America by some

  4. Can the Gulf Stream induce coherent short-term fluctuations in sea level along the US East Coast? A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal

    2016-02-01

    Much attention has been given in recent years to observations and models that show that variations in the transport of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and in the Gulf Stream (GS) can contribute to interannual, decadal, and multi-decadal variations in coastal sea level (CSL) along the US East Coast. However, less is known about the impact of short-term (time scales of days to weeks) fluctuations in the GS and their impact on CSL anomalies. Some observations suggest that these anomalies can cause unpredictable minor tidal flooding in low-lying areas when the GS suddenly weakens. Can these short-term CSL variations be attributed to changes in the transport of the GS? An idealized numerical model of the GS has been set up to test this proposition. The regional model uses a 1/12° grid with a simplified coastline to eliminate impacts from estuaries and small-scale coastal features and thus isolate the GS impact. The GS in the model is driven by inflows/outflows, representing the Florida Current (FC), the Slope Current (SC), and the Sargasso Sea (SS) flows. Forcing the model with an oscillatory FC transport with a period of 2, 5, and 10 days produced coherent CSL variations from Florida to the Gulf of Maine with similar periods. However, when imposing variations in the transports of the SC or the SS, they induce CSL variations only north of Cape Hatteras. The suggested mechanism is that variations in GS transport produce variations in sea level gradient across the entire GS length and this large-scale signal is then transmitted into the shelf by the generation of coastal-trapped waves (CTW). In this idealized model, the CSL variations induced by variations of ˜10 Sv in the transport of the GS are found to resemble CSL variations induced by ˜5 m s-1 zonal wind fluctuations, though the mechanisms of wind-driven and GS-driven sea level are quite different. Better understanding of the relation between variations in offshore currents and CSL will help

  5. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment.

  6. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  7. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05–0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r2 = 0.87, P ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3–44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea. PMID:21173255

  8. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, J Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R; Popp, Brian N; Hutchins, David A

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO(2) emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05-0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r(2) = 0.87, P ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3-44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea.

  9. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  10. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  11. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  12. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  13. New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P; Holben, Brent N

    2010-10-10

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (τ), angstrom coefficient (α), and water-leaving radiance (L(w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity. These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity. From these findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all, 80 distributions (8 Rh×10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of the fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data. The reprocessing of the SeaWiFS data show that, over deep ocean, the average τ(865) values retrieved from the new aerosol models was 0.100±0.004, which was closer to the average AERONET value of 0.086±0.066 for τ(870) for the eight open-ocean sites used in this study. The average τ(865) value from the old models was 0.131±0.005. The comparison of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness retrieved from the SeaWiFS sensor with AERONET data over Bermuda and

  14. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  15. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  16. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  17. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  18. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...

  19. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  20. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  1. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  2. Crescimento de folhas do capim-bermuda tifton 85 submetido à adubação nitrogenada após o corte Leaf growth of tifton 85 bermudagrass submitted to nitrogen fertilization after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monica Premazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses e épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio após o corte no fator de correção de área foliar, na taxa de alongamento de folhas e no comprimento e área da lâmina foliar do capim-bermuda tifton 85 (Cynodon spp foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. Ambos os experimentos foram estabelecidos em vasos com capacidade para 7 kg de terra, com solo classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, para avaliação de quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 80, 160 e 240 mg kg-1 de solo e duas épocas de aplicação (imediatamente após o corte e sete dias após o corte das plantas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Com o fornecimento de nitrogênio, observou-se diminuição no fator de correção de área foliar. O nitrogênio proporciona variação positiva no comprimento foliar, na área da lâmina foliar e na taxa de alongamento da folha, variações que ocorreram em maior grandeza entre a não-aplicação de nitrogênio e a dose de 80 mg kg-1 de solo.With the objective of evaluating the influence of nitrogen rates and application time after cutting on correction factor for leaf area, on leaf elongation rate and on blade leaf length and area of tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp, two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse. Both experiments were established in pots with capacity for 7 kg of soil classified as Entisol, in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme, for evaluation of four nitrogen rates (0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil and two application times (immediately after cutting and seven days after cutting of the plants. It was used a complete randomized block design, with four replications. As nitrogen was supplied, it was observed a decrease in the correction factor for leaf area. There is a predominance of positive effects of nitrogen on leaf length, on leaf blade area and on leaf elongation rate

  3. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvath, I.; Povinec, P.P.; Baxter, M.S. [Marine Environment Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, B.P. 800 MC (Monaco)

    1999-09-30

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower.

  4. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  5. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  6. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  7. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  8. Seasonal Change of Steric Sea Level in the GIN Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; WANG Huijuan; SUN Ruili

    2011-01-01

    The Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, and Norwegian Sea (GIN seas) form the main channel connecting the Arctic Ocean with other Oceans, where significant water and energy exchange take place, and play an important role in global climate change. In this study steric sea level, associated with temperature and salinity, in the GIN seas is examined based on analysis of the monthly temperature and salinity fields from Polar science center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0). A method proposed by Tabata et al. is used to calculate steric sea level, in which, steric sea level change due to thermal expansion and haline contraction is termed as the thermosteric component (TC) and the halosteric component (SC), recpectively. Total steric sea level (TSSL) change is the sum of TC and SC. The study shows that SC is making more contributions than TC to the seasonal change of TSSL in the Greenland Sea, whereas TC contributes more in the Norwegian and the Iceland Seas. Annual variation of TSSL is larger than 50ram over most regions of the GIN Seas, and can be larger than 200mm at some locations such as 308mm at 76.5°N, 12.5°E and 246mm at 77.50N, 17.5°W.

  9. Analysis of Sea Spikes in Radar Sea Clutter Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melief, H.W.; Greidanus, H.; Genderen, P. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper three sets of high-resolution, coherent, and polarimetric radar sea clutter data are analyzed and compared with radar sea clutter models. The nature of the data allows a thorough analysis of the power, polarization and velocity of the sea clutter. It is shown that these

  10. Analysis of Sea Spikes in Radar Sea Clutter Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melief, H.W.; Greidanus, H.; Genderen, P. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper three sets of high-resolution, coherent, and polarimetric radar sea clutter data are analyzed and compared with radar sea clutter models. The nature of the data allows a thorough analysis of the power, polarization and velocity of the sea clutter. It is shown that these quanti

  11. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  12. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  13. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  14. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  15. Effect of low temperature on phytohormones and carbohydrates metabolism in Ber-muda grass%低温胁迫对狗牙根激素和碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 娄燕宏; 杨知建; 向佐湘; 徐庆国; 胡龙兴

    2016-01-01

    以杂交狗牙根品种天堂419,天堂328,老鹰草,运动百慕大和普通狗牙根品种保定狗牙根为试验材料,分析了人工模拟昼夜温度为适温(30℃/25℃)、亚适温(18℃/10℃)、冷害(8℃/4℃)和冻害(4℃/-4℃)等4种梯度降温冷驯化条件下,低温胁迫对狗牙根叶片细胞膜稳定性、叶绿素含量、内源激素(ABA、IAA,GA3和 tZR)以及可溶性糖、淀粉、果聚糖、总非结构性糖等碳水化合物代谢的影响。结果表明:随着温度的降低,狗牙根叶片的电导率显著升高,叶绿素含量下降,内源激素 ABA 含量升高,而 IAA,GA3和 tZR 含量均下降;碳水化合物中可溶性糖、果糖和总非结构性糖含量在5个品种中均呈不同程度的升高,但不同品种在冷驯化过程中不同温度处理下其变化差异较大,如天堂328、老鹰草和运动百慕大的淀粉含量下降;天堂419的淀粉含量变化不大,而保定狗牙根的淀粉含量则呈上升趋势。综合分析各生理指标的变化,5个狗牙根品种的抗寒能力强弱为:保定狗牙根最弱,而天堂419,老鹰草、天堂328和运动百慕大耐寒能力依次较强。低温胁迫下积累或维持较高的内源激素 ABA、GA3、IAA、tZR和碳水化合物可溶性糖和果聚糖可能是耐寒性较强的主要原因,这些代谢物的积累或维持有助于狗牙根细胞内渗透平衡和细胞膜稳定性的维持,延缓叶片的枯黄衰老和诱导抗性相关基因或蛋白的表达从而提高了狗牙根品种的抗寒能力。%To investigate the effects of modulated cold acclimation on the leaf membrane stability,chlorophyll content,endogenous hormones (ABA,IAA,GA3 ,tZR),and carbohydrate (soluble sugars,starch,fructan, total nonstructural carbohydrates)metabolism,five Bermuda grass cultivars,Tifway,Tifgreen,Tifsport, Tifeagle and Baoding were selected and treated under a range of temperatures

  16. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  17. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  18. Sailing the Cyber Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    years, the Internet 4 years, and the iPod 3 years, while Facebook added 200 million users in less than 1 year. And finally, if Facebook were a... Apple ] gets an iPhone. It’s not an acceptable trade.” New Thinking In the context of security, unleashing the power of the Cyber Sea has changed

  19. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  20. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  1. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  2. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  3. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  4. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    The deep-sea environment, despite being rich in mineral nutrients and near-saturation levels of oxygen, because of its darkness is not conducive to photosynthesis, the process that sustains life on earth. If a liigh abundance and diversity of life...

  5. Microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of the Chilean Blob and a comparison with the remains of other sea monsters: nothing but whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Sidney K; Massey, Steven E; Curtis, Nicholas E; Smith, Gerald N; Olavarría, Carlos; Maugel, Timothy K

    2004-06-01

    We have employed electron microscopic, biochemical, and molecular techniques to clarify the species of origin of the "Chilean Blob," the remains of a large sea creature that beached on the Chilean coast in July 2003. Electron microscopy revealed that the remains are largely composed of an acellular, fibrous network reminiscent of the collagen fiber network in whale blubber. Amino acid analyses of an acid hydrolysate indicated that the fibers are composed of 31% glycine residues and also contain hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, all diagnostic of collagen. Using primers designed to the mitochondrial gene nad2, an 800-bp product of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was amplified from DNA that had been purified from the carcass. The DNA sequence of the PCR product was 100% identical to nad2 of sperm whale (Physeter catadon). These results unequivocally demonstrate that the Chilean Blob is the almost completely decomposed remains of the blubber layer of a sperm whale. This identification is the same as those we have obtained before from other relics such as the so-called giant octopus of St. Augustine (Florida), the Tasmanian West Coast Monster, two Bermuda Blobs, and the Nantucket Blob. It is clear now that all of these blobs of popular and cryptozoological interest are, in fact, the decomposed remains of large cetaceans.

  6. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  7. Educational Research and the 'Bermuda Triangle.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    In answer to the suggestion that policymakers, researchers, and teachers unanimously agree that research is hardly taken into account by its potential users, the author provides an overview of educational research in Western Europe. Projects involve disciplines, history of education, and curriculum. (KC)

  8. SEA/WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, Anna F. D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory research performance by Anna Furse, Athletes of the Heart, UK) in collaboration with Maja Mitic (DAH Teatar, Serbia) and Antonella Diana (Teatret OM, Denmark) based on Henrik Ibsen's 'The lady from the sea' (1888). The project is an AHRC/ACE funded project as part of the Pinter Centre for Performance and Creative Writing's Fractured Narratives project. It has been touring in the UK and to Beirut, Lebanon.

  9. SEA/WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, Anna F. D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory research performance by Anna Furse, Athletes of the Heart, UK) in collaboration with Maja Mitic (DAH Teatar, Serbia) and Antonella Diana (Teatret OM, Denmark) based on Henrik Ibsen's 'The lady from the sea' (1888).\\ud \\ud The project is an AHRC/ACE funded project as part of the Pinter Centre for Performance and Creative Writing's Fractured Narratives project. It has been touring in the UK and to Beirut, Lebanon.

  10. Sea Basing Logistiek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    iets wat nu voor zware goederen niet mogeljk is met de middelen binnen de Nederlandse krijgsmachit. Nederland heeft bijvoorbeeld (nog) geen specifieke...weer gevechtsklaar zijn. Nederlandse troepen voeren de reconstitute fase in het algemeen uit in Nederland . [Kang&Gue] A special concern in sea based...besluit Nederland zelf in te grijpen. De Nederlandse vredesmissie bevindt zich nabij de kust. maar ver van de grens met buurlanden. De operatie kan niet

  11. Armada puts to sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esau, I.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes the operational success of British Gas in exploiting the Armada gas field. Armada consists of three separate reservoirs (Fleming, Drake and Hawkins) and lies in the central North Sea. British Gas has successfully exploited this field on behalf of a group of co-venturers. This article describes the economic, technical and political difficulties faced by the company in operating this innovative method of management. (UK)

  12. Inhibiton of Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers by a Mulch Derived from Rye (Secale cereale L. in grapevines Inhibición del Crecimiento de Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y Pasto Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. con mulch Vegetal Proveniente de Centeno (Secale cereale L. en Vides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño-Núñez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials (Los Andes 1998-1999 and Santiago 2004-2005 were carried out to determine growth inhibition of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., growing on the plantation row, by mulch derived from a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop established between grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. rows on overhead (cv. Flame Seedless and vertical (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon training. Spring mowing of the rye sown in the fall allowed for developing a thick and long lasting mulch along the grape rows. Nutsedge and bermudagrass control was 81 and 82%, respectively, and was more effective than conventional chemical (in the row + mechanical (between rows control. Glyphosate at 2% for nutsedge and 1% for bermudagrass control, applied twice (October and December, was insufficient to control either perennial weed adequately. Total broadleaved and grass/sedge weed control was 67.3 and 43.0% more effective with the rye mulch than with conventional treatments at Los Andes and Santiago, respectively. Perennial weed control levels could be explained as the new foliage of yellow nutsedge and bermudagrass was particularly susceptible to the shading provided by the rye mulch assembled prior to mid spring shoot emergence, and this effect remained active up until the beginning of autumn. The subsequent rye foliage mowing at the vegetative stage fully expressed the allelopathic effect produced by this local rye cultivar. The use of rye cover crop management and mulch could be applied as an effective weed control technique in conventional, as well as organic deciduous tree orchards.En dos ensayos de campo (Los Andes 1998-1999 y Santiago 2004-2005 se determinó el efecto inhibitorio sobre chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. y pasto bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. de residuos de centeno (Secale cereale L. establecido en otoño entre las hileras de vides (Vitis vinifera L. en parronal (cv. Flame Seedless y espaldera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

  13. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (∼2 M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness

  15. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  16. Bindin from a sea star

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño, Susana; Jan E. Aagaard; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.; Hart, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here...

  17. Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieliński, Tymon

    2013-04-01

    Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  18. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although

  19. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    or change. If ini- tially, only a thin layer of air close to the water surface matters in the mo- mentum transfer from wind to water, afterwards with strong winds, a layer of air upto say 15 to 30 metres comes Small sand waves formed on a seashore due... it breaks with a heading wind or on a beach). Consider an open sea of say 1000 square kilometres wherein billions of 'pushes' and 'pulls' happen over tens of hours, causing uncountable number of waves and wave groups of various types moving in different...

  20. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR data of sea ice have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) during a mission at the Greenland Sea in August 1994. Video recordings from a low-altitude acquisition have been used for interpretation of the SAR data. Also, ERS-1 SAR data and NOAA AVHRR-data have been...

  1. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  2. Two centuries of limited variability in subtropical North Atlantic thermocline ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkin, Nathalie F; Druffel, Ellen R M; Hughen, Konrad A; Doney, Scott C

    2012-05-01

    Ventilation and mixing of oceanic gyres is important to ocean-atmosphere heat and gas transfer, and to mid-latitude nutrient supply. The rates of mode water formation are believed to impact climate and carbon exchange between the surface and mid-depth water over decadal periods. Here, a record of (14)C/(12)C (1780-1940), which is a proxy for vertical ocean mixing, from an annually banded coral from Bermuda, shows limited inter-annual variability and a substantial Suess Effect (the decrease in (14)C/(12)C since 1900). The Sargasso Sea mixing rates between the surface and thermocline varied minimally over the past two centuries, despite changes to mean-hemispheric climate, including the Little Ice Age and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation. This result indicates that regional formation rates of sub-tropical mode water are stable over decades, and that anthropogenic carbon absorbed by the ocean does not return to the surface at a variable rate.

  3. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Estapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous, profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries Study (BATS and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1 day timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap timeseries. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1–3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately-overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  4. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Estapa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1-day timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap time series. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1–3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  5. The U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect: Big Science at sea on large ships with every berth filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Cutter, G. A.; Anderson, R. F.; Jenkins, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the International GEOTRACES program is to identify processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and to establish the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions. This goal is being met by determining global ocean distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes - including their concentration, chemical speciation and physical form - and to evaluate the sources, sinks, and internal cycling of these species to characterize more completely the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating their distributions. On October 15, 2010, the R/V Knorr departed Lisbon for the first US GEOTRACES transect. Following thruster failure, the cruise was terminated early in the Cape Verde Islands. It resumed the following November 5, 2011 departing Woods Hole followed by a one day port stop at Bermuda and ended in the Cape Verde Islands on Dec. 11. The ship had a full scientific complement on both legs (32 scientists; more wished to participate) and the decks were completely filled with specialized vans, water storage pallet boxes, and sampling equipment sufficient to take care of the requirements of 50 PIs. We occupied 34 stations, collected over 17,000 water samples ranging from 30mL to 20L. Specially outfitted in-situ McLane pumps were used to collect large volume particulate chemistry and radionuclide samples at 16 depths from 22 stations. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by sector-selective automated equipment. Apart from 3 shallow stations canceled due to weather or shiptime, we collected everything as planned. We will present preliminary findings from the cruise to illustrate how a well-designed, large, multi-investigator project can pack more power in its punch than a comparable complement of smaller cruises with fewer PIs. Although some types of science at sea may shift to drifters, gliders, and AUVs deployed by smaller ships, major biogeochemical

  6. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  7. Sea modeling and rendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  8. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  9. SeaPort-e Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    aquilent.com 22 QUESTIONS?? 23 Back-up 24 Program Evolution Category SeaPort Original (2001 – 2004) SeaPort-Enhanced (2004...Function = Industry User Function External System Interfaces: Create Purchase Request (Navy ERP ) Receive CAR Data (FPDS-NG) Receive Award Documents (EDA) Receive Award Data (SPS)

  10. Her Husband Is at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Out in the sea of China are Chinese offshore oil workers. They battle against wind, waves, loneliness and monotony. Their profession requires not only bravery and endurance from the employees themselves, but also from their spouses. It is because of the wives’support that the husbands can work at sea. This,for women, means double family responsibilities, loneliness, worries and endless waiting.

  11. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  12. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  13. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  14. The environmental state at sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Seas and oceans are confronted with a plethora of environmental problems, caused by land-based activities (agriculture, industries, and ports) and by maritime activities (such as shipping, fishing, oil and gas drilling, tourism, and navigational dredging). Environmental problems at sea challenge the

  15. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  16. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis...

  17. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  18. Chartering the high seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Far from being a standard exercise, the transportation of coal by sea involves different players and procedures depending on the buyers and the sellers own strategy. This article, extracted from a new report by Drewry Shipping Consultants, identifies the strategies of the main players in the seaborne coal trade. In the coking coal market there is a long established preference for direct producer consumer purchase contracts, with the buyer undertaking the trading function, rather than purchasing through third parties. However, trading companies play a more important role in the steam coal market, acting either as principals or agents - or in some cases both. Both steam and coking coal are contracted mainly on a long-term basis. This guarantees supplies form sources which offer the optimum grades of coal for their plant. Diversity of supply is also an issue in case there are problems in obtaining the chosen coal. Shipping practices in Japan, Europe and elsewhere are examined. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years......, with a negligible temporal trend when compared against drifting and moored buoys. Analysis of the SST CDR reveals that the monthly anomalies for the North Sea, the Danish straits, and the central Baltic Sea regions show a high degree of correlation for interannual and decadal time scales, whereas the monthly...

  1. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  2. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    . Further analysis has shown that the sea surface anomalies are well correlated to the anomalies of air temperature and latent heat flux values; whereas they are least correlated to the anomalies of wind stress and net radiation values, except over...

  3. Sea otters and Alaska's developing sea farming industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this paper are to give an overview of the current status of the industry in Alaska, identify potential problems between mariculture and sea otters...

  4. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Patterns of distribution of nutrients and nutrients-oxygen relationships are similar to those observed in other parts of the Arabian Sea High magnesium and low fluoride concentrations in the water indicate probable loss of the latter as insoluble ion...

  5. Iridium in sea-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  6. Iridium in sea-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, J.; Weiss, H.V.; Phillips, R.B.; Askeland, R.A.

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high resolution ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +- 0.26 x 10/sup 14/ g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  7. How SEA can inform lenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    SEA can be a powerful tool to improve decision-making for plans, policies and programmes, but it can also be a useful for banks. SEA can help lenders address the reputational risks they are exposed to through financing projects that may have a negative impact on the environment and it can also help......, such as in the credit policies. It was also found that in some cases lenders become involved in project planning at a very early stage, when projects are conceptualized, and certainly before formal approval is sought from relevant authorities and an EIA is conducted. This suggests that SEA can be a useful tool...

  8. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...... to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy interaction. The overall finding is a strong emphasis on technical/science aspects found in the Chinese SEA...

  9. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  10. Summer sea ice characteristics of the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During August 1999, we investigated sea ice characteristics; its distribution, surface feature, thickness, ice floe movement, and the temperature field around inter-borders of air/ice/seawater in the Chukchi Sea. Thirteen ice cores were drilled at 11 floe stations in the area of 72°24′ 77°18′N, 153°34′ 163°28′W and the ice core structure was observed. From field observation, three melting processes of ice were observed; surface layer melting, surface and bottom layers melting, and all of ice melting. The observation of temperature fields around sea ice floes showed that the bottom melting under the ice floes were important process. As ice floes and open water areas were alternately distributed in summer Arctic Ocean; the water under ice was colder than the open water by 0.4 2.8℃. The sun radiation heated seawater in open sea areas so that the warmer water went to the bottom when the ice floes move to those areas. This causes ice melting to start at the bottom of the ice floes. This process can balance effectively the temperature fluctuating in the sea in summer. From the crystalline structure of sea ice observed from the cores, it was concluded that the ice was composed of ice crystals and brine-ice films. During the sea ice melting, the brine-ice films between ice crystals melted firstly; then the ice crystals were encircled by brine films; the sea ice became the mixture of ice and liquid brine. At the end of melting, the ice crystals would be separated each other, the bond between ice crystals weakens and this leads to the collapse of the ice sheet.

  11. SMOS Sea Surface Salinity Validation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongzheng; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Qing

    2013-01-01

    In November 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the first soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite, which represented the first use of spaceborne remote sensing tools to probe global sea surface salinity (SSS). The SMOS satellite carries a microwave imaging radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) for detection in the microwave L-band as the only payload. The MIRAS instrument is expected to provide a global SSS distribution with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 km and an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 practical salinity units (psu). The South China Sea is semi-enclosed, and the sea conditions are relatively complex. The suitability of ESA SMOS salinity products for the South China Sea has not been validated. Therefore, using SSS data measured during an expedition in the South China Sea, which was sponsored by China Natural Science Foundation and conducted in the fall of 2011, this paper validated the SSS products released by ESA, which were retrieved using three sea surface roughness models. To analyze the effect of the spatial resolution on the weekly average SMOS SSS distribution, the weekly average salinity data were averaged to reduce the spatial resolution to 0.25 ° x 0.25°. These average data were then compared to the measured data, followed by an analysis of the error variation. In addition, the effects of the orbital track (ascending or descending) on the SSS retrieval were analyzed.

  12. Towards Good Order at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Vreÿ, Francois

    . The problems originating from the resultant “bad order at sea” can be directly felt on land, when smuggling, terrorism and related criminal activities operate more or less unhindered. The book provides an important mapping of the challenges preventing good order at sea off the African coast and East Africa......This book addresses a timely and important theme in the debate on how to create good governance at sea in general, but specifically in the Western Indian Ocean. In a security milieu where the number of piracy attacks originating from Somalia has decreased, there is an urgent need to address...... structural problems facing attempts to create and maintain good order at sea off East Africa. As mentioned in one of the chapters, the most secure place for a criminal in East Africa to be is at sea, because most African littoral states have only limited capacity to police their territorial waters...

  13. USGS Sea Ice Email Script

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Daily sea ice imagery and charting benefits logistics and navigational planning in the Alaskan Arctic waters, yet access to these data often requires high bandwidth...

  14. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  15. A Can of Sea Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  16. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    ), their advantages and limitations are also touched upon. Calibration of various instruments used for temperature measurement in the sea and the special setup/facilities needed for this purpose are also discussed...

  17. Sea otter studies in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final objective of the present Fish and Wildlife sea otter program is to learn enough of the ecology, population, reproductive potential, and requirements in...

  18. Spirulina culture in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materassi, R.; Tredici, M.; Waldemaro, B.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments using small raceway ponds have shown that Spirulina maxima can be adapted easily to grow in sea-water supplemented with nitrate, phosphate, bicarbonate, and Fe-EDTA. To prevent precipitate formation, phosphate was supplied by diffusion through a dialysis membrane; the amount of Na-bicarbonate added was low (100 ppm) and the pH was kept in the range 8.6 - 8.8 by bubbling CO/sub 2/ into the culture. No significant differences have been noticed in productivity or in the chemical composition of the biomass between cultures in sea-water and in the standard bicarbonate medium. Cultures subjected to light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours showed a higher respiration rate in sea-water than in the bicarbonate medium. The higher weight loss in the sea-water medium in the dark was counterbalanced by an increased synthesis of carbohydrates during the light period. 9 references.

  19. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  20. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic tags were attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear and the animals are either actively or passively tracked

  1. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  2. Dynamic Topography of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Bering Sea. Comparisons also indicate that MDT estimates derived from the latest Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment geoid model have more in common...with the presented sea surface topography than with the MDTs based on earlier versions of the geoid . The presented MDT will increase the accuracy of...estimating the geoid in the Bering Sea. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dynamic topography, sea surface height, Bering Sea, 4DVar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  3. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2013-01-01

    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  4. Sea otter investigation, Amchitka Island, 1954, and proposed plan of research for sea otters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes a sea otter investigation on Amchitka Island during 1954 and a proposed plan of research for sea otters. The report covers capturing wild sea...

  5. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  6. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  9. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  10. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  11. Understanding the Amundsen Sea Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is a climatological low pressure system located between 170-300 ° E and 60-75°S and is a key component of the non-zonal climatological circulation at high southern latitudes. With reanalysis output identifying that climatologically the low in the Amundsen Sea is the deepest of three mean sea level pressure (MSLP) centres observed around Antarctica. The ASL strongly modulates West Antarctic climate with impacts on sea ice extent, temperature and precipitation, via its controlling influence on the variability of the meridional wind field. It has also been shown to have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Ross Sea region and to strongly modulate temperature and moisture advection over the Antarctic Peninsula. Previous work has demonstrated strong relationships between the depth of the ASL and cyclone densities in the region. However, interestingly a recent review identified that it is not easy to relate the storm density and depths of the cyclones to the climatological ASL, since the climatological location of the ASL does not occur at a clear maximum of storm activity. This study examines output from the ERA-interim reanalyses around Antarctica to further understand the contributors to the climatological pattern, partially in an effort to identify whether a more physically meaningful ASL depth index (normally simply defined as the monthly minimum MSLP) can be created. In this effort, storm track data derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and mean sea level pressure data bandpass filtered to accentuate synoptic scale variability are first examined. The contribution of persistent positive anomalies in the mean sea level pressure (defined as 8hPa positive anomalies from the climatological mean for a period of 5 days) in the region surrounding the Amundsen sea is also examined to identify whether blocking plays a role. Finally, the frequency of persistent negative anomalies (defined as a negative 8hPa occurring for

  12. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  13. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  14. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  15. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  16. Alone by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ferić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.At first the island is just a sign on a yellow board with a drawing of a vessel and the letters saying “Car Ferry,” then it is a grayish silhouette in the blue of the sea, and then, later still, an acquaintance working on the ferry, who just nods briefly in greeting. Jablanac, ferry port, its pleasant lobby, and then, from the upper deck, a giant rock approaching. That is the object of a year-long desire: the moment of stepping off the boat and smelling the rosemary, diesel and sheep droppings, seeing the sharp rocks looking at the Strait of Senj, coarse limestone in sharp opposition to the signs that say: Benvenuti, Welcome, Willkommen!At home, on the terrace, in the shade of the oleander, there’s no wish to eat. Only swimming trunks are put on and then, barefoot, without a towel or sun-tanning lotion, off to the beach.“Why won’t you eat something?” grandma asks.She knows that there’s an exciting world waiting out there, but she knows nothing of the details. All friends went on a boat trip. And suddenly one step from the shade of a path covered with oleanders and acacias leads into the burning sun of the afternoon. The light screams, just like children in the water, just like white objects that radiate as if there are some powerful light bulbs within. The feeling of freedom of someone who has just arrived in a foreign place and can now do anything. There’s no one familiar on the beach, they all got in the boat and left. The seafront leading to the camp is full of people, naked children with dirty faces licking ice cream, young families pushing strollers, groups of teenagers who have just woken up from their last night’s party. But there’s no one that must be greeted. The feeling of freedom that’s at the same time close to death. Suddenly, all paths are open. That there are no obligations or friends waiting, this afternoon, until they come back, is a complete boon.

  17. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    Some Black Sea researchers still support the idea of no other connection to the Mediterranean Sea between LGM and Karangatian Stage (Riss - Wurm). We try to clarify the source of these disagreements. C14 AMS age data (HERAS Project) made on undisturbed samples from a new Mamaia drilling hole where compared with the classical Black Sea stratigraphic schemes. A first transgressive event (Zone D) is found between 38.00 - 20.20 m depth. Zone D4 shows a fairly rapid rise of sea level, about 10 m below the present one indicating an inner shelf marine polyhaline environment. AMS age data show 14C ages between 53690 - 47359 y (MIS 1), corresponding to the "Surozhian Beds" of Popov. The "beach rock" from Zone E marks the decrease of the sea level after the maximum reached in Zone D4. Zone E mollusc shells AMS data, indicate 14C ages of 48724 - 44604 y, suggesting a long-time reworked material from the previous D4 zone sediments, and represents the beginning of the "regressive Tarkankutian" sequence.The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the retreat of the sea level down to about 100 m below the current one (27-17 ky BP), followed by an retreat of the shoreline to the present position. At the beginning of the Holocene - MIS 1 (8408-8132 cal. y BP), Black Sea brackish water level grew rapidly, up to -14 m below the present one (Zone F: 22, 57-20, 20 m). Zone F deposits could be correlated with the Bugazian strata. Then, a continuous rising of the Black Sea level is recorded up to a maximum of -2 m under the present one, about 6789 - 7063 cal. y BP, when a transgressive spurt ("Neolithic transgression") may have taken place. After that, given a weak Danubian sedimentary input, coastal erosion intensified. The coarse sandy sediments were reworked and pushed over the previous peat deposits, and suggest a classical "sedimentary regression", not a sea-level decrease. During the last 1.5 ky, sea level has risen towards the current one. Previous C14 dates from "Karangatian

  18. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean sea level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal seas this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean Sea involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean sea level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean sea level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean sea level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities

  19. GHRSST Level 4 DMI_OI North Sea and Baltic Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis by the Danish...

  20. How SEA can inform lenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    SEA can be a powerful tool to improve decision-making for plans, policies and programmes, but it can also be a useful for banks. SEA can help lenders address the reputational risks they are exposed to through financing projects that may have a negative impact on the environment and it can also help...... with identifying the financial incentives that ‘green’ projects attract. Although bank lending decisions apply to projects, examination of the lending practices of an Australian and a Hungarian bank have shown that decisions about the type of projects to target or avoid are also made at strategic level......, such as in the credit policies. It was also found that in some cases lenders become involved in project planning at a very early stage, when projects are conceptualized, and certainly before formal approval is sought from relevant authorities and an EIA is conducted. This suggests that SEA can be a useful tool...

  1. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  2. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10......,497 m. In 1951, the Danish Galathea Deep Sea Expedition from 1950 to 1952 verified the result of the Cape Johnson sounding. Today, the greatest depth in the Philippine Trench is the Galathea Depth of 10,540 m. The Galathea Expedition produced several echograms of the deepest parts of the Philippine...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition...

  3. EXPERIMENTS OF SEA ICE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ying; ZHANG Xue-hong; YU Ru-cong; LIU Hai-long; YU Yong-qiang

    2005-01-01

    As a substitute for the original displaced pole grids, a simple rotated spherical coordinate system was introduced into the Community Sea Ice Model version 4(CSIM4), which is a component of the Community Climate System Model(CCSM) of the American National Center of Atmospheric Research(NCAR), to deal with the "pole problems".In the new coordinates, both the geographical North Pole and South Pole lie in the model equator and grid sizes near the polar region are more uniform.With reanalysis dataset of American National Centers for Environment Prediction(NCEP) and Levitus dataset without considering sub-mixed layer heat flux, the model was integrated for 100 years with thermodynamics process involved only in the former 49 years and both dynamic and thermodynamic processes involved in the left time.Inner consistency of model results was checked with no contradiction found.The results of last 10 years' model output were analyzed and it is shown that the simulated sea ice seasonal variation is rational whereas sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in winter is larger than that of observation.Numerical experiment on influence of sub-mixed layer heat flux was also carried out and it is shown that the sub-mixed layer heat flux can modulate seasonal variation of sea ice greatly.As a model component, the sea ice model with rotated spherical coordinates was coupled with other models (the oceanic general circulation model is the LASG/IAP Climate System Ocean Model(LICOM) with reduced grid, other models are components of NCAR CCSM2) forming a climate system model and its preliminary results were also given briefly.

  4. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  5. Sailing In Sea of Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The law of big fish swallowing little fish has expired when it comes to the era of new economy.What prevails nowadays in the sea of commerce is quick fish swallowing slow fish.In the Internet economy,small companies are not destined to lose to giants,but slow ones are doomed to become prey of their quick counterparts. The swiftly rising Yongkang Group has made a breakthrough in dental treatment by translating the law into practice.It is called"Law of the Sea."‘Law of the Sea’

  6. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19 by multiple Soviet Union institutes (NODC Accession 0077413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data collected from North Atlantic Ocean, White Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov from 1924-03-19 to 1989-11-19...

  7. 2010 USGS Lidar: Salton Sea (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS Salton Sea project encompasses a 5-kilometer buffer around the Salton Sea, California. Dewberry classified LiDAR for a project boundary that touches 623...

  8. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...

  9. Erective Sea Embankment with PCC Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Han-long; FEI Kang; DENG An; ZHANG Ting

    2005-01-01

    The sea embankment is a critical civil works in marine and coastal engineering. In this study, an innovative technique is proposed for constructing erective sea embankments. In the construction of sea embankments, this technique integrates PCC pile installation, PVDs drainage systems, and geotextile reinforcements, resulting in sea embankments with PCC piles. In the application of a sea embankment with PCC piles, PCC piles are employed as the retaining structures;the soft sea ground inside PCC piles is drained and improved by PVDs and vacuum-surcharge combined preloading; geotextile-reinforced backfills lying over the improved soft ground form the embankment body. Brief descrptions of the fundamentals, design and construction of the sea embankment with PCC piles are presented. A case study on the stability of sea embankment with PCC piles is presented as well.

  10. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  11. Biogeochemistry of iron in the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moffett, J.W.; Vedamati, J.; Goepfert, T.J.; Pratihary, A.K.; Gauns, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea is a productive basin where seasonal upwelling and convective mixing result in high surface nutrient concentrations and widespread algal blooms. The factors controlling primary productivity in the Arabian Sea are of interest because...

  12. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  13. Implementing the European SEA Directive in planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark.......The paper describes how the European SEA Directive can complement the existing planning practice in Denmark....

  14. Sea turtles sightings in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea turtles sightings are reported to the NMFS Beaufort Laboratory sea turtle program by the general public as they are fishing, boating, etc. These sightings...

  15. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) ATLANTIC COASTAL FISHERIES COOPERATIVE... must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or...

  16. Estimating sea floor dynamics in the Southern North Sea to improve bathymetric survey planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert Louis

    2009-01-01

    Safe nautical charts require a carefully designed bathymetric survey policy, especially in shallow sandy seas that potentially have dynamic sea floor patterns. Bathymetric resurveying at sea is a costly process with limited resources, though. A pattern on the sea floor known as tidal sand waves is c

  17. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) 581-6851...feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  18. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  19. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Petersen, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice......The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...

  20. India and the South China Sea Dispute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jiali

    2012-01-01

    South China Sea is a sea area of great significance. It lies between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, a crucial waterway bridging East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia. In general, South China Sea is a rich deposit of oil and fishing resources, a transportation hub of strategic importance, and an important buffer zone to safeguard China's maritime rights and interests.

  1. Messinian events in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Radionova, Eleanora P.; Golovina, Larisa A.; Raffi, Isabella; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Past hydrological interactions between the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are poorly resolved due to complications in establishing a high-resolution time frame for the Black Sea. We present a new greigite-based magnetostratigraphic age model for the Mio-Pliocene deposits of DSDP Hole 380/380A,

  2. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical miles wide, adjacent to the coast of the United States...

  3. Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fendereski, F.; Vogt, M.; Payne, Mark

    2014-01-01

    using the Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. From an initial set of 12 potential physical variables, 6 independent variables were selected for the classification algorithm, i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), bathymetry, sea ice, seasonal variation of sea surface salinity (DSSS), total...... confirms the relevance of the ecoregions as proxies for habitats with common biological characteristics....

  4. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except...

  5. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  6. Redescription of the sea anemone Bunodeopsis Pelagica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Elaine

    1976-01-01

    There are two species of sea anemone occurring on the floating sea weed Sargassum natans in the Caribbean sea: Bunodeopsis pelagica (Quoy & Gaimard) and Anemonia sargassensis Hargitt. The anemones are readily distinguished from one another by their colour and the nature of their tentacles. B.

  7. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  8. OW NASA SeaWIFS Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...

  9. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas.

  10. Radar for Mapping Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.; Jordan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    X-band system has 100-m2 resolution. Wide swath imaging radar of synthetic aperature type transmits signal to ground station for subsequent processing into imagery. Concept meets functional requirements for continuously mapping sea ice in north and south polar regions.

  11. Performance and sickness at sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    2000-01-01

    Human performance at sea generally decreases with increasing severity of seasickness. Seasickness predictions can be made, be it that motions are assumed to be translational along a vertical axis only and sinusoidal. Here, a deterministic model is presented based on physiological knowledge of the ve

  12. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  13. IAHR List of Sea Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J; Klopman, G.

    1997-01-01

    A Working Group on multidirectional waves formed by the International Association for Hydraulic Research has proposed an update of the IAHR List of Sea State Parameters from 1986 in the part concerning directional. Especially wave structure interaction with reflection of the waves have been treated....

  14. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  15. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  16. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  17. Chaetognatha of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Madhupratap, M.

    Chaetognatha of the Andaman Sea were studied during 51 and 52 cruises of R.V Gaveshani (Jan to Feb 1979) The area between southeast of Andaman island and north of Nicobar island had relatively higher density Total population of chaetognaths ranged...

  18. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    the US east coast and the Gulf of Mexico (1851 - 2009) and Japanese east coast (1951 -2009) form the basis for Weibull extreme value analyses to determine return period respective maximum wind speeds. Unidirectional generic sea state spectra are obtained by application of the empirical models...

  19. Meiofauna of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total meiofauna of the Andaman Sea, in the depth range 30-2150m was between 68 and 438/10cm2 (X-bar = 247.8). The biomass was within the range 3.57 and 32.8mg/10cm 2 (X-bar = 14.46). faunal components were maximum in sandy sediments which contained...

  20. Past and present Aral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC

  1. Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

  2. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  3. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover Don Perovich ERDC – CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: 603-646-4255 Email: donald.k.perovich...quantitative understanding of the partitioning of solar radiation by the Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper

  4. Facing up to sea rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernetta, J

    1994-01-01

    A milder and less extreme climate, abundance of fish and mollusks, transport and communication, and fertile land at low altitudes have drawn humans to coastal areas and river valleys for centuries. More than 60% of the world's population occupy the 150 km closest to the coast. Millions of tourists come to coastlines and small tropical islands for recreation. About 80% of the global fish supply originates from the 19 km closest to the shore. Fish are the only protein source for the rapidly growing populations in many developing countries. Global climate change is increasing the sea level so much that by 2050, the mean increase will be about 38 cm (24-52 cm). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that the effects of sea level rise will differ from place to place. Direct effects are flooding of low-lying coastal areas and increased erosion rates. An indirect effect includes higher water tables and intrusion of saline water into aquifers, resulting in loss of fresh ground water resources. These effects may make coastal areas less suitable for settlement and agriculture. Coral sand settled on top of coral reefs makes up the unstable, small atoll islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. People on these islands depend almost entirely on the sea for their livelihood and on the small amount of fresh water with which they grow root crops and drink. Rising sea levels also threaten low lying countries, e.g., Bangladesh, and densely populated deltas, e.g., the Nile. Changes in the frequency and severity of flooding will increase Bangladesh's dependence on foreign aid. IPCC sees 3 possible responses to the rising sea level: defense, retreat, and accommodation. Accommodation is the only practical choice for many developing countries. A switch from rice cultivation to mariculture of prawns and fish is an example of accommodation. We need to more completely understand the natural processes in coastal environments to be better prepared for climate change.

  5. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  6. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and

  7. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  8. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  9. Deep-sea fungi: Occurrence and adaptations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.

    in it being the least understood environments on the earth. The understanding of deep sea will unravel a lot of exciting information about the history of life existing on earth. The deep sea was thought to be a very difficult environment for life forms.... Danovaro R, Fabiano M, Della Croce N (1995) Labile organic matter and microbial biomasses in deep-sea sediments (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Deep-Sea Research I, 40: 953-65. DasSarma S, Arora P (2001) Halophiles. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Macmillan...

  10. Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

    2013-08-02

    After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes.

  11. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  12. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  13. Climatological Factors Affecting Electromagnetic Surface Ducting in the Aegean Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    19  x Figure 11.  The Azores or Bermuda High and southwest and south-central Asia thermal low tend to produce a...of Frequency (green lines with triangle markers), moisture mixing ratio at the surface level (blue lines with rhombus markers) and moisture mixing...of Frequency (green lines with triangle markers), moisture mixing ratio at the surface level (blue lines with rhombus markers) and moisture mixing

  14. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-01-01

    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  15. Episodic sea-floor spreading in the Southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Khalid A.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    The Red Sea represents the most spectacular example of a juvenile ocean basin on the modern Earth. Synthesis of regional aeromagnetic data, gravity data, seismic refraction data coupled with structural mapping from the Farasan Islands suggest that the opening of the Red Sea is complex and episodic. Modeling of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic refraction data reveals the Arabian Shelf is underlain by oceanic and transitional crust and that mafic diking and intrusions are focused at the continental-transitional crust boundary. This relationship is interpreted to indicate that early Miocene diking along the Arabian Escarpment heralded termination of oceanic basin formation and a shift in the locus of extension focused from a central mid-ocean ridge spreading center to the continental-transitional crust zone. Uplift along the Arabian Escarpment caused erosion and Middle to Late Miocene sedimentation of the Farasan Bank onto existing oceanic crust, suggesting that the extensive sedimentary banks of the southern Red Sea are not passive margins. Re-initiation of spreading occurred at ca 5 Ma. Pliocene to Pleistocene Shelf reef systems (Farasan Islands), developed on the flanks of the spreading ridge, are extensively overprinted by normal faults, suggesting that not all crustal extension is accommodated by active spreading.

  16. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  17. Relationship between Hadley circulation and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; WANG HuiJun

    2008-01-01

    The linkage between Hadley circulation (HC) and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea during March-April is investigated through an analysis of observed data in this research. It is found that HC is negatively correlated to the sea ice extent in the Bering Sea, namely, strong (weak) HC is corresponding to less (more) sea ice in the Bering Sea. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the relationship between HC and sea ice in the Bering Sea. It follows that a positive phase of HC corresponds to westward located Aleutian low, anomalous southerlies over the eastern North Pacific and higher temperature in the Bering Sea, providing unfavorable atmospheric and thermal conditions for the sea ice forming, and thus sea ice extent in the Bering Sea is decreased, and vice versa. In addition, it is further identified that East Asian-North Pacific-North America telecon-nection may play an important role in linking HC and changes of atmospheric circulations as well as sea ice in the Bering Sea.

  18. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tsafnat

    Full Text Available The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine's unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine's architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material.

  19. Sea Power. Quickscan; Zeekracht. Quickscan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The Dutch Stichting Natuur en Milieu (The Netherlands Foundation for Nature and Environment - SNM) takes the view that the long time span between application for a permit and the realization of offshore wind parks in the North Sea is the result of unnecessary bureaucracy. Therefore SNM has asked the Kafka Brigade to list the procedures for construction of offshore wind parks in the North Sea that might be causing these delays. [mk]. [Dutch] de Stichting Natuur en Milieu (SNM) is van mening dat de oorzaak van de lange doorlooptijd die ligt tussen het aanvragen van een vergunning en de realisatie van offshore windparken in de Noordzee ligt in de onnodige bureaucratie. SNM heeft daarom de Kafkabrigade gevraagd een inventarisatie te maken van procedures rond het bouwen van offshore windmolenparken in de Noordzee die mogelijk vertragend kunnen werken.

  20. Generic Hurricane Extreme Seas State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Skourup, Jesper; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extreme sea states, which the IEC 61400-3 (2008) standard requires for the ultimate limit state (ULS) analysis of offshore wind turbines are derived to establish the design basis for the conceptual layout of deep water floating offshore wind turbine foundations in hurricane affected areas...... data is required for a type specific conceptual design. ULS conditions for different return periods are developed, which can subsequently be applied in siteindependent analysis and conceptual design. Recordings provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), of hurricanes along...... for hurricane generates seas by Young (1998, 2003, and 2006), requiring maximum wind speeds, forward velocity and radius to maximum wind speed. An averaged radius to maximum sustained wind speeds, according to Hsu et al. (1998) and averaged forward speed of cyclonic storms are applied in the initial state...

  1. Mind the gap in SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2012-01-01

    and discussed, mainly based on Scott's theory of institutions. The institutional analysis highlights a regulatory element, since the assessment of climate change synergies is underpinned by legislation, but not by guidance. This means that great focus is on normative elements such as the local interpretation...... of legislation and of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The analysis also focuses on how the fragmentation of the organisation in which climate change and SEA are embedded has bearings on both normative and cultural–cognitive elements. This makes the assessment of synergies challenging. The evidence......This article takes its point of departure in two approaches to integrating climate change into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Mitigation and adaptation, and in the fact that these, as well as the synergies between them and other policy areas, are needed as part of an integrated...

  2. Open Ocean Bilging, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    These dual oil slicks on the ocean surface are the result of tanker ships flushing their tanks (bilging) in the Arabian Sea (18.5N, 62.5E). These two ships flushed out their bilges, apparently contaminated with bunker oil, leaving oily residues on the ocean's surface. One wake, believed to have been done earlier than the other, has been broadened by the effects of surface winds and current.

  3. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  4. Coastal and Semi Enclosed Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Numerical model process and sensitivity studies are conducted to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of shallow and deep semi-enclosed seas...provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently...Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) code being developed in the ONR Ocean Model Development for COAMPS project. This model was first set up on the NPAC

  5. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  6. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  7. Distributions of dimethylsulfide in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Min; TANG Xiao-yan; LI Jin-long; MA Qi-ju

    2003-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide(DMS) measurements in the surface seawater of China eastern coastline were conducted during March 9-10, 1993 in Bohai Sea along the cruise from Dalian to Tianjin and during September 24-25, 1994 in Yellow Sea along the cruise from Shanghai to Qingdao. On the cruise in Bohai Sea DMS concentrations varied from 0. 11 to 2.63 nmol/L with an average of 1.31 nmol/L, while DMS flux Bohai Sea. DMS concentrations and fluxes had a similar spatial trend both in Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea with the correlation coefficients of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively.

  8. Sea-level variation/change and thermal contribution in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2005-01-01

    The long-term sea-level trend in the Bering Sea is obtained by the analysis of TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data, including the data of two tide gauges. The averaged sea-level in the Bering Sea rises at a rate of 2.47 mm/a from 1992 to 2002. The mean sea-level is falling in the most part of the Bering Sea, especially in its central basin, and it is rising in the northeastern part of the Bering Sea. During the 1998/99 change, the sea-level anomaly differences exhibit a significant sea-level anomaly fall in the deep basin of the Bering Sea,which is roughly in the same position where a prominent SST fall exists. The maximal fall of sea-level is about 10 cm in the southwestern part of the Bering Sea, and the maximal fall of about 2℃ in the SST also appeared in the same region as the sea level did.The steric sea-level change due to temperature variations is discussed. The results are compared with the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data at the different spatial scales. It is indicated that the seasonal amplitude of the steric height is about 35% of the observed TOPEX/Poseidon amplitude, which is much smaller than the 83% in the mid-latitudes area. The systematic difference between the TOPEX/Poseidon data with the range of about 7.5 cm and the thermal contribution with the range of about 2.5 cm is about 5 cm. This indicates that the thermal effect on the sea level is not as important as the case in the mid-latitudes area. In the Bering Sea, the phase of the steric height leads the observed sea level by about three months.

  9. The Suspended Sediment Concentration Distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Changwei; JIANG Wensheng; Richard J.Greatbatch; DING Hui

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the suspended sediment eoncentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea,Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results.The observed turbidity results show that (i)the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe,(ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC.The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS.A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS.The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results.The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution.The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress,which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves.The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS.The strong winter time vertical mixing,which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling,leads to high surface layer SSC in winter.High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

  10. Aerial Surveys of Endangered Whales in the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Northern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    16 Surveys of St Lawrence Island Nome to Point Barrow . . . 16 I Surveys of Barrow Area . . 18 Point Barrow to Deadhorse . . . 20 Surveys from...lease area, the Norton Basin - St . Lawrence Island area, the Hope Basin, and coastal portions of the Chukchi Sea. DESIGN The areas of study are listed...Bowhead Whale 314 857 Balaena mysticetus Beluga Whale** 284 3404 Delphinapterus leucas Gray Whale 2 6 Eschrichtius robustus Ring Seal 250 765 Phoca

  11. [Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring.

  12. Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R.

    2000-03-10

    Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

  13. Sea ice, climate, and multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. While global climate models generally predict sea ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key sea ice processes and advance how sea ice is represented in climate models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where sea ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.

  14. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea.

  15. Observed variability of sea surface salinity and thermal inversions in the Lakshadweep Sea during contrast monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Johnson, Z.; Salgaonkar, G.; Nisha, K.; Rajan, C.K.; Rao, R.R.

    The sea surface salinity (SSS) of the Lakshadweep Sea (LS) shows large seasonal variability due to horizontal advection of low (high) salinity waters from south (north) during winter (summer) monsoon. The measurements made in the LS during...

  16. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  17. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  18. Retrieval of chlorphyll from the sea-leaving radiance in the Arbaian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Jadhav, N.

    Error estimates in chlorophyll retrieval in the sea from satellite data have always been higher compared to the errors in retrieval of sea surface temperature or wind speed from satellite data. This is due to the higher percentage of noise...

  19. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  20. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  1. The lowering of sea surface temperature in the east central Arabian sea associated with a cyclone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    An analysis of thermal Structure in the East Central Arabian Sea associated with a moderate cyclone is presented. The heat storage and the heat budget components have been computed. Under the influence of the cyclone the Sea Surface Temperature (SST...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 EUR Mediterranean Sea Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily by Ifremer/CERSAT (France) using optimal...

  3. Impact of sea ice initialization on sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill on seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Bellprat, O.; Doblas-Reyes, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust assessment of the impact of sea ice initialization from reconstructions of the real state on the sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill. We ran two ensemble seasonal prediction experiments from 1979 to 2012 : one using realistic sea ice initial conditions and another where sea ice is initialized from a climatology, with two forecast systems. During the melting season in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice forecasts become skilful with sea ice initialization until 3-5 months ahead, thanks to the memory held by sea ice thickness. During the freezing season in both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, sea ice forecasts are skilful for 7 and 2 months, respectively, with negligible differences between the two experiments, the memory being held by the ocean heat content. A weak impact on the atmosphere prediction skill is obtained.

  4. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  5. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  6. Navigation Issues in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the most important sea lanes with numerous competing sovereignty disputes. The freedom of navigation in this region is critical to all major trading States in the world. After an introduction to the navigational regimes of UNCLOS, this article describes the whole navigation situation in this region, by separately introducing the navigation issues in the territorial sea, straits, archipelagic waters and the Spratly area. Meanwhile, since the legal status of the ma...

  7. Physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaeranta, Matti [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Myrberg, Kai [Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    The Baltic Sea oceanographic research community is wide and the research history is over 100 years old. Nevertheless, there is still no single, coherent book on the physical oceanography of the Baltic Sea as a whole. There is a strong need for such a book, coming from working oceanographers as well as the university teaching programmes in advanced undergraduate to graduate levels. In the regional conference series in physical oceanography (Baltic Sea Science Conference, Baltic Sea Oceanographers' conference, Baltex-conferences) about 500 scientists take part regularly. Even more scientists work in the fields of marine biology, chemistry and the environment, and they need information on the physics of the Baltic Sea as well. There are nine countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and five more in the runoff area. The Baltic Sea as a source of fish, means of transportation and leisure activities is highly important to the regional society. In the runoff area there are a total of 85 million people. Research and protection strategies need to be developed, as the Baltic Sea is probably the most polluted sea in the world. Since the Baltic Sea has become an inner sea of the EU (apart from small shore parts of Russia in Petersburg and Kaliningrad), it is anticipated that the importance of the region will consequently rise. The book will arouse interest among students, scientists and decision makers involved with the Baltic problems. It will also give important background information for those working with biogeochemical processes in the Baltic Sea, because the physical forcing for those processes is of vital importance. (orig.)

  8. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper ocean ... Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...other parts of the Arctic ice cover appear to now be accelerating. Figure 6. Maps of the linear trend of annual solar heat input to the ocean

  9. Comparison among four kinds of data of sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 王卫强; 毛庆文

    2002-01-01

    By using remote sensing (ERS) data, FSU data, GOADS data and Hellerman & Rcsenstein objective analysis data to analyze the sea surface wind stress in the South China Sea, it is found that the remote sensing data have higher resolution and more reasonable values. Therefore we suggest that remote sensing data be chosen in the study of climatological features of sea surface wind stress and its seasonal variability in the South China Sea, especially in the study of small and middle scale eddies.

  10. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  11. Dynamic Singularity Spectrum Distribution of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Zhang, Shuning

    2015-12-01

    The fractal and multifractal theory have provided new approaches for radar signal processing and target-detecting under the background of ocean. However, the related research mainly focuses on fractal dimension or multifractal spectrum (MFS) of sea clutter. In this paper, a new dynamic singularity analysis method of sea clutter using MFS distribution is developed, based on moving detrending analysis (DMA-MFSD). Theoretically, we introduce the time information by using cyclic auto-correlation of sea clutter. For transient correlation series, the instantaneous singularity spectrum based on multifractal detrending moving analysis (MF-DMA) algorithm is calculated, and the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of sea clutter is acquired. In addition, we analyze the time-varying singularity exponent ranges and maximum position function in DMA-MFSD of sea clutter. For the real sea clutter data, we analyze the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of real sea clutter in level III sea state, and conclude that the radar sea clutter has the non-stationary and time-varying scale characteristic and represents the time-varying singularity spectrum distribution based on the proposed DMA-MFSD method. The DMA-MFSD will also provide reference for nonlinear dynamics and multifractal signal processing.

  12. Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fischer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice can increase pCO2 during precipitation in winter and decrease pCO2 during dissolution in spring. CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice. This is the first quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate, as ikaite, in sea ice and discusses its potential significance for the carbon cycle in polar oceans. Ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during an expedition in the East Antarctic and another off Terre Adélie, Antarctica. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, Salinity, DOC, DON, Phosphate, and total alkalinity. A relationship between the measured parameters and CaCO3 precipitation could not be observed. We found calcium carbonate, as ikaite, mostly in the top layer of sea ice with values up to 126 mg ikaite per liter melted sea ice. This potentially represents a contribution between 0.12 and 9 Tg C to the annual carbon flux in polar oceans. The horizontal distribution of ikaite in sea ice was heterogenous. We also found the precipitate in the snow on top of the sea ice.

  13. Physicochemical Studies of the Sea Surface Microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengbin; Liansheng; Zhijian; Jun; Haibing

    1998-08-15

    The sea surface microlayer and its thickness are theoretically analyzed. A multiple-layer model of the sea surface microlayer is proposed. Through in situ and laboratory imitation experiments using glass plate, rotating drum, screen, and funnel samplers, the relationships between pH, surface tension, the concentrations of dissolved trace metals Cu and Pb, phosphate, and particulate and sampling thicknesses are carefully investigated. The apparent sampling thickness of the sea surface microlayer is determined to be 50 +/- 10 µm, which is basically consistent with the mean thickness of the liquid boundary film in the models of gas exchange across the sea surface. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  15. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  16. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrayev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December–January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February–July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August–November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. The model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  17. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ibrayev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December–January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February–July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August–November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. Model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  18. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The ST

  19. Long Term Sea Level Change and Water Mass Balance in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Zengrui; LIU Yuguang; ZONG Haibo; XIU Peng

    2009-01-01

    Sea level anomalies observed by altimeter during the 1993-2006 period, thermosterie sea level anomalies estimated by using subsurface temperature data produced by Ishii and SODA reanalysis data, tide gauge records and HOAPS freshwater flux data were analyzed to investigate the long term sea level change and the water mass balance in the South China Sea. The altimeter-observed sea level showed a rising rate of (3.5±0.9)mm yr-1 during the period 1993-2006, but this figure was considered to have been highly distorted by the relatively short time interval and the large inter-decadal variability, which apparently exists in both the thermosteric sea level and the observed sea level. Long term thermosteric sea level from 1945 to 2004 gave a rising rate of 0.15±0.06 mmyr-1. Tide gauge data revealed this discrepancy and the regional distributions of the sea-level trends. Both the 'real' and the thermosteric sea level showed a good correspondence to ENSO: decreasing during E1 Nifio years and increasing during La Nina years. Amplitude and phase differences between the 'real' sea level and the thermosteic sea level were substantially revealed on both seasonal and interannual time scales. As one of the possible factors, the freshwater flux might play an important role in balancing the water mass.

  20. Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommer, G.; Siccha, M.; Rohling, E.J.; Grant, K.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; Schouten, S.; Baranowski, U.; Kucera, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the response of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation changes during termination II and across the last interglacial, in comparison with termination I and the Holocene. Sediment cores from the central and northern part of the Red Sea were investigated by

  1. Authigenic gypsum in a deep sea core from Southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    Authigenic gypsum has been encountered in a deep sea core RC9-157 from the southeastern Arabian Sea at a depth of 4111 m which is a zone of lysocline. The formation of gypsum in the deep sea region is attributed to the prevailing sulphate rich...

  2. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The

  3. Morphotype patterns of Norwegian Sea deep-sea benthic foraminifera and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Bruce H.; Chen, Christina

    1988-08-01

    Deep-sea benthic foraminifera from Norwegian Sea surface sediments are classified into morphotypes on the basis of test shape and nature of test coiling and show distinct patterns with water depth. The morphotype data are used to determine microhabitat patterns of the foraminifera, which are suggested to be related to the organic-carbon content of the surficial deep-sea sediments.

  4. Long-term sea level change in the Malaysian seas from multi-mission altimetry data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Din, A.H.; Omar, K.M.; Naeije, M.C.; Ses, S.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term sea level change during 1993 to 2008 was investigated in the Malaysian seas from satellite altimetry data of the TOPEX, JASON-1, ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT missions. Sea level data retrieval and reduction were carried out using the radar altimeter database system (RADS). In RADS data pro

  5. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1997. Project Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M.; Put, van A.L.L.M.; Valkering, N.P.; Eijck, van T.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea Turtle Club Bonaire (STCB) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization. Its main goal is the conservation of the sea turtles that occur on Bonaire. To reach this goal, annual projects are undertaken, such as research and the promotion of public awareness on sea turtle conservation. The ST

  6. Ordenisaajate seas seisab arvukalt riigiteenistujaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Riikliku autasu saajate nimekiri. Teenetemärgi saajate seas muusikud: Valgetähe III klass Henn Tiivel. Valgetähe IV klass Johannes Jürisson, Valeri Petrov, Aadu Regi, Helga Surva, Kalle Tamra. Valgetähe V klass Kalev Kuljus, Jaan Mikkel, Heidi Mägi, Heino Mähar, Sigrid Orusaar, Aarne Saluveer, Heli Lääts, Ludmilla Toon. Valgetähe medal Endla Jaanus, Ralf Kaup, Aadu Kukk, Tiit Köster, Heino Pehk, Tiiu Schüts

  7. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in th

  8. Deep-sea pollen research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiangjun; LUO Yunli; CHEN Huaicheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the progress of deep-sea pollen research in China since the beginning ofninetieths of the last Century. All the deep-sea pollen contri-butions mainly come from the South China Sea (SCS) andthe East China Sea (ECS). The German-Chinese joint cruise(Sonne 95) and ODP 184 cruise initiated by Chinese scientistsin the SCS provided excellent material for the deep-sea pol-len research. So far a number of pollen results of 20-30 kaand million years from the SCS have been published. A couple of deep-sea pollen records from Okinawa Through of the ECS also came out. The high resolution pollen records obtained from the continuous deposits with high sedimentation rates and reliable age control of the deep-sea sediments provided a high time resolution history (hundred to millennial scales) of vegetation, environment and monsoon evolution of the pollen source areas (southern China and Japan). Spectral analysis of deep-sea pollen records from the SCS discovered orbital (100, 41, 23, 10 ka) and suborbital cyclicities (Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oscheger-O/D events) in the vege-tation changes. Moreover, cross spectral analysis showed that the trend of vegetation changes in northern SCS was regulated mainly by changes of the ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere. The pollen record of the last 20 ka from the Okinawa Through of the ECS indicates that the marine environmental change lagged that on the terrestrail by about 1000 year. The asynchronous environmental changes between land and sea were probably caused by the time difference in thermohaline circulation. This study underscored the role of the deep-sea plant fossils as a bridge across the land and sea.

  9. Biogeochemical Coupling between Ocean and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Jeffery, N.; Maltrud, M. E.; Elliott, S.; Wolfe, J.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in ocean and sea ice are tightly coupled at high latitudes. Ongoing changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice domain likely influence the coupled system, not only through physical fields but also biogeochemical properties. Investigating the system and its changes requires representation of ocean and sea ice biogeochemical cycles, as well as their coupling in Earth System Models. Our work is based on ACME-HiLAT, a new offshoot of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), including a comprehensive representation of marine ecosystems in the form of the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling Module (BEC). A full vertical column sea ice biogeochemical module has recently been incorporated into the sea ice component. We have further introduced code modifications to couple key growth-limiting nutrients (N, Si, Fe), dissolved and particulate organic matter, and phytoplankton classes that are important in polar regions between ocean and sea ice. The coupling of ocean and sea ice biology-chemistry will enable representation of key processes such as the release of important climate active constituents or seeding algae from melting sea ice into surface waters. Sensitivity tests suggest sea ice and ocean biogeochemical coupling influences phytoplankton competition, biological production, and the CO2 flux. Sea ice algal seeding plays an important role in determining phytoplankton composition of Arctic early spring blooms, since different groups show various responses to the seeding biomass. Iron coupling leads to increased phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean, which also affects carbon uptake via the biological pump. The coupling of macronutrients and organic matter may have weaker influences on the marine ecosystem. Our developments will allow climate scientists to investigate the fully coupled responses of the sea ice-ocean BGC system to physical changes in polar climate.

  10. A Heavy Sea Fog Event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005:Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated.The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as:(1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  11. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jeffries

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been few previous studies of surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 variability and air-sea CO2 gas exchange rates for the Bering Sea shelf. In 2008, spring and summertime observations were collected in the Bering Sea shelf as part of the Bering Sea Ecological Study (BEST. Our results indicate that the Bering Sea shelf was close to neutral in terms of CO2 sink-source status in springtime due to relatively small air-sea CO2 gradients (i.e., ΔpCO2 and sea-ice cover. However, by summertime, very low seawater pCO2 values were observed and much of the Bering Sea shelf became strongly undersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Thus the Bering Sea shelf transitions seasonally from mostly neutral conditions to a strong oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 particularly in the "green belt" region of the Bering Sea where there are high rates of phytoplankton primary production (PPand net community production (NCP. Ocean biological processes dominate the seasonal drawdown of seawater pCO2 for large areas of the Bering Sea shelf, with the effect partly countered by seasonal warming. In small areas of the Bering Sea shelf south of the Pribilof Islands and in the SE Bering Sea, seasonal warming is the dominant influence on seawater pCO2, shifting localized areas of the shelf from minor/neutral CO2 sink status to neutral/minor CO2 source status, in contrast to much of the Bering Sea shelf. Overall, we compute that the Bering Sea shelf CO2 sink in 2008 was 157 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 (Tg = 1012 g C and thus a strong sink for CO2.

  12. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A.

    The trends and periodicities of surface meteorological parameters (sea surface temperature, air temperature, cloudiness, wind speed and sea level pressure) over the western, central, eastern and southern Arabian Sea regions are studied...

  13. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  14. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  15. BACTERIAL DESEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available With development of the fish culturing in the sea, the interest in their health also increased. The reason for this are diseases or rather mortality that occur in such controlled cultures and cause great economic losses. By growing large quantities of fish in rather small species, natural conditions are changed, so fish is more sensitive and prone to infection agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites. Besides, a large fish density in the cultural process accelerates spreading if the diseases, but also enables a better perception of them. In wild populations sick specimen very quickly become predator’s prey, witch makes it difficult to note any pathological changes in such fish. There are lots of articles on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases nowdays, but this work deals exclusively with bacterial deseases that occur in the controlled sea cultures (vibriosis, furunculosis, pastherelosis, nocardiosis, mycobaceriosis, edwardsielosis, yersiniosis, deseases caused by bacteria of genera Flexibacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Streptococus and bacteria nephryithis. Yet, the knowledge of these deseases vary, depending on wether a fish species is being cultured for a longer period of time or is only being introduced in the controlled culture.

  16. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  17. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  18. Interpretation and Implications of Previous Sea Pay Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    amount of sea duty that can be gained from a rise in Career Sea Pay and Career Sea Pay Premium . The second was how to separate multiple effects of sea...linear pricing scheme that would induce personnel to reveal important information about their willingness to reenlist and their willingness to...undertake sea duty. Under this pricing mechanism, the Navy could fashion combinations of Selective Reenlistment Bonuses and sea pays that would achieve

  19. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  20. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  1. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf...

  2. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  3. Sea energy; Energie de la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    The tidal and wave power of the sea could offer electric power for many towns and villages of seashore. This document presents the possibilities of electric power production from the sea energy (submarine wind turbines, tidal energy and wave energy) and the research programs in the world. (A.L.B.)

  4. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh....... This is the first study to assess plastic pollution levels in SW Mediterranean Sea....

  5. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  6. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  8. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  9. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  10. Mapping of the air-sea CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasunaka, S.; Murata, A.; Watanabe, E.; Chierici, M.; Fransson, A.; van Heuven, S.; Hoppema, M.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Kosugi, N.; Lauvset, S.K.; Mathis, J.T.; Nishino, S.; Omar, A.M.; Olsen, A.; Sasano, D.; Takahashi, T.; Wanninkhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    We produced 204 monthly maps of the air–sea CO2 flux in the Arctic north of 60°N, including the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, from January 1997 to December 2013 by using a self-organizing map technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water data were obtained by shipboard underwa

  11. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  12. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean...

  13. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  14. Sea ice thickness estimation in the Bohai Sea using geostationary ocean color imager data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wensong; SHENG Hui; ZHANG Xi

    2016-01-01

    A method to estimate the thickness of the sea ice of the Bohai Sea is proposed using geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) data and then applied to the dynamic monitoring of the sea ice thickness in the Bohai Sea during the winter of 2014 to 2015. First of all, a model is given between the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo and the reflectance of each band with high temporal resolution GOCI data. Then, the relationship model between the sea ice thickness and the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo is established and applied to the thickness extraction of the sea ice in the Bohai Sea. Finally, the sea ice thickness extraction method is tested by the results based on the MODIS data, thermodynamic empirical models (Lebedev and Zubov), and thein situ ice thickness data. The test results not only indicated that the sea ice thickness retrieval method based on the GOCI data was a good correlation (r2>0.86) with the sea ice thickness retrieved by the MODIS and thermodynamic empirical models, but also that the RMS is only 6.82 cm different from the thickness of the sea ice based on the GOCI andin situ data.

  15. The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

  16. Quantifying the influence of sea ice on ocean microseism using observations from the Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Victor C.; McNamara, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Microseism is potentially affected by all processes that alter ocean wave heights. Because strong sea ice prevents large ocean waves from forming, sea ice can therefore significantly affect microseism amplitudes. Here we show that this link between sea ice and microseism is not only a robust one but can be quantified. In particular, we show that 75–90% of the variability in microseism power in the Bering Sea can be predicted using a fairly crude model of microseism damping by sea ice. The success of this simple parameterization suggests that an even stronger link can be established between the mechanical strength of sea ice and microseism power, and that microseism can eventually be used to monitor the strength of sea ice, a quantity that is not as easily observed through other means.

  17. The cooling and moistening effect on the formation of sea fog in the Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; ZHOU Faxiu

    2006-01-01

    With the sea surface observations from ICOADS for the years 1960~2002, the conditions of cooling, evaporation and water vapor transportation are analyzed and compared for the formation of seasonal sea fog in April-July in the Huanghai Sea. It is found that sea surface cooling is always existent during the fog seasons while sea surface evaporation only appears in April-June in the Huanghai Sea. Local evaporation alone is not sufficient to form fogs though it may lead to light ones. Water vapor transported from the low-latitudes accomplished by specific synoptic systems is the most important condition for sea fog formation. In general, the moistening effect is more important than the cooling one.

  18. A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Xiaobao; ZHOU Guangqing; ZHU Jiang; LI Rongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas is developed based on a nested regional ocean circulation model and variational optimal interpolation assimilation method. A 12-year assimilation experiment is performed by using the observational temperature profiles from World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and ECMWF reanalysis surface wind stress. Experimental results indicate that the variational scheme shows good skill in assimilating the observed sea temperature into a regional ocean circulation model. Compared with simulation alone, the sea temperature data assimilation significantly improves the performance of a regional ocean model and obtains comprehensive description of the circulations in the China Seas and adjacent areas. Assimilation results, such as the strength and flowing axis of the Kuroshio, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and its corresponding horizontal circulation in summer and dipole eddies in the South China Sea in the late summer/early autumn and the eastward jet between them, are well consistent with the observed evidences.

  19. On the measure of sea ice area from sea ice concentration data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2015-10-01

    The measure of sea ice surface variability provides a fundamental information on the climatology of the Arctic region. Sea ice extension is conventionally measured by two parameters, i.e. Sea Ice Extent (SIE) and Sea Ice Area (SIA), both parameters being derived from Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) data sets. In this work a new parameter (CSIA) is introduced, which takes into account only the compact sea-ice, which is defined as the sea-ice having concentration at least equal the 70%. Aim of this study is to compare the performances of the two parameters, SIA and CSIA, in analyzing the trends of three monthly time-series of the whole Arctic region. The SIC data set used in this study was produced by the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen and covers the period January 2003 - December 2014, i.e. the period in which the data set is built using the new AMSR passive microwave sensor.

  20. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  1. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... to the Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels...... up the recovery of the Baltic Sea such that the sea could be unaffected by eutrofication sooner than without oxygenation pumping . We undertake a representative primary survey of the populations in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in order to assess the preferences of the population around the Baltic...

  2. The South China Sea Deep: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinxian; Li, Qianyu; Dai, Minhan

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) has increasingly become a global focus in ocean research and hydrocarbon explorations. Over the last two decades, at least 17 international cruises including two ODP/IODP expeditions were conducted in the SCS, and more than 2000 exploratory wells were drilled (Wang et al., 2014a). While its sedimentary basins on the continental shelf and slope are explored for offshore resources, the deep basin below 3500 m in depth that overlies the basaltic oceanic crust preserves the key to understanding their formation and development. In order to better understand the life history and functional system of the marginal sea, a major research program "Deep Sea Processes and Evolution of the South China Sea", or "The South China Sea Deep" for short, was launched in January 2011 by the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China. This venture represents the first ever large-scale basic-research program in ocean science in the country (Wang, 2012).

  3. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  4. Do Indicators Influence Communication in SEA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication...... between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey...... and other relevant sectors (planning, energy, land use, forestry, etc.), the involvement of the public and NGOs is still not well implemented in Chinese SEA practice, and the direction of communication is mainly one-way channel of providing information rather than a two-way channel of dialogue...

  5. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  6. The isotope composition of inorganic germanium in seawater and deep sea sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermic, Maxence; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2017-09-01

    Although dissolved concentrations of germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) in modern seawater are tightly correlated, uncertainties still exist in the modern marine Ge cycle. Germanium stable isotope systematics in marine systems should provide additional constraints on marine Ge sources and sinks, however the low concentration of Ge in seawater presents an analytical challenge for isotopic measurement. Here, we present a new method of pre-concentration of inorganic Ge from seawater which was applied to measure three Ge isotope profiles in the Southern Ocean and deep seawater from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Germanium isotopic measurements were performed on Ge amounts as low as 2.6 ng using a double-spike approach and a hydride generation system coupled to a MC-ICP-MS. Germanium was co-precipitated with iron hydroxide and then purified through anion-exchange chromatography. Results for the deep (i.e. >1000 m depth) Pacific Ocean off Hawaii (nearby Loihi Seamount) and the deep Atlantic off Bermuda (BATS station) showed nearly identical δ74/70Ge values at 3.19 ± 0.31‰ (2SD, n = 9) and 2.93 ± 0.10‰ (2SD, n = 2), respectively. Vertical distributions of Ge concentration and isotope composition in the deep Southern Ocean for water depth > 1300 m yielded an average δ74/70Ge = 3.13 ± 0.25‰ (2SD, n = 14) and Ge/Si = 0.80 ± 0.09 μmol/mol (2SD, n = 12). Significant variations in δ74/70Ge, from 2.62 to 3.71‰, were measured in the first 1000 m in one station of the Southern Ocean near Sars Seamount in the Drake Passage, with the heaviest values measured in surface waters. Isotope fractionation by diatoms during opal biomineralization may explain the enrichment in heavy isotopes for both Ge and Si in surface seawater. However, examination of both oceanographic parameters and δ74/70Ge values suggest also that water mass mixing and potential contribution of shelf-derived Ge also could contribute to the variations. Combining these results with new Ge isotope data

  7. Seasonal sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, over the period of 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Stammerjohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent attention has focused on accelerated glacial losses along the Amundsen Sea coast that result from changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation, with sea ice playing a mediating but not well-understood role. Here, we investigated how sea ice has changed in the Amundsen Sea over the period of 1979 to 2014, focusing on spatio-temporal changes in ice edge advance/retreat and percent sea ice cover in relation to changes in winds. In contrast to the widespread sea ice decreases to the east and increases to the west of the Amundsen Sea, sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea were confined to three areas: (i offshore of the shelf break, (ii the southern Pine Island Polynya, and (iii the eastern Amundsen Sea Polynya. Offshore, a 2-month decrease in ice season duration coincided with seasonal shifts in wind speed and direction from March to May (relating to later ice advance and from September to August (relating to earlier retreat, consistent with reported changes in the depth/location of the Amundsen Sea Low. In contrast, sea ice decreases in the polynya areas corresponded to episodic or step changes in spring ice retreat (earlier by 1–2 months and were coincident with changes to Thwaites Iceberg Tongue (located between the two polynyas and increased southeasterly winds. Temporal correlations among these three areas were weak, indicating different local forcing and/or differential response to large-scale forcing. Although our analysis has shown that part of the variability can be explained by changes in winds or to the coastal icescape, an additional but unknown factor is how sea ice has responded to changes in ocean heat and freshwater inputs. Unraveling cause and effect, critical for predicting changes to this rapidly evolving ocean-ice shelf-sea ice system, will require in situ observations, along with improved remote sensing capabilities and ocean modeling.

  8. The microwave scattering characteristics of sea ice in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Meijie; DAI Yongshou; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xi; MENG Junmin; ZHU Xiuqin; YIN Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing has become the primary means for sea-ice research, and has been supported by a great deal of field experiments and theoretical studies regarding sea-ice microwave scattering. However, these studies have been barely carried in the Bohai Sea. The sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism was first developed for the thin sea ice with slight roughness in the Bohai Sea in the winter of 2012, and included the backscattering coefficients which were measured on the different conditions of three bands (L, C and X), two polarizations (HH and VV), and incident angles of 20° to 60°, using a ground-based scatterometer and the synchronous physical parameters of the sea-ice temperature, density, thickness, salinity, and so on. The theoretical model of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering is obtained based on these physical parameters. The research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism is carried out through two means, which includes the comparison between the field microwave scattering data and the simulation results of the theoretical model, as well as the feature analysis of the four components of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering. It is revealed that the sea-ice microwave scattering data and the theoretical simulation results vary in the same trend with the incident angles. Also, there is a visible variant in the sensitivity of every component to the different bands. For example, the C and X bands are sensitive to the top surface, the X band is sensitive to the scatterers, and the L and C bands are sensitive to the bottom surface, and so on. It is suggested that the features of the sea-ice surfaces and scatterers can be retrieved by the further research in the future. This experiment can provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering characteristics in the Bohai Sea.

  9. SEAS: Student Experiments At Sea - An Education Outreach Pilot Program Sponsored by the Ridge2000 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.

    2004-12-01

    SEAS is a pilot program for middle and high school students who want to learn science by doing science. SEAS students study the deep sea hydrothermal vent environment and learn to ask questions about this exciting, relatively unexplored world, just as researchers do. SEAS students also learn how to answer their own questions through the process of scientific investigation. With the SEAS program, students have the opportunity to participate in the actual discovery process, along side deep-sea researchers. SEAS builds upon the successes of programs like Dive&Discover and Extreme2000, which demonstrated the capability deep-sea scientists have in engaging students with live research. SEAS extends this concept by inviting students to participate in deep-sea research through formal proposal and report competitions. SEAS challenges students to higher levels of achievement. A curriculum, developed by teachers expert in the translation of scientific inquiry in the classroom, prepares students to participate. SEAS was concept-tested during the 2003-2004 school year, with 14 pilot teachers and approximately 800 students. Twenty Ridge2000 scientists contributed their time and expertise to the SEAS program in its first year. Five student proposals were selected and conducted at sea in April during a Ridge2000 research cruise to the East Pacific Rise. All results were posted to the SEAS website (http://www.ridge2000.org/SEAS/) during the cruise, and students were invited to analyze data for their final reports. Final student reports, along with scientists comments were also posted. During the 2004-2005 school year, SEAS will be evaluated for its impact on student learning and attitudes toward science. The benefits of SEAS to the Ridge2000 scientific community are many. Scientists are invited to contribute in a variety of ways, all of which help satisfy the requirement of NSFs Broader Impacts Criterion. They may contribute time and expertise by answering student questions and

  10. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  11. Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

  12. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  13. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  14. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  15. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  16. Geomagnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, K.; Putman, N.; Lohmann, C.

    2011-12-01

    Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Newly hatched turtles (hatchlings) begin the migration with a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries. In laboratory experiments, young turtles that had never before been in the ocean were exposed to fields like those that exist at various, widely separated locations along their transoceanic migratory route. Turtles responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help them remain within the North Atlantic gyre currents and advance along the migratory pathway. The results demonstrate that turtles can derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, and provide strong evidence that hatchling loggerheads inherit a remarkably elaborate set of responses that function in guiding them along their open-sea migratory route. For young sea turtles, couplings of oriented swimming to regional magnetic fields appear to provide the fundamental building blocks from which natural selection can sculpt a sequence of responses capable of guiding first-time ocean migrants along complex migratory routes. The results imply that hatchlings from different populations in different parts of the world are likely to have magnetic navigational responses uniquely suited for the migratory routes that each group follows. Thus, from a conservation perspective, turtles from different populations are not interchangeable. From an evolutionary perspective, the responses are not incompatible with either secular variation or magnetic polarity reversals. As Earth's field gradually changes, strong selective pressure presumably acts to maintain an approximate match between the responses of hatchlings and the fields that exist at critical points along

  17. Palaeogeography of the Caspian Sea marine Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Tamara; Svitoch, Aleksander; Makshaev, Radik; Khomchenko, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Vertical succession of the fossil molluscs of Didacna genus along the Pleistocene sequence of the Caspian Sea area allows for detailed subdivision of the sediments. Zone, i.e. the Caspian Sea Pleistocene, is the highest stratigraphical unit of the regional Quaternary stratigraphic scale. It corresponds to the biozone of Didacna Eichwald subgenus. Based on the fossil groups of Didacna molluscs, the deposits are subdivided into the Baku, Urundzhik-Singil', lower and upper Khazarian, Khvalinian, and post-Khvalinian horizons. Further subdision is based on the changes in Didacna assemblages. Three big transgressive epochs are distinguished in the Pleistocene history of the Caspian Sea that were separated by deep and long regressions. These are the Baku, early Khazarian and Khvalinian transgressions. In transgressive sea basins, the sea level reached the height of 40-50 m and was regulated by the outflow of the Caspian waters into the Black Sea via the Manych depression. The areas of transgressive basins were similar. At the Caucasian coast, the extent of the Baku and early Khazarian transgressions exceeded that of the Khvalinian transgression, while in the Northern Caspian Sea Region the latter was slightly more extensive than the preceding ones. The Urundzhik, late Khazarian and New Caspian transgressions represented sea-level rise of lower rank. All of them were recorded within big regressive epochs being usually related to warm (interglacial) climatic conditions: Singil' (Likhvin), Mikulino and Holocene, respectively. Like at present, the Pleistocene Caspian Sea represented a self-regulating system. Maximal extent of ancient sea basins was dependent upon the height of the Manych sill (that was the main regulating factor), the amount of precipitation, river runoff, and decrease in evaporation. Minimal extent of the sea basin was dependent upon the area and capacity of its southern and middle depressions. At the same time, the rest states (extents) of the Caspian Sea

  18. Investigation of sea level trends and the effect of the north atlantic oscillation (NAO) on the black sea and the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgenc Aksoy, Aysegul

    2017-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has significant effects on sea levels, weather, and climate. In this study, the sea level trends and the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation Indices (NAOI) on annual mean sea level data were assessed for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The trends of sea level and NAOI were determined using Mann-Kendall dimensionless z statistics. Generally, upward sea level trends were detected for the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In the Black Sea, significant and continuous upward trends were detected after the year 1950. Weaker trends were detected for the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Sea level trends were correlated with trends in NAO indices; negative correlations were detected for the Black Sea, whereas positive correlations were found for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Paired t tests were performed to determine the turning points for all sea level data sets. The value of t was positive for all data sets, which means that the mean value of the data set before the turning point was smaller than the mean value of the data set after the turning point.

  19. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    NESTOR Collaboration; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons.

  20. Similarity in microbial amino acid uptake in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic (sub-)tropical gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Polly G.; Mary, Isabelle; Purdie, Duncan A.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth’s most extensive biomes - the oceanic subtropical gyres - are considered to be expanding with current surface ocean warming. Although it is well established that microbial communities control gyre biogeochemistry, comparisons of their metabolic activities between gyres are limited. In order to estimate metabolic activities including production of microbial communities, the uptake rates of amino acids leucine, methionine and tyrosine at ambient concentrations were estimated in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean using radioisotopically labelled tracers. Data were acquired during six research cruises covering main oceanic provinces herein termed: North and South Atlantic Gyres, Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS), Equatorial region, and Mauritanian Upwelling (off Cape Blanc). Data were divided between provinces, the extents of which were identified by ocean colour data, in order to achieve provincial mean uptake rates. Leucine and methionine uptake rates did not differ between sampling periods, and were comparable between the North and South subtropical gyres. Furthermore, variation in uptake rates measured throughout the two oligotrophic gyres, where sampling covered ∼4 × 10 6 km 2, was considerably lower than that measured within the Mauritanian Upwelling and Equatorial regions, and even at the BATS site. Tyrosine was generally the slowest of the amino acids to be taken up, however, it was assimilated faster than methionine within the Mauritanian Upwelling region. Thus, we propose that one value for leucine (12.6 ± 3.2 pmol L -1 h -1) and methionine (10.0 ± 3.3 pmol L -1 h -1) uptake could be applied to the oligotrophic subtropical gyres of the Atlantic Ocean. However, with the significantly lower uptake rates observed at the BATS site, we would not advise extrapolation to the Sargasso Sea.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  3. Spatial-temporal characters of Antarctic sea ice variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lijuan; Lu Longhua; Bian Lingen

    2004-01-01

    Using sea ice concentration dataset covering the period of 1968-2002 obtained from the Hadley Center of UK, this paper investigates characters of Antarctic sea ice variations .The finding demonstrates that the change of mean sea-ice extent is almost consistent with that of sea-ice area, so sea-ice extent can be chosen to go on this research. The maximum and the minimum of Antarctic sea ice appear in September and February respectively. The maximum and the maximal variation of sea ice appear in Weddell Sea and Ross Sea, while the minimum and the minimal variation of sea-ice appear in Antarctic Peninsula. In recent 35 years, as a whole, Antarctic sea ice decreased distinctly. Moreover, there are 5 subdivision characteristic regions considering their different variations. Hereinto, the sea-ice extent of Weddell Sea and Ross Sea regions extends and area increases, while the sea-ice extent of the other three regions contracts and area decreases. They are all of obvious 2-4 years and 5-7 years significant oscillation periods. It is of significance for further understanding the sea-ice-air interaction in Antarctica region and discussing the relationship between sea-ice variation and atmospheric circulation.

  4. On Study of Sea Fog over the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Gao, S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.; Xue, D.; Shen, J.

    2010-07-01

    A ubiquitous feature of the Yellow and Bohai Sea (YBS) in the eastern Asian region is the frequent occurrence of the sea fog in spring and summer season. The pioneer work on sea fog over YBS can be traced back to Prof. Binhua Wang as early as 1940's. He investigated sea fog systematically and published his book Sea Fog in 1985 (by China Ocean Press and Springer-Verlag). Recently, a research group in the Department of Marine Meteorology at Ocean University of China (OUC) continued sea fog research collaborated with Shandong Meteorological Bureau and Qingdao Meteorological Bureau under the financial supports of National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Meteorological Administration. Their researches involved in both observation analyses and high-resolution modeling of sea fog over YBS. In this talk, the brief history of sea fog research in China will be reviewed firstly. Then, a typical heavy sea fog event over YBS occurred in the morning of 11 April 2004 will be documented by using all available observational data and high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) modeling results. Finally, the applications of a quasi-operational sea fog forecasting system which was mainly based on RAMS model will be introduced.

  5. The Adriatic Sea: A Long-Standing Laboratory for Sea Level Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Pasarić, Mira; Orlić, Mirko

    2017-07-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of Adriatic Sea level research covered by the literature. It discusses changes occurring over millennial timescales and documented by a variety of natural and man-made proxies and post-glacial rebound models; mean sea level changes occurring over centennial to annual timescales and measured by modern instruments; and daily and higher-frequency changes (with periods ranging from minutes to a day) that are contributing to sea level extremes and are relevant for present-day flooding of coastal areas. Special tribute is paid to the historic sea level studies that shaped modern sea level research in the Adriatic, followed by a discussion of existing in situ and remote sensing observing systems operating in the Adriatic area, operational forecasting systems for Adriatic storm surges, as well as warning systems for tsunamis and meteotsunamis. Projections and predictions of sea level and related hazards are also included in the review. Based on this review, open issues and research gaps in the Adriatic Sea level studies are identified, as well as the additional research efforts needed to fill the gaps. The Adriatic Sea, thus, remains a laboratory for coastal sea level studies for semi-enclosed, coastal and marginal seas in the world ocean.

  6. Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

  7. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  8. Stress and deformation characteristics of sea ice in a high resolution numerical sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is due to the applied wind and ocean currents. The deformations of sea ice over ocean basin length scales have observable patterns; cracks and leads in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover. Here we investigate the link between observable deformation characteristics and the underlying internal sea ice stresses and force balance using the Los Alamos numerical sea ice climate model. In order to mimic laboratory experiments on the deformation of small cubes of sea ice we have developed an idealised square domain that tests the model response at spatial resolutions of up to 500m. We use the Elastic Anisotropic Plastic and Elastic Viscous Plastic rheologies, comparing their stability over varying resolutions and time scales. Sea ice within the domain is forced by idealised winds in order to compare the confinement of wind stresses and internal sea ice stresses. We document the characteristic deformation patterns of convergent, divergent and rotating stress states.

  9. A study of long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; LIN Mingsen; ZHENG Quanan; YE Xiaomin; LI Junyi; ZHU Benlu

    2015-01-01

    From the analyses of the satellite altimeter Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) data, tidal gauge sea level data and historical sea level data, this paper investigates the long-term sea level variability in the East China Sea (ECS). Based on the correlation analysis, we calculate the correlation coefficient between tidal gauge and the closest MSLA grid point, then generate the map of correlation coefficient of the entire ECS. The results show that the satellite altimeter MSLA data is effective to observe coastal sea level variability. An important finding is that from map of correlation coefficient we can identify the Kuroshio. The existence of Kuroshio decreases the correlation between coastal and the Pacific sea level. Kurishio likes a barrier or a wall, which blocks the effect of the Pacific and the global change. Moreover, coastal sea level in the ECS is mainly associated with local systems rather than global change. In order to calculate the long-term sea level variability trend, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is applied to derive the trend on each MSLA grid point in the entire ECS. According to the 2-D distribution of the trend and rising rate, the sea level on the right side of the axis of Kuroshio rise faster than in its left side. This result supports the barrier effect of Kuroshio in the ECS. For the entire ECS, the average sea level rose 45.0 mm between 1993 and 2010, with a rising rate of (2.5±0.4) mm/a which is slower than global average. The relatively slower sea level rising rate further proves that sea level rise in the ECS has less response to global change due to its own local system effect.

  10. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  11. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  12. Active kinematics of the southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Ogubazghi, G.; Amlesom, A.; Haileab, B.; Sholan, J.; Vernant, P.; Arrajehi, A.

    2009-04-01

    GPS measurements adjacent to the southern Red Sea and around the Afar Triple Junction (Red Sea Rift-Gulf of Aden Rift-East African Rift), indicate that the Red Sea rift bifurcates south of 16° N latitude with one branch following a continuation of the main Red Sea rift (~150° Azimuth) and the other oriented roughly N-S traversing the Danakil Depression/Afar volcanic province. These two rift branches account for the full Arabia-Nubia relative motion. Within the resolution of our observations, the partitioning of extension between rift branches varies linearly along strike; north of ~16°N extension (~15 mm/yr at 16°N) is confined to the main Red Sea rift while at the latitude of the Afar Triple Junction (~12°N) extension (~20 mm/yr) has transferred completely to the Danakil-Afar Depression. The Danakil block separates the two rifts and rotates counterclockwise, accommodating extension along the rifts and developing the triangular geometry of the Danakil/Afar Depression. Extrapolating the geodetic rates to the time of initial rifting of Arabia from Nubia (~25 ± 3 Ma) and estimating total extension across the rift branches from the present-day widths of the rifts suggests that Arabia-Nubia relative motion has been roughly constant since the initiation of Red Sea spreading, and that extension was initially confined to the main Red Sea rift with the presently observed bifurcation initiating at about 17 Ma.

  13. Ecological studies on Prochlorococcus in China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Prochlorococcus, a tiny oxygenic photosynthetic picoplankton with unique pigment composition, has been found to be ubiquitous and abundant in the world oceans, and has been recognized to be closely related to living resources and environmental issues. It has attracted the interest of marine biologists since its discovery, and field data on it over global oceans have accumulated rapidly in the past 10 years. In China, we have studied Prochlorococcus for 8 years, achieving a basic ecological understanding. The presence of Prochlorococcus in China seas, marginal seas of the west Pacific, was confirmed, and its distribution patterns were also brought to light. Prochlorococcus is very abundant in the South China Sea and the offshore regions of the East China Sea. It is seasonally present in the southeast part of the Yellow Sea and absent in the Bohai Sea. Temporal and spatial variations of the abundance of Prochlorococcus and their affecting factors, physiological and ecological characteristics of Prochlorococcus and their relationships to the other groups of picoplankton, and the importance of Prochlorococcus in total biomass and possible roles in living resources and environmental problems are discussed. In the future, isolation of different Prochlorococcus strains from the China seas and their physiological characteristics, genetic diversity, phylogenies and gene exploiture, etc. are important issues to be addressed.

  14. Track Reconstruction at SeaQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Reuben; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SeaQuest experiment, at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is a fixed target experiment that uses the Drell-Yan process to measure the quark and antiquark structure in the nucleon sea. A naïve assumption is that the number of anti-up and anti-down quarks within a nucleon sea would be the same. However, evidence shows that this is not true. The goal of SeaQuest is to more accurately measure this asymmetry in the nucleon sea. In this process event tracking is an integral step in analyzing the data collected. This is difficult due to the size of the experiment, the number of detectors and the beam dump. The beam dump is a 5m block of iron that lies just beyond the target to protect the detectors from the beam. This poses a problem for accurately tracking muons back to the target. Therefore, it is important to crosscheck two independent event trackers. Sqerp, the SeaQuest Event Reconstruction Program, is one of these trackers used at SeaQuest. This tracks events through two magnets, 4 detector stations, and 18 planes of wires. Sqerp deals with difficult problems such as matching hits in each detector station and how detector alignment affects this. This poster will focus on the methods used by Sqerp and the work done in optimizing these processes. This research was supported by US DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  15. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-05

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions.

  16. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  17. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ian S F Jones

    2002-09-01

    The Sulu Sea, located between Borneo and the Philippines, is separated from the surrounding ocean by two chains of islands. There are no passages below 500m depth and the basin, which at the deepest is 5,000 m, is filled with warm low oxygen water. The near surface chlorophyll concentration has been examined with the aid of ocean colour sensors on board satellites. Direct comparisons between a field observation of chlorophyll and its remotely sensed values from OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner) are found to be in satisfactory agreement. An 8-month time series of chlorophyll near the centre of the Sulu Sea has been used to show that the chlorophyll level is significantly higher than the level in the adjacent South China Sea. This was most pronounced at the period of change between the monsoons. The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea. Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be just su#cient to support the current fishery.

  18. Hölder Scales of Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sea level is essential in the field of geosciences, ranging from ocean dynamics to climates. The fractal properties of sea level, such as long-range dependence (LRD or long memory, 1/f noise behavior, and self-similarity (SS, are known. However, the description of its multiscale behavior as well as local roughness with the Hölder exponent h(t from a view of multifractional Brownian motion (mBm is rarely reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this research, we will exhibit that there is the multiscale property of sea level based on h(ts of sea level data recorded by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The contributions of this paper are twofold as follows. (i Hölder exponent of sea level may not change with time considerably at small time scale, for example, daily time scale, but it varies significantly at large time scale, such as at monthly time scale. (ii The dispersion of the Hölder exponents of sea level may be different at different stations. This implies that the Hölder roughness of sea level may be spatial dependent.

  19. Stratospheric Impacts on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term circulation change in the stratosphere can have substantial effects on the oceans and their circulation. In this study we investigate whether and how sea ice at the ocean surface responds to intraseasonal stratospheric variability. Our main question is whether the surface impact of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) is strong and long enough to affect sea ice. A related question is whether the increased frequency of SSWs during the 2000s contributed to the rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice during this time. To this end we analyze observations of sea ice, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and a long control integration with a stratospherically-enhanced version of the GFDL CM2.1 climate model. From both observations and the model we find that stratospheric extreme events have a demonstrable impact on the distribution of Arctic sea ice. The areas most affected are near the edge of the climatological ice line over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. The absolute changes in sea ice coverage amount to +/-10 %. Areas and magnitudes of increase and decrease are about the same. It is thus unlikely that the increased SSW frequency during the 2000s contributed to the decline of sea ice during that period. The sea ice changes are consistent with the impacts of a negative NAO at the surface and can be understood in terms of (1) dynamical change due to altered surface wind stress and (2) thermodynamical change due to altered temperature advection. Both dynamical and thermodynamical change positively reinforce each other in producing sea change. A simple advection model is used to demonstrate that most of the sea ice change can be explained from the sea ice drift due to the anomalous surface wind stress. Changes in the production or melt of sea ice by thermodynamical effects are less important. Overall, this study adds to an increasing body of evidence that the stratosphere not only impacts weather and climate of the atmosphere but also the surface and

  20. Gamma-radiation monitoring network at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, Ch.; Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M.; Becker, K

    1999-04-01

    A stationary monitoring network to observe the sea for radioactive contaminations, using a newly constructed NaI-detector system, is described. The monitoring efficiency for total-{gamma} counting and {gamma}-spectrometry as well as a method suppressing the registration of natural radioactivity are discussed. On the basis of three accident scenarios with releases of radioactivity into the sea it is demonstrated that under sea conditions the limit of detection of this 'in situ' method is comparable to the regularly performed monitoring by radiochemical {sup 137}Cs analysis of seawater samples.