WorldWideScience

Sample records for sardinops sagax pacific

  1. Anchovy Engraulis capensis and sardine Sardinops sagax currently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    within-season variability in factors affecting sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis recruitment. .... variogram. ... formerly SF, unpublished data) were based on length ..... the front offshore, along with many eggs and larvae.

  2. Worldwide, where anchovies Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    sardine Sardinops sagax co-occur, the two species alternate in ... the west coasts of South America and southern Africa, ... of extinction in the wild within 100 years (Croxall et al. 1996) ..... able to penguins year-round, compared to the seasonal.

  3. Constant harvest rate for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California based on catchability-at-length estimations

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Constant harvest rate as a management strategy for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California is supported by an analysis of variations in the catchability coefficient (q), stock abundance and commercial catch. Catchability was analyzed based on population length-structured data standard length (SL), expressed as CPUE, for 26 fishing seasons (1972-1973 to 1997-1998). We used a deterministic model of catchability to estimate the catchability-at-length assuming ...

  4. 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  5. The 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  6. Traditionally, sardine Sardinops sagax has been the backbone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Grant Program, San Diego, California, USA, in cooperation with Centro de Investigaciones ... maturity of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) during a period of large variations in stock .... Trudy– AtlantNIRO 73: 77–85 (in Russian). ROCHET, M. J. 1998 ...

  7. Although South African sardine (or pilchard, Sardinops sagax) were ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (iii) as anchovy and sardine frequently shoal together during their first ... Fishery Resources Division, Food and Agricultural Organization, Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome, Italy. ...... risk and “scope for growth” as performance criteria.

  8. Anchovy Engraulis capensis, sardine Sardinops sagax and round ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    all years in the recruitment time-series from 1985 to. 1994. ... Forecasts of anchovy recruitment from multiple cruises may produce a different result from the forecast ... abundance, phyto- and zooplankton biomass, copepod ...... estuarine lake.

  9. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax (also known as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    mental factors that affect stock dynamics primarily through recruitment, and .... school-groups contributed an increasing proportion ..... of a recovery in the stock in the early 1990s were not ..... must strive to promote a healthy spawning stock,.

  10. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax supports major purse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Echo-Integrator post-processing system (Foote et al. 1991). ... noise-reduction filters at weak, and with frequency ..... approach based on acoustic image simulation. Aquat. ... GERLOTTO, F., SORIA, M. and P. FRÉON 1999 — From 2D to.

  11. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  12. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  13. Dinámica poblacional de la sardina del pacifico Sardinops sagax (Jenyns 1842) (clupeiformes: clupeidae), en la costa oeste de la península de Baja California y el sur de California

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Uraga, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Tres stocks de sardina del Pacífico fueron identificados utilizando datos mensuales de captura y temperatura superficial del mar de Bahía Magdalena, Isla Cedros y Ensenada en México, y San Pedro en EUA. Un stock parece estar adaptado a temperaturas mayores de 22 ºC (stock cálido), otro a temperaturas entre 17-22 ºC (stock templado) y el tercero a temperaturas menores de 17 ºC (stock frío). Se elaboró un modelo conceptual para describir la distribución espacio temporal de est...

  14. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)₈-fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  15. Pacific Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The United States pushes for greater economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region Barack Obama has been an active free trade promoter in recent months. The U.S. president signed free trade agreements with South Korea,

  16. An Empty Donut Hole: the Great Collapse of a North American Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bailey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma is North America's most abundant and lucrative natural fishery, and is the world's largest fishery for human food. The little-known demise of the "Donut Hole" stock of pollock in the Aleutian Basin of the central Bering Sea during the 1980s is the most spectacular fishery collapse in North American history, dwarfing the famous crashes of the northern cod and Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax. This collapse has received scant recognition and became evident only in 1993 when fishing was banned by an international moratorium; nearly 20 years later it has not recovered. The history of fishing in the North Pacific Ocean after World War II offers some insights into how the Donut Hole pollock fishery developed, and the societal and economic pressures behind it that so influenced the stock's fate. Overfishing was, without a doubt, the greatest contributor to the collapse of the Aleutian Basin pollock fishery, but a lack of knowledge about population biocomplexity added to the confusion of how to best manage the harvest. Unfortunately, the big scientific questions regarding the relationship of Donut Hole fish to other stocks are still unanswered.

  17. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  18. Pacific Flyway management plan for Pacific brant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla) population (PFBP) is made up of brant breeding in Alaska, the western Canadian arctic, and the eastern Russian arctic, and...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  20. No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the Late Miocene of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Collareta, Alberto; Landini, Walter; Post, Klaas; Ramassamy, Benjamin; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Based on the position of fish individuals along the head and chest regions of the ziphiid, the lack of digestion marks on fish remains and the homogeneous size of individuals, we propose that this assemblage results from the death of the whale (possibly via toxin poisoning) shortly after the capture of prey from a single school. Together with morphological data and the frequent discovery of fossil crown ziphiids in deep-sea deposits, this exceptional record supports the hypothesis that only more derived ziphiids were regular deep divers and that the extinction of epipelagic forms may coincide with the radiation of true dolphins. PMID:26354940

  1. Influence of ocean winds on the pelagic ecosystem in upwelling regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Ryan R; Checkley, David M

    2008-02-12

    Upwelling of nutrient-rich, subsurface water sustains high productivity in the ocean's eastern boundary currents. These ecosystems support a rate of fish harvest nearly 100 times the global mean and account for >20% of the world's marine fish catch. Environmental variability is thought to be the major cause of the decadal-scale biomass fluctuations characteristic of fish populations in these regions, but the mechanisms relating atmospheric physics to fish production remain unexplained. Two atmospheric conditions induce different types of upwelling in these ecosystems: coastal, alongshore wind stress, resulting in rapid upwelling (with high vertical velocity, w); and wind-stress curl, resulting in slower upwelling (low w). We show that the level of wind-stress curl has increased and that production of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) varies with wind-stress curl over the past six decades. The extent of isopycnal shoaling, nutricline depth, and chlorophyll concentration in the upper ocean also correlate positively with wind-stress curl. The size structure of plankton assemblages is related to the rate of wind-forced upwelling, and sardine feed efficiently on small plankters generated by slow upwelling. Upwelling rate is a fundamental determinant of the biological structure and production in coastal pelagic ecosystems, and future changes in the magnitude and spatial gradient of wind stress may have important and differing effects on these ecosystems. Understanding of the biological mechanisms relating fisheries production to environmental variability is essential for wise management of marine resources under a changing climate.

  2. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  3. Latitudinal variation in the recruitment dynamics of small pelagic fishes in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiro

    2007-07-01

    The subarctic Oyashio Current flows south-westward and the subtropical Kuroshio Current flows north-eastward in the western North Pacific, converging in the waters off northern Japan to form the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region. Some small pelagic fishes inhabit the subarctic or subtropical waters, and others seasonally migrate north and south across the major ocean fronts. Environmental conditions in the subarctic and transition waters are variable, whereas in the subtropical Kuroshio waters conditions are relatively stable. Latitudinally different environmental conditions may affect vital parameters and recruitment variability of small pelagic fishes inhabiting the various waters. Pacific saury Cololabis saira migrate seasonally from the Kuroshio to Oyashio waters and spawn in the transition waters in autumn and spring and in the Kuroshio waters in winter. During 1990-1999, the coefficients of variation (CVs) of daily growth rates (G) and instantaneous mortality coefficients (M) were large for larvae and juveniles spawned in the northern transition waters, but relatively small for those from the southern Kuroshio waters. The Pacific stock of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus spawns in the Kuroshio waters in spring and early summer and migrates to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, whereas the Tsushima Warm Current stock spawns in the East China Sea in spring and fish remain in the subtropical warm waters throughout their lifetime. The Pacific stock had CVs > 100% for the fish aged 0-5 during 1970-2002. In contrast, the Tsushima Warm Current stock had CVs of 34-40% during 1973-2002. Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, which inhabits subarctic waters, had CVs of 118-178% for the fish aged 3-8 y during 1910-1954. Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, which spawn in the subtropical Kuroshio waters and migrate to the subarctic Oyashio waters in summer for feeding, had CVs > 120% for the fish aged 0-4 during 1976-2003. Contrasting with these subarctic

  4. Linguistic Diversity in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Terry

    1999-01-01

    Reviews Peter Muhlhausler's book "Linguistic Ecology: Language Change and Linguistic Imperialism in the Pacific Region." Discusses the linguistic diversity of the Pacific, the linguistic impact of colonialism in the Pacific, and the role of linguists in the evolving linguistic situation in the Pacific. (Author/VWL)

  5. Cooperation Over The Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently,there has been a media blitz both in the United States and beyond about the nation's "return to the Pacific" and the advent of an "American Pacific Century."Though the United States has never left the region-it has had a presence in the Asia-Pacific for more than 200 years-the notion of a U.S "return" to the region is prevalent.It was U.S.Secretary of State Hillary Clinton who told the world that "the United States is back in Southeast Asia." Over the coming decade,she said,one of the priorities of American statecraft will be "to lock in a substantially increased investment-diplomatic,economic,strategic,and otherwise-in the Asia-Pacific region."

  6. BSEE_Pacific_Pipelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the locations of oil and gas pipelines in the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Pacific OCS Region

  7. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  8. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  9. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  10. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  11. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  12. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  13. Australia in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  14. The East Pacific Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Evidence gathered by expeditions of the University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the International Geophysical Year suggests that the East Pacific Rise is one of the largest physical structures on earth. It runs in a sickle-shaped curve from near New Zealand 8,000 miles

  15. The East Pacific Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1961-01-01

    Evidence gathered by expeditions of the University of California’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography during the International Geophysical Year suggests that the East Pacific Rise is one of the largest physical structures on earth. It runs in a sickle-shaped curve from near New Zealand 8,000 miles

  16. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  17. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  18. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  19. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Chile-Peru Current System constitutes one of the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world, due largely to coastal upwelling and the horizontal advection of nutrients. In this ecosystem, El Niño events are of great importance in the interannual variability of the environment. A change was observed in the environmental regime at the beginning of the 1970s with the onset of the 1972-1973 El Niño, marking an important decrease in the anchovy fishery (Engraulis ringens. After the mid-1970s, sardine (Sardinops sagax landings increased noticeably. A second regime shift at the end of the 1980s was seen mostly in the noticeable recovery of anchovy and the decline of sardine. Herein, we present an integrated conceptual model of the different local and large-scale phenomena that affect the marine environment off northern Chile and the distribution and abundance of pelagic resources. The model considers an analysis of environmental and bio-fishery data on different scales and describes how the interdecadal (associated with re-gime shifts and interannual (associated with El Niño events fluctuations in the Equatorial Pacific are mani-fested in the eastern South Pacific and, therefore, in the northern zone off Chile, affecting the annual eyele, the dynamic of the coastal trapped waves, and coastal upwelling. In this framework, interdecadal fluctuations play an important role in the anchovy-sardine-anchovy replacement sequence.El borde oriental del Sistema de Corrientes de Chile-Perú constituye uno de los ecosistemas de mayor productividad biológica del mundo, debido principalmente a la surgencia costera y advección horizontal de nutrientes. En este ecosistema, los eventos El Niño son de mayor importancia en la variabilidad interanual del ambiente. No obstante, un cambio de régimen ambiental es observado a inicio de los 70's el que hubiera comenzado con El Niño 1972-73 y que marca la gran disminución de la

  1. Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G.; Checkley, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes off southern California exhibit interannual variations in the regions they occupy. An enhanced understanding of these fluctuations could improve fisheries management and predictions of fish's responses to climate change. We investigated dynamic height as a variable for identifying the spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). During cruises between 1998 and 2004, dynamic height was calculated from temperature and salinity profiles, while fish egg concentration was measured with obliquely towed bongo nets and the Continuous, Underway Fish Egg Sampler. Dynamic height ranged between 68 and 108 cm, with values increasing offshore. The greatest probability of encountering anchovy, sardine, and jack mackerel eggs occurred at dynamic heights of 79-83 cm, 84-89 cm, and 89-99 cm, respectively. Four mechanisms were proposed to explain how dynamic height affects egg distribution: (1) dynamic height is a proxy for upper water column temperature and salinity, which are known to influence spawning habitat. (2) Low dynamic heights are indicative of coastal upwelling, which increases primary and secondary productivity. (3) Egg concentration is greater at dynamic heights coincident with geostrophic currents that transport larvae to favorable habitats. (4) Eddies delineated by dynamic height contours retain eggs in productive habitats. To evaluate these mechanisms, a generalized linear model was constructed using dynamic height, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, zooplankton volume, geostrophic currents, and eddies as independent variables. Dynamic height explained more variance than any other variable in models of sardine and anchovy spawning habitat. Together temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll accounted for 80-95% of the dynamic height effect, emphasizing the importance of the first two mechanisms. However, dynamic height remained statistically significant in the

  2. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E Aguilera

    Full Text Available Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax, and market squid (Loligo opalescens fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  3. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Stacy E; Cole, Jennifer; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Le Cornu, Elodie; Ban, Natalie C; Carr, Mark H; Cinner, Joshua E; Crowder, Larry B; Gelcich, Stefan; Hicks, Christina C; Kittinger, John N; Martone, Rebecca; Malone, Daniel; Pomeroy, Carrie; Starr, Richard M; Seram, Sanah; Zuercher, Rachel; Broad, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), and market squid (Loligo opalescens) fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings) by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  4. Anchovies to Whales: tracking vertebrate biodiversity in Monterey Bay by metabarcoding environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closek, C. J.; Starks, H.; Walz, K.; Boehm, A. B.; Chavez, F.

    2016-12-01

    The oscillation between the dominance of Sardinops sagax (pacific sardine) and Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) has been documented in the California Coastal Ecosystem for more than 100 years. These two species are strong drivers of trophic interactions in the region. As part of the Marine Biodiversity Observational Network (MBON) initiative, we used archived filtered seawater samples collected late-summer to mid-fall over a span of 8 years from Monterey Bay, CA to examine the change in marine vertebrate environmental DNA (eDNA). Water samples were collected from a nearshore location in Monterey Bay (C1) during the years of 2008-15. The water was then filtered, and the filter was archived at -80°C. DNA was extracted from the filters, and the 12S rRNA gene present in mitochondrial DNA was PCR amplification using primers designed to amplify 12s rRNA genes from marine vertebrates. The amplicons were subsequently sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq and the data processed using an analysis pipeline for sequence annotation. More than 20 fish genera were noted in the sequences from 2008-12, with Engraulis the dominant fish genus from 2013-15. Anchovy and Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale) were present in temporal patterns similar to those noted during visual observations where anchovy and humpback whale were more abundant during the years of 2013-2015 than the other years. This study demonstrates our ability to detect megafauna and fish species that are important to the Monterey Bay ecosystem from coastal water samples and determine community structural differences over time.

  5. Long-term variation in a central California pelagic forage assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.

    2015-06-01

    A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central California (lat. 36°30‧-38°20‧ N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ≥ 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the California Current revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the California Current ecosystem.

  6. Modeling Pacific Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N.

    2002-05-01

    Hypotheses for decadal variability rely on the large thermal inertia of the ocean to sequester heat and provide the long memory of the climate system. Understanding decadal variability requires the study of the generation of ocean anomalies at decadal frequencies, the evolution of oceanic signals, and the response of the atmosphere to oceanic perturbations. A sample of studies relevant for Pacific decadal variability will be reviewed in this presentation. The ocean integrates air-sea flux anomalies that result from internal atmospheric variability or broad-band coupled processes such as ENSO, or are an intrinsic part of the decadal feedback loop. Anomalies of Ekman pumping lead to deflections of the ocean thermocline and accompanying changes of the ocean circulation; perturbations of surface layer heat and fresh water budgets cause anomalies of T/S characteristics of water masses. The former process leads to decadal variability due to the dynamical adjustment of the mid latitude gyres or thermocline circulation; the latter accounts for the low frequency climate variations by the slow propagation of anomalies in the thermocline from the mid-latitude outcrops to the equatorial upwelling regions. Coupled modeling studies and ocean model hindcasts suggest that the adjustment of the North Pacific gyres to variation of Ekman pumping causes low frequency variations of surface temperature in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension region. These changes appear predictable a few years in advance, and affect the local upper ocean heat budget and precipitation. The majority of low frequency variance is explained by the ocean's response to stochastic atmospheric forcing, the additional variance explained by mid-latitude ocean to atmosphere feedbacks appears to be small. The coupling of subtropical and tropical regions by the equator-ward motion in the thermocline can support decadal anomalies by changes of its speed and path, or by transporting water mass anomalies to the equatorial

  7. JGOFS moves to the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Hugh D.

    A process study in the equatorial Pacific Ocean for 1991-1992 has been recommended as the next major field program of the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. The study will be preceded by a planning workshop in spring 1990.The equatorial study was selected at the September meeting of the U.S. JGOFS Committee at the University of Hawaii. The committee reviewed progress made since the issuance of the U.S. Pacific Planning report (U.S. JGOFS Planning Report No. 9) and the recommendations from the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) JGOFS Pacific Planning meeting, which was at the university two days earlier.

  8. April 2016 Pacific Southwest Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Pacific Southwest Newsletter for April 2016: University of Arizona Reduces Food Waste, Cleaning Up Underground Fuel Tanks in Fresno, The Argonaut Mine, Ensuring Clean Water in Nevada,Cleaning Up Groundwater in Whittier, California, and more!

  9. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  10. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  11. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  12. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  13. Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability in Subsurface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qinyu; XU Lixiao; LU Jiuyou; WANG Qi

    2012-01-01

    The nature decadal variability of the equatorial Pacific subsurface temperature is examined in the control simulation with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled model CM2.1.The dominant mode of the subsurface temperature variations in the equator Pacific features a 20-40 year period and is North-South asymmetric about the equator.Decadal variations of the thermocline are most pronounced in the southwest of the Tropical Pacific.Decadal variation of the north-south asymmetric Sea Surface wind in the tropical Pacific,especially in the South Pacific Convergence,is the dominant mechanism of the nature decadal variation of the subsurface temperature in the equatorial Pacific.

  14. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was created in 2005 to consolidate data on the oceanic distribution of marine bird species in the North Pacific....

  15. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to main content Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum HOME TAKE ACTION CONTACT US DONATE Facebook Twitter ... latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, Suite #850, ...

  16. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  17. 78 FR 61840 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... Methodology Review Process and Preliminary Topic Selection 5. Pacific Sardine Stock Assessment and Management... 0648-XC914 Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); Public Meetings AGENCY: National... Pacific Council will meet as late as necessary each day to complete its scheduled business. ADDRESSES...

  18. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns... Lovers Point, in Pacific Grove, California in support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks... regulations must be in effect during the event. Basis and Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will...

  19. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  20. Hispanics in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Sources of diversity in the Pacific Northwest's Spanish origin population, up 79.7% since 1970, was the subject of research based on 1980 Census data. Census information for Whites and Hispanics from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with 400 or more persons of Spanish origin was compared on the basis of age, family/household structure,…

  1. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  2. Distribution of Pacific Phanerogam genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1993-01-01

    The following is a tabulated list of all Pacific Phanerogam genera. A similar list was published as an appendix to my “Plant geography of the Pacific” (1971). The latter has, in the meantime, become obsolete by new records and changed taxonomic concepts. The new list is here presented in a more cond

  3. The Importance of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia has now woken up. Its huge economic development is proof of this. The Asian-Pacific nations have known how to adopt Western means of production and have incorporated them into their own culture and tradition. However, this does not mean that they are not undergoing profound transformations both at a domestic and external level, as can be highlighted, with regard to the latter, by the desire to establish a new order in the Asia-Pacific region. In this context, the present article analyses whether this dynamic presents a reformation of the world order: the fundamental role that the US plays in this region after the Cold War; the new actors and power relations that are emerging such as Japan, China and ASEAN (Association of South East Nations; and forums such as APEC (AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation, EAEC (East Asian Economic Conference, ASEAN and the ASEAN Security Forum, created and empowered among other things in order to keep a check on the reappearance of those old “ghosts” (nationalisms, territorial disputes pending solution which could triumph over the growing prosperity.Finally, the author draws to attention the Europe of the EU which is too busy in its own self-construction and puts before it the challenge of knowing how to shape itself into the third great actor of the region, after the U.S. and Japan and he speaks of the necessityfor Spain to be more present in the Pacific given that it is vital for its economy.

  4. Conservation of North Pacific shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Butler, Robert W.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Mundkur, Taej; Handel, Colleen M.

    1994-01-01

    In his introduction to the 1979 Symposium proceedings entitled “Shorebirds in Marine Environments," Frank Pitelka stressed the need for studies and conservation programs that spanned the western hemisphere (Pitelka 1979). In the 15 years since Pitelka's call to arms, the locations of many important migratory and wintering sites for shorebirds have been identified in the Americas (Senner and Howe 1984, Morrison and Ross 1989, Morrison and Butler 1994) and in the East Asian-Australasian flyway (Lane and Parish 1991, Mundkur 1993, Watkins 1993). However, assessments for Central America, the Russian Far East and most of Oceania remain incomplete or lacking.The recognition that shorebird conservation required the protection of habitats throughout the birds' range (e.g., Morrison 1984, Davidson and Evans 1989 in Ens et al. 1990) prompted the establishment of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN) in the Americas in 1985 (Joyce 1986). This program complemented the 1971 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially for Waterbirds (Ramsar Convention, Smart 1987), recognized by more that 50 countries world-wide.Our purpose for writing this paper is to: (1) describe the distribution of North Pacific shorebirds throughout their annual cycle; (2) review the locations of and threats to important sites used by North Pacific shorebirds during the breeding, migration, and wintering periods, and (3) outline a program for international conservation of Pacific shorebirds.

  5. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  6. Acoustic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  7. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Pacific Flyway Population of greater white-fronted geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the purposes of this management plan, the greater white-fronted goose subspecies (Anseralbifrons frontalis) occurring in the Pacific Flyway is termed the Pacific...

  8. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  9. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Pacific/ North Pacific teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  11. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  12. Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, M.; Ishihara, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the tectonic evolution of the Jurassic Pacific plate based on magnetic anomly lineations and abyssal hills. The Pacific plate is the largest oceanic plate on Earth. It was born as a microplate aroud the Izanagi-Farallon-Phoenix triple junction about 192 Ma, Early Jurassic [Nakanishi et al., 1992]. The size of the Pacific plate at 190 Ma was nearly half that of the present Easter or Juan Fernandez microplates in the East Pacific Rise [Martinez et at, 1991; Larson et al., 1992]. The plate boundary surrounding the Pacific plate from Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous involved the four triple junctions among Pacific, Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix plates. The major tectonic events as the formation of oceanic plateaus and microplates during the period occurred in the vicinity of the triple junctions [e.g., Nakanishi and Winterer, 1998; Nakanishi et al., 1999], implying that the study of the triple junctions is indispensable for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate. Previous studies indicate instability of the configuration of the triple junctions from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (155-125 Ma). On the other hand, the age of the birth of the Pacific plate was determined assuming that all triple junctions had kept their configurations for about 30 m.y. [Nakanishi et al., 1992] because of insufficient information of the tectonic history of the Pacific plate before Late Jurassic.Increase in the bathymetric and geomagnetic data over the past two decades enables us to reveal the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction before Late Jurassic. Our detailed identication of magnetic anomaly lineations exposes magnetic bights before anomaly M25. We found the curved abyssal hills originated near the triple junction, which trend is parallel to magnetic anomaly lineations. These results imply that the configuration of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction had been RRR before Late Jurassic.

  13. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  14. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section 165.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable waters...

  15. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian

  17. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  18. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  19. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  20. Commonwealth Local Government Forum Pacific Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Parker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF Pacific Project works with local government and other stakeholders in nine Pacific Island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. It seeks to strengthen local democracy and good governance, and to help local governments deal with the increasing challenges of service delivery and urban management in the unique Pacific environment. Human settlement patterns in the region are changing rapidly. The Pacific has traditionally been a rural agricultural/subsistence society, but this is no longer the case. The accelerated pace of urbanisation has impacted significantly on Pacific nations and in the very near future the majority of Pacific Islanders will be found in urban areas. Already over 50% of Fiji’s population are urban dwellers. Rapid urbanisation brings with it unique challenges and opportunities. Local governments are at the forefront of this phenomenon, with the responsibility to manage urban development and the transition from rural areas to cities and towns. Their success or failure to manage urbanisation and provide the required levels of physical and social infrastructure will affect many lives in a new urban Pacific. The project now has three components – the main Pacific Regional Project and two country-specific programmes: the Honiara City Council Institutional Capacity Building Project and the Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme in Papua New Guinea.

  1. Atmospheric science: Pacific trade wind intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The unprecedented recent intensification of the Pacific trade winds cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. Now research finds that the more local influence of sulfate aerosols of human and volcanic origin play a significant role, in addition to the Pacific's coupling to the Atlantic Ocean via the 'atmospheric bridge'.

  2. Cancer in Pacific people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Ineke; Sarfati, Diana; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Blakely, Tony

    2012-07-01

    To describe cancer incidence rates among Pacific people living in New Zealand from 1981 to 2004. Linked census-cancer registration data were used to calculate age-standardized cancer incidence rates for Pacific people. Both trends over time within Pacific people and differences in rates between Pacific and European/Other people in New Zealand were assessed. Pacific rates were higher for cancers of the cervix, endometrium, gallbladder, lip, mouth and pharynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid, and lower for colorectal, bladder, and testicular cancers and melanoma. Differences were large, ranging from a 90 % lower rate of melanoma to over seven times higher rate of liver cancer compared to European/Other. Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest malignancies for Pacific women and men, respectively. Important changes for Pacific women over time include a 64 % decrease in cervical cancer incidence (ptrend = 0.02) and a 245 % increase for lung cancer (ptrend = 0.02), while men had a 366 % increase in prostate cancer (ptrend = 0.02). Pacific people in New Zealand have a disproportionate cancer burden related to infectious diseases such as HPV and Hepatitis B. However, with escalating evidence for causal associations between diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity with various cancers, the challenge will be to prevent these cancers from rising in Pacific people who have the highest rates of these conditions in New Zealand. Disparities for tobacco-related cancers support tobacco consumption as another important cause of cancer incidence disparity. Continued efforts are needed to reduce infectious disease and improve screening program uptake among Pacific people.

  3. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  4. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  5. Geological history of the Western north pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A G; Heezen, B C; Boyce, R E; Bury, D; Douglas, R G; Garrison, R E; Kling, S A; Krasheninnikov, V; Lisitzin, A P; Pimm, A C

    1970-06-05

    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.

  6. Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollutants characterized by the Western Pacific (WP) pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Noh, Young Min; Lee, Yun Gon

    2016-12-01

    Springtime trans-Pacific transport of Asian air pollutants has been investigated in many ways to figure out its mechanism. Based on the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, one of climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere known to be associated with the pattern of atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific Ocean, in this study, we characterize the pattern of springtime trans-Pacific transport using long-term satellite measurements and reanalysis datasets. A positive WP pattern is characterized by intensification of the dipole structure between the northern Aleutian Low and the southern Pacific High over the North Pacific. The TOMS/OMI Aerosol Index (AI) and MOPITT CO show the enhancement of Asian pollutant transport across the Pacific during periods of positive WP pattern, particularly between 40 and 50°N. This enhancement is confirmed by high correlations of WP index with AI and CO between 40 and 50°N. To evaluate the influence of the WP pattern, we examine several cases of trans-Pacific transport reported in previous research. Interestingly, most trans-Pacific transport cases are associated with the positive WP pattern. During the period of negative WP pattern, reinforced cyclonic wave breaking is consistently found over the western North Pacific, which obstructs zonal advection across the North Pacific. However, some cases show the trans-Pacific transport of CO in the period of negative WP pattern, implying that the WP pattern is more influential on the transport of particles mostly emitted near ∼40°N. This study reveals that the WP pattern can be utilized to diagnose the strength of air pollutant transport from East Asia to North America.

  7. 1- HARPs of the Pacific Islands Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on acoustic recordings of cetaceans collected from areas within the Pacific Islands Region since 2006. In collaboration with...

  8. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  9. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katelaris, Constance H

    2011-01-01

    ... and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC...

  10. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  11. Telemetry flights for Pacific golden-plovers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We have cooperated with Dr. Wally Johnson, Emeritus professor, Montana State University in the past to track Pacific golden-plovers (Pluvialis fulva). We agreed...

  12. PODs cruise - Pacific Orcinus Distrbution Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orcinus spp. occur in the Pacific Ocean throughout the West Coast of North America. Data concerning their precise locations and abundance are critical to...

  13. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  14. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  15. Pacific Trade Deal Faces Tough Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Financial Times

    2011-01-01

    @@ The annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Hawaii will have something more concrete to focus on than the usual bromides about extending free trade in the region. Barack Obama, the host, will use the occasion to laud progress in the "trans-Pacific partnership" (TPP), a nascent trade deal aiming to knit together a coalition including the US, Chile, Australia, Vietnam and Malaysia.

  16. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  17. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  18. Bryophyte floras of tropical Pacific islands

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Harvey A.; Whittier, Henry O.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of bryological research in each of the nations, states or governmental units of southern Melanesia, Micronesia and tropical Polynesia shows the imperfect state of knowledge about the Pacific tropical islands. Best known overall are Hawaii and Micronesia with Wallis and Futuna, the Marquesas and the high mountains of Fiji seeming to be the least known potentially species rich areas. Involvement of residents from Pacific islands in botanical study and preservation of ecos...

  19. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  20. Institutional balancing in the Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    AKŞEMSETTİNOĞLU, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    This study is about how the secondary (smaller) powers of the Asia-Pacific region balance the major powers – the US and China – through multilateral (regional) institutions in the international system. This paper explains the increasing importance of the Asia-Pacific region, where the major powers encounter and challenge each other, and examines the smaller powers of the region, which pursue balancing policies against the major powers through multilateral (regional) institutions. Therefore, t...

  1. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  2. Zonal displacement of western Pacific warm pool and zonal wind anomaly over the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The thermal condition anomaly of the western Pacific warm pool and its zonal displacement have very important influences on climate change in East Asia and even the whole world.However, the impact of the zonal wind anomaly over the Pacific Ocean on zonal displacement of the warm pool has not yet been analyzed based on long-term record. Therefore, it is important to study the zonal displacement of the warm pool and its response to the zonal wind anomaly over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Based on the NCDC monthly averaged SST (sea surface temperature) data in 2°×2° grid in the Pacific Ocean from 1950 to 2000, and the NCEP/NCAR global monthly averaged 850 hPa zonal wind data from 1949 to 2000, the relationships between zonal displacements of the western Pacific warm pool and zonal wind anomalies over the tropical Pacific Ocean are analyzed in this paper. The results show that the zonal displacements are closely related to the zonal wind anomalies over the western, central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Composite analysis indicates that during ENSO events, the warm pool displacement was trigged by the zonal wind anomalies over the western equatorial Pacific Ocean in early stage and the process proceeded under the zonal wind anomalies over the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean unless the wind direction changes. Therefore, in addition to the zonal wind anomaly over the western Pacific, the zonal wind anomalies over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean should be considered also in investigation the dynamical mechanisms of the zonal displacement of the warm pool.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  5. Mismatching Perspectives and Pacific Transculturality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased critical consciousness and awareness of interculturality in a global and glocal context at the beginning of the twenty-first century has increasingly used the concept of transculturation when discussing modernities. Politically transculturation can be used to describe processes of negotiation in contemporary society that lead to social awareness and solidarity, as well as ensuring the continuity of societies. The fusing of cultural forms leads to a mismatching of perspectives, hence some critics have preferred to use the terms translation and/or transliteracy to describe this concept. Transculturation is related to the “normal processes of artistic borrowing and influence, by which any culture makes part of its contribution to the conversation of mankind,” as Les Murray maintained, and “it engages multiple lines of difference simultaneously” with overlapping boundaries (Rogers 491. Referring to various authors and linking it to cultural appropriation and border crossings, this article examines how the narrative expression of Both Sides of the Moon, to cite the title of Alan Duff’s book, is a key feature of Pacific writing, in an area where centuries of migration from near and far have exposed different cultures to each other on social, political, linguistic and aesthetic levels. These ‘contact zones’, to use Mary Pratt’s words, provide the reader with constantly moving translated identities, cultural hybridity and a use of language that has a highly local significance in a global context.

  6. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  7. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  8. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... sustainable fisheries management of pelagic fisheries in the PRIA. Objective 3. Promote regional cooperation... technologies and methods to achieve the most effective level of monitoring, control, and surveillance, and to... Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY...

  9. A fuzzy-logic tool for multi-criteria decision making in fisheries: the case of the South African pelagic fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, B.; Jarre, Astrid; Moloney, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study presents an electronic decision-support tool that uses a fuzzy-logic model of expert knowledge to assist in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF). The prototype model integrates the multiple goals and objectives related...... to the evaluation of the ecosystem performance of the South African sardine Sardinops sagax fishery into a NetWeaver knowledge base and provides intuitive visual outputs to communicate results to managers and stakeholders. The software tool was developed in a consultative process with key experts and follows...... on expert opinion. Results show that the model is robust and conservative. The strength of the approach lies in the ability to include variables that are difficult to measure. It provides a means of rendering value judgements explicit and transparent. The tool synthesises a large amount of information...

  10. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  11. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers.

  12. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates.

  13. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  14. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  15. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  16. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  17. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  18. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 281,264 Births per 1, ...

  19. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  20. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  1. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  2. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/ ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times ...

  3. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  4. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  5. Out of the Pacific and back again: the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Morin, PA; JW, Durban;

    2011-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving...... reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced...

  6. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  7. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Vadillo, E; Zaitsev, Oleg; Morales Pérez., R

    2007-01-01

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15° N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical v...

  8. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  9. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  10. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  13. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  14. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  15. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  17. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  18. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  19. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  20. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  1. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  3. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  4. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  5. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  6. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  10. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  11. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  12. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  13. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  14. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  15. 76 FR 2083 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA137 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public.... ADDRESSES: The Joint Canada-U.S. Review Panel for Pacific hake/whiting will be held at the Hotel Deca, 4507... Management Council (Pacific Council), 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR 97220-1384. FOR...

  16. 76 FR 24465 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 2310-193. c. Date Filed: April 12, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of... Contact: Steve Peirano, Relicensing Project Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, P.O. Box...

  17. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform fisheries management decisions for the 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA366 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management...

  18. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring,...

  19. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...

  20. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  1. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandra Bagley; Usman H Malabu

    2014-01-01

    Two-third of the world’s population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  2. Loading up Asia-Pacific style

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, A.; Johnson, R. [PT Connell Wagner, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-10-01

    Coal shiploading ports dot the coastlines of many parts of the Asia Pacific region, being the nodes where inland transportation and sea transportation meet. The article is based on a paper entitled 'Overview of Asia's shiploading ports and transhipment operation for coal' presented at Coaltrans Asia in June 2003. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  3. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  4. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  5. Serum biochemistries of Pacific black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains results for nine serum biochemistries in molting Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). These data were used to calculate reference intervals (sometimes referred to as normal values) for the nine serum biochemistries. All brant were after-hatch year. All samples were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska.

  6. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  7. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  8. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  9. A Beautiful Story Across the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXingtang

    2004-01-01

    China and the U.S. are separated geographically by the vast Pacific while there is difference between the two countriesI historical backgrounds, cultural traditions, political systems and theories, as well as the stages of economic development. They therefore have the very need to promote the exchanges and

  10. Changing housing policy landscapes in Asia Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ronald; R.L.H. Chiu

    2010-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region, and in particular East Asia, underwent rapid urbanisation and industrialisation in the latter decades of the twentieth century. Central to this transformation was intensive public and private investment in the housing sector. Although housing was largely commodified, public

  11. RELATIVE MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF PACIFIC PLATE FROM SPACE GEODESY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinShuanggen; ZhuWenyao

    2003-01-01

    The circum-Pacific tectonic system that contains of convergent, divergent and transform boundaries, is the most active region of volcanoes and earthquakes in the world, and involves many important theoretical questions in geosciences. The relative motion and deformation of Pacific plate is still an active subject of research. In this note, we analyze the deformation of Pacific plate and obtain reliable results of the relative motion rates at the circum-Pacific boundaries based on space geodetic data, which reveals the present-day motion characteristics of Pacific plate.

  12. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  13. Pacific ethnic groups and frequent hospital presentation: A fair target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Zoe

    2016-06-01

    In New Zealand, Pacific health figures are traditionally presented for all Pacific ethnic groups combined. Use of EDs and urgent care clinics is high compared with Maori and non-Maori, non-Pacific (nMnP) use. By controlling for proximity to the hospital and socioeconomic status, we demonstrate greater variation between Pacific ethnic groups than between Pacific and nMnP, or between Maori and nMnP groups. We discuss the significance of subpopulation variation in use of urgent care services.

  14. Indo-Pacific: Origin and Multinational Strategic Game-play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the United States, Australia and India have initiated the Indo-Pacific concept,which is not a simple result of the Indian Ocean plus the Pacific Ocean, but a geo-economic and geo-political development of the two regions.Indo-Pacific reflects the shift of the global economic gravity and strategic center,and the China factor is obvious in this process.The extending Chinese strategic interests are beyond the traditional Asia-Pacific region, but China as a typical Indo-Pacific country should be cautious about the "selective exclusion"and "targeted promotion"

  15. Biophysical Feedbacks in the Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Timmermann, Axel; Murtugudde, Ragu; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the influence of phytoplankton on the tropical Pacific heat budget. A hybrid coupled model for the tropical Pacific that is based on a primitive equation reduced-gravity multilayer ocean model, a dynamic ocean mixed layer, an atmospheric mixed layer, and a statistical atmosphere is used. The statistical atmosphere relates deviations of the sea surface temperature from its mean to wind stress anomalies and allows for the rectification of the annual cycle and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon through the positive Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, a nine-component ecosystem model is coupled to the physical variables of the ocean. The simulated chlorophyll concentrations can feed back onto the ocean heat budget by their optical properties, which modify solar light absorption in the surface layers. It is shown that both the surface layer concentration as well as the vertical profile of chlorophyll have a significant effect on the simulated mean state, the tropical annual cycle, and ENSO. This study supports a previously suggested hypothesis (Timmermann and Jin) that predicts an influence of phytoplankton concentration of the tropical Pacific climate mean state and its variability. The bioclimate feedback diagnosed here works as follows: Maxima in the subsurface chlorophyll concentrations lead to an enhanced subsurface warming due to the absorption of photosynthetically available shortwave radiation. This warming triggers a deepening of the mixed layer in the eastern equatorial Pacific and eventually a reduction of the surface ocean currents (Murtugudde et al.). The weakened south-equatorial current generates an eastern Pacific surface warming, which is strongly enhanced by the Bjerknes feedback. Because of the deepening of the mixed layer, the strength of the simulated annual cycle is also diminished. This in turn leads to an increase in ENSO variability.

  16. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  17. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling......Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji......, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents...

  18. Rebalance to the Pacific: Resourcing the Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    concern is the geophysical stability of the ocean floor. Plate tectonics are shifting the sea floor daily, creating constant seismic activity. Known...countriesandterritories/northkorea/ index.html. 13 The Pacific Plate is unstable and always shifting, causing plates to slide underneath each other thus creating energy...dissipation and seismic activity. http://geography.about.com/cs/earthquakes/a/ringoffire.htm. 14 BG Jon Lerh, Director, Rebalance Task Force (Deputy

  19. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  20. Western North Pacific Typhoons with Concentric Eyewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-19

    Pacific CE typhoons between 1997 and 2006. Section 2 describes the data, the analysis method, and the clima - tology. The results regarding the...Willoughby, H. E., 1990: Temporal changes of the primary circu- lation of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 242–264. 3770 M O N T H L Y W E A T H E R R E V I E W VOLUME 137

  1. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  2. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  3. Newborn screening in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Therrell, Bradford L

    2007-08-01

    The success of blood spot newborn screening in the USA led to early screening efforts in parts of the Asia Pacific Region in the mid-1960s. While there were early screening leaders in the region, many of the countries with depressed and developing economies are only now beginning organized screening efforts. Four periods of screening growth in the Asia Pacific region were identified. Beginning in the 1960s, blood spot screening began in New Zealand and Australia, followed by Japan and a cord blood screening programme for G6PD deficiency in Singapore. In the 1980s, established programmes added congenital hypothyroidism and new programmes developed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (Shanghai), India and Malaysia. Programmes developing in the 1990s built on the experience of others developing more rapidly in Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 2000s, with limited funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency, there has been screening programme development around detection of congenital hypothyroidism in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Pakistan. Palau has recently contracted with the Philippine newborn screening programme. There is little information available on newborn screening activities in Nepal, Cambodia, Laos and the other Pacific Island nations, with no organized screening efforts apparent. Since approximately half of the births in the world occur in the Asia Pacific Region, it is important to continue the ongoing implementation and expansion efforts so that these children can attain the same health status as children in more developed parts of the world and their full potential can be realized.

  4. Ocular allergy in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, Constance H

    2011-10-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) represents a spectrum of disorders, comprising seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Of these ocular allergy types, SAC and PAC are the most common.The most striking difference within this group of ocular diseases is that SAC and PAC remain self-limited without ocular surface damage, while AKC and VKC can compromise the cornea, causing ulcers and scarring and can ultimately lead to vision loss. Data on AC in the Asia Pacific is scarce however some understanding of prevalence of the condition has been obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) studies and more recently from the Allergies in Asia Pacific study as well as some information from individual country surveys. Unfortunately none of this data has been collected using validated survey instruments specifically designed for AC. Surveys such as ISAAC have been predominantly concerned with respiratory allergic symptoms with questions added that incorporate some ocular symptoms. These questionnaires do not detect individuals who may have AC in the absence of allergic rhinitis. Using hospital ophthalmology outpatient populations for prevalence studies of ocular allergy immediately introduces a bias towards the more severe, complex forms of the condition as patients with the milder forms of SAR and PAR will rarely present to a hospital outpatient clinic. There is a real need for the development of validated questionnaires specifically addressing ocular allergy. There are no widely accessible studies examining prevalence of the complex forms of ocular allergy (AKC, VKC) in Asia Pacific region. This review will provide an overview of ocular allergy, its classification, clinical presentation and differential diagnosis, and will also discuss what is known about the epidemiology of ocular allergy in the

  5. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  6. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Asia-Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Siva; Reddy

    1992-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is the second most important cause of permanent blindness in the Asia Pacific region. Thus it is very important to identify epidemiological and other risk factore which are associated with open angle glaucoma. The risk for glaucoma optic nerve damage increases with the age and with the level of the intraocular pressure. In this paper, I will highlight our study of several risk factors for development of the open angle glaucoma like (1) elevated intraocular pressure, (2) myopi...

  7. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  8. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  9. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  10. Eastern tropical North Pacific coral radiocarbon reveals North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Sara C.; Ferguson, Julie; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Southon, John R.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuations in oceanic circulation and upwelling associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) are the largest source of salinity and nutrient concentration variability across the Pacific basin. Recent observations suggest NPGO-like variability is intensifying, but longer, "pre-instrumental" records are required to improve our understanding of NPGO amplitude and phase change. Here, using measurements of coral skeletal chemistry from San Benedicto Island in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), we assess this region's suitability for reconstructing NPGO behavior. We find that coral geochemical proxy measurements of ETNP salinity and dissolved inorganic carbon radiocarbon (Δ14C) content reflect NPGO-driven gyre circulation and regional coastal upwelling. These results provide the basis for reconstructing NPGO-related ocean conditions hundreds of years prior to the modern observational record.

  11. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  12. Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lorenzo, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    This research aimed at understanding the dynamics controlling decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and its interactions with global-scale climate change. The first goal was to assess how the dynamics and statistics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the modes of Pacific decadal variability are represented in global climate models used in the IPCC. The second goal was to quantify how decadal dynamics are projected to change under continued greenhouse forcing, and determine their significance in the context of paleo-proxy reconstruction of long-term climate.

  13. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.

    1997-01-01

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations. The Pacific lamprey is an important part of the food web of North Pacific ecosystems, both as predator and prey. Lamprey (a.k.a. eels) are also a valuable food and culture resource for American Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Depressed Pacific lamprey runs have impacted treaty secured fishing opportunities by forcing tribal members to gather this traditional food in lower Columbia River locations. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of The Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam. The initial objectives of the project are to determine the past and current abundance of Pacific lamprey stocks in major mid Columbia tributaries and at various hydroelectric facilities, and to determine factors limiting Pacific lamprey abundance and distribution. Ultimately, Pacific lamprey restoration plans will be developed and implemented. Part (A)-CTUIR: (1) determine past and present abundance and distribution in NE Oregon and SE Washington tributaries; and (2) determine limiting habitat factors. Part (B)-CRITFC: (1) adult abundance monitoring at Columbia and Snake River dams; (2) juvenile abundance monitoring at Columbia and Snake River dams; and (3) juvenile passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams. Part (C)- OSU: (1) adult passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams; and (2) juvenile passage impediments and needed improvements at Columbia and Snake River dams.

  14. An aftereffect of global warming on tropical Pacific decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Chuanyang

    2017-05-01

    Studies have shown that global warming over the past six decades can weaken the tropical Pacific Walker circulation and maintain the positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Based on observations and model simulations, another aftereffect of global warming on IPO is found. After removing linear trends (global warming signals) from observations, however, the tropical Pacific climate still exhibited some obvious differences between two IPO negative phases. The boreal winter (DJF) equatorial central-eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was colder during the 1999-2014 period (P2) than that during 1961-1976 (P1). This difference may have been a result of global warming nonlinear modulation of precipitation; i.e., in the climatological rainy region, the core area of the tropical Indo-western Pacific warm pool receives more precipitation through the "wet-get-wetter" mechanism. Positive precipitation anomalies in the warm pool during P2 are much stronger than those during P1, even after subtracting the linear trend. Corresponding to the differences of precipitation, the Pacific Walker circulation is stronger in P2 than in P1. Consequent easterly winds over the equatorial Pacific led to a colder equatorial eastern-central Pacific during P2. Therefore, tropical Pacific climate differences between the two negative IPO phases are aftereffects of global warming. These aftereffects are supported by the results of coupled climate model experiments, with and without global warming.

  15. 76 FR 71321 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Operations and Procedures (SOPPs) review/approval and update on workshop with International Pacific Halibut... Service Report; Protected Species Report (including Steller Sea Lion (SSL) Center of Independent...

  16. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... discussion paper and TRAWLEX report). Alaska Department of Fish & Game Report. International Pacific Halibut... Species Report (including update on Steller Sea Lion (SSL); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed...

  17. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action proposes to implement trailing actions for the program... time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS have been addressing...

  18. 78 FR 23539 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); May 6...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ..., electronic monitoring, allocation review process, Department of Commerce Office of the Inspector General... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Pacific Council will host a meeting of...

  19. 75 FR 13731 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Fisheries Service Report 2. Fishery Management Plan Amendment 2 - Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... Groundfish Fisheries 3. National Marine Fisheries Service Report 4. Part I of Management Measures for 2011... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV42 National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific...

  20. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  1. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  2. Flexure and rheology of Pacific oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Johnny; Watts, Tony

    2016-04-01

    The idea of a rigid lithosphere that supports loads through flexural isostasy was first postulated in the late 19th century. Since then, there has been much effort to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of the lithosphere's flexural rigidity, and to understand how these variations are linked to its rheology. We have used flexural modelling to first re-assess the variation in the rigidity of oceanic lithosphere with its age at the time of loading, and then to constrain mantle rheology by testing the predictions of laboratory-derived flow laws. A broken elastic plate model was used to model trench-normal, ensemble-averaged profiles of satellite-derived gravity at the trench-outer rise system of circum-Pacific subduction zones, where an inverse procedure was used to find the best-fit Te and loading conditions. The results show a first-order increase in Te with plate age, which is best fit by the depth to the 400 ± 35°C plate-cooling isotherm. Fits to the observed gravity are significantly improved by an elastic plate that weakens landward of the outer rise, which suggests that bending-induced plate weakening is a ubiquitous feature of circum-Pacific subduction zones. Two methods were used to constrain mantle rheology. In the first, the Te derived by modelling flexural observations was compared to the Te predicted by laboratory-derived yield strength envelopes. In the second, flexural observations were modelled using elastic-plastic plates with laboratory-derived, depth-dependent yield strength. The results show that flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of dry olivine provide a good fit to the observations at circum-Pacific subduction zones, but are much too strong to fit observations of flexure in the Hawaiian Islands region. We suggest that this discrepancy can be explained by differences in the timescale of loading combined with moderate thermal rejuvenation of the Hawaiian lithosphere.

  3. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  4. Pn Anisotropy in Old Pacific Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, N.; Forsyth, D. W.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Pn is the high frequency, scattered P phase guided for great distances within old oceanic lithosphere, which is also known as Po. Two arrays of ocean bottom seismometers were deployed on old (~150-160Ma) seafloor in the northwestern Pacific south of Shatsky Rise for the PLATE experiment (Pacific Lithosphere Anisotropy and Thickness Experiment). More than 5 or 6 Pn phases per day are recorded on these ocean bottom seismometers generated by earthquakes in western Pacific subduction zones during one year of deployment; we used 512 Pn phases from earthquakes with locations reported in routine bulletins. Each array was deployed on a separate limb of a magnetic bight, formed at a ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction. The spreading rates on both limbs were ~ 70mm/yr, and the current plate motion direction in the hotspot coordinate frame is WNW. Our overall goal is to identify the pattern of fossil anisotropy in the old oceanic lithosphere, and dynamically generated anisotropy in underlying asthenosphere using both body waves and surface waves. Using high frequency waves (3-10 Hz), we look at variations of Pn velocities as a function of backazimuth. In the western array, where the spreading direction is parallel to the absolute plate motion direction, we find clear Pn anisotropy with velocities varying from ~8.5 km/s in the spreading direction to ~ 8.0 km/s perpendicular to the spreading direction. However, in the eastern array where the fossil spreading direction is perpendicular to the current plate motion, the velocity variations as a function of backazimuth are much less obvious. This may be due to heterogeneity of anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere, with the fast direction changing from the fossil direction at shallow levels to the absolute direction at greater depth.

  5. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe Caroline

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown.

  6. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  7. Tripler pioneers telemedicine across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplain, C B; Lindborg, C E; Norton, S A; Hastings, J E

    1993-12-01

    Between January and August 1993, 59 medical teleconsultations were conducted successfully between the video teleconference center at Tripler Army Medical Center on Oahu and the video teleconference center on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This pioneer effort in the Pacific connected 2 archipeligoes separated by more than 2,200 nautical miles. Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions were made in the specialties of orthopedics, dermatology, radiology, urology, pediatrics, ophthalmology and physical therapy. Geographic isolation no longer means limited medical specialty care.

  8. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  9. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  10. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  11. Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Evans

    2014-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region includes six of the world’s nine nuclear-armed states, and in all of them relevant policymakers, still caught in a Cold War mindset, continue to believe in nuclear deterrence as a force for peace and stability, perceiving nuclear disarmament to be not only unachievable, but undesirable. But — whether the context is major powers seeking to neutralise threats from each other (United States, Russia, China and India), non-nuclear allies seeking nuclear protection from ...

  12. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  13. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  14. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  15. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  16. 77 FR 53179 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... total catch accounting, recruitment and retrospective analyses, a review of the economic stock... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC195 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  18. 76 FR 16618 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Mandates A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) i. Overview of CMSP ii. Community CMSP Workshop... A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) i. Overview of CMSP ii. Community CMSP Workshop Plans... Initiatives A. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning i. Pacific Islands Regional Office ii. Pacific...

  19. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Spatial Planning, coral reef ecosystem threats, truth in science, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries.... NOAA Draft Catch Shares Policy E. National Ocean Policy and Marine Spatial Planning F. Local, National... the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Director 5. Program Planning A. ACLs...

  20. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  1. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  2. 75 FR 11118 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU49 Fisheries of the Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Region, the petrale sole stock has been determined to be in an overfished condition. The Pacific...

  3. 76 FR 70420 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA801 Fisheries of the Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., (Sebastes alutus), which is managed by the Pacific Fishery Management Council, is in an overfished...

  4. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  5. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and...

  6. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  7. Governance, Corruption, and Trade in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  8. Education Concerns of Asian and Pacific Americans. 1978 Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Barbara

    Five national issues considered to be the most important to Asian and Pacific Americans' (APA) education priorities are discussed in this report. These include the need to: (1) increase Federal assistance and improve access for APAs; (2) gather more data and research on APA education needs; (3) promote more Asian and Pacific American participation…

  9. 76 FR 55614 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace... (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes modified with an...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  11. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction,...

  12. 78 FR 59657 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC890 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council... Watertown Hotel Seattle, 4242 Roosevelt Way NE., Seattle, WA 98105; telephone: (206) 826-4242. Council...

  13. 77 FR 6786 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA979 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) announces changes in the dates that the Merizo community and..., Guam and the Guam REAC will be held at the Guam Hilton Hotel, Tumon Bay, Guam. For specific times and...

  14. 76 FR 13604 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA286 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council (Council) will hold a Western Pacific Stock Assessment Review (WPSAR). DATES: The meeting... will be held at the Ilima Room, Ala Moana Hotel, 410 Atkinson Drive, Honolulu, HI 96814, telephone...

  15. 78 FR 78824 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD055 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) will hold a Crab Modeling Workshop. SUMMARY: The workshop will be held January 14-17 at the Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third...

  16. 75 FR 54092 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-XY69 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scallop Plan Team will meet September 28th, 2010 at the Anchorage Hilton Hotel. DATES: The meeting will be held on September 28, 2010...

  17. Regional integration in the Asia Pacific: issues and prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Barrie; Holden, Randall; Ho, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    ... and opportunities that lie ahead. REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN THE ASIA PACIFIC: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS - ISBN-92-64-00916-7 FOREWORDFOREWORD - 5 FOREWORD For many observers of the world economy, the 21 century will belong to the Asia Pacific region. The sheer dynamism of its peoples and its huge economic and technological potential do indeed bode well ...

  18. Festival of Pacific Arts: Education in Multi-Cultural Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Can acts of support and/or revival of Pacific cultures serve to educate international tourists about Indigenous cultures? This paper examines, from a postcolonial perspective and using a qualitative methodology, whether the Festivals of Pacific Arts, to which all nations send delegations, can educate visitors about Indigenous cultures of the…

  19. Pacific Health Research Guidelines: The Cartography of an Ethical Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Schaaf, Karlo

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) published a set of "Guidelines on Pacific health research". The Guidelines were an attempt to articulate the features of ethical research relationships with Pacific peoples living in Aotearoa New Zealand. This article describes the process of developing these guidelines, using…

  20. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  1. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  2. 2011 minerals yearbook: Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Sam, Yolanda; Kuo, Chin S.; Shi, Lin; Tse, Pui-Kwan; Wacaster, Susan; Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The 31 countries and territories of the Asia and the Pacific region reported on in the Minerals Yearbook have a total area of about 30 million square kilometers, which accounts for about 20.1% of the world total. data and information for the majority of this report do not include Kiribati, Maldives, the Marshall islands, the federated states of Micronesia, Palau, tongo, or Vanuatu. the total population was about 3.9 billion, which accounted for 55.6% of the world total in 2011. china and india, which were the world’s two most populous countries, accounted for 66.7% of the region’s total population. the real gross domestic product (GdP) growth rate of 30 of the region’s countries increased in 2011 compared with that of 2010 whereas that of only one country, Japan, was reported to have decreased (by 0.8%). the GdP of 17 of the 31 countries and territories of the Asia and Pacific region increased by at least 5% in 2011, but for many countries the growth rate was lower than in 2010. the GdP of Mongolia, which was the country with the largest GdP growth in 2011, increased by 17.5% in 2011 compared with an increase of 6.4% in 2010 and a decrease of 1.3% in 2009 (tables 1, 2).

  3. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  4. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  5. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Burke

    Full Text Available Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon.

  6. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  7. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  8. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY... Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. DATES: NMFS must receive... record and will generally be posted for public viewing on www.regulations.gov without change....

  10. Geographic variation in Pacific herring growth in response to regime shifts in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin-ichi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Schweigert, Jake; Hay, Douglas; Werner, Francisco E.; Aita, Maki Noguchi

    2015-11-01

    Pacific herring populations at eight North Pacific Rim locations were simulated to compare basin-wide geographic variations in age-specific growth due to environmental influences on marine productivity and population-specific responses to regime shifts. Temperature and zooplankton abundance from a three-dimensional lower-trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO: North Pacific Ecosystem Model for Understanding Regional Oceanography) simulation from 1948 to 2002 were used as inputs to a herring bioenergetics growth model. Herring populations from California, the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI), Prince William Sound (PWS), Togiak Alaska, the western Bering Sea (WBS), the Sea of Okhotsk (SO), Sakhalin, and Peter the Great Bay (PGB) were examined. The half-saturation coefficients of herring feeding were calibrated to climatological conditions at each of the eight locations to reproduce averaged size-at-age data. The depth of averaging used for water temperature and zooplankton, and the maximum consumption rate parameter, were made specific to each location. Using the calibrated half-saturation coefficients, the 1948-2002 period was then simulated using daily values of water temperature and zooplankton densities interpolated from monthly model output. To detect regime shifts in simulated temperatures, zooplankton and herring growth rates, we applied sequential t-test analyses on the 54 years of hindcast simulation values. The detected shifts of herring age-5 growth showed closest match (69%) to the regime shift years (1957/58, 1970/71, 1976/77, 1988/89, 1998/99). We explored relationships among locations using cluster and principal component analyses. The first principal component of water temperature showed good correspondence to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and all zooplankton groups showed a pan-Pacific decrease after the 1976/77 regime shift. However, the first principal component of herring growth rate showed decreased growth at the SO, PWS, WCVI and California

  11. Coupling and feedback between Pacific sea ice and the Western Pacific pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewman, N. J.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2010-12-01

    Coupling between sea ice variability in the Pacific basin and large scale modes of atmospheric variability are examined using weekly averaged data for December-April between 1979 and 2008. We define the large scale patterns of variability for sea ice concentration and 500hPa geopotential height over the Pacific basin and North America using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The patterns associated with the leading two EOFs of sea ice variability are a dipole in sea ice concentration with centers of action in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk (first EOF, ICE1), and an advance or retreat of sea ice in both seas simultaneously (second EOF, ICE2). Correlation analysis between the 500hPa geopotential height field and the principal component of the ICE2 pattern shows a large non-local response in geopotential height to changes in the ICE2 sea ice pattern. At extratropical latitudes this response in 500hPa geopotential height has two strong centers of action over the Bering Strait and Hudson Bay, with two somewhat weaker centers of action in the subtropics over the Western Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Further analysis suggests this response is due to sea ice in the Bering Sea region of the the ICE2 pattern, rather than the Sea of Okhotsk. This response pattern closely resembles a leading mode of 500hPa geopotential height variability, the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, indicating a coupled relationship between the WP pattern and the overall advance and retreat of sea ice in the Pacific basin. By considering intraseasonal time series of the principal components (indices) associated with the ICE2 and WP patterns, causality and coupling between the two is quantified using a stochastically forced Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Fitting the VAR model to observed time series for each index, we find that co-dependence between the ICE2 and WP significantly improves model performance compared with model configurations where dependence in either direction is

  12. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  13. The American Experience with Pacification in Vietnam. Volume 2: Elements of Pacification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    development with other US develop:.ent-l prograns. The notion of civic action--that is, the participacion cf military units in eccncirc and social ...INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES INTERNATIONAL AND SOCIAL STUDIES DIVISION 400 Army-Navy Drive, Arlington, Virginia 22202 DAHC 15 67 C 0011Li ARPA-20, Special...of action by US policymakers. Volume II examines in considerable detail the mejor elements of pacification: security; economic, political and social

  14. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    recently of developing aquacultural Americans may be developed in Port Gamble interest, is spawn-on-kelp. As the name Bay, Washington (Dwane Day...fishermen, of a more Pacific herring. They remained convinced, reliably available product through aquacultural however, that efforts should be made to...below 7 C on- seaweed fishery." Unfortunately, this fishery but not above that temperature. ended in 1977 because of silt contamination of the product (J

  15. Climate change in the Pacific - is it real or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation, novel approaches and new ideas for students and young researchers to appreciate the importance of climate science are discussed. These approaches have been applied through conducting a number of training workshops in the Pacific Island Countries and teaching a course on climate change international law and climate change science at the University of the South Pacific (USP) - the first course on this type in the Pacific. Particular focus of this presentation is on broadening students' experience with application of web-based information tools for analysis of climatic extremes and natural hazards such as tropical cyclones. Over the past few years, significant efforts of Australian climate scientists have been dedicated to improving understanding of climate in the Pacific through the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (the Australian Government Initiative to assist with high priority climate adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region). The first comprehensive scientific report about the Pacific climate has been published in 2011, as an outcome of the Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP). A range of web-based information tools such as the Pacific Tropical Cyclone Data Portal, the Pacific Climate Change Data Portal and the Pacific Seasonal Climate Prediction Portal has been also developed through the PCCSP and the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program. Currently, further advancement in seasonal climate prediction science and developing enhanced software tools for the Pacific is undertaken through the Theme 1 of the Pacific Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) Program. This new scientific knowledge needs to be transferred to students to provide them with true information about climate change and its impact on the Pacific Island Countries. Teachers and educators need their knowledge-base regularly updated and tools that will help their students critically

  16. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  17. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  18. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  19. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  20. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  1. Alkylmercury species in the equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. P.; Fitzgerald, W. F.

    1990-10-01

    HIGH levels of mercury in piscivorous fish constitute a long-standing health hazard1-6. Monomethyl mercury, the main form of mercury in fish, is more toxic than inorganic mercury. But although something is known of the ability of organisms to methylate mercury7,8, the sources, synthesis and fate of methyl mercury in aquatic waters are not well understood. Inorganic and alkylated mercury has been studied in natural waters9-11, precipitation and the atmosphere12,13. We now report evidence of monomethyl and dimethyl mercury in the low-oxygen waters of the equatorial Pacific. The presence of these species has important implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in the marine environment. Although the source of monomethyl mercury in open-ocean fish is still unknown, our data show that a pathway exists for the accumulation of methylated mercury in marine pelagic fish.

  2. Lithospheric structure in the Pacific geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Hinojosa, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The high degree and order SEASAT geoid in the central Pacific correlates closely with the structure of the cooling lithosphere. Relative changes in plate age across major fracture zones in relatively young seafloor frame the east-west trending pattern formed by the geoid anomalies. The field removal in bathymetry corresponds to removal of some of the low degree and order geoidal components, the step like structure across fracture zones is also removed. The regional thermal subsidence was removed from the bathymetry by subtracting a mean subsidence surface from the observed bathymetry. This produces a residual bathymetry map analogous to the usual residual depth anomaly maps. The residual bathymetry obtained in this way contains shallow depths for young seafloor, and larger depths for older seafloor, thus retaining the structure of the lithosphere while removing the subsidence of the lithosphere.

  3. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  4. Pn anisotropy in Mesozoic western Pacific lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Natsumi; Forsyth, Donald W.; Hajewski, Christina J.; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.

    2014-04-01

    Pn is the high-frequency, scattered P phase guided for great distances within the old oceanic lithosphere. Two arrays of ocean bottom seismometers were deployed on old (150-160 Ma) seafloor in the northwestern Pacific south of Shatsky Rise for the Pacific Lithosphere Anisotropy and Thickness Experiment. We use Pn phases from 403 earthquakes during the 1 year of deployment to measure apparent velocities across the arrays. Each array was deployed on a separate limb of a magnetic bight, formed near a fast-spreading, ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction. Using high-frequency waves (5-10 Hz), we look at variations of Pn velocities as a function of azimuth. In the western array, we find Pn anisotropy with velocities ranging from ~8.7 km/s in the back azimuth (θ) direction of 310° to ~7.7 km/s at ~350°. In the eastern array, the velocity ranges from ~8.5 km/s in back azimuth direction of ~210° to ~7.7 km/s at 260° and ~310°. We observe rapid velocity changes with azimuth in the both arrays requiring sinusoidal variations of roughly equal amplitude as a function of both 2θ and 4θ, which is not expected for the orthorhombic symmetry of olivine or orthopyroxene. The fastest directions on the two limbs are roughly orthogonal to each other suggesting the dominance of fossil anisotropy, but the fast directions of the 2θ components are skewed counterclockwise from the spreading directions. We speculate that the rapid azimuthal variations may be caused by vertical stratification with changing anisotropy with depth in the oceanic lithosphere.

  5. Trans-Pacific whole mantle structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Tan, Ying; Sun, Daoyuan; Chen, Min; Helmberger, Don

    2011-04-01

    Recent reports on modeling USArray data reveal mostly vertical microplates with little resemblance to preliminary reference Earth model (PREM). Such complexity at plate boundaries makes it difficult to form reliable images of ocean basins using global paths. Here, we report on modeling stacked seismograms obtained from the first broadband array (TriNet) situated on the edge of the Pacific Plate, southern California, with no major subduction zone blocking its view. Extended records, including multi-S and ScS waves up to four bounces from 18 Tonga-Fiji deep events (140 to 620 km) are analyzed to check the validity of existing models and derive the whole mantle shear velocity structure along this corridor. Synthetics generated from 3-D tomographic models do not fit the upper mantle triplication data or the mantle reverberations associated with the ScS multiples as well as the 1-D model PAC06. We construct a hybrid model (HPAC), which remains one dimensional down to 800 km (PAC06). The lower portion of HPAC is essentially the tomography model S20RTS with velocity variation inflated by a factor of 2 for the lowermost 600 km. Thus, the mid-Pacific large low shear velocity province (LLSVP) has a lower shear velocity of about 2% relative to PREM and extends into the midmantle, similar to that beneath South Africa. Moreover, rapid changes in the differential (ScS-S) and (ScS2-S) times as a function of distance suggest ultra low velocity zones near the eastern edge and under the LLSVP, again similar to that found beneath Africa.

  6. 77 FR 9708 - Pacific Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application February 13, 2012. AGENCY... Insurance Company (``Pacific Life''), Pacific Life & Annuity Company (``PL&A,'' and collectively with Pacific Life and any insurance company controlling, controlled by, or under common control with...

  7. 78 FR 62716 - Pacific Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Life Insurance Company, et al; Notice of Application October 17, 2013. AGENCY: Securities... 1940, as amended (the ``1940 Act''). Applicants: Pacific Life Insurance Company (``Pacific Life... Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: Pacific Life Insurance Company, Separate Account A...

  8. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... fixed gear sectors managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action... catcher/processor trawl fleets (whiting only). Since that time, the Pacific Fishery Management...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-01 to 1976-12-07 (NCEI Accession 8100325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from December 1, 1976 to December 7, 1976. Data...

  10. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine APJTB Bimonthly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controUing the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  11. Out of the Pacific and back again: insights into the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available Killer whales (Orcinus orca are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to partitioned mitochondrial genome sequences to better resolve the pattern of past radiations in this species. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that in the North Pacific, sympatry between the maternal lineages that make up each ecotype arises from secondary contact. Both the phylogenetic reconstructions and a clinal decrease in diversity suggest a North Pacific to North Atlantic founding event, and the later return of killer whales to the North Pacific. Therefore, ecological divergence could have occurred during the allopatric phase through drift or selection and/or may have either commenced or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current was particularly vigorous.

  12. Trans-Pacific Bathymetry Survey crossing over the Pacific, Antarctic, and Nazca plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, N.; Fujiwara, T.

    2013-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data reveals seafloor fabrics, i.e. abyssal hills and fracture zones, distribution of seamounts and/or knolls and are usually smaller than the detectable size by global prediction derived from satellite altimetry. The seafloor depths combined with shipboard gravity data indicate the structure of oceanic lithosphere, thermal state, and mantle dynamics and become more accurate data set to estimate fine-scale crustal structures and subsurface mass distribution. We present the ~22000 km long survey line from the northeast Japan through to the equator at the mid-Pacific on to the southwest Chilean coast collected during the JAMSTEC R/V Mirai MR08-06 Leg-1 cruise in January-March 2009. The cruise was as a part of SORA2009 (Abe, 2009 Cruise report) for geological and geophysical studies in the southern Pacific, and was an unprecedented opportunity to collect data in the regions of the Pacific Ocean where it has been sparsely surveyed using state-of-the-art echo-sounding technology. Our multibeam bathymetric and shipboard gravity survey track crossed over the Pacific, the Antarctic, and the Nazca plates, and covered lithospheric ages varying from zero to 150 Ma. Strikes of lineated abyssal hills give critical evidences for future studies of the plate reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the old Pacific Plate because magnetic lineations are unconstrained on the seafloor in the Cretaceous magnetic quiet (125-80 Ma) zone. Consecutive trends of lineated abyssal hills and fracture zones indicate stable tectonic stress field originated from the Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) and the Chile Ridge spreading systems. The seafloor fabric morphology revealed a clear boundary between the PAR and the Chile Ridge domains. The observed bathymetric boundary is probably a part of a trace of the Pacific-Antarctic-Farallon (Nazca) plate's triple junction. The result will be constraint for future studies of the plate reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the PAR

  13. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  14. Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific region...

  15. Draft Pacific Flyway management plan for the emperor goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to update previous versions of this plan (Pacific Flyway Council 1988) and reemphasize established goals and strategies for management of...

  16. Report for Marine Mammal Permit PRT-690715-Pacific Walrus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of three Pacific walruses drugged with Telezol died while further evaluating immobilization techniques on Round Island, Alaska, although animal selection, drug...

  17. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Pelagic Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The estimated millions of seabirds breeding at national wildlife refuges in the central Pacific Ocean are primarily pelagic feeders that obtain the fish and squid...

  18. Nurturing Relationships And Honouring Responsibilities: A Pacific Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaman, Konai Helu

    2008-07-01

    This essay contributes a Pacific Islands perspective to the global discussion of "Living Together: Education and Intercultural Dialogue". Through poetry and prose, this essay traces the impact of the Tongan concept of vaa (values/valued relationships) on learning and language. By invoking UNESCO's mandate to build peace through education, the concept of vaa is shown to be a key to promoting peace. The challenges and prospects of nurturing peace through international cooperation in education are discussed with examples drawn from the Pacific. Specifically, Tonga's social and linguistic histories provide avenues for interpreting Pacific educational ideals in relation to Western concepts of knowing and learning. Reflection on cultural literacy in the Pacific context raises deeper questions about the role of educators when working interculturally. Lessons to be learned include the oft-quoted maxim that educators must first learn about their own culture before learning about others', and before imposing their own pedagogies and curricula on others' education systems.

  19. 75 FR 42069 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... meeting to develop a draft assessment of the factors triggering an overfishing concern for SRFC. The... consecutive years, an overfishing concern is triggered according to the terms of the Pacific Coast Salmon...

  20. 75 FR 20566 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... to people with disabilities. Requests for sign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should... models to be considered for inclusion in the GOA and BSAI Pacific cod assessments. DATES:...

  1. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. 78 FR 49259 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Salmon Technical Team (STT), the Salmon Advisory Subpanel... may not be the subject of formal SAS, STT, or MEW action during this meeting. Action will be...

  3. A Totem Pole Represents Native Culture at Seattle Pacific University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a totem pole carved by a Tlingit artist using traditional symbols to illustrate the history and mission of Seattle Pacific University. The article also reports the 1979 dedication ceremony. (SB)

  4. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  5. Ecosystem services provided by pacific NW Estuaries: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...

  6. Pacific Golden-plover avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pacific golden-plovers (Pluvialis fulva) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations. Although a...

  7. Pacific Lamprey: assessment and template for conservation measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the status of the lamprey and conservation approaches used to stabilize populations of Pacific Lamprey, including next steps.

  8. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  9. 77 FR 71357 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... applies to Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes, all serial numbers, that are... Transport Association of America (ATA) Code 8: Leveling and Weighing. (e) Reason This AD was prompted by...

  10. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonik, Inna V; Orlova, Tatiana Yu; Lundholm, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Asurvey focusing on species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was conducted in the western North Pacific (the northwestern Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk). Light and electron microscopic examination of 314 phytoplankton field samples collected from 1995 to 2006 revealed...... are provided for all 11 Pseudo-nitzschia taxa. The study presents a taxonomical baseline investigation of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific and provides distributional data from an area otherwise not thoroughly examined earlier. Morphological deviation from the current description of P. cf...... to the northern hemisphere where it occurs in the North Atlantic Ocean exclusively. The current study, however, documents that P. seriata is found in the North Pacific and hence is widespread in the northern hemisphere. One species, P. cf. caciantha, is a new record for the western North Pacific, whereas two...

  11. Fall Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for FALL CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  12. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Summer Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  14. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  15. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  16. Oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region, 1960-71

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the oceanography of the subarctic Pacific region 1969-1971. The background of the project is summarized. Next, a review of physical oceanography...

  17. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  18. Pacific NAD 83 Supplemental Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Pacific Region. Each SOBD describes a...

  19. Pacific NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Pacific Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...

  20. OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Withdraw & Moratoria Areas - Pacific Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Areas within the BOEM Pacific Region currently under congressional moratoria or executive (presidential) withdraw from leasing for oil, gas, or minerals within the...

  1. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Summer Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SUMMER CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  3. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  4. Spring Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SPRING CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  5. Gridded bathymetry of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, South Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved...

  6. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  7. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Pacific Transition Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Pacific Transition teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  9. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Pacific North American Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated...

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  11. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  12. Nonsewered population in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent populations that did not have access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific...

  13. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  14. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  15. Preparedness for Threat of Chikungunya in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Horwood, Paul F.; Ropa, Berry; Hancock, Thane; Guillaumot, Laurent; Rickart, Keith; Frison, Pascal; Pavlin, Boris; Souares, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused significant outbreaks of illness during 2005–2007 in the Indian Ocean region. Chikungunya outbreaks have also occurred in the Pacific region, including in Papua New Guinea in 2012; New Caledonia in April 2013; and Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, in August 2013. CHIKV is a threat in the Pacific, and the risk for further spread is high, given several similarities between the Pacific and Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreaks. Island health care systems have difficulties coping with high caseloads, which highlights the need for early multidisciplinary preparedness. The Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network has developed several strategies focusing on surveillance, case management, vector control, laboratory confirmation, and communication. The management of this CHIKV threat will likely have broad implications for global public health. PMID:25062306

  16. Pacific Walrus Coastal Haulout Database 1852-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We summarize available information on Pacific walrus haulouts from available reports, interviews with coastal residents and aviators, and personal observations of...

  17. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  18. 77 FR 67633 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... (including Aleutian Island Risk Assessment) United State Fish & Wildlife (USFWL) Report International Pacific... restrictions; discussion paper on retention of 4A halibut in sablefish pots. 5. Steller Sea Lion...

  19. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  20. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  1. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  3. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  4. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  5. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from shelf and slope environments at Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. These data provide coverage between...

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and shelf environments at Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  7. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  8. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data from Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  9. Strategic Flexibility to Deter in the Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    particularly in the Asia -Pacific—the United States should continue to move away from pre– Cold War models of bilateral defense agreements supported by... Asia -Pacific region. Rethinking Asia -Pacific Bilateral Relationships Article V of the US-Japan Treaty, signed in January 1960, represents a Cold War ...Sea Agreement that the United States estab- lished with the former Soviet Union during the Cold War era. However, such an agreement may be

  10. Pacific Asian Business Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chuk C Y Kwok

    1986-01-01

    As Pacific Asia becomes increasingly important in the world economy, business programs are needed for preparing students who want to specialize in this region. This study develops a comprehensive listing of Pacific Asian business programs currently available in the U.S. It is found that the programs vary significantly in terms of length, structure and regional focus. Although there are a few programs of this kind available, the number may still be insufficient. The American business schools m...

  11. Technology of puddings made of Pacific herring milt

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The technology of culinary products (puddings) of finely ground Pacific herring milt has been experimentally proved. The standard physics and chemical, organoleptic, microbiological methods for food analysis have been used. The main raw material is frozen milt of Pacific herring. Fresh eggs, drinking cream, berries (cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, etc.) frozen and fresh, sugar, and soda have been used as additional materials. The ratio of main components in production of puddings from...

  12. The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Scandinavia coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Strand, Åsa;

    A massive invasion of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , has occurred in Scandinavia during the last decade. The introduction and dispersal was described through collaboration between scientists from Sweden, Denmark and Norway. This work has been followed up by national activities that clearly...... presented in this report is based on available scientific literature, expert judgments and data collected during a Nordic collaboration project on Pacific oysters in 2011 – 2013....

  13. Pacific Asian Business Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chuk C Y Kwok

    1986-01-01

    As Pacific Asia becomes increasingly important in the world economy, business programs are needed for preparing students who want to specialize in this region. This study develops a comprehensive listing of Pacific Asian business programs currently available in the U.S. It is found that the programs vary significantly in terms of length, structure and regional focus. Although there are a few programs of this kind available, the number may still be insufficient. The American business schools m...

  14. The New Pacific Security Environment: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    US protectionism : fear that the United States may no longer have the will or economic power to sustain the open global trading system through the GATF...PACIFIC In contrast to isolationism and ideological confrontation that dominated Russian foreign policy after 1945, the key words in 1992 are...inflation, the rise of protectionism and trade wars, and the loss of markets and short- ages of skilled labor). 7 r 118 THE NEW PACIFIC As for the

  15. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Granja Fernández; María Dinorah Herrero Pérezrul; Ramón Andrés López Pérez; Luis Hernández; Fabián Rodríguez Zaragoza; Robert Wallace Jones; Rubén Pineda López

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of...

  16. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Rebalancing in the Asia -Pacific: China’s Response and the Future Regional Order ( New Zealand : Centre for Strategic Studies, 2012), 2, http... strategy ? After describing what military steps the United States pledged to take toward the Asia -Pacific and examining the Air -Sea Battle operational...partners within the region. 4. AIR FORCE The air force’s role in this strategy is to assign space, tactical aircraft, and bomber forces to the Asia

  17. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Vadillo, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Zaytsev, O. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozaytsev@ipn.mx; Morales-Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA), Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes 198 and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical variability of cyclone tracks, and that there were a considerable number of hurricane strikes along the Mexican coast. About 50% of the tropical cyclones formed turned north to northeast. It was rare that any passed further north than 30 degrees Celsius N in latitude because of the cold California Current. Hurricane tracks that affected the NE Pacific may be separated into 5 groups. We compared the historical record of the sea surface temperature (SST), related with the El Nino events with a data set of tropical cyclones, including frequency, intensity, trajectory, and duration. Although the statistical dependence between the frequencies of tropical cyclones of the most abundant categories, 1 and 2, over this region and SST data was not convincing, the percentage of high intensity hurricanes and hurricanes with a long life-time (greater than 12 days) was more during El Nino years than in non-El Nino years. [Spanish] La principal region de la formacion de ciclones en el oceano Pacifico Este es el Golfo de Tehuantepec, entre los 8 y los 15 grados Celsius N. En su fase inicial los ciclones se mueven hacia el oeste y el noroeste. El analisis historico de los ciclones que se han generado durante los ultimos 38 anos (de 1966 a 2004) muestra un promedio de 16.2 ciclones por ano, consistentes en 8.8 huracanes y 7.4 tormentas tropicales. El analisis muestra una gran variabilidad geografica en la trayectoria de los ciclones, de los cuales un gran numero impacta las

  18. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  19. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  20. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. The pathway of the interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cases of the interdecadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and their evolution were examined in the paper with the statistic methods (CEOF and composite analysis) over the period of 1950 1993. Observations of oceanic temperatures in the upper 400 m revealed an obvious region of the interdecadal signals in the central North Pacific. Such signals propagated southwestward, then subducted to the subtropics. The hypothesized link for interdecadal oceanic variability between the subtropics and the tropics, especially with the western tropical Pacific was unraveled in order to detect the cause of decadal signals in the tropics. The thermal anomalies subducted in the central North Pacific east to the dateline only reach 18° N. There has been no further southward propagation since then due to a certain barrier. The origin of the interdecadal signals in the western tropical Pacific was traced to the southern tropical Pacific. There is a meridional pathway around the dateline where the signals were loaded. These variabilities were in the nature of the thermocline circulation.

  2. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  3. Phytochelatin concentrations in the equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, Beth A.; Lee, Jennifer G.; Price, Neil M.; Morel, François M. M.

    1998-11-01

    Phytochelatin, an intracellular metal-binding polypeptide synthesized in eucaryotic algae in response to metals such as Cd and Cu, was measured in particulate samples collected from the equatorial Pacific. The concentrations in these samples (normalized to total particulate chl a) were unexpectedly high compared to laboratory culture data and were on average slightly more than in coastal areas where the metal concentrations are typically much greater. In part, the high field concentrations can be explained by the low cellular concentrations of chlorophyll a resulting from very low ambient Fe, but laboratory experiments provide a possible explanation for the rest of the difference. At low concentrations of inorganic Cd (Cd'=3 pM), increasing amounts of phytochelatin were induced by decreasing Zn concentrations in the culture medium of two diatoms: Thalassiosira weissflogii, a coastal species, and T. parthenaia, an isolate from the equatorial Pacific. In all previous studies, phytochelatin production has been directly correlated with increasing metal concentrations. Decreasing Co also resulted in higher phytochelatin concentrations in T. weissflogii and Emiliania huxleyi. Replicating the field concentrations of Zn, Co, and Cd in the laboratory results in cellular concentrations (amol -1 cell) that are very similar to those estimated for the field. Contrary to the expectation that high metal concentrations in the equatorial upwelling would cause elevated phytochelatin concentrations, there was no increase in phytochelatin concentrations from 20° S to 10° N—near surface samples were roughly the same at all stations. Also, most of the depth profiles had a distinct subsurface maximum. Neither of these features is readily explained by the available Zn and Cd data. Incubations with additions of Cd and Cu performed on water sampled at four separate stations induced significantly higher concentrations of phytochelatins than those in controls in a majority of the samples

  4. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  5. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water

  6. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  7. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  8. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  9. Multiproxy Reconstruction of Tropical Pacific Holocene Mean State Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuszewski, J. A.; Oppo, D.; Huang, K. F.; Galy, V.; Dubois, N.; Mohtadi, M.; Herbert, T.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Koutavas, A.; Rustic, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most prominent mode of tropical Pacific climate variability, significantly impacting both regional and global climate. In the past, the mean state of the Pacific Ocean has differed from today as evidenced by variability in the zonal water column structure. Recent paleoproxy based studies of tropical Pacific hydrology and surface temperature variability have hypothesized that observed climatological changes over the Holocene are directly linked to ENSO and/or mean state variability, complementing studies that dynamically relate centennial scale ENSO variability to mean state changes. These studies have suggested that mid Holocene ENSO variability was low and the mean state was more "La Niña" like. In the late Holocene, data have been interpreted as indicating an increase in ENSO variability with a more moderate mean state. Here, we test the hypothesis that observed climatological changes in the eastern tropical Pacific are related to mean state or ENSO variability during the Holocene. We focus our study on three sediment core locations from the equatorial Pacific: the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (BJ803-119 GGC, 117MC), the Line Islands in the central Pacific (ML1208-18GC) and the Galapagos Islands in the Eastern Cold Tongue (KNR195-5 43 GGC, 42MC). These sites lie in regions poised to provide evidence of basin-wide equatorial water column structure changes in response to mean state and/or long-term ENSO variability. We use a multiproxy approach with data from both organic (sterol abundances) and inorganic proxies (Mg/Ca and δ18O of 4 planktonic foraminiferal species, % G. bulloides) to reconstruct zonal tropical Pacific (sub)surface temperature and stratification gradients over the Holocene. This approach enables us to combine the strengths of each individual proxy to derive more robust records. To put our data in the context of the broader Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions, we compare our new data to published records.

  10. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  11. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  12. Influence of the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern on Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Moon, Il-Ju

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of Western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and large-scale environments according to the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern in summer. In the positive WP phase, an anomalous cyclone and an anomalous anticyclone develop in the low and middle latitudes of the East Asia area, respectively. As a result, southeasterlies are reinforced in the northeast area of East Asia (including Korea and Japan), which facilitates the movement of TC to this area, whereas northwesterlies are reinforced in the southwest area of East Asia (including southern China and the Indochina Peninsula) which blocks the movement of TC to that area. Due to the spatial distribution of this reinforced pressure system, TCs that develop during the positive WP phase move and turn more to the northeast of the WNP than TCs which develop during the negative WP phase. The characteristics of this TC activity during the positive WP phase are associated with the upper tropospheric jet being located farther to the northeast. TCs during the negative WP phase mainly move to the west from the Philippines toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Due to the terrain effect caused by the passage of TCs in mainland China, the intensity of TCs during the negative WP phase is weaker than those during the positive WP phase.

  13. North Pacific Decadal Variability: Insights from a Biennial ENSO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Vikhliaev, Yury V.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model (GCM). Similar to several other state-of-the-art GCMs, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by the GEOS-5 has a strong biennial periodicity. Since this is a model bias that precludes a strong role of ENSO, it provides a unique environment to assess the other leading mechanisms of North Pacific decadal variability. Despite the biennial ENSO periodicity, the model simulates a realistic PDO pattern in the North Pacific that is resolved as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of winter mean sea surface temperature (SST). The spectrum of the PDO indicates no preferred periodicity. The SST anomalies associated with the PDO, particularly its basin wide structure, are primarily forced by the Aleutian low through Ekman transport. The slow geostrophic transport in association with the meridional adjustment of the subtropical gyre is limited to a narrow region in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension, north of 40degN. The atmosphere's response to the PDO, while weak, projects onto the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a meridional dipole in sea level pressure. Both the lack of preferred periodicity and the weak atmospheric response indicate an air-sea coupled oscillation is an unlikely mechanism in this model. In agreement with recent studies, the NPO is correlated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which is another leading EOF of North Pacific SST variability. The results emphasize the role of atmospheric variability in the North Pacific SST modes, thereby bringing into question the potential for their predictability.

  14. Pacific patterns of dust deposition, iron supply and export production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Park, J.; Schwartz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Struve, T.; Lamy, F.; Gersonde, R.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity of iron limits marine export production and carbon uptake in about a quarter of the global ocean where the surface concentration of nitrate and phosphate is high, as biological utilization of these macronutrients is incomplete. Of these high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems, both in the modern and in the past. Recent work in the Subantarctic South Atlantic (Martínez-Garcia et al., 2009, 2014, Anderson et al., 2014) suggests that dust-driven iron fertilization lowered atmospheric CO2 by up to 40 ppm in the latter half of each glacial cycle of the late Pleistocene, with the increase in Subantarctic productivity consuming a greater fraction of the surface nutrients and thus driving more storage of carbon in the ocean interior. The other sectors of the Southern Ocean remain poorly constrained, including the Pacific Sector, that accounts for the largest surface area of the Subantarctic Southern Ocean. Here we report records of dust deposition, iron supply and export production from a set of cores from the Subantarctic Pacific (PS75, Lamy et al 2014) and initial results about the origin of dust transported to the Subantarctic Pacific Ocean from radiogenic isotopes and rare earth elements. We test how tightly dust and biological productivity are coupled over glacial/interglacial and millennial timescales in the Subantarctic Pacific and place the region in a context of global patterns of biological productivity, nutrient utilization and iron fertilization by dust, including comparisons to the other Pacific HNLC regions, the Subarctic North Pacific and equatorial Pacific.

  15. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n = 19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n = 16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9 ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3 ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  17. Astronomical Society of the Pacific IYA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, James G.

    2009-05-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific is presently engaged in a series of initiatives for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) with the aim of using public awareness and interest to create sustainable education programs and products for the longer term. The presenter will describe progress in its four signature IYA efforts: IYA Discovery Guides for the amateur astronomy community and others providing outreach activities and materials, keyed to NASA's monthly IYA calendar of themes and featured objects, supported by NASA and the NSF; adaptation of these materials to expand astronomy education capacity in the informal education community working in museums and science and nature centers, supported by NASA; the Galileo Teacher Training Program of planned pilot workshops for the professional development of K-12 classroom teachers, to develop a workshop model focusing on the process of science and the adaptation of tools and resources for the classroom; and the development of a Cosmic Clearinghouse web page associated with the IAU Portal to the Universe to provide links to a wide variety of education resources. The presenter will also relate progress in other IYA efforts, including supporting Interstellar Studios’ 400 Years of the Telescope PBS documentary film and its accompanying planetarium program and educational initiatives, promoting other IYA products and services to its networks and others, and plans for the Society's 121st annual meeting in September that will focus on IYA and the Year of Science_and especially on building on the momentum of these efforts to forge a future path for science and science education, nationally and globally.

  18. Hydrography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Talley, Lynne D.

    2006-05-01

    Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean waters lie at the eastern end of a basin-wide equatorial current system, between two large subtropical gyres and at the terminus of two eastern boundary currents. Descriptions and interpretations of surface, pycnocline, intermediate and deep waters in the region are reviewed. Spatial and temporal patterns are discussed using (1) maps of surface temperature, salinity, and nutrients (phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite), and thermocline and mixed layer parameters, and (2) meridional and zonal sections of temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, and nutrients. These patterns were derived from World Ocean Database observations by an ocean interpolation algorithm: loess-weighted observations were projected onto quadratic functions of spatial coordinates while simultaneously fitting annual and semiannual harmonics and the Southern Oscillation Index to account for interannual variability. Contrasts between the equatorial cold tongue and the eastern Pacific warm pool are evident in all the hydrographic parameters. Annual cycles and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variability are of similar amplitude in the eastern tropical Pacific, however, there are important regional differences in relative variability at these time scales. Unique characteristics of the eastern tropical Pacific are discussed: the strong and shallow pycnocline, the pronounced oxygen minimum layer, and the Costa Rica Dome. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  19. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  20. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R

    2006-04-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  1. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  2. Strategic Balance in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze events in the Asia-Pacific region since the end of the Cold War and then draw three conclusions about the strategic balance of "one superpower, multiple major powers" in this region. First, compared with a stable superpower, the U.S., current multiple powers-China, Japan,Russia, ASEAN, India and Australia-are more dynamic.Second, two kinds of forces maintain order-a combination of national strength and non-national strength. On one hand, there are four different models which could ensure Asia-Pacific order in the future: the U.S. model of hegemony, China's model of a harmonious Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN's model of regional cooperation, and the model of non-states actors. On the other hand, four different structures-security, production, finance and knowledge-are closely linked in this area. Third,globalization of the market economy brings dynamic and diverse development. The authors believe that China's"Harmonious Asia-Pacific" model is the best choice for the Asia-Pacific strategic pattern of "One superpower, multiple major powers."

  3. Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid; Reyes, Eugenio B; Sritara, Piyamitr; Pancholia, Arvind; Van Phuoc, Dang; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  4. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon;

    2015-01-01

    -Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing......NTRODUCTION Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance...... in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region...

  5. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  6. Adult Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas May Have Light Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wu

    Full Text Available Light-sensitivity is an important aspect of mollusk survival as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas light sensitivity has been demonstrated in the larval stage but has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in adult oysters. In this paper we describe an experiment which was undertaken to determine if adult Pacific oysters were sensitive to light. One LED flashlight was used to shine light onto adult oysters while they were filtering seawater through their shell openings. We found that the degree of opening increased gradually during the light period but rapidly decreased when the flashlight was turned off in the treated group but not in the control group. These results suggest that adult Pacific oyster may be sensitive to light.

  7. Distant storms as drivers of environmental change at Pacific atolls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P A Gardner

    Full Text Available The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls.

  8. Tropical Pacific impacts on cooling North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.

    2016-10-01

    The North American continent generally experienced a cooling trend in winter over the early 2000s. This cooling trend represented a significant deviation from expected anthropogenic warming and so requires explanation. Previous studies indicate that climate variations in the tropical Pacific contributed to many mid-latitude climate variations over the early twenty-first century. Here we show using large ensembles of fully coupled, partially coupled and uncoupled model simulations that in northwest North America the winter cooling was primarily a remote response to climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific. By contrast, in central North America the winter cooling appears to have resulted from a relatively rare fluctuation in mid-latitude circulation that was unrelated to the tropical Pacific. Our results highlight how decadal climate signals--both remote and local in origin--can together offset anthropogenic warming to produce continental-scale cooling.

  9. Trade and the Development of the Pacific Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Alliance is a process of deep integration among Colombia, Chile, Peru and Mexico, which aims to build a free trade area and to project into the Asia-Pacific region, in order to enhance existing trade agreements among the members. There is no deep trade relationships among these four countries, despite having regional agreements since the 1990s, as demonstrated by the low volume of reciprocal exports and imports, in addition to the low indicator of intra-industrial trade. In this paper, intra-regional trade index is calculated among the countries of the Pacific Alliance, evidencing low indicators, but with a growth, encouraged by reciprocal or unilateral policies of commercial opening, and by an environment favoring economic growth throughout the region.

  10. A sea of warriors: Performing an identity of resilience and empowerment in the face of climate change in the Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steiner, Candice Elanna

    2015-01-01

    .... While many representations of Pacific Island communities affected by climate change emphasize helplessness, Pacific Islanders have been negotiating identities of empowerment and resilience in both...

  11. Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apostol, D; Sinclair, M

    2006-01-01

    Restoring the Pacific Northwest is a handbook that brings together in a single volume a vast array of information on the science and practice of restoration in a broadly defined Pacific Northwest region...

  12. Baleen Whale Acoustic Activity in the North Pacific: Historical Analysis and Current Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    whales, including the blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), sei (B. borealis), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), and North Pacific right...Research Collective Olympia, WA Julie Rivers Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific Pearl Harbor, HI Jenny Marshall Naval Facilities

  13. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Delayed discard mortality of the North Pacific giant octopus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The majority of octopus bycatch occurs in Pacific cod pot fisheries and recent data collected by North Pacific Groundfish Observers indicate that immediate mortality...

  14. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    in the equatorial Pacific, while the spatial asymetricity of wind pattern along with the north-south coastline of the Indian ocean makes upper ocean circulation more complex than that in the Pacific. We propose a feedback mechanisms between phytoplankton...

  15. Growing pains: The Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network at seven years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Savitri

    2016-01-01

    The mission of the Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network (APRRN), as stated in its Constitution, is 'to advance the rights of refugees and other people in need of protection in the Asia Pacific region...

  16. 76 FR 17808 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine... specifying annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The... specific areas, changing bag limits, or otherwise restricting effort or catch. Any inseason...

  17. Do regions outside the tropical Pacific influence ENSO through atmospheric teleconnections?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dayan, H.; Izumo, T.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Masson, S

    This paper aims at identifying oceanic regions outside the tropical Pacific, which may influence the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through interannual modulation of equatorial Pacific winds An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) 7...

  18. 78 FR 77114 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company: Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ..., 2013. d. Applicants: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (licensee). e. Name of Projects: Potter Valley..., License Coordinator, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Mail Code: N11C P.O. Box 770000 San Francisco, CA...

  19. 75 FR 22070 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... requirements for the Pacific halibut guided sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission...; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National Marine... would revise federal requirements regarding the location and time period for submission of Alaska...

  20. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, let us celebrate the millions of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders whose talents and contributions strengthen our economy, protect our security, and...

  1. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  2. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  3. Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950

    OpenAIRE

    M. Becker; Meyssignac, B.; Letetrel, C.; Llovel, W.; A. Cazenave; Delcroix, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The western tropical Pacific is usually considered as one of the most vulnerable regions of the world under present-day and future global warming. It is often reported that some islands of the region already suffer significant sea level rise. To clarify the latter concern, in the present study we estimate sea level rise and variability since 1950 in the western tropical Pacific region (20 degrees S-15 degrees N; 120 degrees E-135 degrees W). We estimate the total rate of sea level change at s...

  4. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher.and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical bioiuedic-me and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedieine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on

  5. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims lo set up an acdcmic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles

  6. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acderaic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern.traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles

  7. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical.including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based

  8. Satellite communications application to Pacific countries above Ku band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    An application of satellite communications above the Ku band to the Pacific region is described, focusing on: (1) Lightsat system and (2) a high capacity satellite system. A small geostationary satellite system using Ku band for the Federated States of Micronesia is shown as an example. A concept of multi-gigabits/second high capacity communications system using two satellites in the Ka band is described. The onboard bit-by-bit processing is very useful in the low link margin environment due to rain attenuation. These topics were obtained by the Asia Pacific Telecommunications Study granted by NASA conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  9. Dissolved Neodymium Isotopes and Concentrations in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, C.; Pahnke, K.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of dissolved Neodymium (expressed as ɛNd) in seawater is becoming increasingly established as a tracer for present and past water mass structure and flow paths. The South Pacific represents the largest sector of the Southern Ocean and harbors major areas of bottom and intermediate water mass formation and is therefore a key area for understanding present and past deep ocean circulation. While more dissolved Nd data are becoming available from different ocean basins, the South Pacific is still understudied with respect to the distribution of Nd isotopes and concentrations. In this study we have analyzed dissolved Nd isotopes and concentrations from 11 water column profiles across the South Pacific between 46°S and 69°S that sample all water masses. Our data show that the bottom water in the vicinity of the Ross Sea (Ross Sea Bottom water, RSBW) is represented by an ɛNd value of ~ -7, while the overlying Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) carries a signature of ɛNd = -8 to -9. The characteristic Nd isotopic signal of RSBW can be tracked along its flow path into the southeast Pacific where it progressively looses its signal through interaction with ambient CDW. The easternmost stations, closer to South America, exhibit an excursion towards radiogenic ɛNd at ≤2000 m water depth. This change towards more positive ɛNd coincides with low oxygen and high phosphate concentrations representing Pacific Deep Water (PDW) and possibly indicates water mass mixing of CDW with more radiogenic PDW. While the Nd isotopic composition shows apparent variations between stations and different water masses, the concentration profiles show a rather uniform and gradual increase with depth, a pattern typical for open ocean settings. Spatial and vertical contrasts in Nd isotopic values throughout the South Pacific indicate that Nd isotopes can be used as a water mass tracer in this region. It is reasonable to infer that local lithology in the Ross Sea influenced

  10. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to sel up an academic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of die world.Review articles based primarily on audiors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors are requested to submit

  11. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    GENERALAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short

  12. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  13. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water...... to the flow. Economically important nodule deposits from the nodule belt and the Peru Basin have generally low U contents, between 3 and 5 ppm. Insignificant resources of U of about 4 × 105 in the Pacific manganese nodules are estimated....

  14. Relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation and the tropical cyclone frequency in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; CUI Xuan; ZHAO Ping

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) and the tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) in summer is preliminarily investigated through an analysis of observed data. The result has shown clearly that APO is significantly and positively correlated to the tropical cyclone frequency in the WNP. If APO is above (below) the normal in summer, more (less) tropical cyclones will tend to appear in the WNP. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the linkage between APO and the WNP tropical cyclone frequency. It follows that a positive phase of summer APO is concurrent with weakened as well as northward and eastward located western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), low-level convergence and high-level divergence, and reduced vertical zonal wind shear in the WNP, providing favorable environment for the tropical cyclone genesis, and thus more tropical cyclones will come into being, and vice versa.

  15. Relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation and the tropical cyclone frequency in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) and the tropical cyclone frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) in summer is preliminarily investigated through an analysis of ob- served data. The result has shown clearly that APO is significantly and positively correlated to the tropical cyclone frequency in the WNP. If APO is above (below) the normal in summer, more (less) tropical cyclones will tend to appear in the WNP. The present study also addresses the large-scale at- mospheric general circulation changes underlying the linkage between APO and the WNP tropical cy- clone frequency. It follows that a positive phase of summer APO is concurrent with weakened as well as northward and eastward located western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), low-level convergence and high-level divergence, and reduced vertical zonal wind shear in the WNP, providing favorable envi- ronment for the tropical cyclone genesis, and thus more tropical cyclones will come into being, and vice versa.

  16. 78 FR 28633 - Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Georgia Pacific LLC, Also Doing Business as Duluth Hardboard Plant..., applicable to workers of Georgia Pacific, LLC, also doing business as Duluth Hardboard Plant, Specialty...-W-82,035 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Georgia Pacific, LLC, also doing business...

  17. 76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... definition of ``Western Pacific pelagic management unit species'' remove the entries for ``northern bluefin... Pacific green sea turtles. This final rule also makes administrative clarifications to the names of... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) prepared Amendment 5 to the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for...

  18. 78 FR 4835 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and... Plan (Plan) for the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). NMFS is soliciting review and... West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, Attn: North Pacific Right Whale Recovery Plan. Instructions:...

  19. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  20. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation... will be in place to provide the necessary security measures required for the Asia-Pacific Economic... temporary Sec. 165.T14-0800 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T14-0800 Security Zones; 2011 Asia-Pacific...

  1. The potential of aerial photography for estimating surface areas of intertidal Pacific oyster beds (Crassostrea gigas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, B.J.; Baars, J.M.D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pacific oysters were introduced into the Eastern Scheldt in 1964 for breeding purposes. The first spatfall of wild Pacific oysters was recorded in 1976, and a second larval outburst in 1982 definitely settled wild Pacific oysters in the Eastern Scheldt waters. Oyster beds on intertidal and subtidal

  2. Re-Framing Pacific Regional Service Delivery: Opportunity Spaces for "Together" and "Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Kabini

    2011-01-01

    Regionalism is a common development strategy in the Pacific region. Through it, numerous services are delivered to countries, communities and organisations. While some see regionalism as an effective and efficient strategy for the Pacific region, others point to its dismal performance. Using the experience of the Rethinking Pacific Education…

  3. Re-Framing Pacific Regional Service Delivery: Opportunity Spaces for "Together" and "Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Kabini

    2011-01-01

    Regionalism is a common development strategy in the Pacific region. Through it, numerous services are delivered to countries, communities and organisations. While some see regionalism as an effective and efficient strategy for the Pacific region, others point to its dismal performance. Using the experience of the Rethinking Pacific Education…

  4. Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas Schneider

    2009-06-17

    The report summarized recent findings with respect to Predictability and Diagnosis of Low Frequency Climate Processes in the Pacific, with focus on the dynamics of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, oceanic adjustments and the coupled feedback in the western boundary current of the North and South Pacific, decadal dynamics of oceanic salinity, and tropical processes with emphasis on the Indonesian Throughflow.

  5. 50 CFR 229.31 - Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction... Regulations § 229.31 Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction Plan. (a) Purpose and scope. The purpose of this section is to implement the Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction Plan. Paragraphs (b) through (d)...

  6. The Interface of Pacific and Other Knowledges in a Supplementary Education Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Because identity (language and culture) are central to Pacific knowledge and knowledge construction processes, Pacific students' educational experiences should be viewed through a cultural lens that sees Pacific knowledge and practices as valid and valued. This study explores the relationship between culture and educational outcomes as seen in how…

  7. 75 FR 38758 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission... the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. DATES:...

  8. Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, J. Timothy; Mahoney, Kevin L.; Kuwahara, Victor S.; Kolber, Dorota D.; Calienes, Ruth; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2006-05-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific includes 28 million km 2 of ocean between 23.5°N and S and Central/South America and 140°W, and contains the eastern and equatorial branches of the north and South Pacific subtropical gyres plus two equatorial and two coastal countercurrents. Spatial patterns of primary production are in general determined by supply of macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate) from below the thermocline. Where the thermocline is shallow and intersects the lighted euphotic zone, biological production is enhanced. In the eastern tropical Pacific thermocline depth is controlled by three interrelated processes: a basin-scale east/west thermocline tilt, a basin-scale thermocline shoaling at the gyre margins, and local wind-driven upwelling. These processes regulate supply of nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the euphotic zone, and on their basis we have divided the eastern tropical Pacific into seven main regions. Primary production and its physical and chemical controls are described for each. Enhanced rates of macronutrient supply maintains levels of primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific above those of the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to the north and south. On the other hand lack of the micronutrient iron limits phytoplankton growth (and nitrogen fixation) over large portions of the open-ocean eastern tropical Pacific, depressing rates of primary production and resulting in the so-called high nitrate-low chlorophyll condition. Very high rates of primary production can occur in those coastal areas where both macronutrients and iron are supplied in abundance to surface waters. In these eutrophic coastal areas large phytoplankton cells dominate; conversely, in the open-ocean small cells are dominant. In a ‘shadow zone’ between the subtropical gyres with limited subsurface ventilation, enough production sinks and decays to produce anoxic and denitrified waters which spread beneath very large parts of the eastern tropical Pacific. Seasonal

  9. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  10. 77 FR 59901 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... potential management measures, using the status quo management measures of one fish less than 45 inches or... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC259 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council (Council) Charter Management Implementation Committee will convene via a conference...

  11. 78 FR 70018 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... fish with a maximum size limit; and (4) Status quo management of one fish less than 45 inches or greater than 68 inches. For Regulatory Area 3A: (1) Status quo management of a bag limit of two fish, with... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC990 North Pacific Fishery Management...

  12. 75 FR 35443 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX01 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), and Groundfish Plan Team members will hold a... determining annual catch limits (ACLs) for Tier 6 groundfish stocks. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES:...

  13. Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock in the South Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Gerlotto, F.; Brunel, T.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study on Hydrography and Jack Mackerel stock (Trachurus murphyi) in the South Pacific is currently one year underway. The main achievement consisted of collecting detailed datasets on Chilean, Peruvian and European fisheries activities and information on the hydrographical / biochemical and envi

  14. Oceanic Control of Northeast Pacific Hurricane Activity at Interannual Timescales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-10-16

    Despite the strong dependence of the Power Dissipation Index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity, on tropical sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), the variations in PDI are not completely explained by SST. Here we show, using an analysis of a string of observational data sets, that the variability of the thermocline depth (TD) in the east Pacific exerts a significant degree of control on the variability of PDI in that region. On average, a deep thermocline with a larger reservoir of heat favors TC intensification by reducing SST cooling while a shallow thermocline with a smaller heat reservoir promotes enhanced SST cooling that contributes to TC decay. At interannual time scales, the variability of basin-mean TD accounts for nearly 30% of the variability in the PDI during the TC season. Also, about 20% of the interannual variability in the east Pacific basin-mean TD is due to the El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a dominant climate signal in this region. This study suggests that a better understanding of the factors governing the interannual variability of the TD conditions in the east Pacific and how they may change over time, may lead to an improved projection of future east Pacific TC activity.

  15. Developing Disability-Inclusive Indicators in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Sprunt, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Island nations are in the process of transforming education to support all learners through the application of more inclusive approaches. In order to measure progress, they are working collaboratively to develop a set of local and contextually applicable indicators for inclusive education. This article reports the initial step in this…

  16. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  17. Pacific Yew: A Facultative Riparian Conifer with an Uncertain Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Scher; Bert Schwarzschild

    1989-01-01

    Increasing demands for Pacific yew bark, a source of an anticancer agent, have generated interest in defining the yew resource and in exploring strategies to conserve this species. The distribution, riparian requirements and ecosystem functions of yew populations in coastal and inland forests of northern California are outlined and alternative approaches to conserving...

  18. Asian Americans and Pacific Peoples: A Case of Mistaken Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Michael; And Others

    This report prepared by the California Advisory Committee for the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is said to constitute an initial attempt to present a demographic sketch of Asian Americans and Pacific Peoples and to describe generally the areas in which they encounter significant problems. In order to destroy existing stereotypes about Asian…

  19. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  20. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... windowpane and Northwestern Atlantic Coast witch flounder are subject to overfishing and are in an overfished... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific...

  1. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja–Fernández, Rebeca; Herrero-Pérezrul, María D.; López-Pérez, Ramón A.; Hernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A.; Jones, Robert Wallace; Pineda-López, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened. PMID:24843284

  2. The Oldest from Baikal to the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sharavina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the Temple of Dormition of the Mother of God in Kalinino village (Nerchinsky District, Zabaikalsky Krai, the oldest stone building from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean. The author questions the decision relating to conservation of the temple, the project of which does not eliminate the main cause of its destruction.

  3. Child-Centered Education for Pacific-Rim Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    Argues for a cautious approach to transplanting theory from one culture to another, particularly considering the case for applying Friedrich Froebel's child-centered theory to early childhood education in Pacific Rim cultures. Uses a historical approach to distinguish three distinct versions of the theory, the Christian, the Progressive, and the…

  4. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  5. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  6. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisz, Mary; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating...... to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings...

  7. Understanding the South Pacific Convergence Zone and Its Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Scott

    2011-02-01

    International Workshop on the South Pacific Convergence Zone; Apia, Samoa, 24-26 August 2010 ; During the Southern Hemisphere summer the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in the southwestern Pacific Ocean produces the largest rainfall band in the world. The SPCZ tends to move northeast during southern winter and El Niño and move southwest during southern summer and La Niña. These changes in position have a profound influence on climate (e.g., rainfall, winds, and tropical cyclone frequencies) and life in most of the nations in the southwestern Pacific. Despite the importance of the SPCZ to the region and its prominence in the general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere, the SPCZ has been studied relatively little compared with convergence zones in the Northern Hemisphere. An international workshop on the SPCZ was held in Samoa and brought together 30 experts from Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, France, India, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vanuatu.

  8. Asian-Pacific Papers. Occasional Papers Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian, Ed.

    Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…

  9. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  10. Human-caused Indo-Pacific warm pool expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Cai, Wenju; Zwiers, Francis W; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-07-01

    The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) has warmed and grown substantially during the past century. The IPWP is Earth's largest region of warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs), has the highest rainfall, and is fundamental to global atmospheric circulation and hydrological cycle. The region has also experienced the world's highest rates of sea-level rise in recent decades, indicating large increases in ocean heat content and leading to substantial impacts on small island states in the region. Previous studies have considered mechanisms for the basin-scale ocean warming, but not the causes of the observed IPWP expansion, where expansion in the Indian Ocean has far exceeded that in the Pacific Ocean. We identify human and natural contributions to the observed IPWP changes since the 1950s by comparing observations with climate model simulations using an optimal fingerprinting technique. Greenhouse gas forcing is found to be the dominant cause of the observed increases in IPWP intensity and size, whereas natural fluctuations associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation have played a smaller yet significant role. Further, we show that the shape and impact of human-induced IPWP growth could be asymmetric between the Indian and Pacific basins, the causes of which remain uncertain. Human-induced changes in the IPWP have important implications for understanding and projecting related changes in monsoonal rainfall, and frequency or intensity of tropical storms, which have profound socioeconomic consequences.

  11. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  12. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  13. Why the South Pacific Convergence Zone is diagonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wiel, Karin; Matthews, Adrian J.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Stevens, David P.

    2016-03-01

    During austral summer, the majority of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean is concentrated in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The surface boundary conditions required to support the diagonally (northwest-southeast) oriented SPCZ are determined through a series of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Continental configuration and orography do not have a significant influence on SPCZ orientation and strength. The key necessary boundary condition is the zonally asymmetric component of the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. This leads to a strong subtropical anticyclone over the southeast Pacific that, on its western flank, transports warm moist air from the equator into the SPCZ region. This moisture then intensifies (diagonal) bands of convection that are initiated by regions of ascent and reduced static stability ahead of the cyclonic vorticity in Rossby waves that are refracted toward the westerly duct over the equatorial Pacific. The climatological SPCZ is comprised of the superposition of these diagonal bands of convection. When the zonally asymmetric SST component is reduced or removed, the subtropical anticyclone and its associated moisture source is weakened. Despite the presence of Rossby waves, significant moist convection is no longer triggered; the SPCZ disappears. The diagonal SPCZ is robust to large changes (up to ±6 °C) in absolute SST (i.e. where the SST asymmetry is preserved). Extreme cooling (change <-6 °C) results in a weaker and more zonal SPCZ, due to decreasing atmospheric temperature, moisture content and convective available potential energy.

  14. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  15. Open and Flexible TVET in Commonwealth Pacific Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the current state of open and flexible technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nine Pacific Commonwealth countries: Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has commissioned the Open Polytechnic to complete this report to…

  16. 75 FR 27989 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... and fishery overlap; review Pacific cod assessment model run proposals (SSC only); review Council... - initial/final action. 10. Staff Tasking: Review Committees and tasking. 11. Other Business The SSC agenda... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-S...

  17. Using Education to Bring Climate Change Adaptation to Pacific Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional communities remain a dominant feature in the Pacific and are key players in land and sea management. Fostering improved climate literacy is therefore essential to equip communities to respond to the current and future challenges posed by climate change in the region. Increased understanding and development of skills to respond to the…

  18. 76 FR 30308 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... petrale sole, work with the Stock Assessment Teams to make necessary revisions, and produce a STAR Panel... sole stock assessments will hold a work session that is open to the public. DATES: The STAR Panel for... role will be development of recommendations and reports for consideration by the Pacific Council at...

  19. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  1. 75 FR 6636 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council undertake the process to recommend definitions and.... March 12, 2010, Tinian, CNMI. From 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Tinian Elementary School. San Jose Village... Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), those issues may not be the subject of formal action during...

  2. 78 FR 57841 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Endangered or Threatened under the ESA 2. Green Turtle Status Review 3. North Pacific Humpback Whale Petition.... Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports F. False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan Research... Projects, Activities and Issues 1. Community Development Program Multi-fishery Proposal 2. Report on...

  3. Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) COA and Mission Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Mark; Hall, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the science objectives of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in the Pacific region, shows examp le flight tracks, the satellite under-flight requirement, the flight planning, and the agencies coordination of the airspace required for the Certificate of Authorization (COA).

  4. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  5. The Bakke Case and Asian/Pacific Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian and Pacific American Federal Employee Council, Washington, DC.

    Amidst much controversy, the United States Department of Justice has filed an amicus brief in the Supreme Court on behalf of the special minority admissions program at the University of California Medical School at Davis. This fact sheet is intended to show why Asian and Pacific Americans and those friendly toward Asians should pay careful…

  6. Shellfish allergy--an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Gerez, Irvin; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2012-03-01

    Shellfish forms a common food source in the Asia-Pacific and is also growing in the West. This review aims to summarize the current literature on the epidemiology and research on shellfish allergy with particular focus on studies emerging from the Asia-Pacific region. A PubMed search using search strategies "Shellfish AND Allergy", "Shellfish Allergy Asia", and "Shellfish AND anaphylaxis" was made. In all, 244 articles written in English were reviewed. Shellfish allergy in the Asia-Pacific ranks among the highest in the world and is the most common cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Shellfish are classified into molluscs and arthropods. Of the arthropods, the crustaceans in particular Penaeid prawns are the most common cause of allergy and are therefore most extensively studied. Several classes of allergens have been identified. The tropomyosins (class 1 allergens) are the best defined. Despite the establishment of molecular homology and allergenic cross reactivity between allergens of the same class, clinical cross-reactivity is more variable between patients and less clearly defined. There are two relatively unique clinical manifestations of IgE-mediated prawn allergy: (1) isolated oral allergy symptoms; and (2) wide spectrum of severity and sometimes even within the same individual. Shellfish allergy is common in the Asia Pacific. More research including food challenge-proven subjects are required to establish the true prevalence, as well as to understand clinical cross reactivity and variations in clinical features.

  7. 75 FR 20985 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., Girdwood, AK, Room Columbia A - May 10-13 and Portage Board Room - May 14. Council address: North Pacific... presentations on patterns of larval snow crab and a snow crab spatial model, review draft stock assessments and... revised Annual Catch Limits and Snow crab rebuilding plan analysis and provide recommendations;...

  8. 78 FR 47675 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Committee and Ad Hoc Trawl Groundfish Electronic... for electronic monitoring (EM) for vessels participating in the West Coast groundfish trawl catch...

  9. Global Online Learning among Asia-Pacific Economies: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuhaft, Jack D.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of online learning in a multicultural environment focuses on experiences with the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Topics include technology problems; differences in learning styles; Web site use; cultural differences, and their influence on learning environments; and language considerations. (LRW)

  10. Asia and the Pacific Rim in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database dealing with Asia and the Pacific Rim. Urges the inclusion of these countries in the curriculum as exchange of peoples, goods, and cultures increases. Emphasizes the growing importance of the region as a global force. Includes articles and books on culture, economies, and cultural exchange…

  11. Pacific CRYSTAL Teacher Professional Development Models: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Flier-Keller, E.; Yore, L.

    2010-12-01

    From 2005 to 2010 Pacific CRYSTAL (Centre for Research in Youth Science Teaching and Learning) has been engaged in community-based research fostering teacher leadership in innovative science education through a variety of approaches to teacher professional development. Pacific CRYSTAL is a University of Victoria based, NSERC funded project founded on a collaborative research model involving scentists, science educators and community members including schools, teachers, community groups and government. Pacific CRYSTAL professional development approaches embrace both in-service teachers and pre-service teachers, and include Lighthouse schools, workshops (ongoing as well as one-time), community-based partnerships in Pacific CRYSTAL research projects, teachers as researchers, and university science courses and workshops for pre-education and education students. A number of common themes, identified through these approaches, should be considered in the development and implementation of future science professional development initiatives. They include; teacher turnover, expanding and adding schools and participating teachers, teacher apprehension, building leadership capacity, further engagement of 'tourist' teachers, continuing professional support for teachers, as well as on-going mentoring.

  12. Pacific discourses about cultural heritage and its protection: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue aim at addressing the debate about the protection and use of cultural heritage in the Pacific within the context of globalization. Contributions aim specifically at analyzing the tension that exists between, on the one hand, political, legal and economic

  13. 76 FR 542 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Ecosystem Plan Development Team (EPDT) which is.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Please note, this is not a public hearing; it is a work session for the primary... that may benefit from a coordinated overarching EFMP framework. A draft version of an EPDT...

  14. 78 FR 70283 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Online Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Webinar AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of online webinar. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's... webinar to review a final draft of the 2013 cowcod rebuilding analysis, data-poor overfishing limit...

  15. Growth and reproductive investment of introduced Pacific oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peralta, N.R.E.; Machado, J.P.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproductive investment of cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were studied in two south-western European estuaries: the Ria de Ribadeo in Spain and the Ria Formosa in Portugal. Developing gonads were found in individuals >23.5 mm shell length in the Ria Formosa and >27.5 mm shell

  16. Tsunamigenic potential of different tsunamigenic regions in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiakov, V. K.

    2003-04-01

    The historical tsunami catalog collected within the HTDB/PAC (Historical Tsunami Database for the Pacific) project contains the most complete parametric tsunami data covering the Pacific. The collected data gives us a possibility to study the variability of the tsunami potential of submarine earthquakes over the main tsunamigenic areas in the Pacific. Depending on their intensity (on the Soloviev-Imamura scale) all the tsunamigenic events were divided into the three categories: damageable (I>1.5, Hav>3 m), perceptible (-0.5 landslide and unknown origin and the total number of the coastal and the submarine earthquakes with magnitude Ms = 7.0 and depth h Philippines) have the increased number of tsunamigenic events compared to the regions located in other zones. The circum-continental zonation in the sedimentation rate resulted in the highest TE ratio for the South America region where the tsunamigenic sources are located closest to land. The higher sedimentation rate results in a higher potential for submarine slumping that considerably increases the efficiency of the tsunami generation mechanism. The earthquakes in the marginal seas (the Japan Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Bering Sea) have a higher tsunami efficiency as compared to the earthquakes in the Pacific ocean. For Hawaii, the TE ratio exceeds 100%, which shows that some events were generated by the earthquakes with magnitudes less than 7 or even had a non-seismic origin.

  17. Pacific discourses about cultural heritage and its protection: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue aim at addressing the debate about the protection and use of cultural heritage in the Pacific within the context of globalization. Contributions aim specifically at analyzing the tension that exists between, on the one hand, political, legal and economic

  18. The Pacific Northwest region vegetation and monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Max; Hans T. Schreuder; John W. Hazard; Daniel D. Oswald; John Teply; Jim. Alegria

    1996-01-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected...

  19. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  20. Cultural Specific Training in Corruption Reporting for Pacific Island Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Stephen; McCarthy, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Notes that very few journalists have formal training in corruption reporting. Discusses workshops held in 2000 and 2001 on the subject of corruption reporting for Pacific Island journalists. Explains the role of the media as an anti-corruption mechanism and the difficulty journalists face in identifying and sometimes stamping out corruption. Looks…

  1. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  2. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  3. North Pacific Process Study (JGOFS) (NODC Accession 0001873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NPPS Data Set is comprised of JGOFS data set obtained during the JGOFS NPPS as well as the JGOFS related data sets in the North Pacific. All of these data were...

  4. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  5. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  6. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  7. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  8. 76 FR 61687 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Availability of...

  9. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  10. Using Education to Bring Climate Change Adaptation to Pacific Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional communities remain a dominant feature in the Pacific and are key players in land and sea management. Fostering improved climate literacy is therefore essential to equip communities to respond to the current and future challenges posed by climate change in the region. Increased understanding and development of skills to respond to the…

  11. 78 FR 6810 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Management Council (Council) will hold the 112th meeting of its Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC473 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council..., 2013 7. Pelagic Fisheries. A. Action Item. 1. Management Options for American Samoa South...

  12. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Fernández, Rebeca; Herrero-Pérezrul, María D; López-Pérez, Ramón A; Hernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A; Jones, Robert Wallace; Pineda-López, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened.

  13. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Granja Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened.

  14. 76 FR 42684 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The groundfish project team responsible... project team meeting will be held Tuesday, August 16, 2011, from 1 p.m. until business for the day is completed. ADDRESSES: The project team meeting will be held in Portland, Oregon at the Pacific...

  15. Environmental Education Teachers Manual. Environmental Education Issues in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Wendt, Neva

    This teacher's manual was developed to provide information on environmental education issues in the Pacific to teachers, extension officers, and other trainers to help make conservation an integral part of their teaching and training activities. The main focus of the activities contained in this manual is to achieve sustainability and enhance the…

  16. Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for United States Pacific Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    movements. Busby asserts that, because of its vast forests, Indonesia plays an important role in determining impacts of climate change . Deforestation and... Climate Change : Challenges and Opportunities for United States Pacific Command by Lieutenant Colonel James D. Golden...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Climate Change : Challenges and Opportunities for United

  17. 2005 Training Course on SHP for Asia-Pacific Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “2005 Training Course on Small Hydropower for Asia-Pacific Countries” is specifically for developing countries under the list of aid to foreign countries by the Chines egovernment. Entrusted by the Ministry of Commerce, Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power (HRC) will undertake the mission.

  18. Asia and the Pacific in 2020: Scenarios for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Colin

    2009-01-01

    By 2020 our world will have changed and with it the shape and role of education and of educational research. One cannot predict the future, but in this paper three possible scenarios are outlined reflecting alternative approaches of government to the economic, political, social and environmental challenges facing the Asia Pacific region. For each…

  19. Madagascar corals reveal Pacific multidecadal modulation of rainfall since 1708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Grove

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Ocean modulates Australian and North American rainfall variability on multidecadal timescales, in concert with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. It has been suggested that Pacific decadal variability may also influence Indian Ocean surface temperature and rainfall in a far-field response, similar to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on interannual timescales. However, instrumental records of rainfall are too short and too sparse to confidently assess such multidecadal climatic teleconnections. Here, we present four climate archives spanning the past 300 yr from giant Madagascar corals. We decouple 20th century human deforestation effects from rainfall induced soil erosion using spectral luminescence scanning and geochemistry. The corals provide the first evidence for Pacific decadal modulation of rainfall over the Western Indian Ocean. We find that positive PDO phases are associated with increased Indian Ocean temperatures and rainfall in Eastern Madagascar, while precipitation in Southern Africa and Eastern Australia declines. Consequently, the negative PDO phase that started in 1998 should lead to reduced rainfall over Eastern Madagascar and increased precipitation in Southern Africa and Eastern Australia. We conclude that the PDO has important implications for future multidecadal variability of African rainfall, where water resource management is increasingly important under the warming climate.

  20. Open and Flexible TVET in Commonwealth Pacific Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the current state of open and flexible technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nine Pacific Commonwealth countries: Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) has commissioned the Open Polytechnic to complete this report to…

  1. Revision of Alyxia (Apocynaceae). Part 2: Pacific Islands and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Alyxia is revised for Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean as the second and final part of a complete revision of the genus. 39 species are recognised for this area of which three are new to science, two are new combinations and one is a new name. 14 species are found in Australi

  2. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  3. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  4. 78 FR 16660 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Hilton Hotel, Dillingham/Katmai Room, 500 West 3rd Avenue, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North Pacific... CONTACT: Diana Evans, Council staff, telephone: (907) 271-2809. ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  5. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  6. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  7. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Axford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes "success" is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way "outsiders" perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involvement; and sustainability. Multivariate analysis distinguished two groups, a Big picture group and a Locally focused group. These differ in how they define success, as well as their organizational alignment. The Big picture group, largely from funder agencies and international NGOs, were focused on the broad issues of success, especially the sustainability of CCAs. The Locally focused group was concerned with the practical workings and needs of successful CCAs in the Pacific; many in this group were based with Pacific island governments and NGOs or CCAs. The study concludes that success in CCAs should not be defined solely on project objectives, especially when these have been developed by an external entity or under their guidance. If they are, high rates of failure are to be expected.

  8. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  9. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This UNESCO newsletter contains six sections concerned with various aspects of population education. Section 1 deals with workshops for monitoring and evaluating population education programs. Section 2 evaluates the programs of six Asia-Pacific countries (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).…

  10. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    sophisticated partnership. 96 Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 Defence White Paper 2009 11.22 The Lombok Treaty on Security...auspices of the Lombok Treaty on Security Cooperation. We have also worked with other regional neighbours, such as Singapore and the Philippines. Defence

  11. A map-based South Pacific rainfall climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, A.; Diamond, H.; Renwick, J.; Salinger, J.; Gergis, J.; Dalu, G.

    2008-12-01

    The lives of more than four million people that reside in the South Pacific are greatly affected by rainfall variability. This region is subjected to large rainfall anomalies on seasonal timescales due to tropical cyclone occurrences, ENSO activity, and the AAO. Regional climate anomalies are also dictated by the IPO on multi- decadal scales that alter the motions of large-scale circulation features like the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Strong climate change impacts are anticipated for this region, so gauging the severity of rainfall variations that can occur are paramount for implementing appropriate climate change adaptation measures. Lack of historical rainfall records and documentation of other climate data hinders our current understanding of South Pacific climate variability. Climate data rescue activities are currently aimed at recovering, archiving, and digitising this information to rectify this issue. This research aims to examine the rainfall database administered by the Island Climate Update (ICU) project, which is contributed to by all Pacific Island national meteorological services (NMS), Meteo-France (New Caledonia and French Polynesia), NIWA (New Zealand), NOAA (USA), the IRI (USA), and the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia). Monthly rainfall totals for all stations in the ICU database were assessed, and allowed construction of master rainfall chronologies for all or portions of the major South Pacific Island nations. Climatic norms were then calculated over common time periods, and monthly-resolved rainfall anomaly maps for the South Pacific covering 1951-2008 were undertaken. Immediate benefits of this exercise have pointed out holes in the rainfall network that can be specifically targeted for data rescue in the near future, which can be achieved by providing financial assistance to Pacific Island NMSs. In addition, there is ample scope to extend the rainfall anomaly map time series into the early 1900s using a spatially degraded data

  12. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2001-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  13. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent and robust economic growth across the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of low- and middle-income countries in the region remain dependent on some donor support for HIV programmes. We describe the availability of bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (ODA for HIV programmes in the region. Methods: The donor countries considered in this analysis are Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. To estimate bilateral and multilateral ODA financing for HIV programmes in the Asia-Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund for the period 2014 to 2016. Results: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV in the region has been relatively stable over the last decade and is projected to remain below 10% of the worldwide response to the epidemic. Bilateral donors continue to prioritize ODA for HIV to other regions, particularly sub-Saharan Africa; Australia is an exception in prioritizing the Asia-Pacific region, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. Conclusions: Even with Global Fund allocations, countries in the Asia-Pacific region will not have enough resources to meet their epidemiological targets. Prevention funding is particularly

  14. An Alternative Home? ASEAN and Pacific Environmental Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIL MARVEL PIANO TABUCANON

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Alternative Home? ASEAN and Pacific Environmental Migration ASEAN is in a unique position to push for heightened global awareness and action for the vulnerable Pacific populations facing the possibility of relocation. Yet, it is strangely silent on the issue. ASEAN has both moral and legal obligation to not to turn its back on its Pacific neighbours. Morally, ASEAN – or at least most of it – is part of the western fringes of the Pacific region. It is proximate to many Pacific nations, and it has both the resources and landmass to help: two of the world’s largest archipelagos are ASEAN members. The obligations of humanity and justice require larger and more developed states aid and assist their more vulnerable neighbours. Legally, ASEAN may learn from the African Union (AU experience. While AU accepted the UN Refugee Convention definition of ‘refugee,’ it expanded it to include those compelled to leave their country owing to ‘events seriously disturbing public order.’ Many scholars believe this includes the environmentally displaced. ASEAN can choose to take on the easy path of insularity and parochialism as regards the looming issue on environmental migration, or it can take the high road by transforming itself into a dynamic regional actor pushing for clear policies on how to address it. Displacements are by nature traumatic and carry with them the impoverishments of landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, marginalization, increased morbidity and mortality, food insecurity, loss of access to common property resources, and social disarticulation. ASEAN can do much to help its vulnerable neighbors. As a bloc, it is a strong voice that can speak to the larger international community asking it to help address the issue.

  15. Crossing Thresholds - Human Responses to Tsunami Forcing in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J. R.; Chague-Goff, C.

    2014-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami caused widespread devastation to coastal communities in Japan. This event however was merely the latest in a long line of similar occurrences throughout the Pacific over time. All the recent large tsunamis have had their predecessors, and a growing database of palaeotsunamis in the Pacific suggests that several past events have been either similar in magnitude or greater than their historical counterparts. Not only are we gathering data concerning Pacific palaeotsunamis but we are also identifying contemporaneous punctuated histories of changing human settlement patterns across the Pacific. In particular, the almost two millennia 'long pause' in eastward Polynesian migration and the abandonment of long distance sea-voyaging in the 15th century. It is suggested that large palaeotsunamis and their generating mechanisms forced major societal responses. Given the unquestioned impacts of recent tsunamis on human societies, it is reasonable to suggest that past societal responses can be used as proxies for contemporaneous environmental forcing in those parts of the world where independent evidence of the effects of these events is still being gathered. In the Pacific there are a range of responses that extend well beyond the abandonment of long distance sea-voyaging such as the outbreak of region-wide conflict and the associated abandonment of settlements in exposed (coastal) locations. The contemporaneity of these effects across a vast region requires a driver that is external to particular island groups. Given that this must have impacted coastal resources severely and enduringly, the only possibility is that this driver was of oceanic origin. This hypothesis is compelling when considered alongside the growing database of more conventional lines of evidence. The question therefore is how well are similar threshold responses recognised throughout the World? Are there similar region-wide responses that have been pigeonholed under the

  16. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  17. Denitrification and N2 fixation in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Ganachaud, Alexandre

    2001-06-01

    We establish the fixed nitrogen budget of the Pacific Ocean based on nutrient fields from the recently completed World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The budget includes denitrification in the water column and sediments, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric and riverine inputs, and nitrogen divergence due to the large-scale circulation. A water column denitrification rate of 48±5 Tg N yr -1 is calculated for the Eastern Tropical Pacific using N* [Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997] and water mass age tracers. On the basis of rates in the literature, we estimate sedimentary denitrification to remove an additional 15±3 Tg N yr-1. We then calculate the total nitrogen divergence due to the large scale circulation through the basin, composed of flows through a zonal transect at 32°S, and through the Indonesian and Bering straits. Adding atmospheric deposition and riverine fluxes results in a net divergence of nitrogen from the basin of -4±12 Tg N yr-1. Pacific nitrogen fixation can be extracted as a residual component of the total budget, assuming steady state. We find that nitrogen fixation would have to contribute 59±14 Tg N yr-1 in order to balance the Pacific nitrogen budget. This result is consistent with the tentative global extrapolations of Gruber and Sarmiento [1997], based on nitrogen fixation rates estimated for the North Atlantic. Our estimated mean areal fixation rate is within the range of direct and geochemical rate estimates from a single location near Hawaii [Karl et al., 1997]. Pacific nitrogen fixation occurs primarily in the western part of the subtropical gyres where elevated N* signals are found. These regions are also supplied with significant amounts of iron via atmospheric dust deposition, lending qualitative support to the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation is regulated in part by iron suppy.

  18. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  19. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Pacific, 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Viney

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tuberculosis (TB poses a significant public health challenge in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories. Using TB surveillance data and World Health Organization (WHO estimates from 2000 to 2013, we summarize the epidemiology of TB in the Pacific. Methods: This was a descriptive study of incident TB cases reported annually by Pacific island national TB programmes to WHO. We counted cases and calculated proportions and case notification rates per 100 000 population. We calculated the proportion of TB patients who completed TB treatment and summed estimates of national incidence, prevalence and mortality, provided by WHO, to produce regional incidence, prevalence and mortality rates per 100 000 population. Results: Estimated TB incidence in the Pacific has remained high but stable from 2000 to 2013; estimated prevalence and mortality have fallen by 20% and 47%, respectively. The TB case notification rate increased by 58%, from 146 to 231 per 100 000 population in the same time period. In 2013, 24 145 TB cases were notified, most (94% or 22 657 were from Papua New Guinea. Kiribati had the highest TB case notification rate at 398 cases per 100 000 population. TB case notification rates were also high in Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu (309, 283 and 182, respectively. Discussion: TB in the Pacific is improving in some areas; however, high rates affect many countries and the estimated regional incidence rate is stable. To further reduce the burden of TB, a combination of dedicated public health and system-wide approaches are required along with poverty reduction and social protection initiatives.

  20. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Pacific, 2000 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Roth, Adam; Kelly, Paul; Harley, David; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant public health challenge in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories. Using TB surveillance data and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates from 2000 to 2013, we summarize the epidemiology of TB in the Pacific. Methods This was a descriptive study of incident TB cases reported annually by Pacific island national TB programmes to WHO. We counted cases and calculated proportions and case notification rates per 100 000 population. We calculated the proportion of TB patients who completed TB treatment and summed estimates of national incidence, prevalence and mortality, provided by WHO, to produce regional incidence, prevalence and mortality rates per 100 000 population. Results Estimated TB incidence in the Pacific has remained high but stable from 2000 to 2013; estimated prevalence and mortality have fallen by 20% and 47%, respectively. The TB case notification rate increased by 58%, from 146 to 231 per 100 000 population in the same time period. In 2013, 24 145 TB cases were notified, most (94% or 22 657) were from Papua New Guinea. Kiribati had the highest TB case notification rate at 398 cases per 100 000 population. TB case notification rates were also high in Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu (309, 283 and 182, respectively). Discussion TB in the Pacific is improving in some areas; however, high rates affect many countries and the estimated regional incidence rate is stable. To further reduce the burden of TB, a combination of dedicated public health and system-wide approaches are required along with poverty reduction and social protection initiatives. PMID:26668768