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Sample records for sardinia western mediterranean

  1. Interaction between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and marine litter in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camedda, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Matiddi, Marco; Massaro, Giorgio; Coppa, Stefania; Perilli, Angelo; Ruiu, Angelo; Briguglio, Paolo; de Lucia, G Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the environment affects many species that accidentally ingest it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quantity and composition of marine litter ingested by loggerheads in Sardinia, thus supplying for the lack of data in the existing literature for this area. Seventeen of the 121 (14.04%) monitored turtles presented debris in their digestive tracts. Litter in faecal pellet of alive individuals (n = 91) and in gastro-intestinal contents of dead ones (n = 30) was categorized, counted and weighed. User plastic was the main category of ingested debris with a frequency of occurrence of 13.22% of the total sample, while sheet (12.39%) and fragments (9.09%) were the most relevant sub-categories. This study highlights for the first time the incidence of litter in alive turtles in Sardinia. This contribution improves the knowledge about marine litter interaction on Caretta caretta as bio-indicator. Results will be useful for the Marine Strategy implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Advokaat, Eldert; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Cherchi, A.; Schroeder, R.; Madani, H.; Columbu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ~50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of

  3. Geochronological 40Ar/39Ar data on the submarine fault-scarps in the Sardinia channel (western mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillin, J.P.; Tricart, P.; Mascle, G.; Monie, P.; Rolfo, F.; Torelli, L.

    1999-01-01

    Granite and gneiss have been sampled on the submarine fault scarps of the Sardinia Channel and have been dated using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method. The majority of rocks partially preserve Hercynian ages. Some of them display Lower Cretaceous ages. In addition, Upper Eocene-Oligocene argon resetting is recorded only in rocks from the southeast sector of the Channel. We thus propose that the basement of the Sardinia Channel occupied a shallow position within the stack of the Alpine tectonic units, behind the more deformed front of the internal zones of the Maghrebide Chain. (authors)

  4. Epidemiological and molecular data on heterophyid trematode metacercariae found in the muscle of grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Simonetta; Piras, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Daria; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    This study is a contribution to the molecular taxonomy and epidemiology of heterophyid (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae found in the muscle of Mugilidae (Osteichthyes) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Sixty specimens of mugilids (13 Chelon labrosus, 18 Liza aurata, 6 Liza ramada, 8 Liza saliens, 15 Mugil cephalus) were examined and 17,899 metacercariae isolated in 95 % of the hosts. Four types of metacercariae were identified: Heterophyes sp. (n = 14,113), Heterophyes sp. -small (1225), Stictodora sp. (1606), and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. (955). The experimental infection of a hamster with Heterophyes sp. metacercariae produced six adults identified as Heterophyes heterophyes and two as Heterophyes cf. nocens. The morphology of Heterophyes sp. -small metacercariae matched with that of Heterophyes dispar. The sequence analysis of the ITS2 and 28S portions of rDNA confirmed the morphological identification of metacercariae, showing four clusters. All adults grouped together with the Heterophyes sp. metacercariae, whereas adults of Heterophyes nocens from Korea clustered separately, showing that this species is distinguished from H. heterophyes, and suggesting caution in the exclusive use of the number of rodlets of the genital sucker to separate the two species. The presence of metacercariae was high in all hosts; the highest prevalence is of Heterophyes sp. (prevalence ≥78 %; mean intensity ≥135 metacercariae/100 g muscle), and the most heavily infected host is M. cephalus (prevalence = 100 %; mean intensity = 841 metacercariae/100 g muscle).

  5. Miocene shoshonite volcanism in Sardinia: Implications for magma sources and geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Mameli, Paola; Natali, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we document the existence of a Miocene shoshonite (SHO) volcanism in Northern Sardinia (Anglona). This occurrence completes the spectrum of orogenic magmas related to the subduction process which developed from the Eocene along the Palaeo-European continental margin, in concert with the opening of the Ligurian-Balearic back-arc basin and southeastward drift/rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica continental block. K-Ar ages show that the oldest volcanics of the area are calcalkaline (CA) basalts and andesites (~ 21 Ma), overlain by 19.7-18.4 Ma-old more potassic products such as high-potassium calcalkaline (HK-CA) and SHO lavas. CA, HK-CA and SHO suites include basalts and differentiated lavas of andesite and latite composition, respectively, that (according to the PELE software modelling) represent ~ 40-45% residual liquid fraction after shallow fractional crystallization. Application of the "Arc Magma Simulator" software suggests that the generation of primary melts of the distinct suites may occur at similar degrees of partial melting (5-8%) and melting pressures (2-2.2 GPa, ~ 60-70 km depth) in the mantle wedge. By contrast, the potassic character of parental melts of CA, HK-CA and SHO suites is controlled by 1) the amount of subducted continental components (possibly terrigenous sediments) and 2) the pressure (depth) at which these metasomatic agents are released from the slab. Results suggest that the slab depth beneath the volcanic district increased from ~ 80-100 to 100-120 km for CA and SHO magmas, respectively. Accordingly, the evolution from CA to SHO magmatism in the same plumbing system could be related to slab deepening and increase of the subduction angle of ~ 5-10° in the time span of 2-3 Ma. This tectono-magmatic scenario conforms to the major anticlockwise rotation (~ 30°) event of the Sardinia block (between 20.5 and 18 Ma). This geodynamic evolution preludes the development of the volcanism in the Apennine-Tyrrhenian domains, where the

  6. 8000 years of coastal changes on a western Mediterranean island: A multiproxy approach from the Posada plain of Sardinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melis, Rita T.; Di Rita, Federico; French, Charles

    2018-01-01

    -stratigraphy exhibited by a series of new cores taken from the coastal plain. This new study elucidates the main paleoecological changes, phases of shoreline migration and relative sea-level change during the last 8000 years. These results indicate the major role of sea-level stabilization and high sediment supply...... in driving major landscape changes, especially during the Neolithic period (6th–4th millennia BC), and the long-term settlement history of this coastal valley area. It is concluded that human occupation of the coastal plain, from prehistoric to historical times, was most likely constrained by the rapid......A multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental investigation was conducted to reconstruct the Holocene history of coastal landscape change in the lower Posada coastal plain of eastern Sardinia. In the Mediterranean region, coastal modifications during the Holocene have been driven by a complex interplay between...

  7. The Role of Ports in the Development of Mediterranean Islands : The Case of Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Acciaro (Michele)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the role of ports in the economy of Sardinia by means of the employment generated by port and port-related industries. The subject is important since Sardinia and other Mediterranean islands suff er from chronic unemployment and poor economic performance. The increase

  8. Genotoxicity biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in natural populations of Mytilus galloprovincialis along a pollution gradient in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, western Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, P.; De Falco, G.; Falugi, C.; Franzoni, M.; Monteverde, M.; Perrone, E.; Sgro, M.; Bolognesi, C.

    2006-01-01

    A year-round biomonitoring study on blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was carried out in 4 selected sites along the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy): a commercial port (Port), the outlet of the S'Ena Arrubia and Marceddi lagoons (in the catchment area of intensive agricultural and diary activities, and abandoned mining), and a reference site (North). Heavy metal concentrations in sediments from Marceddi were 2-3 to 10-20 times higher in Pb, Cd and Zn, respectively, than those found at North and S'Ena Arrubia. Higher values (P < 0.05) of micronuclei frequency were detected in mussels from Marceddi and Port compared to those detected in mussels from North and S'Ena Arrubia. DNA damage in animals from North was significantly lower than that at the other sites. Results of acetylcholinesterase inhibition consistently showed the strongest effects in mussels from Port and Marceddi. Our results suggest that these biomarkers can be used in coastal marine biomonitoring as early signals of exposure and adverse effects along a pollution gradient. - Biomarkers can be useful in coastal marine biomonitoring

  9. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  10. Geomorphology and anthropogenic impact including military constraints in a microtidal wave-dominated embayment in south western Sardinia (Porto Pino beach, SCI ITB040025, Mediterranean Sea). Implications for beach management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Buosi, Carla; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean have undergone increasing pressure over the last century. The intensifying coastal development and the increasing tourist impact have led to an intense transformation of the coastlines and adjacent marine areas. The beach and the coastal dune play an important role in protecting the coastline. Thus, the study of its geomorphological evolution and of its anthropic modification is fundamental in order to adopt the best management practices. In this regard, the LIFE Project (LIFE13NAT/IT/001013) SOSS DUNES (Safeguard and management Of South-western Sardinian Dunes) aims to safeguard the dune habitats and the beach system in a site belonging to the Natura 2000 network, an EUwide network of nature protection areas established under the 1992 Habitats Directive. This project is focused on a microtidal wave-dominated embayment located in south western Sardinia (Italy, Mediterranean Sea) called Porto Pino beach comprised in the SCI (Site of Community Importance) "Promontory, dunes and wetland of Porto Pino (ITB040025)". This research aims to investigate the geomorphological processes, the evolution and the main human impacts on Porto Pino beach as an useful tool for both conservation and coastal management. The coastal area of Porto Pino is represented by sandy shorelines extending for a total length of 5 km characterized by a wide primary and secondary dune systems, a backshore wetland lagoon and marsh area arranged parallel to the coastline. This littoral area can be ideally divided into three parts: the first, about 600 m long, in the north-west part characterized by the highest human pressure due to touristic activity on the foredunes and deposition of beach wrack; the second part in the south-east, about 1100 m long, characterized by a complex dune system (primary and secondary foredunes); and the third southernmost part included in a military area, about 3300 m long, characterized by transgressive dune system with low human

  11. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Cyanotoxins in the Mediterranean: New Data from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugliè, Antonella; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riccardi, Elena; Bruno, Milena; Pigozzi, Silvia; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Satta, Cecilia Teodora; Stacca, Daniela; Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Farina, Pasqualina; Padedda, Bachisio Mario; Pulina, Silvia; Sechi, Nicola; Milandri, Anna

    2017-11-16

    Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analyses indicated the highest toxicity for A. pacificum strains (total PSTs up to 17.811 fmol cell-1). The PSTs were also assessed in a strain of A. tamarense. The results encourage further investigation to increase the knowledge of toxic species still debated in the Mediterranean. This study also reports new data on microcystins (MCs) and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from a Sardinian artificial lake (Lake Bidighinzu). The presence of MCs and BMAA was assessed in natural samples and in cell cultures by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BMAA positives were found in all the analysed samples with a maximum of 17.84 µg L-1. The obtained results added further information on cyanotoxins in Mediterranean reservoirs, particularly BMAA, which have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  12. Tritium in the western Mediterranean Sea during 1981 Phycemed cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrie, Chantal; Merlivat, Liliane

    1988-02-01

    We report on simultaneous hydrological and tritium data taken in the western Mediterranean Sea during April 1981 and which implement our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of the convection process occurring in the Northern Basin (Gulf of Lion, Ligurian Sea). The renewal time of the deep waters in the Medoc area is calculated to be 11 ± 2 years using a box-model assymption. An important local phenomenon of "cascading" off the Ebro River near the Spanish coast is, noticeable by the use of tritium data. In the Sardinia Straits area tritium data indicate very active mixing between 100 and 500 m depth. The tritium subsurface maxima in Sardinia Straits suggests the influence of not only the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) but also an important shallower component. In waters deeper than 500m, an active mixing occurs between the deep water and the LIW via an intermediate water mass from the Tyrrhenian Sea by "salt-fingering". Assuming a two end-member mixing. We determine the deep tritium content in the Sardinia Channel to be 1.8 TU. For comparison, the deep tritium content of the Northern Basin is equal to 1.3 TU. Tritium data relative to the Alboran Sea show that a layer of high tritium content persists all along its path from Sardifia to Gibraltar on a density surface shallower than the intermediate water. The homogeneity of the deep tritium concentrations between 1200 m depth and the bottom corroborate the upward "pumping" and westward circulation of deep waters along the continental slope of the North African Shelf. From the data measured in the Sardinia Straits and in the Alboran Sea, and upper limit of the deep advection rate of the order of 0.5 cm s-1 is estimated.

  13. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

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    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  14. Can Structural Timber Foster Short Procurement Chains within Mediterranean Forests? A Research Case in Sardinia

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    Massimo Fragiacomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the idea of a timber short procurement chain as a means to provide an increased value to Mediterranean forests. It is based on the evidence that timber buildings are increasingly used for a number of reasons including sustainability, the speed of erection, and excellent structural and seismic performance. However, most of the timber currently used around the Mediterranean is imported from outside this area. Materials and Methods: The idea is to use the best part of the tree to produce timber boards, while all the remaining part of the tree including the production waste is used for energy production. Important issues to address are the generally low mechanical properties of locally-grown timber such as maritime pine in Sardinia, which would make some wood-based products such as glue-laminated timber not technically viable. Cross-laminated timber panels are a possible solution to this problem because this wood-based product is manufactured in such a way that even with low-quality timber boards it is possible to obtain a medium quality panel. The panel is made of layers of timber boards with the adjacent layers glued under pressure at a right angle. Another issue is the need to grade the local timber, for which a number of specimens must be tested to destruction in order to identify a visual or a machine-stress grading procedure. Last but not least, the panels must be tested to destruction to correlate their mechanical properties to the properties of the boards. Results: The preliminary mechanical tests carried out on Sardinia maritime pine confirm that the material is low-grade because it is characterized by large knots and a significant grain deviation. Nevertheless, when used in the cross-laminated panels, the properties are significantly improved due to the layout of the panel which reduces the influence of defects in the boards on the mechanical properties of the panel. Conclusions

  15. Evaluating disturbance on mediterranean karst areas: the example of Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, Jo

    2009-07-01

    Evaluating the human disturbance on karst areas is a difficult task because of the complexity of these peculiar and unique environments. The human impact on karstic geo-ecosystems is increasingly important and there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary tools to assess the environmental changes in karst areas. Many disciplines, such as biology, geomorphology, hydrology and social-economical sciences are to be considered to sufficiently evaluate the impact on these intrinsically vulnerable areas. This article gives an overview of the evolution of environmental impact on karst areas of the island Sardinia (Italy). For this particular case, the most important impacts in the past 50 years are derived from the following activities, in decreasing importance: (1) mining and quarrying; (2) deforestation, agriculture and grazing; (3) building (widespread urbanisation, isolated homes, etc.) and related infrastructures (roads, sewer systems, aqueducts, waste dumps, etc.); (4) tourism; (5) military activities. To evaluate the present environmental state of these areas the Disturbance Index for Karst environments [Van Beynen and Townsend (Environ Manage 36:101-116)] is applied in a slightly modified version. Instead of considering the indicators of environmental disturbances used in the original method, this slightly modified index evaluates the disturbances causing the deterioration of the environmental attributes. In the Sardinian case study, 27 disturbances have been evaluated, giving rise to the definition of a Disturbance Index ranging between 0 (Pristine) and 1 (highly disturbed). This Disturbance Index simplifies the original KDI method, appears to adequately measure disturbance on Mediterranean karst areas and could be applied with success to other similar regions.

  16. The impact of wildland fires on calcareous Mediterranean pedosystems (Sardinia, Italy) - An integrated multiple approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Gian Franco; Tidu, Simona; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Certini, Giacomo; Salis, Michele; Bacciu, Valentina; Ganga, Antonio; Filzmoser, Peter

    2018-05-15

    Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Sea, is a fire-prone land. Most Sardinian environments over time were shaped by fire, but some of them are too intrinsically fragile to withstand the currently increasing fire frequency. Calcareous pedoenvironments represent a significant part of Mediterranean areas, and require important efforts to prevent long-lasting degradation from fire. The aim of this study was to assess through an integrated multiple approach the impact of a single and highly severe wildland fire on limestone-derived soils. For this purpose, we selected two recently burned sites, Sant'Antioco and Laconi. Soil was sampled from 80 points on a 100×100m grid - 40 in the burned area and 40 in unburned one - and analyzed for particle size fractions, pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total N, total P, and water repellency (WR). Fire behavior (surface rate of spread (ROS), fireline intensity (FLI), flame length (FL)) was simulated by BehavePlus 5.0.5 software. Comparisons between burned and unburned areas were done through ANOVA as well as deterministic and stochastic interpolation techniques; multiple correlations among parameters were evaluated by principal factor analysis (PFA) and differences/similarities between areas by principal component analysis (PCA). In both sites, fires were characterized by high severity and determined significant changes to some soil properties. The PFA confirmed the key ecological role played by fire in both sites, with the variability of a four-modeled components mainly explained by fire parameters, although the induced changes on soils were mainly site-specific. The PCA revealed the presence of two main "driving factors": slope (in Sant'Antioco), which increased the magnitude of ROS and FLI; and soil properties (in Laconi), which mostly affected FL. In both sites, such factors played a direct role in differentiating fire behavior and sites, while they played an indirect role in determining

  17. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

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    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  18. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  19. A contribution to the knowledge of the cetological fauna in the waters of Western Sardinia

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    Alexandre Gannier

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 10 day survey was carried out off Western Sardinia during summer 1997. Conventional observation methods were used onboard a 12 meter motorsailer. A zig-zag sampling of 584 kilometers and 65 hours of observation were done, during which 21 groups of cetaceans were sighted. Five species were observed: the fin whale (3 sightings, the striped dolphin (10 sightings, the common dolphin (6 sightings, the bottlenose dolphin and the sperm whale (1 sighting each. High sighting frequencies were obtained for the striped dolphin in the pelagic area and for the common dolphin in the slope area, suggesting that each species favours a distinct habitat. This study is in reasonable concordance with the few results already published on the subject. However more research must be done in this area.

  20. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  1. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  2. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  3. Geochronological {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data on the submarine fault-scarps in the Sardinia channel (western mediterranean); Donnees geochronologiques {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar sur les socles sarde et kabylo-peloritain submerges dans le canal de Sardaigne (mediterranee occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillin, J.P.; Tricart, P.; Mascle, G. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 - Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, CNRS UPRES-A5025; Monie, P. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Geochronologie, Geochimie et de petrologie, UMR 5567; Rolfo, F. [Universita Torino, (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Mineralogiche et Petrologiche; Torelli, L. [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ditp. di Scienze della Terra

    1999-04-01

    Granite and gneiss have been sampled on the submarine fault scarps of the Sardinia Channel and have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar method. The majority of rocks partially preserve Hercynian ages. Some of them display Lower Cretaceous ages. In addition, Upper Eocene-Oligocene argon resetting is recorded only in rocks from the southeast sector of the Channel. We thus propose that the basement of the Sardinia Channel occupied a shallow position within the stack of the Alpine tectonic units, behind the more deformed front of the internal zones of the Maghrebide Chain. (authors) 20 refs.

  4. Application of wildfire simulation methods to assess wildfire exposure in a Mediterranean fire-prone area (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, M.; Ager, A.; Arca, B.; Finney, M.; Bacciu, V. M.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

    2012-12-01

    ; Finney et al. 2009; Salis et al. 2012 accepted). In this work, we employed wildfire simulation methods to quantify wildfire exposure to human and ecological values for the island of Sardinia, Italy. The work was focused on the risk and exposure posed by large fires (e.g. 100 - 10,000 ha), and considers historical weather, ignition patterns and fuels. We simulated 100,000 fires using burn periods that replicated the historical size distribution on the Island, and an ignition probability grid derived from historic ignition data. We then examine spatial variation in three exposure components (burn probability, flame length, fire size) among important human and ecological values. The results allowed us to contract exposure among and within the various features examined, and highlighted the importance of human factors in shaping wildfire exposure in Sardinia. The work represents the first application of burn probability modeling in the Mediterranean region, and sets the stage for expanded work in the region to quantify risk from large fires

  5. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  6. Within-plate Cenozoic Volcanism and Mantle Sources Within The Western-central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.; Siena, F.

    An integrated study of anorogenic basic magmas and entrained mantle xenoliths rep- resents a promising approach for a comprehension of the magmatogenic events occur- ring within the lithospheric mantle in the western-central Mediterranean area. In this contribution we review the geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas and associated peridotite xenoliths from three anorogenic volcanic districts: Pliocene-Quaternary vol- canism of Sardinia; Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism of the Iblean area (eastern Sicily); Paleocene-Oligocene Veneto Volcanic Province. Investigations have been focused on 1) petrological features of parental magmas, which may contribute to infer the com- positional characteristics of mantle sources and to constrain the modes of partial melt- ing; 2) modelling the depletion events and metasomatic enrichments in mantle xeno- liths of the three volcanic districts, as well as the nature of their causative agents. Petrological features and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data, both of lava and xenoliths, indicate that DM+HIMU components distinguish the lithospheric mantle sections of Iblean and Veneto Volcanic Provinces. On the other hand, lavas and xenoliths from Sardinia display a significant different isotopic signature characterised by DM+EM1. Similar geochemical fingerprints, i.e. the significant presence of EM components are gener- ally recorded by mafic lavas and mantle xenoliths from the European Plate, whereas they are not observed in the stable African lithospheric domain.

  7. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace

  8. Density, size structure, shell orientation and epibiontic colonization of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis L. 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia in three contrasting habitats in an estuarine area of Sardinia (W Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Addis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution, size structure, shell orientation and valve colonization by epibionts of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis in three continuous but different habitats in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, western Mediterranean. The sampling stations chosen were: an estuarine area (E of coastal salt-marshes characterized by unvegetated sea-bottoms; and two areas in a seagrass meadow characterized by an extensive Posidonia oceanica meadow (Mw and patched mixed meadows of P. oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa (Me. We found significant differences in mean densities among stations and the highest value was found in the estuarine area. Shell orientation showed that there was uniform circular distribution of specimens in the Mw station and a unimodal distribution in the Me and E stations, where specimens were set at 0°N and 10°NNE, which is a pattern related to sea drift. Shell epibiosis displayed differences between habitats. The highest valve colonization was in the estuary, with filamentous dark algae and Ostrea edulis reaching almost 90 percent of shell coverage. This study provides new information on habitat preferences and data for assessing local populations of P. nobilis that is useful for its conservation and improving the knowledge of its ecology.

  9. Using coastal lagoons to better constrain the isostatic signal in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, M.; Rovere, A.; Melis, R. T.; Ghilardi, M.; Marriner, N.; Giaime, M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal lagoons represent a very common feature of the microtidal Mediterranean coastlines. They are inland waterbodies, usually developing parallel to the coast, typically separated from the open sea by a sandy barrier. One or more restricted inlets ensure their continuous or intermittent connection to the open sea. The water depth is generally less than 1 m and seldom exceeds a few meters. They represent a very useful proxy for the reconstruction of Mediterranean Relative Sea Level (RSL). However, caution should be used in the definition of a correct indicative meaning that can be obtained only with a multiproxy analysis of both sedimentary features and faunal assemblages of the cores extracted in marshy to lagoonal environment. We report here the results of a wide coring campaign we carried out in in the last 2 years in a number of Mediterranean lagoons located close to important archaeological settlements in Corsica (France) Sardinia (Italy) and Mallorca Island (Spain). The multiproxy analysis of the cores allowed defining the depositional environments and their relationship (or non relationship) with the former mean sea level. These data were chronologically supported by a significant dataset of more than 100 new 14C dating performed on organic sediments, wood, plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells. We then produced alarge amount of new data to constrain the RSL evolution in the center of Western Mediterranean where the available geophysical models predict the largest glacio-hydro isostatic (GIA) influence at basin scale. However, such models where tested only on a limited dataset mainly composed of archaeological RSL indicators (i.e. last 2 ka BP). Our new record, expanding the last 10 ka BP, significantly improves the ability to define the general anatomy of Mediterranean Holocene RSL changes and to constrain the maximal GIA magnitude in the basin.

  10. Sedimentary Markers : a window into deep geodynamic processes Examples from the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Leroux, Estelle; Pellen, Romain; Gorini, Christian; Moulin, Maryline; Droz, Laurence; Bache, Francois; Molliex, Stephane; Silenzario, Carmine; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    Deep Earth dynamics impact so strongly on surface geological processes that we can use sediment palaeo-markers as a window into the deeper Earth. Derived from climatic and tectonic erosive actions on the continents, and related to eustasy, subsidence and isostasy, the sediment in a deep basin is the main recorder of these processes. Nevertheless, defining and quantifying the relative roles of parameters that interact to give the final sedimentary architecture is not a simple task. Using a 3D-grid of seismic and wide-angle data, boreholes and numerical stratigraphic modelling, we propose here a quantification of post-rift vertical movements in the Provençal Basin (Western Mediterranean) involving three domains of subsidence: seaward tilting on the platform and the slope and purely vertical subsidence in the deep basin (Rabineau et al., 2014 ; Leroux et al., 2015). These domains fit the deeper crustal domains highlighted by previous geophysical data (Moulin et al., 2015 ; Afilhado et al., 2015). Post-break-up sedimentary markers may therefore be used to identify the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase, to quantify sedimentation rates and isostatic rebound (Rabineau et al., 2014) and redefine the subsidence laws. Similar work and results are obtained in the Valencia Basin (Pellen et al., 2016). This Western Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory with very high total subsidence rates that enable high sedimentation rates along the margin with sediments provided by the Rhône and Ebro rivers flowing from the Alps, the Pyrennees and Catalan chains, which in turn archives the detailed record of climate/tectonic evolution during the Neogene. The Western Mediterranean Sea could therefore further probe deep-earth and surface connections using deep drillings of this land-locked ocean basin transformed into a giant saline basin (Rabineau et al., 2015). Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., M. Moulin, D. Granjeon, C. Gorini, L. Droz, 2015. Sedimentary markers: a

  11. NEW FOSSIL VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM SAN GIOVANNI DI SINIS (LATE PLEISTOCENE, SARDINIA: THE LAST MAUREMYS (REPTILIA, TESTUDINES IN THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCESCO CHESI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available New fossil vertebrates from the most representative Upper Pleistocene section (Tyrrhenian, MIS 5e of the outcrop of San Giovanni di Sinis (Oristano, Sardinia are here reported and described. The fossils, although scarce and fragmentary, document the occurrence of a terrapin (Mauremys sp. and the endemic Sardinian deer (Praemegaceros cazioti. Significant is the occurrence of the terrapin because it is the youngest representative of the genus in the central Mediterranean area where it is extinct at present. The Late Pleistocene extinction of Mauremys in Italy follows the same pattern of other Mediterranean reptiles, in being in some cases delayed on the islands. A comparison of the modern range of Mauremys and that of the pond turtle, Emys, as well as of their past ranges as evidenced by the fossil record, might suggest that some sort of thermophily (at least during pre-hatching stages characterized the former taxon and is responsible for its past and present distribution. SHORT NOTE

  12. High-resolution observations in the western Mediterranean Sea: the REP14-MED experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Reiner; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Beguery, Laurent; Borrione, Ines; Funk, Andreas; Hemming, Michael; Hernandez-Lasheras, Jaime; Heywood, Karen J.; Kaiser, Jan; Knoll, Michaela; Mourre, Baptiste; Oddo, Paolo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Queste, Bastien Y.; Russo, Aniello; Shitashima, Kiminori; Siderius, Martin; Thorp Küsel, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    The observational part of the REP14-MED experiment was conducted in June 2014 in the Sardo-Balearic Basin west of Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Two research vessels collected high-resolution oceanographic data by means of hydrographic casts, towed systems, and underway measurements. In addition, a vast amount of data was provided by a fleet of 11 ocean gliders, time series were available from moored instruments, and information on Lagrangian flow patterns was obtained from surface drifters and one profiling float. The spatial resolution of the observations encompasses a spectrum over 4 orders of magnitude from 𝒪(101 m) to 𝒪(105 m), and the time series from the moored instruments cover a spectral range of 5 orders from 𝒪(101 s) to 𝒪(106 s). The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the huge data set which has been utilised by various studies, focusing on (i) water masses and circulation, (ii) operational forecasting, (iii) data assimilation, (iv) variability of the ocean, and (v) new payloads for gliders.

  13. PIXE characterization of Western Mediterranean and Anatolian obsidians and Neolithic provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdonnec, F.-X.; Delerue, S.; Dubernet, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Calligaro, Th.; Dran, J.-C.; Poupeau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of non-destructive elemental analysis makes PIXE a very attractive technique in archaeological provenance studies. This technique has been fruitfully implemented on two different facilities to address the issue of obsidian provenance in the Mediterranean and in surrounding regions. At C2RMF, we took advantage of the possibility to analyze large archaeological pieces with the external micro-beam set-up. At CENBG, we used the nuclear microprobe providing a 5 μm beam diameter in large scans (700 x 700 μm 2 ) to control the homogeneity of elemental distribution. In both cases we dosed the same set of 13 elements: Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr and Zr. While at C2RMF, two Si(Li) detectors were used simultaneously to measure all elements at once with 3 MeV protons, at CENBG where only one detector was available, the light elements Na to Fe were determined with a 1.5 MeV beam, and the heavy ones, including Fe, with a beam energy of 2.7 MeV. In Western Mediterranean, it is possible with PIXE to differentiate all obsidian sources of archaeological significance. Examples are given of obsidian provenances from Neolithic sites of France and from the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. In the Near East, we can differentiate the Cappadocian and Eastern Anatolian obsidian sources used during the early Neolithic. This is illustrated by examples taken from Neolithic sites of the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria)

  14. Climbing walls as multitasking sites of geo(morpho)logical interests: Italian examples from the Western Alps and Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Fossati, Maria; Panizza, Valeria; Pelfini, Manuela; Zanoletti, Enrico; Zucali, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Geosites and in particular geomorphosites have been recently more and more used as base for educational activities in Earth Sciences and to enhance the geodiversity of a territory. Their attributes acquire a greater value and become especially appreciable when associated with field and outdoor activities. Frequently rock walls represent key sites for geological and gemorphological researches due to the wide outcrops of rocks where mineralogical composition and structures are very evident as well as landforms deriving from the modeling of outcrops surfaces. Where the rock walls are equipped for climbing activities they may be considered open-air laboratories useful to get in touch with the different features of rocks that condition progression on climbing routes. Due to these two aspects, geohistorical importance and educational exemplarity contribute to the increase of the scientific value and, as a consequence, of the global value of these sites as geosites. Geomorphosites from climbing sites allow to realize educational projects with different goals: 1) Recent researches in the Western Italian Alps have been conducted to make a census of climbing rock cliffs along the Ossola Valley (Verbanio-Cusio-Ossola Province, Italy) and to operate a choice of the ones characterized by high educational value (considering easy accessibility, grades for experts and beginners and the good exposition of rock features), representativeness, geohistorical importance, high cultural and socio-economic values, in order to propose an educational project addressed to students of an Italian secondary school aimed at introducing the three great families of rocks (magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary); 2) The Eclogitic Micaschist Complex of the Austroalpine Domain (Montestrutto climbing wall, Turin Province, Italy) has been investigated in order to i) reconstruct the deformation stages at local scales along the sport climbing wall and the relationships between geological elements and

  15. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia under past and future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Historical human influences (e.g., deforestation, urbanization) further altered these ecosystems. Sardinia island is a representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. Two contrasting case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin (1700 km2). The first site is a typical grassland on an alluvial plan valley (soil depth > 2m) while the second is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation species (mainly wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous) that grow in a soil bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured (soil depth 15 - 40 cm). In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by the eddy correlation technique while soil moisture was continuously estimated with water content reflectometers, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) was estimated. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics; 3) evaluate the impact of past and future climate change scenarios on the two contrasting ecosystems. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model that couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM) has been used. Historical meteorological data are available from 1922 and hydro-meteorological scenarios are then generated using a weather generator. The VDM-LSM model predict soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated

  16. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  17. Corsica and Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each

  18. Pattern of seismic deformation in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pondrelli

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic deformation of the Western Mediterranean was studied with the aim of defining the strain pattern that characterizes the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in this area. Within different sections along the boundary the cumulative moment tensor was computed over 90 years of seismological data. The results were compared with NUVELlA plate motion model and geodetic data. A stable agreement was found along Northern Africa to Sicily, where only Africa and Eurasia plates are involved. In this zone it is evident that changes in the strike of the boundary correspond to variations in the prevailing geometry of deformation, tectonic features and in the percentage of seismic with respect to total expected deformation. The geometry of deformation of periadriatic sections (Central to Southern Apennines, Eastern Alps and the Eastern Adriatic area agrees well with VLBI measurements and with regional geological features. Seismicity seems to account for low rates, from 3% to 31%, of total expected deformation. Only in the Sicily Strait, characterized by extensional to strike slip deformation, does the ratio reach a higher value (79%. If the amount of deformation deduced from seismicity seems low, because 90 years are probably not representative of the recurrence seismic cycle of the Western Mediterranean, the strain pattern we obtain from cumulative moment tensors is more representative of the kinematics of this area than global plate motion models and better identifies lower scale geodynamic features.

  19. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  20. Geochemistry of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, J.; Pérez, N.; Castillo, S.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; López-Sebastián, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2009-11-01

    The chemical composition of regional background aerosols, and the time variability and sources in the Western Mediterranean are interpreted in this study. To this end 2002-2007 PM speciation data from an European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, MSY, located 40 km NNE of Barcelona in NE Spain) were evaluated, with these data being considered representative of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin. The mean PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 levels at MSY during 2002-2007 were 16, 14 and 11 µg/m 3, respectively. After compiling data on regional background PM speciation from Europe to compare our data, it is evidenced that the Western Mediterranean aerosol is characterised by higher concentrations of crustal material but lower levels of OM + EC and ammonium nitrate than at central European sites. Relatively high PM 2.5 concentrations due to the transport of anthropogenic aerosols (mostly carbonaceous and sulphate) from populated coastal areas were recorded, especially during winter anticyclonic episodes and summer midday PM highs (the latter associated with the transport of the breeze and the expansion of the mixing layer). Source apportionment analyses indicated that the major contributors to PM 2.5 and PM 10 were secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate and crustal material, whereas the higher load of the anthropogenic component in PM 2.5 reflects the influence of regional (traffic and industrial) emissions. Levels of mineral, sulphate, sea spray and carbonaceous aerosols were higher in summer, whereas nitrate levels and Cl/Na were higher in winter. A considerably high OC/EC ratio (14 in summer, 10 in winter) was detected, which could be due to a combination of high biogenic emissions of secondary organic aerosol, SOA precursors, ozone levels and insolation, and intensive recirculation of aged air masses. Compared with more locally derived crustal geological dusts, African dust intrusions introduce relatively quartz-poor but clay

  1. Yessotoxin detection in bivalve molluscs: A case study from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Graziano Mudadu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first communication relating to the presence of yessotoxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, western Mediterranean detected during 2008 and 2013 through a monitoring programme. The paper emphasizes how the changes both in yessotoxin permitted limits and used methods, established by legislation, have influenced the interpretation of the obtained results. Consequently, the samples that resulted negative during 2008 would have been positive until August 2013 and negative from September 2013 up to now, and the samples that were positive in 2013 would have been positive in 2008 and negative nowadays, according to Regulation currently in force. Regular monitoring of biotoxins demonstrated that, although yessotoxins have been rarely present in the past in Sardinia, they may cause toxicity in shellfish. So, it’s important to keep up on legislation’s changing and laboratory methods.

  2. FOSSIL VERTEBRATES (MAMMALIA AND REPTILIA FROM CAPO MANNU (LATE PLIOCENE, WESTERN SARDINIA, ITALY, WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEWTESTUDO (CHELONII, TESTUDINIDAE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA ABBAZZI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the North-West Sinis Peninsula (Western Sardinia a stratigraphic sequence, the Capo Mannu Fm., that evolves from marine-littoral to continental-dunar, is present. A vertebrate fauna is reported within the middle part of this coastal dune complex. These new remains, here referred to as the Capo Mannu D4 Local Fauna, are slightly younger in the sedimentary succession than the Local Fauna known in the literature as Mandriola and here re-named the Capo Mannu D1 Local Fauna.Vertebrates from Capo Mannu D4 include reptiles (Chelonii and mammals (Bovidae and Suidae. The tortoise fossils show peculiarities of shape that require the naming of a new species. The suid material includes a fragmentary palate and a partial mandible, referable to the endemic species Sus sondaari. Bovids are well represented in the assemblage, although quite fragmentary. They have been identified as belonging to at least two forms. One of these is comparable in morphology to Nesogoral, one of the most characteristic taxa of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Sardinian endemic fauna (the so called "Nesogoral complex". On the whole, the Capo Mannu D4 assemblages open a new window on the Plio-Pleistocene terrestrial faunas of the Sardinian Island. 

  3. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  4. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but als...

  5. Relict Forms of a Disappeared Mountain. The Periglacial Deposits in Asinara Island-Sardinia, Italy

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    Sergio GINESU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asinara Island is located in northwestern Sardinia (Italy and only recently has been divested as a maximum-security prison and returned to nature protection as a National Park with Marine Protected Area along the coastal perimeter. Geologically, the island is formed by a Paleozoic basement in transition between the metamorphic rocks and the Pre-Hercynian granitic batholith of Sardinia. New surveys carried out to reconstruct the recent evolution of the landscape have shown a lot of deposits formed by large blocks of granitoid and anphibolitic rocks representing a favorable situation to produce this material formation in terms of differential erosion in periglaciar environment. Similar morphologies are possible to observe in many places in Sardinia continental hard rocks as effect of the conditions of refreezing periods ("glacial". These deposits are commonly known as " block streams " or " block fields " and reported for the first time in Italy in 1990 in the central area of the island of Sardinia, about 500 meters above sea level. Their presence in Sardinia is always documented in a range of altitudes not less than 350-400 meters and, in this case for the first time they have been identified in close proximity to the coastline. In addition, some of these deposits cover the thalwegs present on the granite rocks in the central portion of the island. The most interesting cases are represented by the deposits located on the northwestern side, near the lighthouse of Punta Scorno. The widespread presence of these deposits suggests significant areal erosion of the island terrain; they probably accumulated during the colder episodes that have characterized the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of the entire western Mediterranean. These testify the existence of an energy relief higher than the present one and a coastline located about 25 kilometers from the current position, however, documented by the block stream of Cala Arena, the first deposit located for

  6. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  7. Deep and intermediate mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Gregorio; Kinder, Thomas H.; Preller, Ruth H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrographic and current meter data, obtained during June to October 1982, and numerical model experiments are used to study the distribution and flow of Mediterranean waters in the western Alboran Sea. The Intermediate Water is more pronounced in the northern three-fourths of the sea, but its distribution is patchy as manifested by variability of the temperature and salinity maxima at scales ≤10 km. Current meters in the lower Intermediate Water showed mean flow toward the Strait at 2 cm s -1. A reversal of this flow lasted about 2 weeks. A rough estimate of the mean westward Intermediate Water transport was 0.4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, about one-third of the total outflow, so that the best estimates of the contributions of traditionally defined Intermediate Water and Deep Water account for only about one-half of the total outflow. The Deep Water was uplifted against the southern continental slope from Alboran Island (3°W) to the Strait. There was also a similar but much weaker banking against the Spanish slope, but a deep current record showed that the eastward recirculation implied by this banking is probably intermittent. Two-layer numerical model experiments simulated the Intermediate Water flow with a flat bottom and the Deep Water with realistic bottom topography. Both experiments replicated the major circulation features, and the Intermediate Water flow was concentrated in the north because of rotation and the Deep Water flow in the south because of topographic control.

  8. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the

  9. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  10. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    U. Dayan; K. M. Nissen; U. Ulbrich

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes producing heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the Western and Eastern Mediterranean in order to point at specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the ad...

  11. From Tethyan Oceans to the Western Mediterranean I - Plate reconstructions from the Present back to the Early Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan; Handy, Mark; Bousquet, Romain; Kissling, Eduard; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    A new reconstruction of the branches of Alpine Tethys combines available plate kinematic models of Africa-Europe motion with a wealth of new geological and geophysical data (seismic tomography and paleomagnetics) to shed light the evolution of the Western Mediterranean-Alps system, from sea-floor spreading through subduction to collision. Unlike previous models which relate the fate of Alpine Tethys solely to relative motions of the African plate with respect to Europe during opening of the Atlantic, our reconstruction invokes motions and rotations of four additional and temporarily independent microplates: Adria, Iberia, Alcapia and Alkapecia. Translations and rotations of these microplates with respect to Europe are constrained in the following way: (1) The retro-translations of Adria back to 94 Ma are obtained from shortening estimates in the Alps along geological-geophysical transects of the Alpine orogen and from geobarometric estimates of subduction depth in tectonic units that underwent high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. Rotations are based on paleomagnetic data of Márton et al. (in press); (2) Iberia follows the motion paths of Savostin et al. (1986), based on magnetic anomalies in the Central and Northern Atlantic; the Corsica-Sardinia block later rifted from Iberia leading to Burdigalian opening of the Liguria-Provençal basin (Serranne 1999). (3) The Alcapia microplate, whose name is derived from the acronym ALCAPA (Alps-Carpathians-Pannonian Basin), separated from Adria in Cretaceous times. Its movement with respect to Adria was absorbed by Cretaceous orogeny in the Eastern Alps, constrained by the Adria-Europe displacement and rotation path; later, during Cenozoic orogeny in the Alps, associated with the closing of the Alpine Tethys, it became part of the Adria microplate again. (4) The introduction of an independent Alkapekia continental fragment and independent microplate during the Late Cenozoic only (Alboran

  12. Macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative comparison of the distribution of macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic, based on our own data from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean and available data from literature. The macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic bottoms from both regions could be distinguished by the presence of a high number of regional exclusive non-carbonated species, and the presence of a high number of maërl-forming species in the Mediterranean. Further, regional differences in the distribution of some exclusive species allowed the distinction of three zones in the Northeastern Atlantic (United Kingdom, French Brittany and Galicia, while no differences were found within the Western Mediterranean. However, the algal communities considered in the selected literature could not be qualitatively distinguished, and all the samples should be considered as maërl beds. Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum were the most widespread maërl forming species in the two regions, while in the Western Mediterranean Spongites fruticulosus was also very frequent. According to the differences in the species composition of the basal and erect strata of these beds, and also in their species richness, five different morphologies of macroalgal-dominated detritic bottoms could be distinguished. Their main characteristic species and their biogeographical distribution are detailed.

  13. Variability of aerosol optical properties in the Western Mediterranean Basin

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    M. Pandolfi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol light scattering, absorption and particulate matter (PM concentrations were measured at Montseny, a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB which is part of the European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (EUSAAR. Off line analyses of 24 h PM filters collected with Hi-Vol instruments were performed for the determination of the main chemical components of PM. Mean scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients (@ 635 nm were 26.6±23.2 Mm−1 and 4.3±2.7 Mm−1, respectively and the mean aerosol absorption coefficient (@ 637 nm was 2.8±2.2 Mm−1. Mean values of Single Scattering Albedo (SSA and Ångström exponent (å (calculated from 450 nm to 635 nm at MSY were 0.90±0.05 and 1.3±0.5 respectively. A clear relationship was observed between the PM1/PM10 and PM2.5/PM10 ratios as a function of the calculated Ångström exponents. Mass scattering cross sections (MSC for fine mass and sulfate at 635 nm were 2.8±0.5 m2 g−1 and 11.8±2.2 m2 g−1, respectively, while the mean aerosol absorption cross section (MAC was 10.4±2.0 m2 g−1. The variability in aerosol optical properties in the WMB were largely explained by the origin and ageing of air masses over the measurement site. The MAC values appear dependent of particles aging: similar to the expected absorption cross-section for fresh emissions under Atlantic Advection episodes and higher under aerosol pollution episodes. The analysis of the Ångström exponent as a function of the origin the air masses revealed that polluted winter anticyclonic conditions and summer recirculation scenarios typical of the WMB led to an increase of fine particles in the atmosphere (å = 1.5±0.1 while the aerosol optical properties under Atlantic Advection episodes and Saharan dust outbreaks were clearly

  14. Hydrography and circulation west of Sardinia in June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Michaela; Borrione, Ines; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Funk, Andreas; Hemming, Michael P.; Kaiser, Jan; Onken, Reiner; Queste, Bastien; Russo, Aniello

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the REP14-MED sea trial in June 2014, the hydrography and circulation west of Sardinia, observed by means of gliders, shipborne CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) instruments, towed devices, and vessel-mounted ADCPs (acoustic doppler current profilers), are presented and compared with previous knowledge. So far, the circulation is not well-known in this area, and the hydrography is subject to long-term changes. Potential temperature, salinity, and potential density ranges as well as core values of the observed water masses were determined. Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), with potential density anomalies below 28.72 kg m-3, showed a salinity minimum of 37.93 at 50 dbar. Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), with a salinity maximum of about 38.70 at 400 dbar, was observed within a range of 28.72ADCP measurements. Within the MAW, northward currents were observed over the shelf and offshore, while a southward transport of about 1.5 Sv occurred over the slope. A net northward transport of 0.38 Sv across the southern transect decreased to zero in the north. Within the LIW, northward transports of 0.6 Sv across the southern transects were mainly observed offshore, and decreased to 0.3 Sv in the north where they were primarily located over the slope. This presentation of the REP14-MED observations helps to further understand the long-term evolution of hydrography and circulation in the Western Mediterranean, where considerable changes occurred after the Eastern Mediterranean Transient and the Western Mediterranean Transition.

  15. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  16. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  17. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Giralt, S.; Jimenéz-Espejo, F.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; de Lange, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to

  18. Seasonal population dynamics of Zeuxapta seriolae (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) parasitising Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Repulles-Albelda, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, J. A.; Montero, F. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 193, 1-3 (2013), s. 163-171 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zeuxapta seriolae * Seriola dumerili * Monogenea * Population dynamics * Western Mediterranean Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  19. Genetic sub-structure in western Mediterranean populations revealed by 12 Y-chromosome STR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, V; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sánchez, J J

    2008-01-01

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 a/b, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex(R) Y System were determined in seven western Mediterranean populations from Valencia, Ma...

  20. Characterization of the lipid fraction of wild sea urchin from the Sardinian Sea (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Addis, Pierantonio

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Spatangus purpureus, Echinus melo, Sphaerechinus granularis, and Paracentrotus lividus, sea urchins, has been studied. Sea urchins were collected at different depth along Sardinia coast in the Mediterranean sea, and their gonad was measured, separated, and analyzed for FA composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 FAs were detected, 16 saturated (SFA), 10 monounsaturated (MUFA), 9 polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 13 highly unsaturated (HUFA). Moreover, 5 furan FAs (FFAs) were revealed for the first time in sea urchin. The HUFA and PUFA classes were the most represented accounting for almost 80% of total FAs. Among these compounds, C20:4 n6 (19.64, 20.52, 23.37, and 8.48 mg/g, respectively) and C22:6 n3 (19.68, 20.05, 3.83, and 1.78 mg/g, respectively) were the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis indicated that the sea urchin samples could be clearly discriminated with respect to their FAs composition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  2. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  3. Sea floor morphology of the Ebro Shelf in the region of the Columbretes Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A.; Lastras, G.; Ballesteros, M.; Canals, M.; Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.

    2005-12-01

    Widespread volcanism off eastern Spain in the western Mediterranean is associated with Cenozoic crustal attenuation and sinistral motion along the Trans-Moroccan-Western Mediterranean-European mega shear, extending from northern Morocco to the North Sea via the Alboran Basin, eastern Iberia, the Valencian and Lyons basins, France and Germany. The Quaternary Columbretes Islands volcanic field is the most prominent example of this volcanism associated with this mega shear. The islands are located in the Ebro continental shelf on top of a structural horst probably made of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Surrounding the emerged islands are volcanic structures and associated flows partially mantled by a sediment drift whose morphology is controlled by the southwestward flowing Catalan Current. This association is rather unique and appears to have never been described from a continental shelf in the Mediterranean Sea or outside the sea. The morphology of both kinds of structures, obtained by means of swath bathymetry data and very-high resolution seismic profiles, is presented in this study. They provide striking images of this previously unstudied part of the western Mediterranean seafloor. These images suggest that the volcanic structures are intruded into the surficial Holocene sediments indicating that volcanism in the Columbretes has extended into Holocene.

  4. A Meramod® model approach for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of the off–shore aquaculture improvement in the Alghero Bay (North western Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine fish farming generates particulate wastes which are dispersed in the sea environment. To deal with this problem, particulate waste dispersion models have been developed to predict the effects of fish cage culture. In this study, we evaluated the seabed deposition of a fish farming facility located in the central western Mediterranean by using the Meramod® model. The objectives where first to assess the actual scenario, and second to forecast the possible impact due to the forthcoming enlargement of the farming area with the addition of new fish cages. By computing the hydrodynamic measurements and the daily amount of feed recorded between July and December 2006, the impact seabed surfaces forecasted by the model increased from 5.6ha in the actual scenario, up to 7.3ha in the future. The model estimated a maximum level of total solid flux deposition of 3,800g/m2bed/year and a maximum level of total carbon flux deposition of 1,350g/m2bed/year for both scenarios. Furthermore, the model predicted that the installation of 4 new fish cages (with an hypothetical mean daily amount of feed of 50kg/cage will produce a total solid and carbon flux deposition levels ranging 0-400 and 0-150g/m2bed/year respectively, under the new fish cages location.

  5. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  6. Imag(ining Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Alù

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Maria Bonaria Urban, Sardinia on Screen. The Construction of the Sardinian Character in Italian Cinema, Amsterdam–New York, Rodopi, 579 p., 2013, ISBN: 9789042037502, € 120 / US$ 168; eBook: 9789401210010, € 108 / US$ 151.

  7. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the human conditioned evolution (medium term) and the short term dynamics (mainly sediment transport) in southern Sardinia beach (between Giorgino and Cala d'Orri, about 11km), composed of fine to coarse quartz sand, backed by dune ridges and lagoons. The study was founded by NEPTUNE Project, Tender6 (L n. 7/2007). Geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators as: urbanization and coastal defence expansion, dune and beach changes, biotic indices (benthic foraminifera and Posidonia meadow) have been used. Medium-term evolution, over a period of 60 years, was carried out by ortho-images (1954-2015) for reconstructing coastline changes at this temporal scale. The main modifications were the building of the canal harbor, the consequent loss of 2.5km of beach, and the construction of several coastal defense structures, which caused asymmetric accumulations (lee zones) and erosion areas. Short-term variations have been periodically monitored (2014-2015) during 5 different field surveys (DGPS and Echo-sounder data) obtaining topo-bathymetric digital models. Sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics have been studied. Wave propagation, coastal currents and sediment transport, have been simulated through numerical models within Delft3D software. The results obtained allowed to visualize the response of the beach to wave stress, forced from SW, S, SE (Cagliari buoy and weather data). The comparison between data collected, thematic maps and models allowed to identify the main controlling factors and distribution mechanisms of the sedimentary paths on the shoreface. Those human modifications (e.g. building of the canal harbour and jetties, lagoon mouths stabilization, the consequent modified hydrodynamics and bottom trawling) have direct influence on the Posidonia oceanica and on its upper limit. In 2002, the Italian Environment Office reported a wide area (between -4m and -20m) of degraded Posidonia and dead matte in front of the study beach

  8. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Ichtyofauna associated with drifting floating objects in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Riera

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, size range and some behavioral notes about drifting flotsam associated fish of the Balearic Islands are presented, and more detailed observations on Seriola dumerili, Naucrates ductor, Coryphaena hippurus and Scomberesox saurus are also given. 25 fish species belonging to 18 families were identified, 12 of these species and the individuals of the family Mugilidae were recorded for the first time associated with floating objects in the western Mediterranean. Most of the specimens collected were juveniles, which suggests the importance of floating objects as a nursery, and thus in the recruitment and redistribution of fishes. Analisis of two drift floating material samples show that objects of anthropogenic origin were most abundant (83.5% and 63.5% and suggests that at present, human refuse may have taken over the role of the floating remains of marine plants for fishes in the western Mediterranean pelagic environment.

  10. Cold Outbreaks at the Mesoscale in the Western Mediterranean Basin: From Raincells to Rainbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cold outbreaks that form offshore density currents within the whole mesoscale over the Western Mediterranean basin. Reflectivity radar and satellite images are used to detect clouds and precipitation that are associated with these density currents in the meso-α, meso-β, and meso-γ over the Western Mediterranean basin (WMB. Version 3.3 of the WRF-ARW model is used to describe the formation and evolution of these density currents and to estimate their lifetime as well as horizontal and vertical scales. Based on the observations and simulations, this paper suggests that a new perspective could effectively be adopted regarding the WMB region delineated by the Balearic Islands, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, and the Gulf of Lion, where inland cold outbreaks develop into density currents that move offshore and can produce precipitation ranging from raincells to rainbands at the whole mesoscale.

  11. Modelling for anchovy recruitment studies in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Garreau, Pierre; Liorzou, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) is an important commercial species and one of the most abundant pelagic fish in the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan Sea. The factors influencing its recruitment are crucial to fisheries and ecological research. Among those factors transport of larvae by hydrodynamics (currents) is important because it determines whether the organisms can reach areas favourable to recruitment or are dispersed. Therefore, the first step in anchovy recruitment modelling is to simulate North-western Mediterranean Sea circulation. Several years (2001-2008) of hydrodynamics were simulated with the MARS-3D code. The resulting simulated currents and salinity are used by Lagrangian tool, Ichthyop, to transport anchovy eggs and larvae to the Western Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study is to understand the main hydrodynamic processes that control anchovy transport and the effects of diel vertical migration on the transport and final distribution of anchovy.

  12. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  13. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of early Middle Miocene sediments from DSDP Leg 42A, Site 372 (Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L. M.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Iaccarino, S. M.; Kuiper, K. F.; Lirer, F.; Salvatorini, G.; Turco, E.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic framework is presented for Middle Miocene sediments of DSDP Site 372 located in the Western Mediterranean. Detailed biostratigraphic analysis shows a nearly complete sequence of early Middle Miocene calcareous plankton bioevents in the Mediterranean, including

  14. Risk and resilience in the late glacial: A case study from the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. Michael; Aura Tortosa, J. Emili; Garcia-Puchol, Oreto; Riel-Salvatore, Julien G.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Vadillo Conesa, Margarita; Pothier Bouchard, Geneviève

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Last Glacial Maximum through early Holocene encompasses dramatic and rapid environmental changes that offered both increased risk and new opportunities to human populations of the Mediterranean zone. The regional effects of global climate change varied spatially with latitude, topography, and distance from a shifting coastline; and human adaptations to these changes played out at these regional scales. To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of climate change and human social-ecological-technological systems (or SETS) during the transition from full glacial to interglacial, we carried out a meta-analysis of archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets across the western Mediterranean region. We compiled information on prehistoric technology, land-use, and hunting strategies from 291 archaeological assemblages, recovered from 122 sites extending from southern Spain, through Mediterranean France, to northern and peninsular Italy, as well as 2,386 radiocarbon dates from across this region. We combine these data on human ecological dynamics with paleoenvironmental information derived from global climate models, proxy data, and estimates of coastlines modeled from sea level estimates and digital terrain. The LGM represents an ecologically predictable period for over much of the western Mediterranean, while the remainder of the Pleistocene was increasingly unpredictable, making it a period of increased ecological risk for hunter-gatherers. In response to increasing spatial and temporal uncertainty, hunter-gatherers reorganized different constituents of their SETS, allowing regional populations to adapt to these conditions up to a point. Beyond this threshold, rapid environmental change resulted in significant demographic change in Mediterranean hunter-gatherer populations.

  15. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; González, M.; Otero, L.

    2011-01-01

    Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  16. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  17. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger-scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extratropical) that account for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper synoptic-scale-level troughs, and mesoscale convective systems. Under tropical air-mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

  18. Multiparametric analysis and validation in the western Mediterranean of three global OGCM hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vidal-Vijande

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a hierarchy of three 1/4° global numerical simulations (ORCA-025.G70 (G70, ORCA-025.G85 (G85 and GLORYS1V1 (GLORYS by assessing their performance against observational data in the western Mediterranean. When compared with the EN3_v2a temperature and salinity database, the simulations are capable of reproducing surface layer temperature interannual variability but G70 is inaccurate with intermediate and deep-layer trends. This aspect is improved by the increased vertical resolution of G85 and by data assimilation in GLORYS. Salinity is the most problematic parameter because of the imbalance of the freshwater budget derived from inaccuracies in the atmospheric forcing parameters. Surface salinity restoring is needed in order to avoid salinity drift and inaccurate sea-level trends. G70, with a stronger relaxation, has a lower trend closer to altimetric measurements than G85. Mean surface circulation is well reproduced for relatively large-scale signals. We further show that G85 and GLORYS provide evidence of the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 deep convection events in the Gulf of Lion. Finally, transports through the main straits of the western Mediterranean are correct in order of magnitude, direction and seasonal cycle when compared with observations. This study contributes to the improvement of the ORCA hierarchy of simulations and points out the strengths and weaknesses of these simulations in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carolina; Moreno, Roci'o; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2007-01-01

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed

  20. Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pujo-Pay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry along an East-West transect of 3000 km across the Mediterranean Sea during summer 2008 (BOUM cruise. During this period of strong stratification, the distribution of nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and phosphorus (DOP were examined to produce a detailed spatial and vertically extended description of the elemental stoichiometry of the Mediterranean Sea. Surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the thickness of this depleted layer increased towards the East from about 10 m in the Gulf of Lion to more than 100 m in the Levantine basin, with the phosphacline deepening to a greater extent than that for corresponding nitracline and thermocline depths. We used the minimum oxygen concentration through the water column in combination with 2 fixed concentrations of dissolved oxygen to distinguish an intermediate layer (Mineralization Layer; ML from surface (Biogenic Layer; BL, and deep layers (DL. Whilst each layer was represented by different water masses, this approach allowed us to propose a schematic box-plot representation of the biogeochemical functioning of the two Mediterranean basins. Despite the increasing oligotrophic nature and the degree of P-depletion along the West to East gradient strong similarities were encountered between eastern and western ecosystems. Within the BL, the C:N:P ratios in all pools largely exceeded the Redfield ratios, but surprisingly, the nitrate vs. phosphate ratios in the ML and DL tended towards the canonical Redfield values in both basins. A change in particulate matter composition has been identified by a C increase relative to N and P along the whole water column in the western basin and between BL and ML in the eastern one. Our data showed a noticeable stability of the DOC:DON ratio (12–13 throughout the Mediterranean Sea. This is in good agreement with a P-limitation of

  1. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  2. Aerosol properties over the western Mediterranean basin: temporal and spatial variability

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lyamani; A. Valenzuela; D. Perez-Ramirez; C. Toledano; M. J. Granados-Muñoz; F. J. Olmo; L. Alados-Arboledas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of AERONET aerosol data obtained over Alborán Island (35.95° N, 3.01° W, 15 m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean from July 2011 to January 2012. Additional aerosol data from three nearest AERONET stations and the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) were also analyzed in order to investigate the aerosol temporal and spatial variations over this scarcely explored region. Aerosol load over Alborán was significantly larger than that reported for o...

  3. Local validation of MODIS sensor sea surface temperature on western Mediterranean shallow waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Durá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface temperature (SST estimated from MODIS Aqua products (daytime and nighttime 11 μm and night 4 μm has been correlated with field data taken at three depths (15, 50, 100 cm in a Western Mediterranean coastal area. The comparison has allowed us to analyze the uncertainty in the estimation of this parameter in coastal waters using low spatial resolution satellite images. The results show that the daytime SST_11 μm product obtains fittest statistical values: RMSE (root mean square error and r2 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 1°C and 0.96, respectively, for 50 cm depth.

  4. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  5. Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and

  6. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  7. Investigating SWOT's capabilities to detect meso and submesoscale eddies in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Navarro, Laura; Pascual, Ananda; Fablet, Ronan; Mason, Evan

    2017-04-01

    The primary oceanographic objective of the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimetric satellite is to characterize the mesoscale and submesoscale ocean circulation. The aim of this study is to assess the capabilities of SWOT to resolve the meso and submesoscale in the western Mediterranean. With ROMS model data as inputs for the SWOT simulator, pseudo-SWOT data were generated. These data were compared with the original ROMS model data and ADT data from present day altimetric satellites to assess the temporal and spatial resolution of SWOT in the western Mediterranean. We then addressed the removal of the satellite's noise in the pseudo-SWOT data using a Laplacian diffusion. We investigated different parameters of the filter by looking at their impact on the spatial spectra and RMSEs calculated from the simulator outputs. To further assess the satellites capabilities, we derived absolute geostrophic velocities and relative vorticity. Our numerical experiments show that the noise patterns affect the spectral content of the pseudo-SWOT fields below 30 km. The Laplacian diffusion improves the recovery of the spectral signature of the altimetric field, especially down to 20 km. With the help of this filter, we manage to observe small scale oceanic features in pseudo-SWOT data, and in its derived variables.

  8. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change. Keywords: Data reconstructions, DINEOF, Missing data, Historic Bluefin tuna captures, Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

  9. Risk zones of human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean basin: correlations between vector sand flies, bioclimatology and phytosociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispail, Philippe; Dereure, Jacques; Jarry, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  10. Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology

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    Philippe Rispail

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  11. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

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    C. Denjean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, time of transport (1–5 days and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l. than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling

  12. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

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    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  13. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

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    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  14. Finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean: Mapping its lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Liu, K.; Villasenor, A.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 3-D shear wave velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean from Rayleigh wave tomography. We analyzed the fundamental mode in the 20-167 s period band (6.0-50.0 mHz) from earthquakes recorded by a number of temporary and permanent seismograph arrays. Using the two-plane wave method, we obtained phase velocity dispersion curves that were inverted for an isotropic Vs model that extends from the southern Iberian Massif, across the Gibraltar Arc and the Atlas mountains to the Saharan Craton. The area of the western Mediterranean that we have studied has been the site of complex subduction, slab rollback, and simultaneous compression and extension during African-European convergence since the Oligocene. The shear velocity model shows high velocities beneath the Rif from 65 km depth and beneath the Granada Basin from ˜70 km depth that extend beneath the Alboran Domain to more than 250 km depth, which we interpret as a near-vertical slab dangling from beneath the western Alboran Sea. The slab appears to be attached to the crust beneath the Rif and possibly beneath the Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada where low shear velocities (3.8 km/s) are mapped to >55 km depth. The attached slab is pulling down the Gibraltar Arc crust, thickening it, and removing the continental margin lithospheric mantle beneath both Iberia and Morocco as it descends into the deeper mantle. Thin lithosphere is indicated by very low upper mantle velocities beneath the Alboran Sea, above and east of the dangling slab and beneath the Cenozoic volcanics.

  15. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. From stretching to mantle exhumation in a triangular backarc basin (Vavilov basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milia, A.; Torrente, M. M.; Tesauro, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe the mode of extension of the Vavilov, a fossil backarc basin, triangle-shaped (approximately 240. km-wide and 200. km-long), located between Sardinia margin to the west and Campania margin to the east. We combine the analysis of recent geophysical and geological data, in

  17. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-31

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic

  18. Updating temperature and salinity mean values and trends in the Western Mediterranean: The RADMED project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Yáñez, M.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Moya, F.; Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Serra, M.; Zunino, P.; Pascual, J.; Salat, J.

    2017-09-01

    The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (>2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geographical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943-2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the intermediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1.

  19. Dynamism Patterns of Western Mediterranean Cruise Ports and the Coopetition Relationships Between Major Cruise Ports

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    Esteve-Perez Jeronimo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea has seen an increase of ports hosting cruise ships during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. The increase in cruise ship presence in Mediterranean ports is associated with the dynamism of cruise traffic in recent years, with an average annual growth of 7.45% for cruise passengers worldwide during the period of 1990-2015. Cruise traffic is a maritime business that is primarily composed of two elements, maritime affairs and tourism. This article focuses on the maritime component. With the growth of the cruise industry, cruise lines have been forced to seek new ports to meet demand in an attempt to create differentiated products based on the ports that compose the itinerary. The itinerary system of cruise traffic makes the cruise ports depend on one another to design an itinerary. This feature results in both complex geographic relationships in the design of a cruise itinerary and complex competitive/cooperative relationships between ports. The aim of this article is to present the hierarchic picture of a sample of 29 cruise ports in the Western Mediterranean region during the period of 2000-2015. To achieve this goal, a port size classification is proposed and a shift-share analysis at the inter- and intra-group size level is applied. Moreover, concentration measures are used to determine the changes in the levels of market concentration. Furthermore, a dynamic model is proposed to determine the competitive or cooperative relationships between cruise ports. The proposed model is applied to the largest ports with data from the 2001-2015 period.

  20. Sea surface temperature variations in the western Mediterranean Sea over the last 20 kyr: A dual-organic proxy (U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Rampen, S.W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction of the western Mediterranean was accomplished using two independent, algae-based molecular organic proxies, i.e., the U-37(K) index based on long-chain unsaturated ketones and the novel long-chain diol index (LDI) based on the relative

  1. Tritium clouds environmental impact in air into the Western Mediterranean Basin evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.M.; Sedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers short-term releases of tritium (mainly but not only tritium hydride (HT)) to the atmosphere from a potential ITER-like fusion reactor located in the Mediterranean Basin and explores if the short range legal exposure limits are exceeded (both locally and downwind). For this, a coupled Lagrangian ECMWF/FLEXPART model has been used to follow real time releases of tritium. This tool was analyzed for nominal tritium operational conditions under selected incidental conditions to determine resultant local and Western Mediterranean effects, together with hourly observations of wind, to provide a short-range approximation of tritium cloud behavior. Since our results cannot be compared with radiological station measurements of tritium in air, we use the NORMTRI Gaussian model. We demonstrate an overestimation of the sequence of tritium concentrations in the atmosphere, close to the reactor, estimated with this model when compared with ECMWF/FLEXPART results. A Gaussian “mesoscale” qualification tool has been used to validate the ECMWF/FLEXPART for winter 2010/spring 2011 with a database of the HT plumes. It is considered that NORMTRI allows evaluation of tritium-in-air-plume patterns and its contribution to doses.

  2. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  3. Feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni (Pisces: Bythitidae in the deep western Mediterranean

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    Maite Carrassón

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni, the fifth most abundant species below 1000 m depth on the deep slope of the Catalan sea (western Mediterranean, between 1000 and 1800 m depth. Cataetyx alleni is a euryphagic predator, feeding on small epibenthic and endobenthic crustaceans and polychaetes. Predominate prey are small isopods and gammaridean amphipods and, in some cases, endobenthic and epibenthic decapods. Cataetyx alleni has bathymetric changes in diet marked by the capture of different prey-items and also by the reduction in the size of the prey with increasing depth. Seasonal fluctuations in the feeding pattern are clearly seen among the individuals of the same depths.

  4. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

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    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  5. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

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    J. Guillén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  6. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the

  7. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  8. Nanoplankton protists from the western Mediterranean Sea. II. Cryptomonads (Cryptophyceae = Crptomonadea

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    Gianfranco Novarino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an electron microscopical account of cryptomonad flagellates (Cryptophyceae = Cryptomonadea in the plankton of the western Mediterranean Sea. Bottle samples collected during the spring-summer of 1998 in the Sea of Alboran and Barcelona coastal waters contained a total of eleven photosynthetic species: Chroomonas (sensu auctorum sp., Cryptochloris sp., 3 species of Hemiselmis, 3 species of Plagioselmis including Plagioselmis nordica stat. nov/sp. nov., Rhinomonas reticulata (Lucas Novarino, Teleaulax acuta (Butcher Hill, and Teleaulax amphioxeia (Conrad Hill. Identification was based largely on cell surface features, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cells were either dispersed in the water-column or associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM. Plagioselmis prolonga was the most common species both in the water-column and in association with SPM, suggesting that it might be a key primary producer of carbon. Taxonomic keys are given based on SEM.

  9. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

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    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  10. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatially Explicit Modeling Reveals Cephalopod Distributions Match Contrasting Trophic Pathways in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

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    Patricia Puerta

    Full Text Available Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla and sea surface temperature (SST, and trophic (prey density conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents

  12. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  13. Monitoring water masses properties by Glider in Sardinia Channel during summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Slim; Iudicone, Daniele; Ghenim, Leila; Mortier, Laurent; Testor, Pierre; Tintoré, Joaquin; Olita, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. Summary In the framework of the EC funded project, PERSEUS (WP3, Subtask 3.3.1: Repeated glider sections in key channels and sub-basin) and with the support of JERICO TNA (EU-FP7), a deep water glider (up to 1000m) was deployed from the R/V Tethys in the Sardinia Channel and has carried out 3 return trips during the period spanning from the 16th of August 2014 to the 19th of September 2014. The Gilder was equipped with CTD, O2 sensors, Fluorometers (ChlA), back scattering from 470 to 880 nm and was programmed to follow a path close to SARAL satellite track #887. During this experiment, a significant dataset, as never obtained before for this area, has been collected. The innovation stands in the high spatial resolution, in the temporal repetitivity and in the number of parameters sampled simultaneously. The first step of the work will focuses on the analysis of the hydrological properties of the existing water masses in the area. 2. Frame and aim of the experiment The Sardinia Channel is a zonally oriented passage connecting the Algerian and the Tyrrhenian basins, with a sill depth of about 1900 m. In spite of the considerable amount of work achieved and accurate results obtained about the circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea, during the last 20 years, the Sardinia Channel is still one of the region where the dynamical processes and water exchanges are not clearly identified. Previous studies (Garzoli S. and C. Maillard, 1979, and Ozturgut Erdogan, 1975) pointed out the complexity of the processes in the region and the role of the bottom topography in sustaining them, and provided a first estimation of the involved fluxes. The main knowledge about the water masses crossing this region mostly concerns the AW (Atlantic Water) and the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water). Along the Algerian coast, the AW is transported mainly by the Algerian current (AC Millot, 1985) from which the anticyclonic Algerian eddies (AEs, Puillat et al., 2002; Taupier-Letage et al

  14. An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di

  15. Fertility transition and social stratification in the town of Alghero, Sardinia (1866-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Breschi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large amount of research on European fertility transition, the mechanisms of this demographic process are still poorly understood. This is particularly true in the Italian demographic experience, especially for some regions. Objective: We wish to improve the knowledge of the determinants of fertility transition in Sardinia, a region situated in the heart of the Mediterranean but paradoxically one which is the least "Mediterranean‟ region of the country. The analysis of SES differentials and their evolution over the transition process is the core purpose of this paper Methods: We use a complex individual database deriving from the combination of civil and religious sources of Alghero, a large costal town in north-western Sardinia. Our analysis is focussed on the reproductive history of Alghero marriage cohorts (1866-1905, followed through the mid-1930s. A micro-level statistical analysis is performed on legitimate births of parity 2+. Results: We find that, in the period under examination, the process of fertility decline already underway in the northern and central regions, was almost absent in Alghero. However we did prove significant socio-economic differentials in marital fertility. The "elite" group shows the first clear signs of deliberate marital fertility control. Conclusions: The results testify to a new and more conscious attitude towards birth control adopted by the elite minority, while no significant change is detectable for the rest of the population until the 1930s. This is the first research carried out at the individual level related to an urban population in Southern Italy.

  16. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  17. Living on the edge: demography of the slender-billed gull in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doñana varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doñana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doñana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding.

  18. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  19. Multi-platform operational validation of the Western Mediterranean SOCIB forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The development of science-based ocean forecasting systems at global, regional, and local scales can support a better management of the marine environment (maritime security, environmental and resources protection, maritime and commercial operations, tourism, ...). In this context, SOCIB (the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, www.socib.es) has developed an operational ocean forecasting system in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) nested in the larger scale Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-2km. WMOP aims at reproducing both the basin-scale ocean circulation and the mesoscale variability which is known to play a crucial role due to its strong interaction with the large scale circulation in this region. An operational validation system has been developed to systematically assess the model outputs at daily, monthly and seasonal time scales. Multi-platform observations are used for this validation, including satellite products (Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly), in situ measurements (from gliders, Argo floats, drifters and fixed moorings) and High-Frequency radar data. The validation procedures allow to monitor and certify the general realism of the daily production of the ocean forecasting system before its distribution to users. Additionally, different indicators (Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity, Eddy Kinetic Energy, Mixed Layer Depth, Heat Content, transports in key sections) are computed every day both at the basin-scale and in several sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion). The daily forecasts, validation diagnostics and indicators from the operational model over the last months are available at www.socib.es.

  20. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. - Highlights: • First report on several classes of emerging contaminants in the open Mediterranean Sea. • 3 pesticides, 11 PPCPs and 2 artificial sweeteners detected in the surface marine water. • Saccharin, naproxen and DEET detected at the highest concentrations. • Spatial distribution independent of distance

  1. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  2. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoo-Smith, E; Gosling, A L; Platt, D; Kardailsky, O; Prost, S; Cameron-Christie, S; Collins, C J; Boocock, J; Kurumilian, Y; Guirguis, M; Pla Orquín, R; Khalil, W; Genz, H; Abou Diwan, G; Nassar, J; Zalloua, P

    2018-01-01

    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700-400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.

  3. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A. L.; Platt, D.; Kardailsky, O.; Prost, S.; Cameron-Christie, S.; Collins, C. J.; Boocock, J.; Kurumilian, Y.; Guirguis, M.; Pla Orquín, R.; Khalil, W.; Genz, H.; Abou Diwan, G.; Nassar, J.; Zalloua, P.

    2018-01-01

    The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700–400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society. PMID:29320542

  4. Ancient mitogenomes of Phoenicians from Sardinia and Lebanon: A story of settlement, integration, and female mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Matisoo-Smith

    Full Text Available The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE and Phoenician (~700-400 BCE samples from Lebanon (n = 4 and Sardinia (n = 10 and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Hüser, Imke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Gromov, Sergey; Harder, Hartwig; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Mallik, Chinmay; Martinez, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Parchatka, Uwe; Phillips, Gavin J.; Sander, Rolf; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Stönner, Christof; Tomsche, Laura; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57' N/32° 23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy) and eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80-100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5-3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1-8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days) of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were ˜ 20 and ˜ 30-60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical

  6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Derstroff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014 in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57′ N/32° 23′ E. Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy and eastern (Turkey, Greece Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80–100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5–3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1–8 ppbv than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were  ∼  20 and  ∼  30–60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART

  7. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Sea is a highly heterogeneous and variable area, as is reflected on the wind field, the current field, and the waves, mainly in the first kilometers offshore. As a result of this variability, the wave forecast in these regions is quite complicated to perform, usually with some accuracy problems during energetic storm events. Moreover, is in these areas where most of the economic activities take part, including fisheries, sailing, tourism, coastal management and offshore renewal energy platforms. In order to introduce an indicator of the probability of occurrence of the different sea states and give more detailed information of the forecast to the end users, an ensemble wave forecast system is considered. The ensemble prediction systems have already been used in the last decades for the meteorological forecast; to deal with the uncertainties of the initial conditions and the different parametrizations used in the models, which may introduce some errors in the forecast, a bunch of different perturbed meteorological simulations are considered as possible future scenarios and compared with the deterministic forecast. In the present work, the SWAN wave model (v41.01) has been implemented for the Western Mediterranean sea, forced with wind fields produced by the deterministic Global Forecast System (GFS) and Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). The wind fields includes a deterministic forecast (also named control), between 11 and 21 ensemble members, and some intelligent member obtained from the ensemble, as the mean of all the members. Four buoys located in the study area, moored in coastal waters, have been used to validate the results. The outputs include all the time series, with a forecast horizon of 8 days and represented in spaghetti diagrams, the spread of the system and the probability at different thresholds. The main goal of this exercise is to be able to determine the degree of the uncertainty of the wave forecast, meaningful

  8. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age

  9. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  10. Population dynamics and fishery of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western Mediterranean

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    Jordi Lleonart

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus fishery based on the island of Majorca (western Mediterranean and the population dynamics of the species were studied between 1995 and 1996. Fishing effort, landings and length composition of the catches during the sampling period, as well as the historic catch data series and fleet were analysed. Virtual Population Analysis (VPA, taking as the time unit the week in 1995 and the fortnight in 1996, were also carried out. Dolphinfish is fished from August to December, with main catches in September-October, using anchored fish aggregation devices (FADs and surrounding net. The mooring areas, placed from 70 to 1200 m depth, are distributed among the boats registered for the year´s fishery. A total of 46 boats took part in this fishery in 1995 and 37 in 1996, with a catch of 128 and 52 metric tons respectively. These wide fluctuations are also shown in the annual catches of the 16year series, which ranged from 2 to more than 120 metric tons, showing a slightly increasing trend (4 tons per year. The comparison of different measures of effort (FADs, days and hours showed similar values of CPUE, although the number of FADs showed the lowest variation, with normal variances and average values not significantly different between harbours. The length composition of the catches ranged from 20 to 64 cm fork length, which corresponds to juveniles between 2 and 6 months of age. The main results of the VPA, which must be regarded in relative rather than absolute values, showed that the available population and the recruitment in 1995 are greater (around one order of magnitude than in 1996. For both years, the number of individuals declined in the course of the fishing season, while biomass increased during the first 5 weeks. The fact that the exploited fraction of the dolphinfish population is composed of 0-age class suggests that catch fluctuations might be related to environmental parameters and to the migratory

  11. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

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    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  12. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

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    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  13. Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Rispail; Jacques Dereure; Daniel Jarry

    2002-01-01

    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical dist...

  14. First record of the Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis (Actinopterygii: Callionymiformes: Callionymidae), from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, R. (Ronald); Ordines, F. (Francesc)

    2017-01-01

    The Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis Fricke, Ordines, Farias et García-Ruiz, 2016, was originally described based on four specimens from Alboran Island, Spain, south-western Mediterranean, collected in 2014 and 2015. This species was previously considered to be endemic to Alboran Island. A surprising new record of this rare species from the Balearic Islands is reported here Versión del editor

  15. Molecular and morphological identification of larval opecoelids (Digenea: Opecoelidae) parasitising prosobranch snails in a Western Mediterranean lagoon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Born-Torrijos, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 450-460 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ITS rDNA * 28S rDNA * morphology * Life-cycle * Opecoelidae * Cainocreadium labracis * Macvicaria obovata * Gibbula adansonii * Western Mediterranean Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2012

  16. Trophic interactions among grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and red lobster (Palinurus elephas) in the Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Quetglas, A. (Antoni); Reñones, O. (Olga); Goñi, R. (Raquel)

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper a first evaluation of the trophic interactions between grouper, octopus and spiny red lobster in the western Mediterranean is presented. The efficiency of octopus preying on lobsters is also estimated from trap catches. Grouper and octopus base their diet on the same major taxonomic groups and this is reflected in the values of diet overlap. Trophic diversity of grouper and octopus is also very similar. The estimation of the octopus efficiency preying on lobsters shows th...

  17. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  18. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

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    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  19. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  20. Late Glacial and Holocene gravity deposits in the Gulf of Lions deep basin, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennielou, B.; Bonnel, C.; Sultan, N.; Voisset, M.; Berné, S.; Beaudouin, C.; Guichard, F.; Melki, T.; Méar, Y.; Droz, L.

    2003-04-01

    Recent investigations in the Gulf of Lions have shown that complex gravity processes and deposits occurred in the deep basin since the last Glacial period. Besides the largest western Mediterranean turbiditic system, Petit-Rhône deep-sea fan (PRDSF), whose built-up started at the end of Pliocene, several sedimentary bodies can be distinguished: (1) The turbiditic Pyreneo-Languedocian ridge (PLR), at the outlet of the Sète canyon network, whose activity is strongly connected to the sea level and the connection of the canyons with the rivers. It surface shows long wave-length sediment waves, probably in relation with the turbiditic overspill. (2) An acoustically chaotic unit, filling the topographic low between the PRDSF and the PLR, the Lower Interlobe Unit. Possible source areas are the Sète canyon and/or the Marti Canyon. (3) An acoustically transparent unit, below the neofan, filling the same topographic low, the Western Transparent Unit, interpreted as a debris-flow. Recent sediment cores have shown that this sedimentary is composed of folded, laminated mud, both in its northern and southern fringes. (4) The Petit-Rhône neofan, a channelized turbiditic lobe resulting from the last avulsion of the Petit-Rhône turbiditic channel and composed of two units. The lower, acoustically chaotic facies unit, corresponding to an initial stage of the avulsion, similar to the HARP facies found on the Amazon fan. The upper, transparent, slightly bedded, channel-levee shaped unit, corresponding to the channelized stage of the avulsion. (5) Up to ten, Deglacial to Holocene, thin, fine sand layers, probably originating from shelf-break sand accumulations, through the Sète canyon network. (6) Giant scours, in the southern, distal part of the neofan, possibly linked to turbiditic overflow from the neo-channel, probably corresponding to channel-lobe transition zone features (Wynn et al. 2002). Recent investigations have shown no evidence of bottom current features.

  1. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  2. Nutritive value of the Range Plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, A.S.; El-Kady, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    The present study assesses the nutritive value of the range plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt to evaluate their usage as forage for domestic animals (mainly sheep and goats). Analysis of plant organs which represent the diet selected by the herbivores indicated that their mean protein content is about 1.1%. This is lower than the proper level, but it is ranked as acceptable protein content. The average digestible protein intake was about 46.4g 100kg live weight-1 day-1, which is inadequate for the protein needs of grazing animals. The amount of total digestible nutrient (TDN) was also lower than the normal requirements of the sheep. The shortfall in the forage nutrition may be attributed to the high stocking rate. If the stocking rate is about seven times lower than the present value, most of the requirements of energy and protein could be fulfilled in the range. The ratio of Ca: P was higher than the optimum, which may lead to lower utilization of both Ca and P by animals. (author)

  3. The effect of interpolation methods in temperature and salinity trends in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VARGAS-YANEZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity data in the historical record are scarce and unevenly distributed in space and time and the estimation of linear trends is sensitive to different factors. In the case of the Western Mediterranean, previous works have studied the sensitivity of these trends to the use of bathythermograph data, the averaging methods or the way in which gaps in time series are dealt with. In this work, a new factor is analysed: the effect of data interpolation. Temperature and salinity time series are generated averaging existing data over certain geographical areas and also by means of interpolation. Linear trends from both types of time series are compared. There are some differences between both estimations for some layers and geographical areas, while in other cases the results are consistent. Those results which do not depend on the use of interpolated or non-interpolated data, neither are influenced by data analysis methods can be considered as robust ones. Those results influenced by the interpolation process or the factors analysed in previous sensitivity tests are not considered as robust results.

  4. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  5. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial communities in a coastal cave: Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Busquets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of an ongoing project on the role of microbes in the biogeochemistry of Majorcan caves, the species diversity of microbial communities present in cave pools of anchialine waters in the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, western Mediterranean is investigated by a culture-dependent method. Two-hundred and forty-eight strains isolated from this characteristic cave environment of the littoral karst are identified by whole-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and phylogeneticaly by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total cell counts and species diversity of the bacterial communities decreas with the distance to the entrance of the cave and to the sea. Strains are mainly identified as members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Around 20% of the isolates are able to precipitate carbonates. Calcite is the predominant phase, growing in all the precipitates, although struvite is also found in one Pseudomonas and in one Aspergillus cultures. Differences in crystal characteristics of external shape (habit and growth are observed according to the bacterial species promoting the precipitates. Bacteria associated with multicolored ferromanganese deposits, present in several parts of the cave, are also studied and are identified as Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Nocardioides luteus. The preponderance of Pseudomonas species and the possible contribution of bacteria in calcite deposition are discussed.

  7. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  8. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.

    2004-06-01

    % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  9. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    -5, 331-351. Gorini, C., Montadert, L., Rabineau, M., (2015) New imaging of the salinity crisis: Dual Messinian lowstand megasequences recorded in the deep basin of both the eastern and western Mediterranean, Marine and Petroleum Geology (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.01.009. Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., Moulin, M., Granjeon, D., Gorini C. & Droz, L. (2015a). Sedimentary markers in the Provençal basin (Western Mediterranean): a window into deep geodynamic processes. Terra Nova, 27(2), 122-129. Leroux, E., Rabineau, M., Aslanian, D., Gorini, C., Molliex, S., Bache, F., Robin, C., Droz, L., Moulin, M., Poort, J., Rubino, J.-L. & Suc, J.P. (2016, in press). High resolution evolution of terrigenous sediment yields in the Provence Basin during the last 6 Ma: relation with climate and tectonic. Basin Research, xx, xx-xx (ID: 4759575-1545130). Moulin, M., Klingelhoefer, F., Afiladho, A., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Nouze, H., Beslier, M.-O. & Feld, A. (2015). Deep crustal structure across an young passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - I. Gulf of Lion's margin, Bull. Soc. géol. France., 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4-5,309-330. Rabineau, M., Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Bache, F., Gorini, C., Moulin, M., Molliex, S., Droz, L., Reis, T. D., Rubino, J.-L., Guillocheau, F. & Olivet, J.-L. (2014). Quantifying subsidence and isostatic readjustment using sedimentary markers (example in the Gulf of Lion). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 388, 1-14.

  10. Tourist Ports and Yachting: The Case of Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Ugolini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the situation of nautical tourism in one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean through the analysis of the marinas and the sailing habits of the boaters. After outlining the typology, characteristics and functions of the marinas in the introduction, we briefly present the quantitative-qualitative analysis methodology that was carried out through interviews to the stakeholders and subsequent processing of the original information obtained. The presentation of the results concerns the context of Italian ports and then focuses on Sardinia in terms of ports and berths. The discussion, on the other hand, is based on the original analysis of the use of Sardinian ports, the navigation mode of the boaters, including the characteristics of the boats used. In the conclusions, it is emphasized that Sardinia is at the centre of a boating area that extends to the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea, within which it represents a hub and the favourite area for the most important and rich segment of yachts. This, however, does not preclude existing structures from pursuing an improvement in the supply from the point of view of environmental compatibility, of the quality of the services offered and, above all, of a stronger connection to the tourist offer of the hinterlands. A possible development of the present study may cover other similar cases in the Mediterranean, regarding in particular the specific aspect of the degree of openness towards the boaters coming from "continental" territories.

  11. Simulation of fine organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean area during the ChArMEx 2013 summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakian, Arineh; Beekmann, Matthias; Colette, Augustin; Coll, Isabelle; Siour, Guillaume; Sciare, Jean; Marchand, Nicolas; Couvidat, Florian; Pey, Jorge; Gros, Valerie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Michoud, Vincent; Sellegri, Karine; Colomb, Aurélie; Sartelet, Karine; Langley DeWitt, Helen; Elser, Miriam; Prévot, André S. H.; Szidat, Sonke; Dulac, François

    2018-05-01

    The simulation of fine organic aerosols with CTMs (chemistry-transport models) in the western Mediterranean basin has not been studied until recently. The ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) SOP 1b (Special Observation Period 1b) intensive field campaign in summer of 2013 gathered a large and comprehensive data set of observations, allowing the study of different aspects of the Mediterranean atmosphere including the formation of organic aerosols (OAs) in 3-D models. In this study, we used the CHIMERE CTM to perform simulations for the duration of the SAFMED (Secondary Aerosol Formation in the MEDiterranean) period (July to August 2013) of this campaign. In particular, we evaluated four schemes for the simulation of OA, including the CHIMERE standard scheme, the VBS (volatility basis set) standard scheme with two parameterizations including aging of biogenic secondary OA, and a modified version of the VBS scheme which includes fragmentation and formation of nonvolatile OA. The results from these four schemes are compared to observations at two stations in the western Mediterranean basin, located on Ersa, Cap Corse (Corsica, France), and at Cap Es Pinar (Mallorca, Spain). These observations include OA mass concentration, PMF (positive matrix factorization) results of different OA fractions, and 14C observations showing the fossil or nonfossil origins of carbonaceous particles. Because of the complex orography of the Ersa site, an original method for calculating an orographic representativeness error (ORE) has been developed. It is concluded that the modified VBS scheme is close to observations in all three aspects mentioned above; the standard VBS scheme without BSOA (biogenic secondary organic aerosol) aging also has a satisfactory performance in simulating the mass concentration of OA, but not for the source origin analysis comparisons. In addition, the OA sources over the western Mediterranean basin are explored. OA shows a major biogenic

  12. Fueling Plankton Production by a Meandering Frontal Jet: A Case Study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Lafuente, Jesus; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional biophysical model was employed to illustrate the biological impacts of a meandering frontal jet, in terms of efficiency and persistency of the autotrophic frontal production, in marginal and semi-enclosed seas. We used the Alboran Sea of the Western Mediterranean as a case study. Here, a frontal jet with a width of 15–20 km, characterized by the relatively low density Atlantic water mass, flows eastward within the upper 100 m as a marked meandering current around the western and the eastern anticyclonic gyres prior to its attachment to the North African shelf/slope topography of the Algerian basin. Its inherent nonlinearity leads to the development of a strong ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation that supplies nutrients into the nutrient-starved euphotic layer and stimulates phytoplankton growth along the jet. Biological production is larger in the western part of the basin and decreases eastwards with the gradual weakening of the jet. The higher production at the subsurface levels suggests that the Alboran Sea is likely more productive than predicted by the satellite chlorophyll data. The Mediterranean water mass away from the jet and the interiors of the western and eastern anticyclonic gyres remain unproductive. PMID:25372789

  13. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  14. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  15. Sea surface temperature variability in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion) during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Martrat, Belen; Schmidt, Sabine; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Kallel, Nejib

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the multidecadal-scale variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the convection region of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) over the full past 2000 yr (Common Era) using alkenone biomarkers. Our data show colder SSTs by 1.7 °C over most of the first millennium (200-800 AD) and by 1.3 °C during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1400-1850 AD) than the 20th century mean (17.9 °C). Although on average warmer, those of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (1000-1200 AD) were lower by 1 °C. We found a mean SST warming of 2 °C/100 yr over the last century in close agreement with the 0.22 and 0.26 °C/decade values calculated for the western Mediterranean Sea from in situ and satellite data, respectively. Our results also reveal strongly fluctuating SSTs characterized by cold extremes followed by abrupt warming during the LIA. We suggest that the coldest decades of the LIA were likely caused by prevailing negative EA states and associated anticyclone blocking over the North Atlantic resulting in cold continental northeasterly winds to blow over Western Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  16. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jovanna; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Roberts, Greg C.; Marchand, Nicolas; Sartelet, Karine; Sellegri, Karine; Dulac, François; Healy, Robert M.; Wenger, John C.

    2017-06-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon), K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon), V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass). Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5) accounted for 70-90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich) and biomass burning (K-rich) particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC) and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA). This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which then

  17. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  18. A new species of Bathymedon Sars, 1892 (Amphipoda: Oedicerotidae from the western Mediterranean bathyal floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiá Jaume

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymedon longirostris sp. nov. (Amphipoda: Oedicerotidae from the western Mediterranean bathyal suprabenthos is described. It is characterised by the well-developed rostrum; the discrete lateral lobe of head; the elongation of the peduncle segment 3 of the first antenna; the very slender propodus of the second gnathopod, which attains maximum width not at the palm angle, but at about midway along the palm margin; and by the relative length of the carpus of the foregoing limb, sub-equal to propodus. The discovery of a tiny remnant of the 2nd peduncle segment of the first antenna in the new species is commented with regard to the homologation of the peduncle segments in other members of the Family. The new taxon was captured below 593 m over muddy bottoms with pteropod shells and remains of planktonic foraminiferans. It was one of the most common amphipods in the lower slope (below ~ 1000 m, whereas in the depth range comprised between 1250 and 1859 m it was the second dominant species, representing 11.4 % of the total gammarideans captured. The area studied harbours three additional congeneric species, although their populations are mainly concentrated in the upper and middle slope. Over the bottom, adult males of the new species apparently tend to occupy higher levels beyond the water-sediment interface than the rest of demographic categories. The gut content of three individuals revealed a bulk of calcified foraminiferans, a diet in consonance with their massive mandibles. Juvenile individuals were more abundant in winter, whereas adult individuals were clearly dominant in summer, thus suggesting the biological cycle of the species follows some type of periodicity.

  19. Relative importance of methylotrophic methanogenesis in sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guang-Chao; Heuer, Verena B.; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wendt, Jenny; Samarkin, Vladimir A.; Elvert, Marcus; Teske, Andreas P.; Joye, Samantha B.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Microbial production of methane is an important terminal metabolic process during organic matter degradation in marine sediments. It is generally acknowledged that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis constitute the dominant pathways of methane production; the importance of methanogenesis from methylated compounds remains poorly understood. We conducted various biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses to characterize substrate availability, rates of methanogenesis, and methanogen community composition, and further evaluated the contribution of different substrates and pathways for methane production in deltaic surface and subsurface sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Major substrates representing three methanogenic pathways, including H2, acetate, and methanol, trimethylamine (TMA), and dimethylsulfide (DMS), were detected in the pore waters and sediments, and exhibited variability over depth and between sites. In accompanying incubation experiments, methanogenesis rates from various 14C labeled substrates varied as well, suggesting that environmental factors, such as sulfate concentration and organic matter quality, could significantly influence the relative importance of individual pathway. In particular, methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis contributed to the presence of micromolar methane concentrations in the sulfate reduction zone, with methanogenesis from methanol accounting for up to 98% of the total methane production in the topmost surface sediment. In the sulfate-depleted zone, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway (67-98%), and enhanced methane production from acetate was observed in organic-rich sediment (up to 31%). Methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic communities was generally consistent with the distribution of methanogenic activity from different substrates. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of

  20. Aerosol optical properties of Western Mediterranean basin from multi-year AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Léon, Jean François; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol optical properties including the total and coarse mode aerosol extinction optical depth (AODt and AODc respectively), Angstrom exponent (AE), size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) were examined using long-term ground-based radiometric measurements at 9 sites in the Western Mediterranean: Oujda, Malaga, Barcelona, Carpentras, Rome Tor Vergata, Ersa, Ispra, Venice and Evora, during the 4-year study period (2010-2013). The South-North gradient in the fraction of AODc represents the signature of the increasing influence of coarse particles on the optical properties at southern stations. This fraction has a daily mean ranging from 48 ± 18% at the southern site Oujda and to 8 ± 8% at Ispra. The low average AE444-870 value (<0.7) at Oujda confirms the major influence of large dust particles. Conversely, the AOD at urban stations are dominated by fine mode particles. The Angstrom Exponent (AE444-870) above 1.5 in Ispra and Venice indicates an atmospheric situation corresponding to the urban pollution controlled by small particles. We have analyzed the intrinsic dust optical properties by selecting the dusty days corresponding to a total optical depth above 0.3 and a fraction of the coarse mode optical depth above 30%. For these cases, the mean AODt during dusty days was shown to be close to 0.4. During dusty days, the coarse mode fraction represents 88% of the total volume at Oudja and above 83% for all other sites. There is a weak variability in the mean coarse mode volume median radius, showing an average of 1.98 ± 0.1. A maximum in the AODc was observed in the summer of 2012, with particular high events on June 27. The forward trajectory starting at Evora on June 27 clearly indicates that all the sites were affected by such dust events in the following days.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns in the north-western Mediterranean from MERIS derived chlorophyll a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the major surface signatures of chlorophyll a in the Catalan Sea within the context of the dynamics of the north-western Mediterranean basin. Monthly composites from MERIS measurements and CHL products for Case 1 waters were analysed from June 2002 to June 2005. Composite images of variability were used to identify surface dynamics. The results showed that coastal and open sea waters were separated by a belt of low variability, a permanent oligotrophic belt that is noticeable with respect to the bloom conditions of the surrounding areas. The width of this Catalan Oligotrophic Belt (COB located along the continental slope, varied between 17 and 30 km and became blurred in the southernmost area. The chlorophyll a temporal pattern over the shelf showed an almost steady increase from September to March. A similar behaviour but with lower concentrations was observed in oceanic waters. Both temporal patterns showed a disruption during January and/or February that coincided with the well known deep water formation event in the Gulf of Lions. In 2004, the convection was weaker and the offshore temporal trend was not disrupted; however, the opposite was observed in 2005. The spatial chlorophyll a distribution of oceanic waters presented a clear north-south decreasing trend, while the coastal distribution did not show any latitudinal patterns but rather peaks in the areas enriched by river runoff. The observed seasonality was similar to the one published from SeaWiFS data and slightly different from the seasonality shown by CZCS data. Nevertheless, we did not discard the possibility that some of the observed seasonal differences could be a true temporal shift in chlorophyll a production.

  2. Impact of Western and Mediterranean Diets and Vitamin D on Muscle Fibers of Sedentary Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. Decreased serum levels of Vitamin D (VitD) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their mutual relationship were also reported. We aimed to evaluate whether different dietary profiles, containing or not VitD, may exert different effects on muscle molecular morphology. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats were fed for 10 weeks in order to detect early defects induced by different dietary regimens: regular diet (R); regular diet with vitamin D supplementation (R-DS) and regular diet with vitamin D restriction (R-DR); high-fat butter-based diets (HFB-DS and HFB-DR) with 41% energy from fat; high-fat extra-virgin olive oil-based diets (HFEVO-DS and HFEVO-DR) with 41% energy from fat. IL-1β, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and VitD-receptor (VDR) expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Muscle fiber perimeter was measured by histology and morphometric analysis. Results: The muscle fibers of the HEVO-DS rats were hypertrophic, comparable to those of the R-DS rats. An inverse correlation existed between the dietary fat content and the perimeter of the muscle fibers (p < 0.01). In the HFB-DR rats, the muscle fibers appeared hypotrophic with an increase of IL-1β and a dramatic decrease of IGF-1 expression. Conclusions: High-fat western diet could impair muscle metabolism and lay the ground for subsequent muscle damage. VitD associated with a Mediterranean diet showed trophic action on the muscle fibers. PMID:29462978

  3. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, J.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb) and radionuclide ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 ± 7 μg.cm -2 high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 μg.cm -2 ). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling 210 Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 ± 47 μg.cm -2 , 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  4. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Julibert, Alicia; Argelich, Emma; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Pons, Antoni; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-06

    Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample ( n = 380; 54% female) aged 55-80 years (men) and 60-80 years (women) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA). Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: "Western" (WDP) and "Mediterranean" (MDP) dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP's fourth quartile were classified in the second (men) and third (men and women) tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men) tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  5. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carolina [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Moreno, Roci' o [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed.

  6. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  7. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  8. Historical biogeography of the land snail Cornu aspersum: a new scenario inferred from haplotype distribution in the Western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madec Luc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its key location between the rest of the continent and Europe, research on the phylogeography of north African species remains very limited compared to European and North American taxa. The Mediterranean land mollusc Cornu aspersum (= Helix aspersa is part of the few species widely sampled in north Africa for biogeographical analysis. It then provides an excellent biological model to understand phylogeographical patterns across the Mediterranean basin, and to evaluate hypotheses of population differentiation. We investigated here the phylogeography of this land snail to reassess the evolutionary scenario we previously considered for explaining its scattered distribution in the western Mediterranean, and to help to resolve the question of the direction of its range expansion (from north Africa to Europe or vice versa. By analysing simultaneously individuals from 73 sites sampled in its putative native range, the present work provides the first broad-scale screening of mitochondrial variation (cyt b and 16S rRNA genes of C. aspersum. Results Phylogeographical structure mirrored previous patterns inferred from anatomy and nuclear data, since all haplotypes could be ascribed to a B (West or a C (East lineage. Alternative migration models tested confirmed that C. aspersum most likely spread from north Africa to Europe. In addition to Kabylia in Algeria, which would have been successively a centre of dispersal and a zone of secondary contacts, we identified an area in Galicia where genetically distinct west and east type populations would have regained contact. Conclusions Vicariant and dispersal processes are reviewed and discussed in the light of signatures left in the geographical distribution of the genetic variation. In referring to Mediterranean taxa which show similar phylogeographical patterns, we proposed a parsimonious scenario to account for the "east-west" genetic splitting and the northward expansion of the

  9. Erosion of continental margins in the Western Mediterranean due to sea-level stagnancy during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Janna; Hübscher, Christian; Betzler, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reicherter, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution multi-channel seismic data from continental slopes with minor sediment input off southwest Mallorca Island, the Bay of Oran (Algeria) and the Alboran Ridge reveal evidence that the Messinian erosional surface is terraced at an almost constant depth interval between 320 and 380 m below present-day sea level. It is proposed that these several hundred- to 2,000-m-wide terraces were eroded contemporaneously and essentially at the same depth. Present-day differences in these depths result from subsidence or uplift in the individual realms. The terraces are thought to have evolved during one or multiple periods of sea-level stagnancy in the Western Mediterranean Basin. According to several published scenarios, a single or multiple periods of relative sea-level stillstand occurred during the Messinian desiccation event, generally known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Some authors suggest that the stagnancy started during the refilling phase of the Mediterranean basins. When the rising sea level reached the height of the Sicily Sill, the water spilled over this swell into the eastern basin. The stagnancy persisted until sea level in the eastern basin caught up with the western Mediterranean water level. Other authors assigned periods of sea-level stagnancy to drawdown phases, when inflowing waters from the Atlantic kept the western sea level constant at the depth of the Sicily Sill. Our findings corroborate all those Messinian sea-level reconstructions, forwarding that a single or multiple sea-level stagnancies at the depth of the Sicily Sill lasted long enough to significantly erode the upper slope. Our data also have implications for the ongoing debate of the palaeo-depth of the Sicily Sill. Since the Mallorcan plateau experienced the least vertical movement, the observed terrace depth of 380 m there is inferred to be close to the Messinian depth of this swell.

  10. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  11. The role of vicariance vs. dispersal in shaping genetic patterns in ocellated lizard species in the western Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulo, O. S.; Pinheiro, J.; Miraldo, A.

    2008-01-01

    in the western Mediterranean as exemplified by the distribution of species and subspecies and genetic variation within the ocellated lizard group. To reassess the role of the MSC, partial sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes (cytochrome b, 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and two nuclear genes (beta......-fibrinogen and C-mos) from species of the ocellated lizard group were analysed. Three alternative hypotheses were tested: that divergence was initiated (i) by post-MSC vicariance as the basin filled, (ii) when separate populations established either side of the strait by pre-MSC overseas dispersal, and (iii...

  12. Constraints on the topographic evolution of Corsica and Sardinia from geological and geomorphic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quye-Sawyer, Jennifer; Whittaker, Alexander; Roberts, Gareth; Rood, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    The western Mediterranean Sea and its surroundings form part of a well-studied region whose geodynamic history is broadly known. However, how the topography of this area has responded to its tectonic and geodynamic influences is not fully understood. In particular, the relative importance of convergent, extensional and dynamic process is not known. Here we focus on the islands of Corsica, France, and Sardinia, Italy, which have played an important role in Alpine-Apennine system. They experienced a similar kinematic history during the Cenozoic, however their different positions on the Tethyan margin allow the relative effects of Alpine collision and rates of back-arc stretching to be compared. In particular, the two stages of back-arc extension (Liguro-Provençal basin to the west and Tyrrhenian Sea on the east) can provide information about how rollback-induced extension developed with time from the late Oligocene to the present. The two islands are historically tectonically quiescent, however they still preserve evidence of collision and subsequent extension from slab roll-back. In this study we have used a combination of geological and geomorphic techniques to provide new constraints into the vertical motions of Corsica and Sardinia. To quantify the spatial and temporal landscape evolution we have integrated stratigraphic, structural and thermochronological data and re-evaluated these alongside present-day geomorphic and geophysical observations. In addition, we have used digital elevation models to acquire 2030 fluvial longitudinal profiles for both islands. Knickpoints identified on these longitudinal profiles have been compared to geological maps to test the influence of rock strength on erosion. Our analysis reveals the presence of non-lithologically controlled knickpoints which we interpret to have been created by Miocene to Recent changes in uplift rate of the landscape. The longitudinal profiles were subsequently used in drainage inversion modelling, whose

  13. New morphological and molecular evidence confirm the presence of the Norwegian skate Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881) in the Mediterranean Sea and extend its distribution to the western basin

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ-AMARO, S.; ORDINES, F.; ÁNGEL PUERTO, M.; GARCÍA, C.; RAMON, C.; TERRASA, B.; MASSUTÍ, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study confirms the presence of the Norwegian skate Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881) in the Mediterranean Sea, by means of morphological traits and molecular markers providing the first record of this species in the Alboran Sea. Cannas et al. (2010) reported D. nidarosiensis for the first time in the Mediterranean from specimens captured in the central western basin, but Ebert & Stehmann (2013) and Stehmann et al. (2015) considered these records "likely refer to the smaller mor...

  14. Diamond vs. square mesh codend in a multi-species trawl fishery of the western Mediterranean: effects on catch composition, yield, size selectivity and discards

    OpenAIRE

    Ordines, F. (Francesc); Massutí, E. (Enric); Guijarro, B. (Beatriz); Mas, R. (Ramon)

    2006-01-01

    Selectivity studies usually describe the effects on target species, whereas information on by-catch and discards is scarce. Nevertheless, large quantities of undersized individuals and invertebrates are discarded in the Mediterranean multi-species bottom trawl fishery. The present work analyses the data from two surveys carried out on the shallow and deep continental shelf (50–78 m, and 147–189 m, respectively) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). In these surveys, the traditiona...

  15. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nieto-Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the

  16. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Moiroux, Fanny; Poulenard, Jérôme; Develle, Anne-Lise; Bichet, Adeline; Chen, Wentao; Pignol, Cécile; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Gielly, Ludovic; Bajard, Manon; Perrette, Yves; Malet, Emmanuel; Taberlet, Pierre; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called "East Return" events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  17. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  18. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive...... potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011...... to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits...

  19. Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads-lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

  20. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  1. Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot.

  2. Very large dune formation along the Ebro outer continental shelf (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Ribó, Marta; Ballesteros, Maria; Palanques, Albert; Farrán, Marcelli; Acosta, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Large and very large subaqueous dunes have been observed in a number of outer shelf regions around the world, tipically developing on fossil sand bodies and ridges. Dunes observed on outer shelves usually display large dimensions with maximum wavelength reaching up to 500 m and heights up to 20 m. Forcing mechanisms able to induce their formation have been described as strong bottom currents related to tidal variations and water masses flowing under geostrophic conditions, generally controlled and enhanced by local geomorphologic configurations. In this study, such bed features have been recognized, mapped and measured around the Columbretes Islands (Ebro continental shelf - Western Mediterranean) with the aim to reconstruct which are the potential forcing processes that could generate them in relation to the local settings of the area. Swath-bathymetry around the Columbretes Islands was collected using 30 kHz and 180 kHz Multi Beam echo-sounders for a 50-400 m water depth range. Bathymetric data revealed the presence of three main relict sand bodies along the outer shelf, for a 80-116 m depth range, above which asymmetrical, slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical large and very large 2D and 3D subaqueous dunes were observed. Dunes range from 150 to 760 m in wavelength and from tens of cm to 6 m in height. These bedforms are composed of sandy sediments, presumably coming from the degraded relict sand bodies on which they developed, mixed to the fine fractions coming from the recent draping holocenic sediments. The orientation of the dunes is SSW and progressively turns to W directions moving towards the southernmost sector of the area, following the trend of the shelf-edge. Observed dunes display a strong asymmetric profile for those occurring along the shelf-edge (Symmetry Index (SI): 2.6) and lose progressively their asymmetry towards the inner portion of the shelf (SI: 0.5), being 0.6 the minimum SI value to classify the dunes as asymmetric. The subaqueous dunes

  3. The Contribution of the Topo-Iberia Project to the Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean Geodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale research program Topo-Iberia aims to unravel the complex structure and mantle processes in the area of interaction between the African and European continental plates in the western Mediterranean. The project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, started in 2007 and will be active till Fall 2013. Topo-Iberia has gathered expertise of different fields of the Earth Sciences. One of the key assets of the project involves the deploying of a technological observatory platform, IberArray, with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This platform is currently building up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data set, stored by the SIGEOF database, which includes seismological, GPS and magnetotelluric data. Using also other analytical methodologies included in the Topo-Iberia program (potential fields, quantitative analysis of the topography, dating methods) the final scope of the project is to study the relationship between superficial and deep-rooted processes. Topo-Iberia has also benefited from the interaction with other projects investigating the same area, as the American program PICASSO, the French Pyrope or the Portuguese WILAS. This interaction includes sharing the available data to better assess the key geological questions. This contribution will present the current state of the most significant scientific results which are arising from the data acquired using the Iberarray platform. -. SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the anisotropic pattern over the area, including a clear rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. -. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif not clearly documented previously. The 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities have been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. -. Surface wave tomography using both earthquakes and ambient

  4. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY: PRELIMINARY NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ZOBOLI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy. The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae? and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.. A bird bone fragment is also reported and referred to Palaeortyx cf. brevipes (Galliformes. The assemblage can be related to the “Oschiri fauna”, one of the oldest endemic insular fauna known in the Mediterranean. The age of the Laerru vertebrates is early-middle Burdigalian, between 18.8 and 18.3 Ma, corresponding to the mammal unit of the main land MN3. The predominance of ruminants confirms the good capacity of these mammals to colonize insular environments.

  5. Biomarkers of physiological responses of Octopus vulgaris to different coastal environments in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero-Ríos, J; Sureda, A; Capó, X; Oliver-Codorniú, M; Arechavala-Lopez, P

    2018-03-01

    The increase of pollutants in coastal seawater could produce several harmful biological effects on marine organisms related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular and tissue damages through oxidative stress mechanisms. Common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) inhabiting coastal areas under high anthropogenic activity of Mallorca (W-Mediterranean Sea) have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant enzyme responses. Analyzing the digestive glands, octopuses from human-altered coastal areas showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to octopuses from non-influenced coastal waters (i.e. marine reserve area). Higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations and lack of malondialdehyde (MDA) variations also reflect adaptations of O. vulgaris to polluted areas. This is the first study assessing the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers on O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean Sea, revealing their usefulness to assess diverse environmental pollution effects on this relevant ecological and commercial species.

  6. Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Olmedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The debiased non-Bayesian retrieval mitigates the systematic errors produced by the contamination of the land over the sea. In addition, this retrieval improves the coverage by means of multiyear statistical filtering criteria. This methodology allows obtaining SMOS SSS fields in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the resulting SSS suffers from a seasonal (and other time-dependent bias. This time-dependent bias has been characterized by means of specific Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs. Finally, high resolution Sea Surface Temperature (OSTIA SST maps have been used for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the SMOS SSS maps. The presented methodology practically reduces the error of the SMOS SSS in the Mediterranean Sea by half. As a result, the SSS dynamics described by the new SMOS maps in the Algerian Basin and the Balearic Front agrees with the one described by in situ SSS, and the mesoscale structures described by SMOS in the Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lion coincide with the ones described by the high resolution remotely-sensed SST images (AVHRR.

  7. Recruiting at the Edge: Kinetic Energy Inhibits Anchovy Populations in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier; Macías, Diego; Rincón, Margarita M.; Pascual, Ananda; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Navarro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar replenishes the Mediterranean with Atlantic waters through an intense eastward current known as the Atlantic Jet (AJ). The AJ fertilizes the southwestern Mediterranean and is considered to be the ultimate factor responsible for the comparatively high fish production of this region. Here, we perform an analysis of the available historical catches and catch per unit effort (CPUE), together with a long series of surface currents, kinetic energy and chlorophyll concentration. We show that the high kinetic energy of the AJ increases primary production but also negatively impacts the recruitment of anchovy. We contend that anchovy recruitment in the region is inhibited by the advection and dispersion of larvae and post-larvae during periods of strong advection by the AJ. The inhibitory impact of kinetic energy on anchovy landings is not a transient but rather a persistent state of the system. An exceptional combination of events creates an outbreak of this species in the Alboran Sea. These events depend on the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange of water masses and, therefore, are highly sensitive to climate changes that are projected, though not always negatively, for fish landings. PMID:23451027

  8. Parasite communities in two sparid fishes from the western Mediterranean: A comparative analysis based on samples from three localities off the Algerian coast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benhamou, F.; Marzoug, D.; Boutiba, Z.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2017), s. 26-35 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Algeria * Boops boops * parasite communities * Spicara maena * western Mediterranean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2016

  9. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  10. Atmospheric mercury species measurements across the Western Mediterranean region: Behaviour and variability during a 2015 research cruise campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Esposito, Giulio; Pirrone, Nicola; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the ongoing MEDOCEANOR measurements program, an oceanographic cruise campaign was carried out during summer 2015 in the Western sector of Mediterranean Sea basin, on-board the research vessel ;Minerva Uno; of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The overall goal was to investigate the dynamic patterns of mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the main factors affecting mercury behaviour at both coastal and offshore locations. The mean concentrations of the recorded Hg species were 1.6 ± 0.5 ngm-3 , 11.8 ± 15.0 pgm-3 , and 2.4 ± 1.1 pgm-3 , respectively for GEM, GOM, and PBM. Moreover, during the measurement period typical fair-weather conditions of the Mediterranean summer were encountered with high levels of solar radiation and temperature that favoured photochemical reactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides and other meteorological parameters were in addition recorded and jointly discussed with selected mercury events in terms of their spatio-temporal variations. Changes in air pollutant concentrations were also argued in the light of their likely influencing sources, among which, anthropogenic activities, such as the mercury cell chlor-alkali complex in Tuscany, Italy, and natural influence, like volcanic ashes, detected around the Aeolian area and the in-situ production of reactive gaseous mercury within the Marine Boundary Layer.

  11. A comparison of two seabird communities on opposite coasts of the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Paracuellos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the seabird communities at two sites of the southern and northern shores of the Alborán Sea in the Western Mediterranean (Melilla and Adra respectively during a whole year. Similarities and differences in environmental characteristics of the two study sites were caused by a set of geographical, physical and socio-economic human factors. Sampling was performed weekly during two-hour periods by counting seabirds crossing a given point of the coast. We found similarities in the composition and seasonality of the species between Melilla and Adra. However, there were differences between the two sites in the number of species and individuals, which were usually higher on the southern shore. In this area, seabirds depending on marine trophic resources were more abundant, whereas on the northern shore the most abundant seabird species were those whose feeding habits were not so dependent on sea resources.

  12. Evolution of Western Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature between 1985 and 2005: a complementary study in situ, satellite and modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, C.; Lenartz, F.; Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Ouberdous, M.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    In order to evaluate the variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Western Mediterranean Sea between 1985 and 2005, an integrated approach combining geostatistical tools and modelling techniques has been set up. The objectives are: underline the capability of each tool to capture characteristic phenomena, compare and assess the quality of their outputs, infer an interannual trend from the results. Diva (Data Interpolating Variationnal Analysis, Brasseur et al. (1996) Deep-Sea Res.) was applied on a collection of in situ data gathered from various sources (World Ocean Database 2005, Hydrobase2, Coriolis and MedAtlas2), from which duplicates and suspect values were removed. This provided monthly gridded fields in the region of interest. Heterogeneous time data coverage was taken into account by computing and removing the annual trend, provided by Diva detrending tool. Heterogeneous correlation length was applied through an advection constraint. Statistical technique DINEOF (Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Alvera-Azc

  13. Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. (Teleostei: Callionymidae, a new species of dragonet from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized within the genus Protogrammus by a total of nine unbranched rays on the second dorsal fin, eight unbranched rays on the anal fin, a very small preopercular spine with an upcurved main tip and one point on the dorsal margin, which is lacking an antrorse spine at the base, the first and second spines of the first dorsal fin filamentous and much longer than the first ray of the second dorsal fin in males, the tip of the last ray of the second dorsal fin reaching beyond the caudal fin base in males, and the anal fin distally black in the males (translucent in females. A key to the species of Protogrammus is presented; the zoogeography of the species is discussed.

  14. A long Saharan dust event over the western Mediterranean: Lidar, Sun photometer observations, and regional dust modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    PéRez, C.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sicard, M.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2006-08-01

    A long Saharan dust event affected the western Mediterranean in the period 12-28 June 2002. Dust was present mainly between 1- and 5-km height affecting most parts of the Iberian Peninsula and reaching western/central Europe. Intensive backscatter lidar observations over Barcelona (Spain) and Sun photometer data from two stations (El Arenosillo, Spain, and Avignon, France) are used to evaluate different configurations the Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) system. DREAM currently operates dust forecasts over the Mediterranean region (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM/) considering four particle size bins while only the first two are relevant for long-range transport analysis since their life time is larger than 12 hours. A more detailed bin method is implemented, and two different dust distributions at sources are compared to the operational version. Evaluations are performed at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm). The dust horizontal and vertical structure simulated by DREAM shows very good qualitative agreement when compared to SeaWIFS satellite images and lidar height-time displays over Barcelona. When evaluating the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) against Sun photometer data, significant improvements are achieved with the use of the new detailed bin method. In general, the model underpredicts the AOD for increasing Ångström exponents because of the influence of anthropogenic pollution in the boundary layer. In fact, the modeled AOD is highly anticorrelated with the observed Ångström exponents. Avignon shows higher influence of small anthropogenic aerosols which explains the better results of the model at the wavelength of 1064 nm over this location. The uncertainties of backscatter lidar inversions (20-30%) are in the same order of magnitude as the differences between the model experiments. Better model results are obtained when comparing to lidar because most of the anthropogenic effect is removed.

  15. The role of lantern fish (Myctophidae) in the life-cycle of cetacean parasites from western Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Nardi, Valentina; Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Gil de Sola, Luis; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Myctophids (lantern fish) and cephalopods play a key role in trophic webs from the continental slope and oceanic waters linking the zooplankton to top predators. Many cetaceans feed on both lantern fish and cephalopods, and such prey would thus be expected to bridge the trophic gap in the life-cycles of helminths infecting cetaceans. However, information on the life-cycles of most of these helminths is extremely scanty. We examined the parasite fauna of myctophids and cephalopods in two areas from the western Mediterranean where at least 21 helminth taxa from cetaceans have been reported and both cetacean diversity and abundance is high. A total of 1012 individuals of 8 lantern fish species, namely, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Notoscopelus elongatus, Benthosema glaciale, Myctophum punctatum, Lobianchia dofleini, Diaphus holti and Hygophum benoiti, and 792 individuals of 2 cephalopod species, Alloteuthis media and Sepietta oweniana, were collected from the Gulf of Valencia and Alboran Sea (Spanish Mediterranean) during 2010-2012 and examined for larval helminths. All these species have been reported as prey for at least some cetacean species in the area. Only five helminth taxa were found. The nematodes Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis physeteris were detected in N. elongatus and C. maderensis (overall prevalence for Anisakis: 8.1% and 0.5%, respectively). Their prevalence in N. elongatus was significantly higher than that from the other three myctophid species with n>50 individuals. A single individual of Hysterothylacium sp. was found in N. elongatus (prevalence: 0.5%) and Raphidascarididae gen. spp. in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 20.3% and 0.7%, respectively). Juvenile didymozoid digeneans (Torticaecum type) were detected in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 18.5% and 4.3%, respectively). Two unidentified cestode plerocercoids were collected from N. elongatus. Our study suggests, for the first time, that myctophids

  16. Diversification of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) in the Western Mediterranean and Macaronesia--phylogenetic relationships, reticulate evolution and biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunert, Agnes; Heubl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    The flora of the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia is characterized by high levels of species diversity and endemism. We examined phylogenetic relationships of Scrophularia within one of its secondary centers of diversity located in the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent Macaronesia. In total, 65 ingroup accessions from 45 species, representing an almost complete sampling of the region, were analyzed using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the plastid trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and statistical parsimony networking. Incongruence between datasets was assessed with statistical tests and displayed by split networks. Biogeographic inferences incorporating information from both markers (despite low resolution in some parts of the trees) and all incongruent taxa were accomplished with a novel combination of methods, using trees generated with the taxon duplication approach as input for Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis as implemented in RASP. Nuclear and chloroplast markers support a clade which comprises the majority of Iberian and Macaronesian species and consists of three subclades. Analyses of the substantial incongruence observed among markers indicate reticulate evolution and suggest that Scrophularia species diversity in this region is largely attributable to hybridization; a combination of both polyploidy and dysploidy in the karyotypic evolution of Western Mediterranean Scrophularia taxa is proposed. Our results provide support for an ancient hybridization event between two widespread lineages, which resulted in an allopolyploid ancestor of the Iberian - Macaronesian group with 2n=58 chromosomes. The ancestor then diverged into the three main lineages present in the Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa and Macaronesia today. Subsequent interspecific hybridizations at different ploidy levels additionally generated new species. Presumably

  17. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106 Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137 Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 -5 ) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26 [fr

  18. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  20. Enhanced aridity and atmospheric high-pressure stability over the western Mediterranean during the North Atlantic cold events of the past 50 k.y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu Nebout, N.; Turon, J. L.; Zahn, R.; Capotondi, L.; Londeix, L.; Pahnke, K.

    2002-10-01

    Multiproxy paleoenvironmental records (pollen and planktonic isotope) from Ocean Drilling Program Site 976 (Alboran Sea) document rapid ocean and climate variations during the last glacial that follow the Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations seen in the Greenland ice core records, thus suggesting a close link of the Mediterranean climate swings with North Atlantic climates. Continental conditions rapidly oscillated through cold-arid and warm-wet conditions in the course of stadial-interstadial climate jumps. At the time of Heinrich events, i.e., maximum meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, western Mediterranean marine microflora and microfauna show rapid cooling correlated with increasing continental dryness. Enhanced aridity conceivably points to prolonged wintertime stability of atmospheric high-pressure systems over the southwestern Mediterranean in conjunction with cooling of the North Atlantic.

  1. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  2. Sediment features, macrozoobenthic assemblages and trophic relationships ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N analysis) following a dystrophic event with anoxia and sulphide development in the Santa Giusta lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment c/o IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; Rajagopal, S. [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Velde, G. van der [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Fenzi, G. [IMC - International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Kassenberg, J. [Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Vizzini, S.; Mazzola, A. [Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 18, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Giordani, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Parma, Via Usberti 33/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    Macrozoobenthic assemblages and stable carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope values of various primary producers (macroalgae and angiosperms) and consumers (macroinvertebrate filter/suspension feeders, deposit feeders, detritivores/omnivores and carnivores and fishes) were studied in the Santa Giusta lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) before (spring) and after (autumn) a dystrophic event which occurred in the summer of 2004. A few days after the dystrophy, the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments and macrozoobenthic assemblages were also investigated. In the latter occasion, high total organic carbon (3.9%) and organic matter (15.9%) contents of surface sediments went together with peaks in acid-volatile sulphide concentrations. Certain immediate effects were quite extreme, such as the drastic reduction in macrozoobenthos and the massive fish kill in August 2004. Among the macrozoobenthos, there were few individuals of chironomid larvae and Capitella cf. capitata left. However, by October, chironomid larvae were numerous, indicating a lack of predators (e.g. fish) and competitors. In addition, some bivalve species and polychaetes which were absent, or present in small numbers before the event, became relatively numerous. The results are discussed based on a knowledge of the sulphide tolerance of these species. Stable isotope analysis clearly showed that the basal level of the food web for most consumers consisted mainly of macroalgae and sedimentary organic matter, and that the values before and after the dystrophic event were not significantly different from one another. This indicates that the relations among different trophic levels were quickly restored following the dystrophic event.

  3. Sediment features, macrozoobenthic assemblages and trophic relationships (δ13C and δ15N analysis) following a dystrophic event with anoxia and sulphide development in the Santa Giusta lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, P.; Rajagopal, S.; Velde, G. van der; Fenzi, G.; Kassenberg, J.; Vizzini, S.; Mazzola, A.; Giordani, G.

    2008-01-01

    Macrozoobenthic assemblages and stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotope values of various primary producers (macroalgae and angiosperms) and consumers (macroinvertebrate filter/suspension feeders, deposit feeders, detritivores/omnivores and carnivores and fishes) were studied in the Santa Giusta lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) before (spring) and after (autumn) a dystrophic event which occurred in the summer of 2004. A few days after the dystrophy, the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments and macrozoobenthic assemblages were also investigated. In the latter occasion, high total organic carbon (3.9%) and organic matter (15.9%) contents of surface sediments went together with peaks in acid-volatile sulphide concentrations. Certain immediate effects were quite extreme, such as the drastic reduction in macrozoobenthos and the massive fish kill in August 2004. Among the macrozoobenthos, there were few individuals of chironomid larvae and Capitella cf. capitata left. However, by October, chironomid larvae were numerous, indicating a lack of predators (e.g. fish) and competitors. In addition, some bivalve species and polychaetes which were absent, or present in small numbers before the event, became relatively numerous. The results are discussed based on a knowledge of the sulphide tolerance of these species. Stable isotope analysis clearly showed that the basal level of the food web for most consumers consisted mainly of macroalgae and sedimentary organic matter, and that the values before and after the dystrophic event were not significantly different from one another. This indicates that the relations among different trophic levels were quickly restored following the dystrophic event

  4. Understanding the biogeography of a group of earthworms in the Mediterranean basin--the phylogenetic puzzle of Hormogastridae (Clitellata: Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Marta; Almodóvar, Ana; Fernández, Rosa; Giribet, Gonzalo; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2011-10-01

    Traditional earthworm taxonomy is hindered due to their anatomical simplicity and the plasticity of the characteristics often used for diagnosing species. Making phylogenetic inferences based on these characters is more than difficult. In this study we use molecular tools to unravel the phylogeny of the clitellate family Hormogastridae. The family includes species of large to mid-sized earthworms distributed almost exclusively in the western Mediterranean region where they play an important ecological role. We analyzed individuals from 46 locations spanning the Iberian Peninsula to Corsica and Sardinia, representing the four described genera in the family and 20 species. Molecular markers include mitochondrial regions of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI), 16S rRNA and tRNAs for Leu, Ala, and Ser, two nuclear ribosomal genes (nearly complete 18S rRNA and a fragment of 28S rRNA) and two nuclear protein-encoding genes (histones H3 and H4). Analyses of the data using different approaches corroborates monophyly of Hormogastridae, but the genus Hormogaster is paraphyletic and Hormogaster pretiosa appears polyphyletic, stressing the need for taxonomic revisionary work in the family. The genus Vignysa could represent an early offshoot in the family, although the relationships with other genera are uncertain. The genus Hemigastrodrilus is related to the Hormogaster elisae complex and both are found in the Atlantic drainage of the Iberian Peninsula and France. From a biogeographic perspective Corsica and Sardinia include members of two separate hormogastrid lineages. The species located in Corsica and Northern Sardinia are related to Vignysa, whereas Hormogaster pretiosa pretiosa, from Southern Sardinia, is closely related to the Hormogaster species from the NE Iberian Peninsula. A molecular dating of the tree using the separation of the Sardinian microplate as a calibration point (at 33 MY) and assuming a model of vicariance indicates that the diversification of

  5. Harvest Strategies for an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in Western Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Quetglas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The serious overfishing of most Mediterranean stocks demands urgent reforms of the management measures aiming to guarantee the sustainability of resources, notably when compared with the improvement observed in other European areas. The new EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP constitutes an excellent opportunity to introduce the changes needed for such a reform. According to this CFP, all European fish stocks should be brought to a state where they can produce at MSY by 2020 at the latest. The CFP also establishes that the objective of sustainable exploitation should be achieved through multiannual plans (MAPs adopted in consultation with relevant stakeholders having fisheries management interests such as fishermen, non-governmental organizations, and policy makers. Together with the MSY and MAP approaches, the new CFP contains several other measures, directed to guarantee the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of fisheries by means of the implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM. With this new perspective, the CFP wants to avoid past failures of fisheries management based on monospecific approaches. This study is a first step toward the application of the EAFM in the Balearic Islands by means of the development of a harvest strategy with defined objectives, targets, limits, and clear management control rules aimed at optimizing socioeconomic and ecological objectives in the framework of the new CFP. Different management scenarios designed to achieve that goal were modeled for the main demersal commercial fisheries from the study area, the bottom trawl, and small-scale fisheries. The work begins with a general description of those fisheries, their main fishing grounds, and assessments of the exploitation status of the main target stocks in order to establish the current situation. Secondly, alternative management scenarios to maximize catch and profits while considering societal objectives were evaluated by

  6. Low adherence to the western and high adherence to the mediterranean dietary patterns could prevent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Amiano, Pilar; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Martín, Vicente; Alonso, Maria Henar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Guevara, Marcela; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristobal; Huerta, Jose María; Capelo, Rocío; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Urtiaga, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Moreno, Víctor; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina

    2018-03-26

    To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC). MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models. While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)]. Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.

  7. Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Babar, Zaheer-Ud- Din; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-12-28

    Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®. Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19. There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of

  8. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  9. Factors affecting dispersion of radionuclides in north western coast of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the principal factors affecting the interaction of 137Cs, 60Co and 89Sr with coastal sediments and their importance for migration of these ions in surface water. The second goal is to assess the acceptability of radiological consequences of proposed routine discharges of nuclear installations for radioactive materials into surface water as well as to confirm the suitability of the site to select and to establish limits for radioactive discharge into water. Uptake of the investigated ions by Mediterranean Sea bottom sediment samples have been studied as a function of liquid to solid ratio (V/m and contact time using batch technique. The suspended sediment concentration, different discharge rates of radionuclides and the distance between the source point in the sea and the beach were investigated. The obtained results show that Kd of Cs+, Co2+ and Sr2+is 20, 32 and 10 l/g, respectively. The lowest effective dose is for 89Sr, while the highest effective dose is for 137Cs, at the same distances. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated isotopes in surface water was constructed to predict the concentration of these ions for both different distances and time periods.

  10. Molecular Indicators of the Supply of Marine and Terrigenous Organic Matter to a Pleistocene Organic-Matter–Rich Layer in the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rinna, J.; Hauschildt, M.; Rullkötter, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic matter in sediment series across two organic-matter–rich layers from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 977A drilled in the Alboran Basin of the Western Mediterranean Sea has been characterized by organic geochemical methods. Organic carbon contents reached more than 2% in the organic-matter–rich layer and was ~1% in the background sediment under and overlying it. Molecular compositions of the extractable bitumens in the organic-matter–rich layer for a wide range of compound ...

  11. Parasite communities in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L., respond to small-scale variation in the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Montero, F. E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2012), s. 1853-1860 ISSN 0025-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mullus barbatus * Parasite communities * Abundance * Similarity * Western Mediterranean * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1200269X#

  12. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Amores, Ángel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2013-01-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (. Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assum...

  13. Pockets, conduits, channels, and plumes: links to volcanism and orogeny in the rollback dominated western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; O'Driscoll, Leland; Becker, Thorsten W.; Holt, Adam; Diaz, Jordi; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Detailed mantle and lithospheric structure from the Canary Islands to Iberia have been imaged with data from recent temporary deployments and select permanent stations from over 300 broadband seismometers. The stations extended across Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO, IberArray, and Morocco-Münster experiments. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean, including orogenesis of the Atlas Mountains and occurrence of localized alkaline volcanism. Our receiver function images, in agreement with previous geophysical modeling, show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~100 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains. We find that these dramatic changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations of seismic anisotropy. Pockets and conduits of low seismic velocity material below the lithosphere extend along much of the Atlas to Southern Spain and correlate with the locations of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the USC linear seismic array across the Atlas Mountains constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of one localized, low velocity conduit that extends from the uppermost mantle (~200 km depth) up to the volcanoes in the Middle Atlas. The shape, position and temperature of these seismically imaged low velocity anomalies, topography of the base of the lithosphere, morphology of the subducted slab beneath the Alboran Sea, position of the West African Craton and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains and isolated recent volcanics are due to active mantle support that may be from material channeled from the Canary Island plume.

  14. Beach impacts of shore-parallel breakwaters backing offshore submerged ridges, Western Mediterranean Coast of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Moheb M; Frihy, Omran E; El Ansary, Ahmed E; El Mooty, Mohamed M Abd; Nagy, Hossam M

    2007-12-01

    Seven breakwaters were constructed behind offshore submerged ridges to create a safe area for swimming and recreational activities west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Morphodynamic evaluation was based on the modified Perlin and Dean numerical model (ImSedTran-2D) combined with successive shoreline and beach profile surveys conducted periodically between April 2001 and May 2005. Results reveal insignificant morphologic changes behind the detached breakwaters with slight coastline changes at the down and up-drift beaches of the examined breakwaters (+/-10 m). These changes are associated with salient accretion (20-7 0m) in the low-energy leeside of such structures. Concurrent with this sand accretion is the accumulation of a large amount of benthic algae (Sargassum) in the coastal water of the shadow area of these structures, which in turn have adverse effects on swimmers. Practical measures proposed in this study have successfully helped in mitigating such accumulation of algae in the recreation leeside of the breakwaters. The accumulation of Sargassum, together with the virtual insignificant changes in the up-drift and down-drifts of these structures, is a direct response to both coastal processes and the submerged carbonate ridges. Coastal processes encompass reversal of the directions of long-shore sand transport versus shoreline orientation, the small littoral drift rate and sand deficiency of the littoral zone. The beach response to the breakwaters together with the submerged ridges has also been confirmed by applying the ImSedTran-2D model. Results indicate that submerged ridges play a principal role in the evolution of beach morphology along the west coast of Alexandria. Although the study area is exposed to more than 70% wave exposures, the morphodynamic behavior of the beaches indicates that the submerged ridges act in a similar way as an additional natural barrier together with the artificial detached structures.

  15. Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western and central Mediterranean

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    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on the sexual development, maturity and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 in the Mediterranean area, with special reference to the Balearic islands and Sicily. Professional fishing, carried out from August to December 1996, uses FADs (Fish Attracting Devices and surrounding nets. 2087 juvenile specimens of dolphinfish from the Ionian and southern Tyrrhenian seas, the Strait of Sicily and the Balearic islands were sampled. A small number of adult fish (39, which are not usually caught in surrounding nets, was sampled in the swordfish long-line by-catch. The gonads of the young fish were analysed monthly to establish the stage of development of the ovaries or testes, during the first few months of life. The gonads of the adult fish, sampled in the months of June-September only, were all mature. The specimens caught between October and December presented maturity stage V in the case of the females and I in the case of the males, indicating the end of the reproductive period. The gonado-somatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were calculated for both genders. The trend of the GSI confirms the presence of immature specimens as regards the juvenile fish; the low value of GSI was obtained for the adults, probably associated with the post-reproduction conditions found in the October-December period. Most of the gonads sampled during the months between August and December belonged to young specimens born in early summer. This is confirmed by the juvenile stages (FL 2.5 to 4.3 cm caught with plankton nets in the Strait of Messina area in July.

  16. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  17. Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba Nunes, Victor Hugo; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Cruz, Paula Borba; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; de Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A constrained African craton source for the Cenozoic Numidian Flysch: Implications for the palaeogeography of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. F. H.; Bodin, S.; Redfern, J.; Irving, D. H. B.

    2010-07-01

    The provenance of the Numidian Flysch in the western Mediterranean remains a controversial subject which hinders understanding of this regionally widespread depositional system. The Numidian Flysch is a deep marine formation dated as Oligocene to Miocene which outcrops throughout the Maghreb and into Italy. Evidence that is widely used for provenance analysis has not previously been reviewed within the context of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin as a whole. The structural location within the Alpine belt indicates deposition proximal to the African margin, while the uniformity of the Numidian Flysch petrofacies suggests a single cratonic source, in stark contrast to heterolithic and immature flysch formations from the north of the basin. Detrital zircon ages constrain a source region with Pan-African and Eburnian age rocks, unaffected by either Hercynian or Alpine tectonic events, which precludes the European basement blocks to the north of the basin. Palaeocurrent trends which suggest a northern source are unreliable given foreland basin analogues and observed structural complications. An African craton source remains the only viable option once these data are reviewed in their entirety, and the Numidian Flysch therefore represents a major Cenozoic drainage system on the North African margin. Deposition is concurrent with regional Atlas uplift phases, and coincidental with globally cooling climates and high sea levels. The Numidian Flysch is therefore interpreted to represent a highstand passive margin deposit, with timing of deposition controlled primarily by hinterland uplift and climatic fluctuations.

  19. Molecular survey and microscopic examination of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in lacertid lizards from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P M C; Perera, Ana; Harris, D James

    2012-12-01

    The genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) is composed of intracellular haemogregarine parasites that are widely distributed among all tetrapod groups. The present study combines microscopic and molecular data on haemogregarine parasites from lizards in the western Mediterranean. We screened tissue samples and examined blood smears for the presence of species of Hepatozoon from four lizards, namely Algyroides marchi Valverde, endemic to Southeast Spain, Podarcis bocagei Seoane from Spain and Portugal, P hispanica Steindachner from Spain, and P lilfordi Günther from Cabrera, Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon parasites vary between and within lizard species from different regions. Algyroides marchi and P bocagei from Spain had the lowest values, whereas P hispanica had the highest. Phylogeny based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicates that most of the new Hepatozoon sequences are part of a clade exclusive from North African and Iberian lizards, except for a single P bocagei isolate that is found related to another clade including isolates from other reptile host species and rodents. Interestingly, isolates from Algyroides form a distinct monophyletic subgroup, which could be a signal of strict host-specificity within this host genus.

  20. The role of basement inheritance faults in the recent fracture system of the inner shelf around Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-González, A.; Bárcenas, P.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-Del-Río, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fractures associated with volcanic rock outcrops on the inner shelf of Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean, were mapped on the basis of a side-scan sonar mosaic. Absolute maximum fracture orientation frequency is NW SE to NNW SSE, with several sub-maxima oriented NNE SSW, NE SW and ENE WSW. The origin of the main fracture systems in Neogene and Quaternary rocks of the Alboran Basin (south Spain) appears to be controlled by older structures, namely NE SW and WNW ESE to NW SE faults which cross-cut the basement. These faults, pre-Tortonian in origin, have been reactivated since the early Neogene in the form of strike-slip and extensional movements linked to the recent stress field in this area. Fracture analysis of volcanic outcrops on the inner continental shelf of Alboran Island suggests that the shelf has been deformed into a narrow shear zone limited by two NE SW-trending, sub-parallel high-angle faults, the main orientation and density of which have been influenced by previous WNW ESE to NW SE basement fractures.

  1. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for the environmental impact of a land-based fish farm in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Isotopic examination (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. Aquaculture waste entered the food web, altering the natural isotopic composition of organic matter sources at the base and the upper trophic levels. Nitrogen-rich fish waste mainly affected δ 15 N values, while δ 13 C showed less alteration. Waste seemed to disperse widely enough to affect the isotopic composition at the study site about 500 m from the outfall, while sites at 1 and 2 km from the outfall showed values that were similar to each other and different from those of the impacted site. The impact was detected at different ecosystem levels, although primary producers were more affected by fish farm waste taking up aquaculture-derived nutrients

  3. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of ichthyophagous bird assemblage around western Mediterranean open-sea cage fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, Felipe; Eguía-Martínez, Sergio; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; García-García, Benjamín

    2018-06-14

    Ichthyophagous birds aggregate at cage fish farms attracted by caged and associated wild fish. Spatio-temporal variability of such birds was studied for a year through seasonal visual counts at eight farms in the western Mediterranean. Correlation with farm and location descriptors was assessed. Considerable spatio-temporal variability in fish-eating bird density and assemblage structure was observed among farms and seasons. Bird density increased from autumn to winter, with the great cormorant being the most abundant species, also accounting largely for differences among farms. Grey heron and little egret were also numerous at certain farms during the coldest seasons. Cattle egret was only observed at one farm. No shags were observed during winter. During spring and summer, bird density decreased markedly and only shags and little egrets were observed at only a few farms. Season and distance from farms to bird breeding/wintering grounds helped to explain some of the spatio-temporal variability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  6. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  7. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Peñas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  8. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  9. New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  10. Concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above a Mediterranean macchia ecosystem in western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Davison

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Emission rates and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs were measured at a Mediterranean coastal site at Castelporziano, approximately 25 km south-west of Rome, between 7 May and 3 June 2007, as part of the ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Concentrations and emission rates were measured using the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC method utilizing three different proton transfer reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS so allowing a comparison between the instruments. The high resolution data from the PTR-MS instruments considerably enhances the original BEMA measurements of the mid 1990s.

    Depending on the measurement period, the volume mixing ratios were in the range 1.6–3.5 ppbv for methanol, 0.44–1.3 ppbv for acetaldehyde, 0.96–2.1 ppbv for acetone, 0.10–0.14 ppbv for isoprene, and 0.13–0.30 ppbv for monoterpenes. A diurnal cycle in mixing ratios was apparent with daytime maxima for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and isoprene. The fluxes ranged from 370–440 μg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 180–360 μg m−2 h−1 for acetaldehyde, 180–450 μg m−2 h−1 for acetone, 71–290 μg m−2 h−1 for isoprene, and 240–860 μg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes. From the measured flux data (7 May–3 June an average basal emission rate for the Macchia vegetation was calculated of 430 μg m−2 h−1 for isoprene and 1100 μg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes.

  11. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    exploiting the subsoil thermal inertia to store thermal energy in summer and recover it in winter by the geoexchange. In fact the widespread Variscan granites of the batholith, cropping in the northeastern side have very good thermal conductivity values (in the range of 2,5 and 3,5 [W/(mK)]) and the volcanic rocks mostly occurring in the northwestern side show good values (>2 [W/(mK)]). Besides the rock thermal conductivity, occurrence of aquifers can improve the thermal geo-exchange due to the formation of convective cells. The field surveys and lab characterization of the different rocks collected in north Sardinia evidenced the suitability of its north western side for many uses typical of low enthalpy water (teleheating, greenhouse, SPA etc.) Furthermore, taking into account the thermal favorable thermal conductivity values of granites outcropping in the north east, good results can be attained by borehole-heat-exchangers.

  12. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion

  13. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  14. A comparison of medicinal plant use in Sardinia and Sicily-De Materia Medica revisited?

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    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura; Sanna, Francesca; Bonsignore, Leonardo

    2009-01-21

    Written records of oral medical traditions have had significant impact on the development of medicine and the pharmacopoeias. Modern ethnobotanical studies in Europe and the Mediterranean region, however, have so far largely overlooked the richness and accuracy of historic sources and ignored their probable influence on the development of today's local traditional medicines. Here, we explore the common fundament of traditional knowledge for the medicinal plant uses in Sardinia and Sicily by comparing the selection of medicinal species and specific uses with those of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. We use (i) a quantification of citations for medicinal species mentioned in ethnobotanical studies conducted in Sardinia and Sicily (ii) a comparison of the flora and medicinal flora with a chi(2)-test (iii) a binomial approach recently introduced into ethnobotany (iv) a comparison of the most frequently used species with the indications cited in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (v) and a crosscheck of all mentioned species with their appearance in Berendes' translation of De Materia Medica. We identified a core group of 170 medicinal species used on either islands, which accumulate 74% of all citations and are best represented in De Materia Medica. The 15 most frequently used species of both islands demonstrate intriguing parallels for indications with Dioscorides' work. The ethnopharmacopoeia of Sicily and Sardinia are shallow stereotypes of the different editions of De Materia Medica and talking of oral tradition in this respect is a contradiction. The medicinal species of Sardinia and Sicily are largely widespread and common species, including many weeds, which are not facing threat of extinction. Therefore, using traditional medicinal practices as an argument for conservation biology or vice versa is not scientifically sound.

  15. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  16. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

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    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  17. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. LiDAR-guided Archaeological Survey of a Mediterranean Landscape: Lessons from the Ancient Greek Polis of Kolophon (Ionia, Western Anatolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Benedikt; Draganits, Erich; Gretscher, Martin; Muss, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, an airborne laser scan survey was conducted in the territory of the Ionian city of Kolophon near the western coast of modern Turkey as part of an archaeological survey project carried out by the Mimar Sinan University of Istanbul (Turkey) and the University of Vienna (Austria). Several light detection and ranging (LiDAR) studies have been carried out in the temperate climate zones of Europe, but only a few in Mediterranean landscapes. Our study is based on the first LiDAR survey carried out for an archaeological purpose in Turkey and one of the first in the Mediterranean that have been planned, measured and filtered especially for archaeological research questions. The interpretation of LiDAR data combined with ground-observations proved extremely useful for the detection and documentation of archaeological remains below Mediterranean evergreen vegetation and dense maquis. This article deals with the methodological aspects of interpreting LiDAR data, using the Kolophon data as a case study. We offer a discussion of the strengths and limitations of LiDAR as an archaeological remote sensing method and suggest a best practice model for interpreting LiDAR data in a Mediterranean context. © 2017 The Authors. Archaeological Prospection published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

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    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  20. Population Structure and Growth of the Threatened Pen Shell, Pinna rudis (Linnaeus, 1758 in a Western Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

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    E. NEBOT COLOMER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are being extensively degraded by human activities. Benthic, slow-growing and long-lived species are highly vulnerable to these impacts. Marine protected areas might avoid biodiversity losses through habitat protection. The pen shell Pinna rudis is a protected species, but scarce data are available on its ecology and biology. The present study is a comprehensive ecological study encompassing several unknown aspects of the growth and inner record in relation to habitat types, density and size distribution. A total of 418 strip transects were conducted by scuba diving in the Marine Protected Area of Cabrera National Park (39.14° N, 2.96° E, during the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Sampling was conducted across different habitats and depths exploring 152,146.35 m2 in total. Densities varied spatially within the park (from 0 to 6.89 ind./100 m2 corresponding to a wide range of sizes and ages. Most pen shells were patchily distributed and mainly concentrated in caves. Two hotspots with high densities represent the highest densities ever recorded worldwide, showing a possible link to high larval accumulation and settlement. The population size structure showed a unimodal distribution with shell width ranging from 6.2 to 25.0 cm, with an average shell width of 16.0 ± 3.4 cm. The absolute growth was asymptotic, with a maximum age and length of 28-31 years and 45 cm, respectively. This study on the biology and ecology of a well-established population of Pinna rudis in the Western Mediterranean could set a baseline for the conservation of this species in other areas.

  1. Depth-related trends in morphological and functional diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marc; Tuset, Víctor M.; Cartes, Joan E.; Massutí, Enric; Lombarte, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The morphological and functional traits of fishes are key factors defining the ecological and biological habits of species within ecosystems. However, little is known about how the depth gradient affects these factors. In the present study, several demersal fish assemblages from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea) along a wide depth range (40-2200 m) were morphologically, functionally and ecologically described. The morphological characterization of communities was performed using geometric morphometric methods, while the functional structures were obtained by the functional categorization of species and the application of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The results revealed that morphospaces presented less richness of body forms as depth increases, although they showed a progressive spreading of species toward the periphery, with a proliferation of more extreme body traits, demonstrating lower morphological redundancy. In addition, a trend toward the elongation of body shape was also observed with depth. Moreover, functional diversity increased with bathymetry up to 1400 m, where it sharply decreased downwards. This decrease was parallel to a progressive fall of H‧ (ecological diversity) up to 2200 m. Functional redundancy progressively decreased until the deepest assemblage (more constantly in the deeper levels), which was almost exclusively dominated by benthopelagic wandering species feeding on suprabenthos. Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that both morphological and functional spaces showed high variation along the bathymetric range. Mantel test indicated that the majority of species presented similar spatial distribution within the morphospace and functional space, although in the functional space the more abundant species were always located at the periphery. These results demonstrate that the assessment of the morpho-functional variation between marine communities helps to understand the processes that affect the structure and

  2. Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-02-01

    The trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna were analyzed in the Gulf of Castellammare (North-western Sicily, Italy) at depths ranging between 40 and 80 m. Variations in species abundance and biomass together with changes in nitrogen and carbon stable isotope composition were explored at a seasonal scale, from November 2004 to June 2005. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass and abundance from late winter to summer, while minimum values were found in autumn. The highest abundances of mysids and copepods occurred in March, 1 month after the peak of primary production. Amphipod abundance was higher in summer, likely due to a relative increase in organic matter in the sediments. Statistical analysis provided evidence for separation of sample abundances as a function of season. The best match between suprabenthos abundance and environmental variables was found with Chlorophyll a recorded 3 months before the sampling. Stable isotope analyses suggest a relatively complex food web in the Gulf of Castellammare with several potential food sources. Some suprabenthic species (i.e. mysids and copepods) exhibited depleted values of δ13C, indicating a planktonic source of nutrition. Cumaceans and amphipods displayed more enriched δ13C values, pointing to more detritivorous behaviour. A third group with intermediate δ13C values comprised species with a mixed diet (e.g. Ampelisca spp., Apherusa vexatrix and Harpinia spp.). Assuming a 15N-enrichment of ca. 2.54‰ between consumers and their diet, at least two trophic levels can be distinctly identified: (1) filter feeders/grazers (mysids, copepods), suspension/deposit feeders ( Ampelisca spp., A. vexatrix, small Goneplax rhomboides) and omnivores, alternatively feeding on detritus and small invertebrates such as meiobenthos (the cumacean Leucon mediterraneus or the amphipod Westwoodilla rectirostris); (2) carnivores on small crustaceans and zooplankton (the amphipod Harpinia spp., the gobiid fish Lesuerigobius suerii and the decapod

  3. First record and evidence of an established population of the North American mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Brachyura: Heterotremata: Panopeidae in the western Mediterranean

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    Christoph D. Schubart

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The panopeid crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Smith, 1869 is reported here from the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Originally endemic to the Atlantic coast of North America, D. sayiz was involuntarily introduced into Britain, France and the Netherlands, and into the Adriatic and Black Sea within the last thirty years. Here we provide the first record of this species from the western Mediterranean Sea. Occurrences of ovigerous females at different localities of the delta and in different years provide evidence that the population is well established. Mitochondrial DNA confirms the identity of the species and indicates that the introduced population consists of at least three female lineages. The first zoeal stage of D. sayi was obtained in the laboratory from an ovigerous female captured in August 2010 with embryos in an advanced stage of development. The morphology of the zoea I is described here in detail and is similar to the one previously reported for native populations.

  4. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

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    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  5. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  6. Near field earthquake sources scenarios and related tsunamis on the French-Italian Riviera (Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Ioualalen, Mansour; Scotti, Oona

    2014-05-01

    The large system of thrust faults recently evidenced at the foot of the northern Ligurian margin accommodates the inversion of this ancient passive margin since at least 5 Ma (Messinian times). At depth, these faults are certainly connected to a major northward dipping thrust that accounts for the major part of the seismicity in the northern Ligurian Sea. The deformations of the Quaternary sediments along the faults attest to a compressive tectonic regime consistent with the focal mechanisms of earthquakes. The major event in the area (the Ligurian earthquake, 1887/02/23, Mw 6.7-6.9 and the related tsunami) could result from the activation of part of the Ligurian thrust. Starting from the Ligurian earthquake source characteristics (strike: N55°E, dip: 16°N, length: 35 km, width: 17 km, co-seismic slip: 1.5 m, focal depth: 15 km, Mw 6.9), we have built an exhaustive set of earthquake scenarios involving the 80 km long Ligurian thrust. (1) Two of these earthquake scenarios ruptured respectively the eastern (offshore Imperia) and western (offshore Nice) part of the Ligurian thrust. (2) As these scenarios must scan the range of potential events in accordance with the geology, a second group of scenarios tests an 80 km long rupture of the entire Ligurian thrust with different strikes (N55°E and N70°E) and different widths of the faulting surface (17 km and 27 km) and then co-seismic slips of 2 m and 3.3 m, respectively. As the Ligurian coast is a densely populated and industrial area, the vulnerability is high. We want to stress here that we are more concerned with tsunamis triggered by local earthquakes. This is because, considering their arrival times (a few minutes), the risk prevention cannot be handled by existing tsunami warning system. For all scenarios we evaluate the tsunami coastal impact. The spatial distribution of the maximum wave height (MWH) is provided with a tentative identification of the processes that are responsible for it. The predictions

  7. Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales

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    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-11-01

    Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

  8. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

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    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  9. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  10. Schmidtea mediterranea phylogeography: an old species surviving on a few Mediterranean islands?

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    Pala Maria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schmidtea mediterranea (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola is found in scattered localities on a few islands and in coastal areas of the western Mediterranean. Although S. mediterranea is the object of many regeneration studies, little is known about its evolutionary history. Its present distribution has been proposed to stem from the fragmentation and migration of the Corsica-Sardinia microplate during the formation of the western Mediterranean basin, which implies an ancient origin for the species. To test this hypothesis, we obtained a large number of samples from across its distribution area. Using known and new molecular markers and, for the first time in planarians, a molecular clock, we analysed the genetic variability and demographic parameters within the species and between its sexual and asexual populations to estimate when they diverged. Results A total of 2 kb from three markers (COI, CYB and a nuclear intron N13 was amplified from ~200 specimens. Molecular data clustered the studied populations into three groups that correspond to the west, central and southeastern geographical locations of the current distribution of S. mediterranea. Mitochondrial genes show low haplotype and nucleotide diversity within populations but demonstrate higher values when all individuals are considered. The nuclear marker shows higher values of genetic diversity than the mitochondrial genes at the population level, but asexual populations present lower variability than the sexual ones. Neutrality tests are significant for some populations. Phylogenetic and dating analyses show the three groups to be monophyletic, with the west group being the basal group. The time when the diversification of the species occurred is between ~20 and ~4 mya, although the asexual nature of the western populations could have affected the dating analyses. Conclusions S. mediterranea is an old species that is sparsely distributed in a harsh habitat

  11. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

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    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  13. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  14. Effects of fishing on parasitism in a sparid fish: Contrasts between two areas of the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marzoug, D.; Boutiba, Z.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 414-420 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Parasite communities * Fishing * Boops boops * Mediterranean * Santa Pola Bay * Gulf of Oran * Richness * Abundance Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2012

  15. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  16. Impact of aerosol particle sources on optical properties in urban, regional and remote areas in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemí; Ripoll, Anna; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Further research is needed to reduce the existing uncertainties on the effect that specific aerosol particle sources have on light extinction and consequently on climate. This study presents a new approach that aims to quantify the mass scattering and absorption efficiencies (MSEs and MAEs) of different aerosol sources at urban (Barcelona - BCN), regional (Montseny - MSY) and remote (Montsec - MSA) background sites in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean. An analysis of source apportionment to the measured multi-wavelength light scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients was performed by means of a multilinear regression (MLR) model for the periods 2009-2014, 2010-2014 and 2011-2014 at BCN, MSY and MSA respectively. The source contributions to PM10 mass concentration, identified by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were used as dependent variables in the MLR model. With this approach we addressed both the effect that aerosol sources have on air quality and their potential effect on light extinction through the determination of their MSEs and MAEs. An advantage of the presented approach is that the calculated MSEs and MAEs take into account the internal mixing of atmospheric particles. Seven aerosol sources were identified at MSA and MSY, and eight sources at BCN. Mineral, aged marine, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and V-Ni bearing sources were common at the three sites. Traffic, industrial/metallurgy and road dust resuspension sources were isolated at BCN, whereas mixed industrial/traffic and aged organics sources were identified at MSY and MSA. The highest MSEs were observed for secondary sulfate (4.5 and 10.7 m2 g-1, at MSY and MSA), secondary nitrate (8.8 and 7.8 m2 g-1) and V-Ni bearing source (8 and 3.5 m2 g-1). These sources dominated the scattering throughout the year with marked seasonal trends. The V-Ni bearing source, originating mainly from shipping in the area under study, simultaneously contributed to both

  17. Modeling the dispersal of Levantine Intermediate Water and its role in Mediterranean deep water formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peili; Haines, Keith

    1996-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the deep water formation process in the Mediterranean using the modular ocean general circulation model at 0.25° resolution, 19 vertical levels, over the entire Mediterranean with an open Gibraltar strait. LIW formation is strongly prescribed in the Rhodes Gyre region by Haney [1971] relaxation, while in other regions, surface salinity relaxation is much reduced by applying the `mixed' thermohaline surface boundary conditions. Isopycnal diagnostics are used to trace water mass movements, and volume fluxes are monitored at straits. Low viscosity and diffusion are used to permit baroclinic eddies to play a role in water mass dispersal. The overall water budget is measured by an average flux at Gibraltar of 0.8 Sv, of which 0.7 Sv is exchanged with the eastern basin at Sicily. LIW (density around 28.95) spreads rapidly after formation throughout the entire Levantine due to baroclinic eddies. Toward the west, LIW accumulates in the northern and central Ionian, with some entering the Adriatic through Otranto and some mixing southward in eddies and exiting to the western Mediterranean through Sicily. LIW is converted to deep water in the south Adriatic at an average rate of 0.4 Sv. Water exchange through the Otranto strait appears to be buoyancy driven, with a strong bias to the end of winter (March-April), while at Sicily the exchange has a strong symmetric seasonal cycle, with maximum transport of 1.1 Sv in December indicating the effects of wind driving. LIW pathways in the west are complex and variable. In the Tyrrhenian, intermediate water becomes uniform on isopycnal surfaces due to eddy stirring. West of Sardinia, two LIW boundary currents are formed in the Balearic basin; one flows northward up the west coast of Sardinia and Corsica, and one westward along the northern African coast. The northward current is consistent with observations, while the westward current is intermittent for

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  19. Phyto-toponyms of Arbutus unedo L. and their distribution in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Claudia; Carta, Luisa; Deiana, Vitale; Camarda, Ignazio

    2017-01-01

    The study shows the results of an inventory of place names connected to Arbutus unedo L., a Mediterranean species, widespread throughout Sardinia. The main aim was to compare the past distribution of place names, referring to the strawberry tree, to the current distribution of the species on the island. In addition, we investigated the meaning and the diversity of these local place names in the various communities. The result was a collection of 432 phyto-toponyms. 248 of them were used for an analysis of their distribution in the habitats, indicated on the Map of the Nature System in Sardinia, defined on the basis of the current vegetation typology. The persistence of the species in the various habitats was either confirmed or negated with in site investigations and interviews. 47.5% of municipalities have place names related to the strawberry tree. Of the 248 phyto-toponyms, 127 fall in the habitats where the species currently persists proving a correspondence between their regional distribution and the current distribution of the species. The remaining 121 phyto-toponyms fall in habitats where the strawberry tree is currently absent. Most of them are found in man-made habitats where man has transformed the forest cover which previously included the strawberry tree. This study also contributes to promoting and conserving the linguistic heritage of local communities.

  20. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  1. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  2. Biogeographic Differences in the Microbiome and Pathobiome of the Coral Cladocora caespitosa in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rubio-Portillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Mediterranean zooxanthellate scleractinian reef-builder Cladocora caespitosa is among the organisms most affected by warming-related mass mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea. Corals are known to contain a diverse microbiota that plays a key role in their physiology and health. Here we report the first study that examines the microbiome and pathobiome associated with C. caespitosa in three different Mediterranean locations (i.e., Genova, Columbretes Islands, and Tabarca Island. The microbial communities associated with this species showed biogeographical differences, but shared a common core microbiome that probably plays a key role in the coral holobiont. The putatively pathogenic microbial assemblage (i.e., pathobiome of C. caespitosa also seemed to depend on geographic location and the human footprint. In locations near the coast and with higher human influence, the pathobiome was entirely constituted by Vibrio species, including the well-known coral pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and V. mediterranei. However, in the Columbretes Islands, located off the coast and the most pristine of the analyzed locations, no changes among microbial communities associated to healthy and necrosed samples were detected. Hence, our results provide new insights into the microbiome of the temperate corals and its role in coral health status, highlighting its dependence on the local environmental conditions and the human footprint.

  3. Genetic distances and taxonomic trees between goats of Ceará State (Brazil and goats of the Mediterranean region (Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Théa M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats of an undefined breed (called UDB from the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (N = 447, European Mediterranean goats (N = 3,847 and African Mediterranean goats (N = 325 were compared to establish genetic distances and taxonomic trees. Allelic frequencies in each population for presence or absence of the following traits were used: horns, reduced ears, long hair, wattles, beard, roan color, brown eumelanin and eumelanic standard pigmentation. The genetic distance, applying the method developed by Nei (1972, was: least between goats from different meso-regions of the State of Ceará (0.0008 to 0.0120; small between all UDB of Ceará and French goats of Rove and Haute Roya (0.0236 and 0.0459; greater between all UDB of Ceará and northern Spanish goats (0.1166, and greatest between all UDB of Ceará and northern African goats (Moroccan of Drâa, Rhâali and Zagora, Balkan goats (Sakhar from Bulgaria and Macedonia from Greece and some insular Mediterranean populations (Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia, which ranged from 0.1237 to 0.2714. Brazilian UDB goats are more closely related to Continental and Western European populations than to North African, Balkan or Insular Mediterranean populations.

  4. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  5. Climate-driven changes in life-history traits of the bastard grunt (Pomadasys incisus in the north-western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VILLEGAS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of sea water temperature on the life-history traits of the thermophilic bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus in the Catalan coast. We compared two key traits of this species, condition and reproduction, from populations in two separate areas with different thermal regimes: the Gulf of Roses (cold area and the Ebre Delta (warm area. Specimens were collected monthly from each area between 2010 and 2012. The results were also compared with those given in the literature from sites where the species is more common, i.e. the southern Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic. Our findings indicate that, compared to the populations in warmer environments, the population inhabiting the colder waters appears to be in significantly poorer condition and there is some deviance in their life-history traits: egg size and quality being traded-off for higher egg numbers; lower lengths at maturity and alterations to spawning phenology. A certain degree of plasticity in life-history traits may favour the process of expansion and establishment of this thermophilic species into newly available but colder habitats of the north-western Mediterranean under a scenario of climate change.

  6. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  7. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  8. Wave Energy Potential in the North-West of Sardinia (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Contestabile, P.; Ferrante, V.

    2013-01-01

    Sardinia (Italy) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and its economy is penalized by high costs of electricity, which is double compared to the continental Italian regions, and triple compared to the EU average. In this research, the wave energy potential of the north......, a Wave Energy Converter with maximum efficiency in the ranges of significant wave heights between 3.5 and 4.5 m (energy periods 9.5-11 s) and 4-6 m (energy periods 9.5-11.5 s) respectively should be selected. In order to find a concrete solution to the problem of harvesting wave energy in this area......, the characterization of waves providing energy is considered along with additional considerations, such as installation and operational costs, institutional factors, environmental sensitivity and interferences with others human activities. On the basis of the information available and the identified circumstances...

  9. On the origin of some red soils from Sardinia (Italy). A neutron activation analysis investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, N.; Meloni, S.; Oddone, M.; Pavia Univ.; Melis, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Sardinia, the Italian island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, there are many red soils developed on limestone or dolomite. Soil and underlying bedrock samples from 5 different sites have been submitted to chemical and mineralogical characterization, by using standard X-ray diffraction analysis, spectrochemical methods and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of precision and accuracy. Trace element concentration variation with depth is discussed as well as the enrichment/depletion ratios between soils and rocks, and the rare-earth element distribution. Data analysis suggests for some soils a formation process based on the evolution of the underlying bedrock, and for the other soils a formation process partly based on the evolution of the local rock but with meaningful contributions of external sources, both eolian and/or alluvial. (author)

  10. Performance of some biotic indices in the real variable world: A case study at different spatial scales in North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataranni, Mariella; Lardicci, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the variability of four different benthic biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, H', M-AMBI) in two marine coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. In each coastal area, 36 replicates were randomly selected according to a hierarchical sampling design, which allowed estimating the variance components of the indices associated with four different spatial scales (ranging from metres to kilometres). All the analyses were performed at two different sampling periods in order to evaluate if the observed trends were consistent over the time. The variance components of the four indices revealed complex trends and different patterns in the two sampling periods. These results highlighted that independently from the employed index, a rigorous and appropriate sampling design taking into account different scales should always be used in order to avoid erroneous classifications and to develop effective monitoring programs. - How heterogeneous distribution of macrobenthos can affect the performance of some biotic indices.

  11. Cat Taming in the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability in the Light of Bio-archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miccichè

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast wealth of cultural artifacts and ancient biological samples can today be investigated using a great variety of methods and technologies. The result is a growing diffusion of studies on DNA, isotopes and morphometrics, and the exponential growth of publications and bio-archaeological discoveries of inestimable value for different areas of interpretation, such as phylogeny, history and archaeology. This paper describes the morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon. The report offers the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  12. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  13. Large-scale Mass Transport Deposits in the Valencia Basin (Western Mediterranean): slope instability induced by rapid sea-level drawdown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Urgeles, Roger; Llopart, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) strongly affected the physiography of the Mediterranean margins at the end of the Miocene. The sharp sea-level fall gave a new configuration to the Mediterranean basin and created dramatic morphological and sedimentological changes: margins have been largely eroded whereas the deep basins accumulated thick evaporitic and detrital units. Amongst these detrital units, there are evidences on seismic reflection data for major large-scale slope failure of the Mediterranean continental margins. About 2700 km of seismic reflection profiles in the southwestern part of the Valencia Basin (Western Mediterranean) have enabled us the detailed mapping of distinctive Messinian erosional surfaces, evaporites and deep detrital deposits. The detrital deposits occur in a distinct unit that is made of chaotic, roughly-bedded or transparent seismic bodies, which have been mainly mapped in the basin domain. Locally, the seismic unit shows discontinuous high-amplitude reflections and/or an imbricate internal structure. This unit is interpreted to be formed by a series of Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs). Rapid drawdown has long been recognized as one of the most severe loadings conditions that a slope can be subjected to. Several large historical slope failures have been documented to occur due to rapid drawdown in dams, riverbanks and slopes. During drawdown, the stabilizing effect of the water on the upstream face is lost, but the pore-water pressures within the slope may remain high. The dissipation of these pore pressures in the slope is controlled by the permeability and the storage characteristics of the slope sediments. We hypothesize that the MTDs observed in our data formed under similar conditions and represent a large-scale equivalent of this phenomenon. Therefore, these MTDs can be used to put some constraints on the duration of the drawdown phase of the MSC. We have performed a series of slope stability analysis under rapid Messinian sea

  14. Species composition and structure of a photophilic algal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia (L. Sauvageau from the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros, Enric

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A photophilic agal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia and other brown algae is described from sheltered environments from the North-Western Mediterranean rocky bottoms. This community is included in the Padino-Cladostephetum hirsutae previously described by FELDMANN(1937 for the same geographical area. This plant association is characterized by the lack of an upper erect stratum of Fucales and by the low degree of presence of thermophilic species which typify other similar communities described from other Mediterranean areas. Algal biomass ranges from 1100 to 2500 g dw m-2 and coverage percentage ranges from 250 to 450 %. The great miniaturization and the extraordinary diversity and species richness of Mediterranean photophilic algal communities is assessed. Although there is not a clear seasonal change in biomass of the dominant species in the community, two structural stages can be discerned along an annual cycle: a developed community (summer and a diversified community (winter. Finally, the community structure and the environmental factors that impinge upon it are compared with those found in other Mediterranean phytobenthic communities.

    Se describe una comunidad de algas fotófilas mediterráneas de modo calmado dominada por Hatopteris scoparia y otros feófitos de porte mediano, la cual se adscribe a la asociación Padino-Clodostephetum hirsutae J. Feldmann 1937. Dicha asociación se caracteriza por la ausencia de un estrato elevado de Fucales y el escaso grado de presencia de especies termófilas propia de comunidades similares descritas de otras zonas del Mediterráneo. La biomasa algal oscila entre 1100 y 2500 g ps m-2 mientras que el porcentaje de recubrimiento varía entre el 250 y el 450%. Se pone de manifiesto la gran miniaturización de las comunidades de algas fotólitas mediterráneas y su extraordinaria diversidad y riqueza especificas. Pese a no existir un claro

  15. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  16. Dispersion and transport of tropospheric aerosol and pollutants in the Western Mediterranean: the role of the Po Valley under different transport regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Ravetta, François; Raut, Jean Christophe; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Decesari, Stefano; Diliberto, Luca; Größ, Johannes; Pap, Ines; Weinhold, Kay; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cairo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a characterization of the vertical variability of tropospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutants, over the western Mediterranean, during the 2012 summer season. In particular, we investigate the role of the Po Valley region as a receptor and emissive region of both natural and anthropogenic aerosol. The observational analysis, based on a comprehensive database of meteorological, aerosol and chemical measurements, is integrated with a model analysis using the Lagrangian transport system FLEXPART combined with emission databases, and WRF-Chem, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry. Observations have been performed in the framework of the Supersito project by Regional Agency of Prevention and Environment of the Emilia Romagna region (ARPA-ER, Ital), the TRAQA campaign (TRAnsport et Qualité de l'Air au dessus du bassin Méditerranéen) performed in the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project, and the european project PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOl-climate interaction Study). An alternation between different transport regimes characterized the 2012 summer, resulting in a large variability of aerosol and pollution at different time and spatial scales. Particles of different nature have been discriminated basing on optical properties retrieved from lidar data and supported by in-situ observations and transport analysis. Results show that, during the analysed season, aerosol in the Po Valley was mainly confined below 2000 m and dominated (50% of detections) by spherical particles. Two events of dust advection from northern Africa were identified (19th-21th June and 29th June-2nd July), with intrusion and mixing with local pollution in the PBL and a non-negligible occurrence (~7%) of dust at the ground. Frequent events (22% of occurrence) of non-spherical particles resuspension, likely due to uplift of mineral soil particles, were observed from the ground to 2000 m during afternoon and evening. In the

  17. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  18. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  19. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  20. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  1. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canepa

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  2. The first record of translocated white-clawed crayfish from the Austropotamobius pallipes complex in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Amouret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex is native to Europe, being present in 18 European countries, Italy included. However, the number and abundance of its populations are today restricted and it has been recently classified as “endangered” by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we report the first record of this freshwater crayfish in Sardinia Island (Italy. Using a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, we identified three haplotypes that correspond to the A. italicus meridionalis subclade. We provide information about the sampling area, population density and finally discuss hypotheses about the occurrence of this population in Sardinia, comparing it with other Mediterranean populations. Our results improve the existing knowledge about the phylogeography of the taxon across Italy, confirming its complex pattern of distribution. In addition to the non-native status of the Sardinian A. i. meridionalis crayfish, we showed that the most proximal Mediterranean population of white-clawed crayfish existing in Corsica belongs to A. pallipes from Southern France.

  3. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  4. The plutonium as transfer tracer and particulates contribution accumulating from the Rhone to the north-western Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    To follow the alluvial deposits from the Rhone in Mediterranean Sea, since the principle hydroelectric constructions (1960), it was necessary to find an adequate tracer. The plutonium isotopes have satisfied to the different characteristics. The specificity of the Rhone contribution is bound to the existence of the irradiated spent fuels reprocessing plant of Marcoule; the releases of this plant are characterized by the predominance of Plutonium 238. The results of this study show that the percentage of sediments coming from the Rhone in the recent contribution, is low beyond the pro delta: less than 5% of the sediment of the continental shelf concern the Rhone contribution. However, there are two zones for which the contribution is important and could play a role in the particulate transfer towards the high sea. (N.C.). 157 refs., 60 figs., 50 tabs

  5. Short spatio-temporal variations in the population dynamics and biology of the deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Decapoda: Crustacea in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Guijarro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris is a demersal decapod crustacean that is commercially exploited by trawl fleets. The present work compares its population dynamics, biology and condition in two locations (southern and north-western Mallorca in the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean, separated by a distance of 120 km with different environmental conditions and explores the relationships between the species and certain environmental factors. Six multidisciplinary bimonthly surveys were carried out during 2003 and 2004 in these two locations (between 150 and 750 m depth in order to collect data on the demersal species with bottom trawl, the hydrography (temperature and salinity with CTD casts, and trophic resources (zooplankton in the water column and suprabenthos with Bongo net and Macer-GIROQ sledge respectively and sediments with a Shipeck dredge. The trawl fleets from both locations were monitored by monthly on board sampling and daily landings obtained from sales bills. Additional data was obtained from other trawl surveys. Temporal differences were detected both annually, with a decreasing trend over the last years in species abundance, and seasonally, in the biological indexes analysed. Bathymetric differences were also found in abundance, mean length, sex-ratio and condition of females. There were clear differences between the two locations studied, with higher abundance, condition and mean length and a lower length at first maturity for females in the north-western location. Trophic conditions could act as a link between geo-physical and biological changes. These short spatio-temporal differences could be due to the higher productivity found at this location, with higher density of preferred prey for the studied species together with adequate seafloor topography, sediment composition and hydrographical characteristics.

  6. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  7. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  8. Climate changes in south western Iberia and Mediterranean Outflow variations during two contrasting cycles of the last 1 Myrs: MIS 31-MIS 30 and MIS 12-MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Llave, E.; Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Desprat, S.; Ducassou, E.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain size analysis and physical properties of Sites U1388, U1389 and U1390 collected in the Contourite Depositional System of the Gulf of Cádiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 "Mediterranean Outflow" reveal relative changes in bottom current strength, a tracer of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), before and after the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). The comparison of MOW behavior with climate changes identified by the pollen analysis and δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements of Site U1385, the Shackleton Site, collected in the south western Iberian margin shows that the interval MIS 31-MIS 30, ~ 1.1-1.05 million years ago (Ma), before the MPT, was marked by wetter climate and weaker bottom current than the interval MIS 12-MIS 11 (0.47-0.39 Ma), after the MPT. Similarly, the increase in fine particles from these glacials to interglacials and in coarse fraction from interglacials to glacials was coeval with forest and semi-desert expansions, respectively, indicating the lowering/enhancement of MOW strength during periods of regional increase/decrease of moisture. While these findings may not necessarily apply to all glacial/interglacial cycles, they nonetheless serve as excellent supporting examples of the hypothesis that aridification can serve as a good tracer for MOW intensity. The strongest regional aridity during MIS 12 coincides with a remarkable increase of coarse grain size deposition and distribution that we interpret as a maximum in MOW strength. This MOW intensification may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic by increasing salinity, thereby triggering the strong resumption of the Meridional Overturning Circulation that could contribute to the great warmth that characterizes the MIS 11c super-interglacial.

  9. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  10. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  11. A diagnostic Study of a High Impact Weather Episode in the Western Mediterranean Region: IOP8 a HyMeX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar, Samiro; Kalthoff, Norbert; Raff, Fritz

    2013-04-01

    Fall season heavy rainfall in the western Mediterranean region is one of the most threatening phenomena in the area. Devastating flash floods occur every year somewhere in eastern Spain resulting in a large amount of property losses, destruction of infrastructures, enormous agricultural losses and human fatalities. The forecast of the underlying HIW is a subject of special concern for local meteorologist because of its catastrophic nature. Within the framework of HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) a HIW (High Impact Weather) event took place on the south and eastern part of the Spanish coast, particularly in Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and less pronouncedly in the Balearic Islands, moving afterwards towards France southern coast. During this event casualties and important economic damage were registered. The amounts of precipitation locally overpassed 200 mm in 24 hours and a tornado occurred in Gandia (Valencia). The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive description of the physical atmospheric processes giving rise to the intense precipitation in this event and its movement along the Spanish coast. High-resolution COSMO-CLM model simulations supported by the analysis of observational data sets will be presented. The model simulations and observational data sets, such as a dense network of global positioning systems (GPS), raingauges, surface measurements and radiosoundings are analyzed to document in detail the evolution of the warm and wet air masses which fed the high precipitation event (HPE) systems, as well as the low-level convergence to which the main convective systems were associated.

  12. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our

  13. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  14. Evaluation of photovoltaic installations performances in Sardinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiani, Emilio; Pilo, Fabrizio; Cossu, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One year measurement and performance analysis of grid connected PV power plants. • The analysis of the whole energetic PV transformation chain is presented. • Ambient parameters monitored and compared with the ones available in literature. • Monthly variability of the performance ratio and its correlation with temperature. • Range of variation of performance ratio in plants grouped by typology. - Abstract: This paper aims at providing a performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic power plant in Sardinia by investigating on the effective performance ratio of PV installations, with a critical analysis of the whole energetic transformation chain, starting from the incident solar energy, to the DC energy output from the modules and AC energy output from the inverter and transformer. The parameters that can influence the energy production are analyzed in order to find out the critical points in the optimization of the PV system design process. One year measurement and performance analysis of two real-life grid connected PV power plants are presented in the paper, providing up-to-date measurement data, useful to compare the effective energy production of PV plants positioned in different areas of the world. Monthly variability of the performance ratio and its correlation with ambient temperature is also discussed in the paper

  15. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  16. Volatile organic compounds in the western Mediterranean basin: urban and rural winter measurements during the DAURE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs have key environmental and biological roles, but little is known about the daily VOC mixing ratios in Mediterranean urban and natural environments. We measured VOC mixing ratios concurrently at an urban and a rural site during the winter DAURE campaign in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, by means of PTR-MS at both locations: a PTR-Quad-MS at the urban site and a PTR-ToF-MS at the rural site. All VOC mixing ratios measured were higher at the urban site (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 1.68, 0.31, 0.58 and 2.71 ppbv, respectively, with the exception of some short-chain oxygenated VOCs such as acetone (with similar averages of 0.7–1.6 ppbv at both sites. The average diurnal pattern also differed between the sites. Most of the VOCs at the urban location showed their highest mixing ratios in the morning and evening. These peaks coincided with traffic during rush hour, the main origin of most of the VOCs analyzed. Between these two peaks, the sea breeze transported the urban air inland, thus helping to lower the VOC loading at the urban site. At the rural site, most of the measured VOCs were advected by the midday sea breeze, yielding the highest daily VOC mixing ratios (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 0.65, 0.07, 0.19, and 0.41 ppbv, respectively. Only biogenic monoterpenes showed a clear local origin at this site. In addition, the concentrations of fine particulate matter observed at both sites, together with the synoptic meteorological conditions and radio-sounding data, allowed the identification of different atmospheric scenarios that had a clear influence on the measured VOC mixing ratios. These results highlight the differences and relationships in VOC mixing ratios between nearby urban and rural areas in Mediterranean regions. Further research in other urban-rural areas is warranted to better understand the urban

  17. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  18. Cross-Shore Environmental Gradients in the Western Mediterranean Coast and Their Influence on Nearshore Phytoplankton Communities

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    Gotzon Basterretxea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During summer, when oligotrophic conditions prevail offshore in the Mediterranean Sea, enhanced phytoplankton stripes are often observed in nearshore waters. In this study, we examine the cross-shore hydrographic variability and the associated microbial plankton communities in this zone. Detailed cross-shore underway sampling at 47 coastal sites spread along the Balearic and Catalan coasts revealed the widespread existence of narrow bands of warm and decreased salinity water beholding high phytoplankton biomass (up to 50-fold vs. offshore chlorophyll. Most intense physical and biological anomalies along these transects were generally constrained to the first hundred meters from the shoreline (i.e., a transition zone starting at ~400 m. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA and k-means cluster analysis to categorize temperature, salinity and chlorophyll (T, S and Chl in three main types of cross-shore trends. Prevalence of exponential-shaped Chl trends was observed particularly in areas with shoreward directed winds (B1-type. The other two trends (B2 and B3 presented variations off the coast produced by alongshore structures like river plumes, city outfalls and other features. Exponential-shaped cross-shore chlorophyll distribution (B1-type accumulated 90% of the total transect Chl variation in the first 367 ± 190 m from the shoreline, whereas this distance was variable in the other profile types. Repeated daily sampling at one site with this transect typology revealed that wind forcing variations produced fast response on cross-shore T and S properties. Chl was less sensitive to changes at this time-scale. Phytoplankton communities exhibited site-dependent responses to the nearshore environment. Pico- and nanoplankton assemblages, typically dominating coastal assemblages during summer in the Mediterranean Sea, showed lower cross-shore variation. Conversely, larger response to nearshore conditions was observed in microplankton populations

  19. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

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    C. Di Biagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between  ∼  160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92

  20. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  1. Reproduction, gonad histology and fecundity of Aidablennius sphynx (Pisces: Blenniidae of the Catalan Sea (North-Western Mediterranean

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    Maite Carrassón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny fish Aidablennius sphinx was studied on the basis of microscopic and macroscopic analysis. A. sphynx is a resident species of the shallow waters of this region, lays demersal eggs and provides parental care to the developing embryos. Mature male gonads occur between March and July, whereas mature females appear between April and August. Male gonads are composed of the testis and the testicular gland. Spermatids are released into the testicular gland. The testicular gland is relatively more prominent than the testis after the reproductive season. Six stages of oocyte development (included atretic ones are considered. Seasonal variations of gonads of both males and females are illustrated. Low fecundity was recorded, as the ovaries may contain 432 to 1682 oocytes according to female size. Equations describing the relationship between gonad weight and length and weight of males and females are presented. Equations describing the relationship between absolute individual fecundity and length and weight of females are also presented.

  2. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

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    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  3. Genetic support for the morphological identification of larvae of Myctophidae, Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae (Pisces from the western Mediterranean

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    Ainhoa Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesopelagic fishes experience an extreme body transformation from larvae to adults. The identification of the larval stages of fishes from the two orders Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes is currently based on the comparison of morphological, pigmentary and meristic characteristics of different developmental stages. However, no molecular evidence to confirm the identity of the larvae of these mesopelagic species is available so far. Since DNA barcoding emerged as an accurate procedure for species discrimination and larval identification, we have used the cytochrome c oxidase 1 or the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA regions to identify larvae and adults of the most frequent and abundant species of myctophiforms (family Myctophidae and stomiiforms (families Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae from the Mediterranean Sea. The comparisons of sequences from larval and adult stages corroborated the value of the morphological characters that were used for taxonomic classification. The combination of the sequences obtained in this study and those of related species from GenBank was used to discuss the consistency of monophyletic clades for different genera. Pairwise nucleotide distances were notably higher inter- than intraspecifically, and were useful to discern between congeners such as Cyclothone braueri and C. pygmaea, Hygophum benoiti and H. hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus and L. pusillus, and Notoscopelus bolini and N. elongatus.

  4. Genetic differentiation among Parastichopus regalis populations from Western Mediterranean Sea: potential effects of its fishery and current connectivity.

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    C. MAGGI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817 is the most expensive seafood product on the catalonian market (NE Spain, with prices around 130 €/Kg (fresh weight. Despite its ecological and economic importance, biological and genetic information on this sea cucumber species is scarce. We provided the first insight on the genetic structure of P. regalis using sequences of cytochrome oxidase I (COI and 16S genes, as well as a morphological description of its populations. Individuals were collected in six locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including an area under fishery pressure (Catalonia. We found high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity for both genes, with higher levels of genetic diversity observed on COI gene. Population pairwise fixation index (FST, AMOVA and correspondence analysis (CA based on COI, revealed significant genetic differentiation among some locations. However, further analysis using nuclear markers (e.g. microsatellites would be necessary to corroborate these results. Moreover, the genetic and morphological data may indicate fishery effects on the Catalonian population with decrease of the size and weight average and lower genetic diversity compared to locations without fishery pressure. For an appropriate management of this species, we suggest: 1 an accurate assessment of the stocks status along the Spanish coasts; 2 the study of the reproductive cycle of this target species and the establishment of a closed fishery season according to it; 3 the founding of protected areas (i.e. not take zones to conserve healthy populations and favour the recruitment on the nearby areas.

  5. Megabenthic assemblages in the continental shelf edge and upper slope of the Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Greenacre, Michael; Requena, Susana; Canepa, Antonio; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-03-01

    Highly diverse megabenthic assemblages dominated by passive and active suspension feeders have been recently reported in shelf edge environments of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their frequent association with species of commercial interest, these assemblages have been heavily impacted by fishing. The vulnerability and low resilience of these assemblages, composed mainly by long-living and slow-growing species, have motivated the implementation of management measures such as the restriction of bottom trawling, and the establishment of large protected areas embracing these environments. The Menorca Channel is one of such areas recently included in the European Union Natura 2000 network. Quantitative analysis of video transects recorded at 95-360 m depth by manned submersible and remotely operated vehicles were used to characterize megabenthic assemblages and to assess their geographical and bathymetric distribution. Six different assemblages were identified, mainly segregated by substrate type and depth. Hard substrates hosted coral gardens and sponge grounds, whereas soft sediments were mainly characterized by large extensions of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium and the brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The good preservation of most of the observed assemblages is probably related to a low bottom trawling pressure, which mainly concentrates deeper on the adjacent continental slope. Because of their biological and ecological value, management and conservation measures need to be established to preserve these benthic assemblages.

  6. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  7. Neural network model for the prediction of PM10 daily concentrations in two sites in the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Trizio, Livia; Di Gilio, Alessia; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2013-10-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed and tested to forecast PM10 daily concentration in two contrasted environments in NE Spain, a regional background site (Montseny), and an urban background site (Barcelona-CSIC), which was highly influenced by vehicular emissions. In order to predict 24-h average PM10 concentrations, the artificial neural network previously developed by Caselli et al. (2009) was improved by using hourly PM concentrations and deterministic factors such as a Saharan dust alert. In particular, the model input data for prediction were the hourly PM10 concentrations 1-day in advance, local meteorological data and information about air masses origin. The forecasted performance indexes for both sites were calculated and they showed better results for the regional background site in Montseny (R(2)=0.86, SI=0.75) than for urban site in Barcelona (R(2)=0.73, SI=0.58), influenced by local and sometimes unexpected sources. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis conducted to understand the importance of the different variables included among the input data, showed that local meteorology and air masses origin are key factors in the model forecasts. This result explains the reason for the improvement of ANN's forecasting performance at the Montseny site with respect to the Barcelona site. Moreover, the artificial neural network developed in this work could prove useful to predict PM10 concentrations, especially, at regional background sites such as those on the Mediterranean Basin which are primarily affected by long-range transports. Hence, the artificial neural network presented here could be a powerful tool for obtaining real time information on air quality status and could aid stakeholders in their development of cost-effective control strategies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  9. Multi-parameter observations in the Ibero-Moghrebian region: the Western Mediterranean seismic network (WM) and ROA GPS geodynamic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Gárate Pasquín, Jorge; Catalán Morollón, Manuel; Hanka, Winfried; Udías, Agustín.; Benzzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2010-05-01

    The plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa plates crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern Morocco and Algeria. In this area, the convergence, with a low rate, is accommodated over a wide and diffuse deformation zone, characterized by a significant and widespread moderate seismic activity [Buforn et al., 1995], and the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation zone. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net) is deployed, in collaboration with other institutions, around the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran sea, with stations in the South of Iberia and in North Africa (at Spanish places and Morocco), together with the seismic stations a permanent geodetic GPS net is co-installed at the same sites. Also, other geophysical instruments have been installed: a Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station at San Fernando Observatory Headquarter, a Geomagnetic Observatory in Cádiz bay area and some meteorological stations. These networks have been recently improved with the deployment of a new submarine and on-land geophysical observatory in the Alboran island (ALBO Observatory), where a permanent GPS, a meteorological station were installed on land and a permanent submarine observatory in 50 meters depth was also deploy in last October (with a broad band seismic sensor, a 3 C accelerometer and a DPG). This work shows the present status and the future plans of these networks and some results.

  10. Millennial-scale climate variations in western Mediterranean during late Pleistocene-early Holocene: multi-proxy analyses from Padul peatbog (southern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; José Ramos-Román, María; García-Alix, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Toney, Jaime L.; Anderson, R. Scott; Kaufman, Darrell; Bright, Jordon; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Padul peatbog, located in southern Iberian Peninsula (western Mediterranean region) is a unique area for palaeoenvironmental studies due to its location, between arid and temperate climates. Previous studies showed that the Padul peatbog contains a continuous record of the last ca. 0.8-1 Ma, so it is an extraordinary site to identify glacial-interglacial phases as well as Heinrich and D-O events, linked to orbital- and suborbital-scale variations. In 2015, a new 42 m long core was taken from this area, providing an excellent sediment record probably for the last ca. 300,000 years. This study is focused on the paleoenvironmental and climatic reconstruction of the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene (ca. from 50,000 to 9,500 cal. yrs BP), using AMS 14C and AAR dating, high-resolution pollen analysis, lithology, continuous XRF-scanning, X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry. These different proxies provide information not only about the regional environment change but also about local changes in the conditions of the Padul lake/peatbog due to variations in water temperature, pH or nutrients.

  11. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

  12. Incorporation of habitat information in the development of indices of larval bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (2001-2005 and 2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. Walter; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Reglero, Patricia; Balbín, Rosa; García, Alberto; Alemany, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Fishery independent indices of bluefin tuna larvae in the Western Mediterranean Sea are presented utilizing ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 2001 through 2005 and 2012 through 2013. Indices were developed using larval catch rates collected using two different types of bongo sampling, by first standardizing catch rates by gear/fishing-style and then employing a delta-lognormal modeling approach. The delta-lognormal models were developed three ways: 1) a basic larval index including the following covariates: time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; 2) a standard environmental larval index including the following covariates: mean water temperature over the mixed layer depth, mean salinity over the mixed layer depth, geostrophic velocity, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; and 3) a habitat-adjusted larval index including the following covariates: a potential habitat variable, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year. Results indicated that all three model-types had similar precision in index values. However, the habitat-adjusted larval index demonstrated a high correlation with estimates of spawning stock biomass from the previous stock assessment model, and, therefore, is recommended as a tuning index in future stock assessment models.

  13. What do Pneumocystis organisms tell us about the phylogeography of their hosts? The case of the woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in continental Europe and western Mediterranean islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Demanche

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87% and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals.

  14. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  15. Life-history traits of the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus, from the central western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Mulas

    2015-11-01

    sensitive to fishing pressure, in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients in sublittoral fine sands in a north-western Mediterranean coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, J.; Falco, S.; Morata, T.; Gadea, I.; Rodilla, M.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, benthic metabolism in sublittoral permeable sands have not been widely studied, although these sands can have a direct and transcendental impact in coastal ecosystems. This study aims to determine oxygen and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface and the study of possible interactions among environmental variables and the benthic metabolism in well-sorted fine sands. Eight sampling campaigns were carried out over the annual cycle in the eastern coast of Spain (NW Mediterranean) at 9 m depth station with permeable bottoms. Water column and sediment samples were collected in order to determine physico-chemical and biological variables. Moreover, in situ incubations were performed to estimate the exchange of dissolved solutes in the sediment-water interface using dark and light benthic chambers. Biochemical compounds at the sediment surface ranged between 160 and 744 μg g-1 for proteins, 296 and 702 μg g-1 for carbohydrates, and between 327 and 1224 μg C g-1 for biopolymeric carbon. Chloroplastic pigment equivalents in sediments were mainly composed by chlorophyll a (1.81-2.89 μg g-1). These sedimentary organic descriptors indicated oligotrophic conditions according to the biochemical approach used. In this sense, the most abundant species in the macrobenthic community were sensitive to organic enrichment. In dark conditions, benthic fluxes behaved as a sink of oxygen and a source of nutrients. Oxygen fluxes (between -26,610 and -10,635 μmol m-2 d-1) were related with labile organic fraction (r=-0.86, p<0.01 with biopolymeric carbon; r=-0.91, p<0.01 with chloroplastic pigment equivalents). Daily fluxes of dissolved oxygen, that were obtained by adding light and dark fluxes, were only positive in spring campaigns (6966 μmol m-2 d-1) owing to the highest incident irradiance levels (r=0.98, p<0.01) that stimulate microphytobenthic primary production. Microphytobenthos played an important role on benthic metabolism and was the main primary

  17. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  18. Predictability of prototype flash flood events in the Western Mediterranean under uncertainties of the precursor upper-level disturbance: the HYDROPTIMET case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Romero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET case studies (9–10 June 2000 Catalogne, 8–9 September 2002 Cévennes and 24–26 November 2002 Piémont appear to encompass a sort of prototype flash-flood situations in the western Mediterranean attending to the relevant synoptic and mesoscale signatures identified on the meteorological charts. In Catalogne, the convective event was driven by a low-pressure system of relatively small dimensions developed over the mediterranean coast of Spain that moved into southern France. For Cévennes, the main circulation pattern was a synoptic-scale Atlantic low which induced a persistent southerly low-level jet (LLJ over the western Mediterranean, strengthened by the Alps along its western flank, which guaranteed continuous moisture supply towards southern France where the long-lived, quasistationary convective system developed. The long Piémont episode, very representative of the most severe alpine flash flood events, shares some similarities with the Cévennes situation during its first stage in that it was controlled by a southerly moist LLJ associated with a large-scale disturbance located to the west. However, these circulation features were transient aspects and during the second half of the episode the situation was dominated by a cyclogenesis process over the Mediterranean which gave place to a mesoscale-size depression at surface that acted to force new heavy rain over the slopes of the Alps and maritime areas. That is, the Piémont episode can be catalogued as of mixed type with regard to the responsible surface disturbance, evolving from a large-scale pattern with remote action (like Cévennes to a mesoscale pattern with local action (like Catalogne. A prominent mid-tropospheric trough or cut-off low can be identified in all events prior and during the period of heavy rain, which clearly served as the precursor agent for the onset of the flash-flood conditions and the cyclogenesis at low-levels. Being aware of the

  19. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Shiposha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89% suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary

  20. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae) in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiposha, Valeriia; Catalán, Pilar; Olonova, Marina; Marques, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89%) suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary Islands

  1. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  2. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  4. Groundwater nitrate pollution and climate change: learnings from a water balance-based analysis of several aquifers in a western Mediterranean region (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources. Besides the fact that climate change will represent a decrease of water availability, we qualitatively discuss the modifications that will result from the future climatic scenarios and their impact on nitrate pollution according to the geological setting of the selected aquifers. Climate effects in groundwater quality are described according to hydrological, environmental, socio-economic, and political concerns. Water reduction stands as a major issue that will control stream-aquifer interactions and subsurface recharge, leading to a general modification of nitrate in groundwater as dilution varies. A nitrate mass balance model provides a gross estimation of potential nitrate evolution in these aquifers, and it points out that the control of the fertilizer load will be crucial to achieve adequate nitrate content in groundwater. Reclaimed wastewater stands as local reliable resource, yet its amount will only satisfy a fraction of the loss of available resources due to climate change. Finally, an integrated management perspective is necessary to avoid unplanned actions from private initiatives that will jeopardize the achievement of sustainable water resources exploitation under distinct hydrological scenarios.

  5. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  6. Carbonate metasomatism and CO2 lithosphere-asthenosphere degassing beneath the western Mediterranean: An integrated model arising from petrological and geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Peccerillo, Angelo; Panza, Giuliano

    2009-03-01

    We present an integrated petrological, geochemical, and geophysical model that offers an explanation for the present-day anomalously high non-volcanic deep (mantle derived) CO 2 emission in the Tyrrhenian region. We investigate how decarbonation or melting of carbonate-rich lithologies from a subducted lithosphere may affect the efficiency of carbon release in the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. We propose that melting of sediments and/or continental crust of the subducted Adriatic-Ionian (African) lithosphere at pressure greater than 4 GPa (130 km) may represent an efficient mean for carbon cycling into the upper mantle and into the exosphere in the Western Mediterranean area. Melting of carbonated lithologies, induced by the progressive rise of mantle temperatures behind the eastward retreating Adriatic-Ionian subducting plate, generates low fractions of carbonate-rich (hydrous-silicate) melts. Due to their low density and viscosity, such melts can migrate upward through the mantle, forming a carbonated partially molten CO 2 -rich mantle recorded by tomographic images in the depth range from 130 to 60 km. Upwelling in the mantle of carbonate-rich melts to depths less than 60 - 70 km, induces massive outgassing of CO 2 . Buoyancy forces, probably favored by fluid overpressures, are able to allow migration of CO 2 from the mantle to the surface, through deep lithospheric faults, and its accumulation beneath the Moho and within the lower crust. The present model may also explain CO 2 enrichment of the Etna active volcano. Deep CO 2 cycling is tentatively quantified in terms of conservative carbon mantle flux in the investigated area. (author)

  7. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean; Etude couplee des radionucleides et des isotopes stables du plomb en Mediterranee occidentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miralles, J

    2004-05-15

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ({sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb) and radionuclide ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 {+-} 7 {mu}g.cm{sup -2} high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling {sup 210}Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 {+-} 47 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}, 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  8. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting, with a westward direction of tectonic transport (referred to the present-day coordinates). The tectonic style of the upper levels is thin skinned, with flat sectors prevailing over ramps and younger-on-older thrusts. Three regional tectonic units are present, bounded by two regional thrusts. Strike-slip faults overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and developed during the Sardinia-Corsica Block rotation along the strike of the preexisting fault ramps, not affecting the numerical section balancing. This fold-and-thrust belt represents the southward prosecution of the Alpine Corsica collisional chain and the missing link between the Alpine Chain and the Calabria-Peloritani Block. Relative ages relate its evolution to the meso-Alpine event (Eocene-Oligocene times), prior to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tortonian). Results fill a gap of information about the geodynamic evolution of the European margin in Central Mediterranean, between Corsica and the Calabria-Peloritani Block, and imply the presence of remnants of this double-verging belt, missing in the Southern Tyrrhenian basin, within the Southern Apennine chain. The used methodology proved effective for constraining balanced cross sections also for areas lacking exposures of the large-scale structures, as the case of Eastern Sardinia.

  9. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  10. Molecular barcoding and phylogeography of sexual and asexual freshwater planarians of the genus Dugesia in the Western Mediterranean (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lázaro, E.M.; Sluys, R.; Pala, M.; Stocchino, G.A.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M.

    2009-01-01

    Planarians of the genus Dugesia have a worldwide distribution with high species diversity in the Mediterranean area. In this area, populations with a triploid karyotype that reproduce by fissiparity are exceptionally frequent, outnumbering the sexual populations. This situation poses interesting

  11. Organic carbon at a remote site of the western Mediterranean Basin: sources and chemistry during the ChArMEx SOP2 field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane; Dusanter, Sébastien; Léonardis, Thierry; Gros, Valérie; Kalogridis, Cerise; Zannoni, Nora; Féron, Anaïs; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Crenn, Vincent; Baisnée, Dominique; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Marchand, Nicolas; Langley DeWitt, H.; Pey, Jorge; Colomb, Aurélie; Gheusi, François; Szidat, Sonke; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-07-01

    The ChArMEx (Chemistry and Aerosols Mediterranean Experiments) SOP2 (special observation period 2) field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. During the campaign more than 80 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including oxygenated species, were measured by different online and offline techniques. At the same time, an exhaustive description of the chemical composition of fine aerosols was performed with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM). Low levels of anthropogenic VOCs (typically tens to hundreds of parts per trillion for individual species) and black carbon (0.1-0.9 µg m-3) were observed, while significant levels of biogenic species (peaking at the ppb level) were measured. Furthermore, secondary oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) largely dominated the VOC speciation during the campaign, while organic matter (OM) dominated the aerosol chemical composition, representing 55 % of the total mass of non-refractory PM1 on average (average of 3.74 ± 1.80 µg m-3), followed by sulfate (27 %, 1.83 ± 1.06 µg m-3), ammonium (13 %, 0.90 ± 0.55 µg m-3) and nitrate (5 %, 0.31 ± 0.18 µg m-3). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) and concentration field (CF) analyses were performed on a database containing 42 VOCs (or grouped VOCs), including OVOCs, to identify the covariation factors of compounds that are representative of primary emissions or chemical transformation processes. A six-factor solution was found for the PMF analysis, including a primary and secondary biogenic factor correlated with temperature and exhibiting a clear diurnal profile. In addition, three anthropogenic factors characterized by compounds with various lifetimes and/or sources have been identified (long-lived, medium-lived and short-lived anthropogenic factors). The anthropogenic nature of these factors was confirmed by the CF analysis, which identified potential source areas known for intense anthropogenic

  12. GLOBAL AND INSULAR DIMENSIONS: SPACE IN SARDINIA BLUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Chiarini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus attention on the dimension of space in Sardinia Blues (Publisher Bompiani, 2008, by Flavio Soriga. This is justified by the centrality of space throughout the novel and by the title itself. The island of Sardinia is not just a mere setting, but it is most importantly the articulating and conducting thread for all the themes related to the characters’ self-identity and existential issues. The regional Sardinian space, perceived as stereotyped and folkloristic, and the global space, seen as a source of both desire and fear, are problematized by the three young self-proclaimed “pirates of the island” in their long hours of idleness. It is our intention to highlight the conflicts of this marginal insular condition, heavily contaminated by an inevitable process of change, in Soriga’s simultaneously innovative and nostalgic fragmented text, filled with songs’ extracts and languages hybrids.

  13. Active surface system for the new Sardinia Radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Morsiani, Marco; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Roda, Juri; Fiocchi, Franco

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we'll describe the active surface system that will be provided on the new Italian radiotelescope being in the phase of erection in the Sardinia Island. SRT (Sardinia Radiotelescope) will be a 64m shaped dish working up to 100GHz by exploiting the active surface facility designed by the authors. This facility will overcome the effects of gravity deformations on the antenna gain and will also be used to re-shape in a parabolic form the primary mirror, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the antenna gain for the highest frequencies placed on the primary focus. Together with the description of the SRT system, a wide overview will be given regarding our previous installation of an active surface system, that can be seen like a prototype for SRT, mounted on the 32m dish of the Noto antenna.

  14. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY): PRELIMINARY NOTE

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ZOBOLI; GIAN LUIGI PILLOLA

    2017-01-01

    A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy). The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size) and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus) while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae?) and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.). A bird bone fragment ...

  15. Why is African swine fever still present in Sardinia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, C; Fernández-Carrión, E; Mur, L; Rolesu, S; Laddomada, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of swine that has been present in Sardinia since 1978. Soon after introduction of the disease, several control and eradication programmes were established with limited success. Some researchers attributed the persistence of the disease in central and eastern areas to certain socio-economic factors, the existence of some local and traditional farming practices (i.e., unregistered free-ranging pigs known as brado animals) and the high density of wild boar in the region. In the past, scarcity of swine data in Sardinia complicated the evaluation and study of ASF on the island. More complete, accurate and reliable information on pig farms has become available as a result of the most recent eradication programmes. Here, we perform statistical modelling based on these data and the known distribution of domestic pig and wild boar to identify the main risk factors that have caused ASF persistence in Sardinia. Our results categorized, identified and quantified nine significant risk factors, six of which have not been previously described. The most significant factors were the number of medium-sized farms, the presence of brado animals and the combination of estimated wild boar density and mean altitude above sea level. Based on these factors, we identified regions in eastern and central Sardinia to be at greatest risk of ASF persistence; these regions are also where the disease has traditionally been endemic. Based on these risk factors, we propose specific control measures aimed at mitigating such risks and eradicating ASF from the island. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Sustainable Water Resources Management to Combat Desertification in the Nurra Region, Northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Ghiglieri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management plays an important role in the frame of the multidisciplinary research activities aiming to combat or to mitigate the desertification processes. The study activities have been carried out by RIADE Research Project (Integrated Research for Applying new technologies and processes for combating Desertification,www.riade.net. RIADE was co-financed by MIUR within the National Operative Programme 2000-2006. The primary objective was to explore and to develop models and strategies for innovative and sustainable solutions of water resources management, adopting a multidisciplinary approach, at the catchment and hydrogeological basin scale in a Mediterranean context, using a case history of a pilot area in NW Sardinia (Italy. The high concentration of population in this coastal zone and the intense agricultural activity have determined a relevant increase of water demand. This demand is generally satisfied by surface water, but, in some peculiar dry periods, it exceeds the available quantities. In these critical periods, groundwater are the only alternative source constituting a strategic water resource. The groundwater chemical properties are then correlated with the effects of the anthropogenic pressures. The used approach shows the application of groundwater protection criteria, in accordance with EU policies, and it was aimed to develop a methodological tool which can be applied to different scenarios.

  17. Aria Sardinia: the on line community joining tradition and innovatiom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The "ARIA Sardinia" project (Network Actions for Italians Abroad has been especially designed to integrate and give value to the network of relationships between public administrations, local socio-economic stakeholders and Italian communities abroad, this goal to be pursued with the support of new technologies and learning approaches emerging within the context of on line interest communities. The general objective of the project is the development of competencies and knowledge, intended to combine specific technical skills with local "territorial knowledge", in a process where the strengthening and the dissemination of these forms of culture come from the prompt use of innovative tools. The main activities of the project are the actions intended to guide and assist entrepreneurs, associations, development projects' partners or promoters in the path of acquisition and dissemination of the competencies which are necessary to the involvement of Italians abroad into the internationalization process of Sardinian economy. ARIA Sardinia was funded by the Italian Foreign Affairs Ministry and the European Social Fund (FSE, within the framework of the National Operational Program for Technical Assistance and System Action (PON ATAS aimed at specific promotion initiatives and fostering of permanent links between Southern Italy economy and Italians living abroad. Keywords: on line community, networking, Italians abroad, Sardinian economy, Sardinia, culture.

  18. Reptiles of Sardinia: updating the knowledge on their distribution

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    Daniele Salvi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinia shows a clear lack of herpetological data due to an evident paucity of herpetological surveys. This gap of knowledge is worthy of attention, since Sardinia hosts a rich herpetofauna with a large proportion of endemic species, and distribution data are crucial for targeting conservation efforts. In this paper we provide new distribution data for Sardinian reptiles, with the aim of updating our knowledge on their specific distribution. Data were opportunistically recorded during ten years of field research in Sardinia, carried out in more than twenty campaigns from April 1999 to June 2009. All the eighteen reptile species belonging to the Sardinian fauna were recorded. A total amount of 293 faunistic data were collected from 178 different localities covering the entire study area. Within this dataset, 137 faunistic data fall outside known species’ ranges as reported in the Atlas of Italian amphibians and reptiles. In conclusion, data presented here produced a remarkable increase of knowledge on Sardinian reptiles distribution compare to that reported in the last available syntheses. Nevertheless, it should be evidenced that, notwithstanding the present updating, the knowledge of Sardinian reptiles’ distribution is probably still far from being exhaustive. Thus, further investigations are strongly required for obtaining a complete picture and identifying conservation priorities in terms of isolated species/populations and areas of high diversity and endemicity.

  19. Validation of Sentinel-3A altimetry data by using in-situ multi-platform observations near Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Heslop, Emma; Reeve, Krissy; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pujol, Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Torner, Marc; Tintoré, Joaquín; Pascual, Ananda

    2017-04-01

    larger than 0.75. This mission is part of a study focused on mesoscale variability and comparison of the along-track and gridded interpolated maps altimetry products in the western Mediterranean Sea using in-situ data including Argo, ADCP, gliders, drifters, HF radar and tide gauges data. We take advantage of the high spatial resolution and a multi-platform approach to investigate the variability of physical processes in the coastal area of this region. This experiment contributes to the preparatory cal/val activities of the forthcoming wide-swath satellite altimeter (SWOT) that will provide daily high resolution sea surface height measurements during the fast phase after launch around the Balearic Islands.

  20. Dust Model Intercomparison and Extensive Comparison to Observations in the Western Mediterranean for the Summer 2012 Pre-ChArMEx/TRAQA Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Dulac, F.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The present analysis focuses on the model capability to properly simulate long-range Saharan dust transport for summer 2012 in the Western Mediterranean. In this period, Saharan dust events were numerous as shown by satellite and ground-based remote sensing observations.An exhaustive comparison of model outputs against other models and observations can reveal weaknesses of individual models, provide an assessment of uncertainties in simulating the dust cycle and give additional information on sources for potential model improvement. For this kind of study, multiple and different observations are combined to deliver a detailed idea of the structure and evolution of the dust cloud and the state of the atmosphere at the different stages of the event. The present contribution shows an intercomparison of a set of 7 European regional dust model simulations (NMMB/BSC-Dust, ALADIN, Meso-NH, RegCM, CHIMERE, COSMO/MUSCAT; MOCAGE and BSC-DREAM8b). In this study, the model outputs are compared against a variety of both ground-based and airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements performed during the pre-ChArMEx/TRAQA field campaign which included in particular several AERONET sites, the airborne lidar LNG, sounding with a ULA and with the new balloonborne optical particle counter LOAC showing large particles (>15 µm), the CARAGA network of weekly deposition samples, etc. The models are also compared with satellite aerosol products (including MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS, POLDER and CALIOP), which provide a description of the spatial AOD distribution over the basin. These observational datasets provide a complete set of unusual quantitative constraints for model simulations of this period, combining data on aerosol optical depth, vertical distribution, particle size distribution, deposition flux, and chemical and optical properties. Acknowledgements are addressed to OMP/SEDOO for the ChArMEx data portal and to CNES for balloon operations and funding. The other main sponsors of the

  1. The planktonic food web of the Bizerte lagoon (south-western Mediterranean) during summer: I. Spatial distribution under different anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka Hlaili, Asma; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Gosselin, Michel; Hamel, Dominique; Troussellier, Marc; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine

    2008-06-01

    The structure and the trophic interactions of the planktonic food web were investigated during summer 2004 in a coastal lagoon of south-western Mediterranean Sea. Biomasses of planktonic components as well as bacterial and phytoplankton production and grazing by microzooplankton were quantified at four stations (MA, MB, MJ and R) inside the lagoon. Station MA was impacted by urban discharge, station MB was influenced by industrial activity, station MJ was located in a shellfish farming sector, while station R represented the lagoon central area. Biomasses and production rates of bacteria (7-33 mg C m -3; 17.5-35 mg C m -3 d -1) and phytoplankton (80-299 mg C m -3; 34-210 mg C m -3 d -1) showed high values at station MJ, where substantial concentrations of nutrients (NO 3- and Si(OH) 4) were found. Microphytoplankton, which dominated the total algal biomass and production (>82%), were characterized by the proliferation of several chain-forming diatoms. Microzooplankton was mainly composed of dinoflagellates ( Torodinium, Protoperidinium and Dinophysis) and aloricate ( Lohmaniellea and Strombidium) and tintinnid ( Tintinnopsis, Tintinnus, Favella and Eutintinnus) ciliates. Higher biomass of these protozoa (359 mg C m -3) was observed at station MB, where large tintinnids were encountered. Mesozooplankton mainly represented by Calanoida ( Acartia, Temora, Calanus, Eucalanus, Paracalanus and Centropages) and Cyclopoida ( Oithona) copepods, exhibited higher and lower biomasses at stations MA/MJ and MB, respectively. Bacterivory represented only 35% of bacterial production at stations MB and R, but higher fractions (65-70%) were observed at stations MA and MJ. Small heterotrophic flagellates and aloricate ciliates seemed to be the main controllers of bacteria. Pico- and nanophytoplankton represented a significant alternative carbon pool for micrograzers, which grazing represented 67-90% of pico- and nano-algal production in all stations. Microzooplankton has, however, a

  2. Geochemical and Radiological Characteristics of Harvested Rainwater and Surficial Soil in El-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area, Western Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Diab, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with investigating the geochemical and radiological properties of surficial soil and harvested rainwater in Al-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area located in the western Mediterranean coastal zone of Egypt. Forty five water and soil samples were investigated. The surficial soil has heterogeneous physical, chemical and radiological properties and the texture was dominated by sand clayey loam and sandy loam. The salinities were varied from non-saline (EC=1.25 dS/m) to strongly saline (EC=38 dS/m) and the pH ranged from slightly alkaline (7.6) to strongly alkaline (8.95). The major part of soil samples has chemical composition dominated by Na + and Cl - ions and occasionally Mg2 + and SO 4 2 - ions indicating the existence of different chemical facies. The radioactivity level indicated the dominance of 40 K followed by 226 Ra and 232 Th radionuclides and the average radioactivities in the surficial soil samples were 16.59, 11.75, 290.80 and 1.79 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. The heterogeneity in major ion and radioactivity concentrations were attributed to the variation in chemical and radionuclide compositions of the exposed rocks in the area where the soils are originated. The harvested rainwater is fresh (EC ranged from 0.24 to 0.83 dS/m) and has alkalinity nature varied between slightly alkaline (pH=7.27) and alkaline (pH=8.69). Its chemical composition was prevailed by Na + and HCO 3 - ions and sometimes Ca 2+ and/or Mg 2+ and SO 4 2 - ions reflecting the presence of various hydrochemical facies. It shows the same trend of radionuclide dominance of soils ( 40 K > 226 Ra > 232 Th). The radioactivity concentrations in harvested water samples were 19, 1.01 and 14.0 Bq/l for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, while the water samples have 137 Cs concentrations under the detection limit and the water rocks interaction is the main reason causing the variation in major ions and radionuclide concentrations. The obtained chemical and

  3. 21,000 years of Ethiopian African monsoon variability recorded in sediments of the western Nile deep-sea fan: impact of the Nile freshwater inflow for the Mediterranean thermo-haline circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Marie; Colin, Christophe; Bernasconi, Stephano; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Rolland, Yann; Bosch, Delphine

    2014-05-01

    The Nile delta sedimentation constitutes a continuous high resolution (1.6 mm/year) record of Ethiopian African monsoon regime intensity. Multiproxy analyses performed on core MS27PT recovered in hemipelagic Nile sediment margin (Blue/White Nile River suspended matter frequency fluctuations during the last 21 cal. ka BP. The radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopes, clay mineralogy, bulk elemental composition and palynological analyses reveal large changes in source components, oscillating between a dominant aeolian Saharan contribution during the LGM and the Late Holocene (~4 to 2 cal. ka BP), a dominant Blue/Atbara Nile River contribution during the early Holocene (15 to 8.4 cal. ka BP) and a probable White Nile River contribution during the Middle Holocene (8.4 to 4 cal. ka BP). The following main features are highlighted: 1. The rapid shift from the LGM arid conditions to the African Humid Period (AHP) started at about 15 cal. ka BP. AHP extends until 8.4 cal. ka BP, and we suggest that the Ethiopian African Monsoon maximum between 12 and 8 cal. ka BP is responsible for a larger Blue/Atbara Nile sediment load and freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. 2. The transition between the AHP and the arid Late Holocene is gradual and occurs in two main phases between 8.4 and 6.5 cal. ka BP and 6.5 to 3.2 cal. ka BP. We suggest that the main rain belt shifted southward from 8.4 to ~4 cal. ka BP and was responsible for progressively reduced sediment load and freshwater input into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. 3. The aridification along the Nile catchments occurred from ~4 to 2 cal. ka BP. A dry period, which culminates at 3.2 cal. ka BP, and seems to coincide with a re-establishment of increased oceanic primary productivity in the western Mediterranean Sea. We postulate that the decrease in thermo-haline water Mediterranean circulation could be part of a response to huge volumes of fresh-water delivered principally by the Nile River from 12 to 8.4 cal. ka BP in the

  4. A revision of Meladema diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, with the description of a new species from the central Mediterranean based on molecules and morphology

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    David T. Bilton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meladema Laporte, 1835 are relatively large, stream-dwelling diving beetles, distributed widely in the Western Palaearctic, from the Atlantic Islands to Turkey, and from southern France and the Balkans to the central Sahara. In addition to the three previously recognised taxa (M. coriacea Laporte, 1835, M. imbricata (Wollaston, 1871 and M. lanio (Fabricius, 1775 we describe a new, cryptic, species from the central Mediterranean area, which can be distinguished from M. coriacea on both DNA sequence data and morphology, and provide a key to known species of the genus. Based on the study of genotyped material, both recent and archival, as well as the examination of a large number of museum specimens, we show that M. lepidoptera sp. n. occurs to the apparent exclusion of M. coriacea on Corsica, Sardinia and islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, but that both taxa are found in peninsular Italy, where they may occasionally hybridize. In the absence of the original type series, we designate a neotype for M. coriacea, and take the opportunity to designate a lectotype for M. lanio. Morphological variation in Meladema species is discussed, including that seen in known and presumed hybrids. Our study highlights the incomplete state of knowledge of Mediterranean biodiversity, even in relatively large, supposedly well-studied taxa.

  5. Aerosol variability over the Mediterranean basin from 2005-2012 POLDER-3/PARASOL and AERONET/PHOTONS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, Isabelle; Ducos, Fabrice; Dulac, François; Léon, Jean-François; Mallet, Marc; Tanré, Didier; Goloub, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    POLDER-3 (Polarization and Directionnality of the Earth's Reflectances) has been launched on board the PARASOL microsatellite in December 2004. Although the PARASOL orbit has been lowered twice (in September 2009 and in November 2011) compared to the other platforms of the A-Train constellation, POLDER observations continue, providing now more than seven years of innovative retrievals of aerosol properties from space. In this study we focus on analyzing POLDER-3 capabilities to derive both aerosol loads (Total Aerosol Optical Thickness) and size properties (fine and coarse spherical/non-spherical Aerosol Optical Thickness, Angström coefficients) over oceanic surfaces. This analysis, as part of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, focus on the Mediterranean basin, a region under the influence of a complex mixture of aerosols from different sources. Especially we aim to investigate the respective contributions of (i) pollution aerosols (emitted by industry and urban environments of some European regions or megacities surrounding the basin), (ii) carbonaceous particles (from biomass burning events), (iii) mineral dust exported from arid and semi-arid regions of North Africa. In a first step, our study consists in an analysis of aerosol variability retrieved from AERONET/PHOTONS photometer records from selected sites located in Western part of the Mediterranean basin (i.e., Soust-East of France, Spain, Corsica/Sardinia), as well as central part (i.e., Italia and Lampedusa), and Eastern part (i.e.,Greece and Turkey). These measurements provide a unique characterization of both aerosol load (aerosol optical depth) and properties (size distribution and absorption though single scattering albedo) and their temporal variability over each part of the Mediterranean basin. The second step focus on a regional validation of the PARASOL monthly aerosol products by comparison with these equivalent and selected ground-based AERONET

  6. Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Salis; Alan A. Ager; Bachisio Arca; Mark A. Finney; Valentina Bacciu; Pierpaolo Duce; Donatella. Spano

    2012-01-01

    We used simulation modelling to analyze spatial variation in wildfire exposure relative to key social and economic features on the island of Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia contains a high density of urban interfaces, recreational values and highly valued agricultural areas that are increasingly being threatened by severe wildfires. Historical fire data and wildfire...

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  8. Dynamics of suprabenthos off the Ebro Delta (Catalan Sea: western Mediterranean): Spatial 13 and temporal patterns and relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Palanques, Albert; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat

    2007-12-01

    Dynamics of suprabenthos (hyperbenthos) composition and biomass have been simultaneously analyzed at two sites (S1, S2) off the Ebro River Delta (western Mediterranean). The stations, separated by ca. 5 km, differed in terms of depth (S1, 47 m; S2, 61 m), distance to the river mouth (S2 south of S1 and farther from the mouth) and fishing activity (S1 is a fishing ground; S2 is in an area closed to fishing). Peracarids (gammaridean amphipods, mysids, and cumaceans) were dominant among suprabenthic taxa. Seasonality was the main explanation for changes in taxonomic composition, with two seasonal groups indicated by MDS analyses (late summer-autumn, August-September, and November 2003; early summer, June and July samples). Peracarids at both S1 and S2 showed a peak of abundance in early July, with the highest densities reaching 5400 individuals (100 m) -2 at S2. There was a sharp decrease of density in late July (S1) and August (S2), then an increase in August (S1) and in September (S2), respectively. A secondary peak of abundance occurred in November (S1) and December (S2). There was, therefore, a similar picture in the dynamics of suprabenthic peracarids at both sites, though with a delay of 1 month at the deeper S2. This pattern coincided with changes in river discharge (specifically, a decrease of suprabenthos when influx was below 200 m 3 s -1 in the period June-September 2003), and with the formation of a thermal gradient (also in June-September 2003) between S1 and S2 associated with the 15 °C isotherm. In addition, the decrease of suprabenthos in late July-August also coincided with the massive occurrence of mucilaginous aggregates close to the bottom (at between 0 and 4 m above the bottom), in the usual habitat of suprabenthos. C/N ratios in sediments (an indicator of the degree of degradation of organic matter (OM)) increased during this peak abundance of mucilaginous aggregates. The impoverishment of sediments in total organic carbon (TOC) was parallel to

  9. Optical, physical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to a coastal site in the western Mediterranean: a focus on primary marine aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claeys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED campaign (summer 2013, ground-based in situ observations were conducted at the Ersa site (northern tip of Corsica; 533 m a.s.l. to characterise the optical, physical and chemical properties of aerosols. During the observation period, a major influence of primary marine aerosols was detected (22–26 June, with a mass concentration reaching up to 6.5 µg m−3 and representing more than 40 % of the total PM10 mass concentration. Its relatively low ratio of chloride to sodium (average of 0.57 indicates a fairly aged sea salt aerosol at Ersa. In this work, an original data set, obtained from online real-time instruments (ATOFMS, PILS-IC has been used to characterise the ageing of primary marine aerosols (PMAs. During this PMA period, the mixing of fresh and aged PMAs was found to originate from both local and regional (Gulf of Lion emissions, according to local wind measurements and FLEXPART back trajectories. Two different aerosol regimes have been identified: a dust outbreak (dust originating from Algeria/Tunisia, and a pollution period with aerosols originating from eastern Europe, which includes anthropogenic and biomass burning sources (BBP. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the observed aerosols, as well as their local shortwave (SW direct radiative effect (DRE in clear-sky conditions, are compared for these three periods in order to assess the importance of the direct radiative impact of PMAs compared to other sources above the western Mediterranean Basin. As expected, AERONET retrievals indicate a relatively low local SW DRF during the PMA period with mean values of −11 ± 4 at the surface and −8 ± 3 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA. In comparison, our results indicate that the dust outbreak observed at our site during the campaign, although of moderate intensity (AOD of 0.3–0.4 at 440 nm and column-integrated SSA of 0.90–0.95, induced a local

  10. First molecular characterization of canine parvovirus strains in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Giudici, S; Cubeddu, T; Giagu, A; Sanna, G; Rocca, S; Oggiano, A

    2017-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is responsible of acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in young dogs. CPV-2 emerged in 1978 in the USA, but new antigenic types, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, have completely replaced the original type. In this study, we analyzed 81 animals collected in Sardinia, Italy. The VP2 sequence analysis of 27 positive samples showed that all antigenic CPV-2 types are circulating. CPV-2b seems to be the most widespread variant, followed by CPV-2a. Furthermore, 12 CPV-2b strains displayed further amino acid substitutions and formed a separate cluster in a phylogenetic tree, indicating regional genetic variation.

  11. Calamintha sandaliotica (Lamiaceae a new species from Sardinia

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    Brullo, Salvatore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Calamintha sandaliotica is described as a species new to science and illustrated. It occurs on calcareous rocky crevices in SW Sardinia. Its ecology, chorology and taxonomical relationships are examined. A key to European Calamintha is provided.Se describe e ilustra la nueva especie Calamintha sandaliotica, característica de los acantilados calizos de la parte suroccidental de Cerdeña. Se examina su ecología, corología y las relaciones taxonómicas. Se presenta también una clave para las especies europeas del género Calamintha.

  12. Chemical fingerprinting and source tracing of obsidian: the central Mediterranean trade in black gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykot, Robert H

    2002-08-01

    Chemical fingerprinting using major or trace element composition is used to characterize the Mediterranean island sources of obsidian and can even differentiate as many as nine flows in the Monte Arci region of Sardinia. Analysis of significant numbers of obsidian artifacts from Neolithic sites in the central Mediterranean reveals specific patterns of source exploitation and suggests particular trade mechanisms and routes. The use of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, the electron microprobe, neutron activation analysis, and laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry are emphasized in order to produce quantitative results while minimizing damage to valuable artifacts.

  13. The tropical African hermit crab Pagurus mbizi (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguridae in the Western Mediterranean Sea: a new alien species or filling gaps in the knowledge of the distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. GARCIA RASO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence in the European Mediterranean Sea of a tropical Atlantic hermit crab, Pagurus mbizi (Forest, 1955, based on the capture of twenty specimens (all sizes and ovigerous females collected along the northern shores of the Alboran Sea, which proof the existence of a well-established population of this species, and the importance of this geographic area as a transitional and settlement zone for Atlantic species, which makes the Alboran Sea one of the richest marine biodiversity areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Some morphological comparative data with the closely related hermit crab Pagurus pubescentulus are given. In addition, data on its habitat and geographical distribution, as well as the probable pathways of introduction, are commented.

  14. The planktonic food web of the Bizerte lagoon (south-western Mediterranean) during summer: I. Spatial distribution under different anthropogenic pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaili, A; Grami, B; Niquil, N; Gosselin, M; Hamel, D; Troussellier, Marc; Mabrouk, H

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the trophic interactions of the planktonic food web were investigated during summer 2004 in a coastal lagoon of southwestern Mediterranean Sea. Biomasses of planktonic components as well as bacterial and phytoplankton production and grazing by microzooplankton were quantified at four stations (MA, MB, MJ and R) inside the lagoon. Station MA was impacted by urban discharge, station MB was influenced by industrial activity, station MJ was located in a shellfish farming sector,...

  15. Anthelmintics efficacy against intestinal strongyles in horses of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles (IS are the most important parasites of equids, due to their high prevalence worldwide, pathogenicity and the spread of drug-resistant populations. Despite the large number of horses bred in Sardinia Island, Italy, no data are available on the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds in the control of horse strongylosis. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of five commercial anthelmintic formulations containing fenbendazole (FBZ, pyrantel (PYR, moxidectin (MOX and two ivermectin formulations (IVM1 and IVM2 against IS in Sardinia by performing a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and investigating the egg reappearance period (ERP after treatment. In total, 74 horses from 7 farms were examined. Coprocultures performed for individual fecal samples collected at the day of the treatment revealed that cyathostomins were the predominant parasitic species (98.6%. The FECR for all horses belonging to the treatment groups after two weeks was ≥95% with a 95% C.I. >90%. The expected ERP did not decrease in any of the treatment group as FECR values 90% for the entire duration of the trial until D150. The results of the present survey indicate that drug-resistant cyathostomin populations are not present in the examined horse population, contrariwise to what observed in other Italian and European regions. The reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Potential Biogas Production from Artichoke Byproducts in Sardinia, Italy

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    Fabio De Menna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the potential biogas production, both in terms of CH4 and theoretical energy potential, from globe artichoke agricultural byproducts in Sardinia. Field data about the productivity of byproducts were collected on five artichoke varieties cultivated in Sardinia, to assess the biomethane production of their aboveground non-food parts (excluding the head. Moreover, secondary data from previous studies and surveys at regional scale were collected to evaluate the potential biogas production of the different districts. Fresh globe artichoke residues yielded, on average, 292.2 Nm3·tDOM−1, with dissimilarities among cultivars. Fresh samples were analyzed in two series: (a wet basis; and (b wet basis with catalytic enzymes application. Enzymes proved to have some beneficial effects in terms of anticipated biomethane availability. At the regional level, ab. 20 × 106 Nm3 CH4 could be produced, corresponding to the 60% of current installed capacity. However, districts potentials show some differences, depending on the specific biomass partitioning and on the productivity of cultivated varieties. Regional assessments should encompass the sensitiveness of results to agro-economic variables and the economic impacts of globe artichoke residue use in the current regional biogas sector.

  17. Green Infrastructure and Ecological Corridors: A Regional Study Concerning Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Cannas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach to identify a multifunctional green infrastructure (GI on the basis of four values (conservation value, natural value, recreation value and anthropic heritage that represent many functions (biodiversity conservation, supply of ecosystem services, recreation, identity building performed by the landscape. By taking the Italian region of Sardinia as a case study, we argue that the methodology can support the making of landscape plans as understood in the European Landscape Convention. Moreover, we propose and implement a methodology to identify ecological corridors (ECs connecting Natura 2000 sites (N2Ss, based on the prioritization of functional land patches related to their suitability to ecosystem services delivery, paying particular attention to biodiversity maintenance and enhancement, and taking Sardinia as spatial regional context. The methodology consists of two steps: (i identifying the most suitable patches to be included in ECs on the basis of their connectivity, that is, on their negative attitude towards contributing to landscape fragmentation; (ii assessing, through a discrete-choice-model, the suitability of these ECs to be included in a regional GI, starting from the territorial taxonomy based on biodiversity characteristics related to N2Ss, habitat suitability, and recreational and landscape potentials.

  18. Relative sea level in the Western Mediterranean basin: A regional test of the ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model and a constraint on late Holocene Antarctic deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Keven; Peltier, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a region of special interest in the study of past and present relative sea level evolution, given its location south of the ice sheets that covered large fractions of Northern Europe during the last glaciation, the large number of biological, geological and archaeological sea level indicators that have been retrieved from its coastal regions, as well as its high density of modern coastal infrastructure. Models of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) process provide reconstructions of past relative sea level evolution, and can be tested for validity against past sea level indicators from the region. It is demonstrated herein that the latest ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model of the GIA process, the North American component of which was refined using a full suite of geophysical observables, is able to reconcile the vast majority of uniformly analyzed relative sea level constraints available for the Western part of the Mediterranean basin, a region to which it was not tuned. We also revisit herein the previously published interpretations of relative sea level information obtained from Roman-era coastal Mediterranean "fish tanks", analyze the far-field influence of the rate of late Holocene Antarctic ice sheet melting history on the exceptionally detailed relative sea level history available from southern Tunisia, and extend the analysis to complementary constraints on the history of Antarctic ice-sheet melting available from islands in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The analyses reported herein provide strong support for the global "exportability" of the ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model, a result that speaks directly to the ability of spherically symmetric models of the internal viscoelastic structure to explain globally distributed observations, while also identifying isolated regions of remaining misfit which will benefit from further study.

  19. Risk assessment for parasites in cultures of Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae) in the Western Mediterranean: prospects of cross infection with Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Neus; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E

    2014-08-29

    The sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo is of interest in Mediterranean fish farming. Disease is an important problem because parasites can spread quickly in culture conditions and fish often develop high parasite burdens. Here we assess the risk that documented parasites pose to the sustainability of D. puntazzo farming. This study specifically considers metazoan and protist parasites recorded from wild and farmed D. puntazzo in scientific literature. Risk assessment studies involve the identification, characterization and qualitative quantification of the risk in question (parasitoses in this case) and the probability of establishment. We considered the parasite species which may be difficult to manage as a priority for research into potential management strategies. Those parasites which could be transmitted from cultures of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were also included in this study. Four groups of parasites represented a risk to D. puntazzo farming, ranging from moderate to high: Ciliophora, Myxozoa, Monogenea and Copepoda. Three parasite species were considered high risk to D. puntazzo cultures: Amyloodinium sp., Cryptocaryon sp. and Enteromyxum leei. These species were responsible for high mortalities in cultures of these and other fish species. In addition Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax entail a moderate risk to D. puntazzo Mediterranean farms. No important episodes have been related to caligids and isopods in Mediterranean sparids, nevertheless they should be properly managed to prevent future problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifestyle and nutrition related to male longevity in Sardinia: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Poulain, M; Errigo, A; Masala, S; Pietrobelli, A; Battistini, N C; Maioli, M

    2013-03-01

    A demographic analysis in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia revealed marked differences in extreme longevity across the 377 municipalities and particularly identified a mountain inner area where the proportion of oldest subjects among male population has one of the highest validated value worldwide. The cause(s) of this unequal distribution of male longevity may be attributed to a concurrence of environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors. In this study we focussed on some lifestyle and nutrition variables recorded in the island's population in early decades of 20th century, when agricultural and pastoral economy was still prevalent, and try to verify through ecological spatial models if they may account for the variability in male longevity. By computing the Extreme Longevity Index (the proportion of newborns in a given municipality who reach age 100) the island's territory was divided in two areas with relatively higher and lower level of population longevity. Most nutritional variables do not show any significant difference between these two areas whereas a significant difference was found with respect to pastoralism (P = 0.0001), physical activity estimated by the average slope of the territory in each municipality (P = 0.0001), and average daily distance required by the active population to reach the usual workplace (P = 0.0001). Overall, these findings suggest that factors affecting the average energy expenditure of male population such as occupational activity and geographic characteristics of the area where the population mainly resides, are important in explaining the spatial variation of Sardinian extreme longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  2. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  3. Ecomorphological and taphonomic gradients in clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages along a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf from the early Miocene of northern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mancosu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clypeasteroid echinoids are widespread and abundant within Miocene sedimentary sequences of the Mediterranean area within both siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Herein, three clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages from the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession of the Mores Formation (lower Miocene cropping out within the Porto Torres Basin (northern Sardinia are described. These assemblages were compared to previously described clypeasteroid-bearing deposits from the Miocene of northern Sardinia with the purpose of investigating their palaeoecology and taphonomy along a shelf gradient. These goals are accomplished by various methods including (i logging sedimentary facies, (ii analysing the functional morphology of sea urchin skeletons, (iii comparing the relative abundance of taxa and taphonomic features, and (iv studying associated fauna, flora, and trace fossils. The clypeasteroid-bearing deposits differ greatly with respect to echinoid diversity, accompanying fauna and flora, sedimentological signatures, and taphonomic features. They also show variations in depositional environments and the mechanism of formation of the deposits. Three different shelf settings are distinguished: littoral, inner sublittoral, and outer sublittoral environments. Furthermore, an ecomorphological gradient along the shelf is recognized with respect to echinoid taxa and their morphologies. This gradient ranges from shallow water to a moderately deep shelf and is interpreted with respect to both abiotic and biotic factors as well as the taphonomy of the echinoid tests.

  4. Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs, representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits.

  5. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.

  6. The dominance of cyanobacteria in Mediterranean hypereutrophic lagoons: a case study of Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pulina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An intense proliferation of cyanobacteria in Cabras Lagoon was investigated over a period of two years (July 2007 to June 2009. The influence of environmental and meteorological parameters in the lagoon on temporal variations in cyanobacteria orders was assessed. For 17 months, Chroococcales was the only cyanobacterial order observed in the lagoon. Cyanobium-type cells (Reynolds functional group Z were the most abundant phytoplankton taxon during this period. In the following months, drastic changes in the cyanobacteria assemblages occurred simultaneously with constant, intense rainfall that led to a sudden drop in the lagoon’s salinity. The succession of autumn–winter Oscillatoriales (Planktothrix sp. and Pseudanabaena catenata; Reynolds functional group S1 and late spring growth of Nostocales (Aphanizomenon gracile, Aphanizomenon aphanizomenoides, and Anabaenopsis circularis; Reynolds functional group H1 was monitored. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was carried out to quantify the influence of environmental variables, and indicated strong relationships between Chroococcales and salinity, Oscillatoriales and higher values of SRP and the DIN/SRP ratio, and Nostocales and lower nutrient concentrations, the DIN/SRP ratio and salinity.

  7. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  8. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  9. Power for southern Italy: hvdc Sardinia to mainland 200 MW scheme now commissioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-02-16

    Transmission of the maximum rated power of 200 MW over the hvdc system which now links Sardinia with the Italian Mainland marks the successful completion of a notable British Export contract by English Electric. The link was commissioned on February 1. The Sardinia scheme is the seventh hvdc scheme to be completed in the world and is the first to be engineered by submarine cable.

  10. Exploring fire dynamics with BFAST approach: case studies in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of wildfire and extreme post-fire climatic events, (e.g. droughts or torrential rainfall), may result in long windows of disturbance - challenging the overall resilience of Mediterranean ecosystems and communities. The notion that increased fire frequency and severity may reduce ecosystem resilience has received much attention in Mediterranean regions in recent decades. Careful evaluation of vegetation recovery and landscape regeneration after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. In this study, an extension of Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST) is proposed as an ideal approach to monitor change and assess fire dynamics at the landscape level based on analysis of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, TERRA) time series. To this end, satellite images of three vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on areas affected by wildfires in the Sardinia region (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI) and fire characteristics (e.g. pre-fire trend & VI, change magnitude, current VI) were extracted to characterize the post-fire evolution of each site within a fifteen-year period (2000-2015). Resilience was estimated using a classic linear function, whereby recovery rates were compared to regional climate data (e.g. water balance) and local landscape components (e.g.topography, land use and land cover). The methodology was applied according to land cover type (e.g. mixed forest, maquis, shrubland, pasture) within each fire site and highlighted the challenge of isolating effects and quantifying the role of fire regime characteristics on resilience in a dynamic way when considering large, heterogeneous areas. Preliminary findings can be outlined as follows: I. NBR showed it was most effective at

  11. The most ancient lagomorphs of Sardinia: An overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelone, Ch.; Čermák, Stanislav; Kotsakis, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, July/September (2015), s. 287-296 ISSN 0016-6995 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : insularity * Leporidae * Mediterranean * Ochotonidae * palaeobiogeography * phylogeny * taxonomy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.151, year: 2015

  12. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  13. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  14. Modelling organic aerosol concentrations and properties during ChArMEx summer campaigns of 2012 and 2013 in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chrit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, a measurement site was set up at a remote site (Ersa on Corsica Island in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Measurement campaigns performed during the summers of 2012 and 2013 showed high organic aerosol concentrations, mostly from biogenic origin. This work aims to represent the organic aerosol concentrations and properties (oxidation state and hydrophilicity using the air-quality model Polyphemus with a surrogate approach for secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Biogenic precursors are isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this work, the following model oxidation products of monoterpenes are added: (i a carboxylic acid (MBTCA to represent multi-generation oxidation products in the low-NOx regime, (ii organic nitrate chemistry and (iii extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs formed by ozonolysis. The model shows good agreement of measurements of organic concentrations for both 2012 and 2013 summer campaigns. The modelled oxidation property and hydrophilic organic carbon properties of the organic aerosols also agree reasonably well with the measurements. The influence of the different chemical processes added to the model on the oxidation level of organics is studied. Measured and simulated water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC concentrations show that even at a remote site next to the sea, about 64 % of the organic carbon is soluble. The concentrations of WSOC vary with the origins of the air masses and the composition of organic aerosols. The marine organic emissions only contribute to a few percent of the organic mass in PM1, with maxima above the sea.

  15. Modelling organic aerosol concentrations and properties during ChArMEx summer campaigns of 2012 and 2013 in the western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrit, Mounir; Sartelet, Karine; Sciare, Jean; Pey, Jorge; Marchand, Nicolas; Couvidat, Florian; Sellegri, Karine; Beekmann, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    In the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, a measurement site was set up at a remote site (Ersa) on Corsica Island in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Measurement campaigns performed during the summers of 2012 and 2013 showed high organic aerosol concentrations, mostly from biogenic origin. This work aims to represent the organic aerosol concentrations and properties (oxidation state and hydrophilicity) using the air-quality model Polyphemus with a surrogate approach for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Biogenic precursors are isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this work, the following model oxidation products of monoterpenes are added: (i) a carboxylic acid (MBTCA) to represent multi-generation oxidation products in the low-NOx regime, (ii) organic nitrate chemistry and (iii) extremely low-volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs) formed by ozonolysis. The model shows good agreement of measurements of organic concentrations for both 2012 and 2013 summer campaigns. The modelled oxidation property and hydrophilic organic carbon properties of the organic aerosols also agree reasonably well with the measurements. The influence of the different chemical processes added to the model on the oxidation level of organics is studied. Measured and simulated water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations show that even at a remote site next to the sea, about 64 % of the organic carbon is soluble. The concentrations of WSOC vary with the origins of the air masses and the composition of organic aerosols. The marine organic emissions only contribute to a few percent of the organic mass in PM1, with maxima above the sea.

  16. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  17. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  18. Extreme Wildfire Spread and Behaviour: Case Studies from North Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, M.; Arca, B.; Ager, A.; Fois, C.; Bacciu, V.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, fire seasons are usually characterized by the occurrence of one or more days with extreme environmental conditions, such as heat waves associated with strong winds. On these days, fires can quickly get out of hand originating large and severe wildfires. In these cases, containment and extinguishment phases are critical, considering that the imperative goal is to keep fire crews, people and animals safe. In this work we will present a set of large and severe wildfires occurred with extreme environmental conditions in the northern area of Sardinia. The most recent wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 13, 2011 in the Oschiri municipality (40°43' N; 9°06' E), and burned about 2,500 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods in few hours. The second wildfire we will present was ignited on July 23, 2009 in the Bonorva municipality (40°25' N; 8° 46' E), and was responsible for the death of two people and several damages to houses, animals and farms. This wildfire lasted on July 25, and burned about 10,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures; the most of the area was burned during the first day. The last wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 23, 2007 in the Oniferi municipality (40°16' N; 9° 16' E) and burned about 9,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods; about 8,000 ha were burned after 11 hours of propagation. All these wildfires were ignited in days characterized by very hot temperatures associated to the effect of air masses moving from inland North Africa to the Mediterranean Basin, and strong winds from west-south west. This is one of the typical weather pattern associated with large and severe wildfires in North Sardinia, and is well documented in the last years. Weather conditions, fuels and topography factors related to each case study will be accurately analyzed. Moreover, a detailed overview of observed fire spread and behavior and post-fire vegetation recovery will be presented. The fire spread and

  19. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cau

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  20. Anatomical study of animal remains from Phoenician-Punic amphorae found in the Santa Giusta Pond, Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Portas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the underwater excavations carried out in the Santa Giusta Pond, near Oristano, Sardinia, a significant amount of Phoenician- Punic materials was brought to light including amphorae (dating back to 7th-2nd century BC and vegetal and animal remains. All of these archaeological finds may come from Othoca, an important Phoenician- Punic city on the eastern shore of the pond, geographically corresponding with the modern-day town of Santa Giusta. Animal materials consist of more than 3000 very well-preserved remains, belonging to sheep (Ovis aries, goat (Capra hircus and cattle (Bos taurus. Bone analyses allowed reconstructing the slaughtering methods, as well as manipulation procedures carried out to preserve meat in order to be exported overseas. Although pig (Sus scrofa played an important economical role in other Sardinian Phoenician-Punic settlements, in this archaeological context this species is absent, suggesting that the meat contained in the amphorae was probably destined to other areas of the Mediterranean basin, where people did not eat pork.

  1. THE TYRRHENIAN SECTION OF SAN GIOVANNI DI SINIS (SARDINIA:STRATIGRAPHIC RECORD OF AN IRREGULAR SINGLE HIGH STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANO LECCA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis of the most representative Upper Pleistocene (Tyrrhenian, MIS 5e section of San Giovanni di Sinis (Oristano, Sardinia has provided a more detailed genetic stratigraphy of a low wave energy beach and temperate lagoon up to emerged peri-lagoonal facies deposits. These peri-lagoonal facies contain remains of fossil vertebrates, which, though few and fragmentary, bear witness to an at least temporary freshwater palaeoenvironment and the presence of deers and terrapins. Besides, the stratigraphy of this outcrop shows shoreface-backshore sandstones overlaying an erosion surface cut on the vertebrate-bearing layers. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the succession have provided support to a new eustatic interpretation significance. In fact, there appears to be evidence of one irregular single eustatic highstand, rather than two eustatic peaks as previously believed. The facies evolution and the local stratigraphic disconformities are interpreted as being associated with a lateral shift of the depositional environment within the same system formed during the MIS 5e sea level variations. As sea water level continued to rise so an erosional unconformity, caused by wave ravinement, formed between the low wave energy beach-lagoon sequence and the successive wave dominated beach facies sequence. This interpretation is supported by comparison with other sections of the Tyrrhenian in western Sardinia. The maximum sea level attained during the Tyrrhenian stage is a clear indication of a warm-temperate climate which can be correlated to the well known orbital interglacial configuration when the eustatic signal of Greenland's ice sheet melting occurred. SHORT NOTES

  2. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  3. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  4. The environment of the last hunters-gatherers and first agro-pastoralists in the western Mediterranean region, between the Rhone and the Northern Apennines (7th - 6th millennium cal. BCE): Attractiveness of the landscape units and settlement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battentier, Janet; Binder, Didier; Guillon, Sebastien; Maggi, Roberto; Negrino, Fabio; Sénépart, Ingrid; Tozzi, Carlo; Théry-Parisot, Isabelle; Delhon, Claire

    2018-03-01

    In the north western Mediterranean, in the area between the Rhone River and the Northern Apennines, the last Mesolithic societies (Castelnovian) and the first Neolithic societies (Impressed Ware or Impressa) coexisted during the first half of the 6th millennium cal. BCE (Before Common Era). Linking the two settlement distribution patterns (mainly high lands and low lands for the Castelnovian versus Mediterranean coastal areas for the Impressa) to their specific environmental backgrounds during that period of coexistence enables us to document the attractiveness of the various available landscape units as a function of the subsistence practices (hunting, fishing and gathering versus agro-pastoralism). Pollen and charcoal data from 41 archaeological sites along with contemporaneous natural (off archaeological sites) sequences (hereafter referred to as "off-site sequences") from three windows (Provence/Western Liguria, the middle Rhone valley/Prealps and Southern Alps, Eastern Liguria/Northern Apennines) were examined in order to reconstruct the vegetal landscape in the surroundings of the Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements between 6500 and 5400 cal. BCE. The importance of environmental versus cultural factors in the settlement preferences of both groups is discussed in order to document our reflection concerning non-consensual issues, such as the existence of interaction or avoidance behaviours or the sharing (or not) of parts or all of the territory and of its natural resources. The results notably highlight the expansion of fir forests that, based on ecological and accessibility criteria, could be considered as rather inauspicious for settlement and hunting as well as for pastoral activities. This expansion may have influenced the settlement patterns of both cultural complexes, leading populations to locate their settlements principally within landscape units that remained clear of extensive fir forests. It appears that, despite being motivated by the prevailing

  5. Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) during a one-year survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.

  6. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  7. Interactive Effect of UVR and Phosphorus on the Coastal Phytoplankton Community of the Western Mediterranean Sea: Unravelling Eco-Physiological Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presentación Carrillo

    Full Text Available Some of the most important effects of global change on coastal marine systems include increasing nutrient inputs and higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm, which could affect primary producers, a key trophic link to the functioning of marine food webs. However, interactive effects of both factors on the phytoplankton community have not been assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. An in situ factorial experiment, with two levels of ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR+PAR vs. PAR and nutrients (control vs. P-enriched, was performed to evaluate single and UVR×P effects on metabolic, enzymatic, stoichiometric and structural phytoplanktonic variables. While most phytoplankton variables were not affected by UVR, dissolved phosphatase (APAEX and algal P content increased in the presence of UVR, which was interpreted as an acclimation mechanism of algae to oligotrophic marine waters. Synergistic UVR×P interactive effects were positive on photosynthetic variables (i.e., maximal electron transport rate, ETRmax, but negative on primary production and phytoplankton biomass because the pulse of P unmasked the inhibitory effect of UVR. This unmasking effect might be related to greater photodamage caused by an excess of electron flux after a P pulse (higher ETRmax without an efficient release of carbon as the mechanism to dissipate the reducing power of photosynthetic electron transport.

  8. Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED summer 2013 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr is a collaborative research program federating international activities to investigate Mediterranean regional chemistry-climate interactions. A special observing period (SOP-1a including intensive airborne measurements was performed in the framework of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED project during the Mediterranean dry season over the western and central Mediterranean basins, with a focus on aerosol-radiation measurements and their modeling. The SOP-1a took place from 11 June to 5 July 2013. Airborne measurements were made by both the ATR-42 and F-20 French research aircraft operated from Sardinia (Italy and instrumented for in situ and remote-sensing measurements, respectively, and by sounding and drifting balloons, launched in Minorca. The experimental setup also involved several ground-based measurement sites on islands including two ground-based reference stations in Corsica and Lampedusa and secondary monitoring sites in Minorca and Sicily. Additional measurements including lidar profiling were also performed on alert during aircraft operations at EARLINET/ACTRIS stations at Granada and Barcelona in Spain, and in southern Italy. Remote-sensing aerosol products from satellites (MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS and from the AERONET/PHOTONS network were also used. Dedicated meso-scale and regional modeling experiments were performed in relation to this observational effort. We provide here an overview of the different surface and aircraft observations deployed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED period and of associated modeling studies together with an analysis of the synoptic conditions that determined the aerosol emission and transport. Meteorological conditions observed during this campaign (moderate temperatures and southern flows were not favorable to producing high levels of atmospheric pollutants or intense

  9. A Mediterranean atmospheric observatory in Corsica within the framework of HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D.

    2009-04-01

    Corsica is an island, located in the remote western Mediterranean Sea, regularly affected by intense meteorological events: windstorms, heavy precipitation, waves and coastal erosion, drought, forest fire, and lightning as a result of its topography. All these events are crucial for the economic activity of Corsica, which is mainly based on tourism, nautical activities, agriculture and farming. In spite of recent improvements in operational forecasting, numerical weather predictions regularly fail to reproduce the intensity and distribution of precipitation of heavy rainstorms at the mesoscale. Local weather forecasters still have difficulties in predicting such precipitation events, particularly over the sea close to complex topography. Corsica is also relevant for the study of most of intense precipitation cases affecting continental south eastern France and northern Italy, which are generally characterized by low level warm and wet fluxes from the south channelled not only by the continental orography but also by the Corsica-Sardinia island ridges. An upstream following of such heavy rainfall further south in the Mediterranean basin should allow a preconditioning phase study. Its geographical situation would allow Corsica to play the as yet unexploited role of a "sentry" for these events. In addition, Corsica is located near the most cyclogenetic area of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition and due to the presence of various aerosol types over the Mediterranean region, such as mineral dust particles (mostly transported from the Saharan-Libyan deserts), anthropogenic aerosols (due to urban and industrial activities along the Mediterranean coast), but also biomass burning from forest fires and marine aerosols, atmospheric particles are likely to have a significant impact on the regional climate and on the hydrological cycle over the Med. basin. In parallel and due to high deposition fluxes of desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols (which sources are close

  10. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  11. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  12. Gravity modelling of the lower crust in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Quarta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an example is given of an application of statistical techniques to the Bouguer anomalies analysis in order to design a simple crustal model using few a priori assumptions. All gravity measurements carried out in Sardinia have been collected and processed. The Bouguer anomalies have been calculated according to local density estimates. Spectral analysis of the Bouguer anomalies has been carried out along selected profiles in order to estimate the mean depth of the Moho discontinuity and that of an infracrustal discontinuity. The use of this technique inferred the presence of a discontinuity at a mean depth of ~ 28 km, interpreted as Moho and the likely presence of an infracrustal discontinuity at a mean depth of ~18 km, interpreted as the upper-lower crust transition. In order to roughly reconstruct the shape of these interfaces, 2D inversion techniques were applied to the large wavelength components of the Bouguer anomalies, relative to profiles oriented along the E-W direction, extracted from low-pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps. The density model obtained is compatible with some velocity models achieved from the interpretation of the seismic refraction profiles carried out within the European Geotraverse project.

  13. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues.

  14. Total Organic Carbon Distribution and Bacterial Cycling Across A Geostrophic Front In Mediterranean Sea. Implications For The Western Basin Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Bianchi, M.; Dafner, E.; Lefevre, D.; Bruyant, F.; Prieur, L.

    We investigated the dynamic of the total organic carbon (TOC) pool and the role it played in the carbon cycle during winter 1997-1998 in the Almeria-Oran jet-front (AOF) system resulting from the spreading of Atlantic surface water through the Gibraltar Strait in the Alboran Sea (Southwestern Mediterranean Sea). We determined TOC by using high temperature combustion technique (HTC) and bacterial produc- tion (BP; via [3H] leucine incorporation) during two legs in the frontal area. We also estimated labile TOC (l-TOC) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) by performing TOC biodegradation experiments on board during the cruise whereas water column semi-labile (sl-TOC), and refractory-TOC were determined from TOC profile exami- nation. These results are discussed in relation with current velocity measured by using accoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). Lowest TOC stocks (6330-6853 mmol C m-2) over 0-100 m were measured in the northern side of the geostrophic Jet which is also the highest dynamic area (horizontal speed of 80 cm s-1 in the first 100 m di- rected eastward). Our results indicated variable turnover times of sl-TOC across the Jet-Front system, which might be explained by different coupling of primary produc- tion and bacterial production observed in these areas. We also estimated TOC and sl-TOC transports within the Jet core off the Alboran Sea as well as potential CO2 production through bacterial respiration produced from sl-TOC assimilation by het- erotrophic bacteria.

  15. Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): Evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchida, G.; Oliveri, E.; Angelone, M.; Bellanca, A.; Censi, P.; D'Elia, M.; Neri, R.; Placenti, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Mazzola, S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Coastal recent sediments from the Strait of Sicily showed elevated concentrations of REE associated to high Th concentrations. The shale-normalized REE + Y patterns are characterized by MREE enrichments relative to HREE and LREE, manifested with a convexity along the patterns. Sm n /La n ratio, indicative of MREE enrichments, showed a significant correlation with the Th concentration. This positive correlation supports the origin of these elements by phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. Research highlights: → REE + Y contents are higher in onshore than offshore sediments. → Anomaly in sediments near southwestern Sicilian coast (site 134): high REE + Y. → REE + Y patterns show Middle REE enrichments (convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements). → Sm n /La n, measure of MREE enrichments, is correlated with high Th concentrations. → Anomalies are associated with the input of phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents. - Abstract: Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE + Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE + Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE + Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 μg g -1 ) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 μg g -1 ). Plot of shale-normalized REE + Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum

  16. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast.

  17. Reconstruction of water mass properties of the Western Mediterranean using stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) from Pinna nobilis shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-March, Jose Rafael; Surge, Donna; Tena-Medialdea, Jose; Torres, Javi; Garcia-Martinez, Micaela

    2017-04-01

    We analysed the stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) from the calcite of the outer prismatic layer of 8 Pinna nobilis shells at a rate of c. 12-16 samples/year for years between 1997 and 2013. These produced 8 time series between 4 and 16 years long. The empty shells had been collected in two Spanish marine protected areas, Tabarca Island in Alicante and Columbretes Islands in Castellón (4 specimens each). For all shells we constrained the time of death within at least a halve year window. The present study completes previous calibrations by using recorded seawater temperature data during at least two years for each site, coinciding with part of the analysed periods in the shells. Our preliminary results clearly reflect the seasonality of the signal in δ18O values for the entire ontogeny of the individuals studied. However, one specimen from Tabarca Island sampled between years 4 and 11 (corresponding to real age) shows a clear ontogenetic change, with an abrupt reduction in the amplitude of the signal from age 6 to 11 for both δ18O and δ13C values. We hypothesize this pattern relates to the onset of first gonad maturation. Values of δ13C track δ18O values in most individuals, but 3 specimens show low amplitude. For all time series, δ13C values show a decreasing slope with ontogeny similar to previous observations in P. nobilis and other bivalves. Estimated seawater temperature from our δ18O time series reveals the potential of P. nobilis shells as valuable archives of Mediterranean temperature reconstructions in the context of climate change.

  18. Flowstones from SE Spain document a close relationship between North Atlantic temperature and precipitation in the Western Mediterranean between 7 and 112 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Spötl, Christoph; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter

    2017-04-01

    Here we present three flowstone records from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, covering the period between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 and MIS 3, the Late Glacial and the Holocene. The flowstones were precisely dated by the MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-method. In addition, stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios as well as trace element concentrations were determined at high resolution (centennial to decadal scale). Present-day climate of SE Spain is classified as semi-arid with dry summer months (Iberian margin. δ18O values are around -3.5 ‰ and decrease to -5 to -6 ‰ during D/O events, while δ13C values are around -9 ‰ and decrease to -10 to -11 ‰ ) during D/O events. We interpret these changes as more humid conditions during D/O events, with elevated sea-surface temperatures in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea leading to increased moisture transport and precipitation on the SE Iberian Peninsula. As a consequence, vegetation density increased, which is reflected by the decrease in δ13C values and Mg and Sr concentrations and an increase in P content. In the Holocene, the flowstone grew continuously from the Bølling/Allerød to the mid-Holocene (7 ka). Stable isotopes record a trend of increasing temperatures with decreasing values towards the mid-Holocene (δ18O ≈ - 6.4 ‰ , δ13C ≈ -11 ‰ ). However, δ13C values record a significant excursion with elevated values (up to -3.8 ‰ ) during a period from 9.5 to 7.7 ka related to cold Bond-events in the North Atlantic, which is interpreted as a dry period in SE Spain. Budsky, A., Scholz, D., Gibert, L., Mertz-Kraus, R., 2015. 230Th/U-dating of the Cueva Victoria flowstone sequence: Preliminary results and paleoclimate implications, in: Gibert, L., Ferràndez-Canadell, C. (Eds.), Geology and Paleontology of Cueva Victoria. Mastia 11-13, Cartagena, pp. 101-109.

  19. A funerary perspective on Bell Beaker period in the Western Mediterranean. Reading the social context of individual burials at La Vital (Gandía, Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Puchol, Oreto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about social dynamics in recent Prehistory is supported by the study of funerary practices. The presence and significance of individual and collective burials in Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic societies in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula provides new evidence for the debate concerning the emergence of social inequalities in this region. Our contribution is based on the recent discovery and excavation of several individual pit burials in domestic contexts at the site of La Vital (Gandía, Valencia. The particularities of the identified burials (different ritual episodes and their content (Bell Beaker pottery, metal objects, animal offerings together with an accurate chronometric database allow us to consider several issues in relation to settlement dynamics, social networks and relationships for the period from the end of the 4th to the middle of the 3rd millennium cal BC in the central area of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula.La reflexión sobre la dinámica de las relaciones sociales en la Prehistoria reciente encuentra un apoyo clave en el análisis de las prácticas funerarias. La presencia y significación de los enterramientos individuales y colectivos en las sociedades del Neolítico final/ Calcolítico en el sureste de la Península Ibérica proporciona una nueva evidencia al debate sobre la aparición de las desigualdades sociales en la región. Nuestra contribución se basa en el reciente descubrimiento y excavación de varias tumbas individuales en fosa, localizadas en contextos domésticos, en el yacimiento de La Vital (Gandía, Valencia. Las peculiaridades del continente (detección de episodios rituales particulares en las distintas tumbas y del contenido (vasos campaniformes, objetos metálicos, ofrendas animales, unido a una ajustada cronometría, permiten plantear diversas alternativas relativas a la dinámica poblacional, las redes de circulación de información y las formas de reproducci

  20. The gender-related differences of nutrient intakes in a group of Italian obese patients display the ongoing transition from Mediterranean to western dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giorgio; Canducci, Edgardo; Guida, Ada; Frascari, Ambra; Rossi, Angelo; Bersani, Gianluca; Ravani, Bruna; Alvisi, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutrients and energy intakes between obese women and men and the variation rates over or below the recommended dietary allowances. A retrospective survey was conducted on the records of obese patients, categorized into gender-related groups (36 women, 36 men). Total energy and nutrient intakes were determined. The highest variation rates were found for animal protein, averaging 225 % over the recommended dietary allowance, without significant differences between women and men. The simple carbohydrate intake was quite elevated in women with variations almost 80% over the RDA, significantly higher than in men (22%). The consumption of high-protein foods in both sexes, and even more the association with high-simple carbohydrate foods in women, display the Westernization of traditional eating habits.

  1. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean); Distribution et remobilisation du plutonium dans les sediments du prodelta du Rhone (Mediterranee nord-occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansard, B

    2004-06-15

    plutonium budget determined for the study area indicates that at least 85 % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  2. In situ measurements of desert dust particles above the western Mediterranean Sea with the balloon-borne Light Optical Aerosol Counter/sizer (LOAC) during the ChArMEx campaign of summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Durand, Pierre; Bourgeois, Quentin; Denjean, Cyrielle; Vignelles, Damien; Couté, Benoit; Jeannot, Matthieu; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Mineral dust from arid areas is a major component of global aerosol and has strong interactions with climate and biogeochemistry. As part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) to investigate atmospheric chemistry and its impacts in the Mediterranean region, an intensive field campaign was performed from mid-June to early August 2013 in the western basin including in situ balloon-borne aerosol measurements with the light optical aerosol counter (LOAC). LOAC is a counter/sizer that provides the aerosol concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 µm, and an indication of the nature of the particles based on dual-angle scattering measurements. A total of 27 LOAC flights were conducted mainly from Minorca Island (Balearic Islands, Spain) but also from Ile du Levant off Hyères city (SE France) under 17 light dilatable balloons (meteorological sounding balloons) and 10 boundary layer pressurised balloons (quasi-Lagrangian balloons). The purpose was to document the vertical extent of the plume and the time evolution of the concentrations at constant altitude (air density) by in situ observations. LOAC measurements are in agreement with ground-based measurements (lidar, photometer), aircraft measurements (counters), and satellite measurements (CALIOP) in the case of fair spatial and temporal coincidences. LOAC has often detected three modes in the dust particle volume size distributions fitted by lognormal laws at roughly 0.2, 4 and 30 µm in modal diameter. Thanks to the high sensitivity of LOAC, particles larger than 40 µm were observed, with concentrations up to about 10-4 cm-3. Such large particles were lifted several days before and their persistence after transport over long distances is in conflict with calculations of dust sedimentation. We did not observe any significant evolution of the size distribution during the transport from quasi-Lagrangian flights, even for the longest ones ( ˜ 1 day). Finally, the presence of charged

  3. Risk of lymphoma subtypes and dietary habits in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Marcello; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Angelucci, Emanuele; Gabbas, Attilio; Latte, Gian Carlo; Uras, Antonella; Rais, Marco; Sanna, Sonia; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diet might affect risk of lymphoma subtypes. We investigated risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes associated with diet in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, Italy. In 1998-2004, 322 incident lymphoma cases and 446 randomly selected population controls participated in a case-control study on lymphoma etiology in central-southern Sardinia. Questionnaire interviews included frequency of intake of 112 food items. Risk associated with individual dietary items and groups thereof was explored by unconditional and polytomous logistic regression analysis, adjusting by age, gender and education. We observed an upward trend in risk of lymphoma (all subtypes combined) and B-cell lymphoma with frequency of intake of well done grilled/roasted chicken (p for trend=0.01), and pizza (p for trend=0.047), Neither adherence to Mediterranean diet nor a frequent intake of its individual components conveyed protection. We detected heterogeneity in risk associated with several food items and groups thereof by lymphoma subtypes although we could not rule out chance as responsible for the observed direct or inverse associations. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet does not seem to convey protection against the development of lymphoma. The association with specific food items might vary by lymphoma subtype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  5. Like a pig out of water: seaborne spread of domestic pigs in Southern Italy and Sardinia during the Bronze and Iron Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, C; Fulgione, D; Genovese, A; Rook, L; Masseti, M; Meiri, M; Cinzia Marra, A; Carotenuto, F; Raia, P

    2017-02-01

    Southern Italy has a long history of human occupation and passage of different cultures since the Early Holocene. Repeated, ancient introductions of pigs in several geographic areas in Europe make it difficult to understand pig translocation and domestication in Italy. The archeozoological record may provide fundamental information on this, hence shedding light on peopling and on trading among different ancient cultures in the Mediterranean. Yet, because of the scanty nature of the fossil record, ancient remains from human-associated animals are somewhat rare. Fortunately, ancient DNA analysis as applied to domestic species proved to be a powerful tool in revealing human migrations. Herein, we analyzed 80-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region from 27 Sus scrofa ancient samples retrieved from Southern Italian and Sardinian archeological sites, spanning in age from the Mesolithic to the Roman period. Our results surprisingly indicate the presence of the Near Eastern haplotype Y1 on both Italy's major islands (Sardinia and Sicily) during the Bronze Age, suggesting the seaborne transportation of domestic pigs by humans at least during 1600-1300 BC. The presence of the Italian E2 clade in domestic contexts shows that the indigenous wild boar was effectively domesticated or incorporated into domestic stocks in Southern Italy during the Bronze Age, although the E2 haplotype has never been found in modern domestic breeds. Pigs belonging to the endemic E2 clade were thus traded between the Peninsula and Sardinia by the end of the second millennium BC and this genetic signature is still detected in Sardinian feral pigs.

  6. Structural and dynamical insights on HLA-DR2 complexes that confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Sardinia: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available Sardinia is a major Island in the Mediterranean with a high incidence of multiple sclerosis, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Disease susceptibility in Sardinian population has been associated with five alleles of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II DRB1 gene. We performed 120 ns of molecular dynamics simulation on one predisposing and one protective alleles, unbound and in complex with the two relevant peptides: Myelin Basic Protein and Epstein Barr Virus derived peptide. In particular we focused on the MHC peptide binding groove dynamics. The predisposing allele was found to form a stable complex with both the peptides, while the protective allele displayed stability only when bound with myelin peptide. The local flexibility of the MHC was probed dividing the binding groove into four compartments covering the well known peptide anchoring pockets. The predisposing allele in the first half cleft exhibits a narrower and more rigid groove conformation in the presence of myelin peptide. The protective allele shows a similar behavior, while in the second half cleft it displays a narrower and more flexible groove conformation in the presence of viral peptide. We further characterized these dynamical differences by evaluating H-bonds, hydrophobic and stacking interaction networks, finding striking similarities with super-type patterns emerging in other autoimmune diseases. The protective allele shows a defined preferential binding to myelin peptide, as confirmed by binding free energy calculations. All together, we believe the presented molecular analysis could help to design experimental assays, supports the molecular mimicry hypothesis and suggests that propensity to multiple sclerosis in Sardinia could be partly linked to distinct peptide-MHC interaction and binding characteristics of the antigen presentation mechanism.

  7. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW) alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day-1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size). In winter (June), this was reduced to only 7 L day-1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs - average of 1.26 kPa). The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter months. After spatially upscaling the

  9. Spatio-temporal changes of Munida Rutllanti Zariquiey-Alvarez, 1952 (Decapoda: Galatheidae in the North-Western Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MAIORANO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal pattern of Munida rutllanti distribution in the north-western Ionian Sea has been studied. Data were collected during 14 experimental trawl surveys conducted from 1997 to 2010 as part of the international MEDITS project. The hauls were carried out during day-light hours between depths of 10 and 800 m in the spring season. A progressive increase in the abundance index (N/km2 of M. rutllanti was observed from 2000 to 2008, then a sharp decrease was shown in the last two years. The greatest and lowest abundance indices were observed in the Apulian and central Calabrian sub-areas, respectively. The species was collected between 107 and 795 m in depth, with a significant increase and decrease over time in the maximum and minimum depth of finding, respectively. A highly significant increase over time in the mean carapace length was also observed in the whole study area. The widespread occurrence and increasing abundance of this species in the Ionian Sea could be related to the increase in temperature and the variation in hydrographic conditions which occurred in the Ionian basin during the EMT-BiOS phenomenon.

  10. Impact of the intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollutants on the Mediterranean Basin during the CHARMEX-GLAM airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocchi, Vanessa; Krysztofiak, Gisèle; Catoire, Valéry; Zbinden, Régina; Guth, Jonathan; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Piguet, Bruno; Dulac, François; Hamonou, Eric; Ricaud, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin (MB) is at the crossroad of pollutant emissions from Western and Central Europe and of major dust sources from Sahara and Arabian deserts and thus sensitive to climate change and air quality. Several studies (Formenti et al.,J. Geophys. Res., 2002; Ancellet et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2016) also show the impact on the MB of long-range transport of polluted air masses. However, most of the studies have been dedicated to biomass burning aerosols. The aim of the present study is to show trace gases impact on the MB coming from long-range transport of biomass burning. The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) campaign in August 2014, as part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) project, aimed at studying the tropospheric chemical variability of gaseous pollutants and aerosols along a West-East transect above the MB. During the GLAM campaign, several instruments onboard the Falcon-20 aircraft (SAFIRE, INSU / Météo-France) were deployed including an infrared laser spectrometer (SPIRIT, LPC2E) able to detect weak variations in the concentration of pollutants. During two flights on 6 and 10 August, increases in CO, O3 and aerosols were measured over Sardinia at 5000 and 9000 m asl, respectively. To assess the origin of the air masses, 20-day backward trajectories with a nested-grid regional scale Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART, Stohl et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2005) were calculated. Combined with emissions coming from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) inventory (Kaiser et al., Biogeosciences, 2012), this leads to CO biomass burning contribution to aircraft measured values. Biomass burning emissions located in Siberia in the first case and in northern America in the second case were identified as the cause of this burden of pollutants in the mid and upper troposphere over the MB. By adjusting the injection height of the model and amplifying emissions

  11. Original sounding and drifting balloon-borne measurements in the western Mediterranean with the aerosol counter/sizer LOAC during summer ChArMEx campaigns, with a focus on desert dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Vignelles, Damien; Jeannot, Matthieu; Verdier, Nicolas; Chazette, Patrick; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Totems, Julien; Durand, Pierre; Barret, Brice; Jambert, Corinne; Mallet, Marc; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2015-04-01

    LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) is a new small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams designed to fly under all kinds of balloons. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles (12° and 60°), allowing the determination of the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of ~0.2-100 µm and some identification of the nature of particles dominating different size classes. Following laboratory calibration, the sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, mineral dust, soot carbon particles and salts. Comparisons with other in situ sensors at the surface and with remote sensing measurements on the vertical were performed to give confidence in measurements. The instrument has been operated at the surface, under all kinds of balloons up to more than 35 km in altitude, including tethered, sounding, open stratospheric and new boundary-layer pressurized drifting balloons (BLPB) from CNES, and was tested on board a small UAV. Operations encompass a variety of environments including the Arctic (Reykjavik, Island, and Kiruna, Sweden), Brazil (Sao Paolo), the western Mediterranean Basin, southwestern France, peri-urban (Ile de France) and urban areas (Paris and Vienna). Presented results are focused on the LOAC balloon-borne measurements performed in the western Mediterranean basin during MISTRALS/ChArMEx campaigns (Mediterranean Integrated Studies aT Regional And Local Scales/the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://www.mistrals-hjome.org; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), with a focus on African dust events. Two test flights with a first version of LOAC under sounding balloons were first successfully performed in late June 2012 near Marseille during an intense dust event. In 2013, 19 LOAC flights have been performed under meteorological balloons and 12 under low altitude drifting balloons, most of them from Minorca Island (Spain) in June and early July and others from Levant Island (south of France

  12. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  13. A Mediterranean atmospheric and oceanographic observatory in Corsica within the framework of HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D.

    2009-09-01

    Corsica is an island located near the most cyclogenetic area of the western Mediterranean basin, south of the Gulf of Genoa. Corsica is regularly affected by intense meteorological events: windstorms, heavy precipitation, waves and coastal erosion, droughts, forest fires, and lightning. All these events are crucial for the economic activity of Corsica, which is mainly based on tourism, nautical activities, agriculture and farming. In spite of recent improvements in operational forecasting, numerical weather predictions regularly fail to reproduce the intensity and distribution of precipitation of heavy rainstorms at the mesoscale. Local weather forecasters still have difficulties in predicting such precipitation events, particularly over the sea close to complex topography. Corsica is also relevant for the study of most of intense precipitation cases affecting continental south eastern France and northern Italy: they are generally characterized by low level warm and moist air mass transport from the south, channelled not only by the continental orography but also by the Corsica-Sardinia islands ridge. In these situations, Corsica is located in the near upstream area of the flow finally generating the cyclogenesis and subsequent high impact weather over the Gulf of Genoa. Its geographical situation would allow Corsica to play the role of a "sentry", not yet exploited for these events. In addition and due to the presence of various aerosol types over the Mediterranean region, such as mineral dust particles (mostly transported from the Saharan desert), anthropogenic aerosols (due to urban and industrial activities mainly from its northern continental border), but also biomass burning aerosols from forest fires and marine aerosols, atmospheric particles are likely to have a significant impact on the regional climate and on the hydrological cycle over the Mediterranean basin. In parallel and due to high deposition fluxes of desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols (which

  14. Echinoderms as biological indicators of the quality of littoral waters in the Mar de Alboran (Western Mediterranean, Andalusia, Spain); Equinodermos como indicadores biologicos de la calidad de las aguas litorales en el Mar de Alboran (Mediterraneo Occidental, Andalucia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa Garcia, M A; Lozano Duran, R; Pozo Camacho, E; Ruiz Arias, R [Colegio Maravillas, Benalmadena. Malaga (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Since 1985, the European Foundation for Environmental Education (EFEE) has used the widely-known European Blue Flag and its logo as a distinction for beaches that comply with a series of environmental, aesthetic, microbiological and physico-chemical quality criteria. Although the Blue Flag has had a positive effect on the overall quality of bathing waters, its presence has not ensured that the flora and fauna of coastal waters were equally preserved. The results of this study indicate the many of the coastal areas studied, some of them holding the European Blue Flag, have a high level of bacterial pollution, with the associated negative impact on their biological diversity. Two scientific method used in sea ecology have been applied: the Jacard rate and the UPGMA algorithm (grouping according to the mean association). Samples of 20 echinoderms species (sea-urchins, starfish, and holothurian) were collected in 17 clearly defined beach strips along the coast of the Alboran Sea, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The beach strips were evaluated according to their water pollution level. The results confirm the validity of some echinoderm species as good bio indicators of the quality of coastal fauna and flora. By simply evaluating the presence or absence of those easily identified species it is possible to assess the status of the coastal waters ecosystem. It is proposed to include a new logo that substitutes the laws European Blue Flags, with the shape of an echinoderm, using three different species to indicate the health status of the ecosystem. Seminars should be organized in Schools to present the usefulness of echinoderms as bio indicators in coastal areas, and to teach students the importance of preservation of the sea environment. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Height-reducing variants and selection for short stature in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Chiang, Charleston W K; Sanna, Serena; Mulas, Antonella; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Marcus, Joseph H; Marongiu, Michele; Maschio, Andrea; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Floris, Matteo; Meloni, Antonella; Delitala, Alessandro; Concas, Maria Pina; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Timpson, Nicholas J; Soranzo, Nicole; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Novembre, John; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    We report sequencing-based whole-genome association analyses to evaluate the impact of rare and founder variants on stature in 6,307 individuals on the island of Sardinia. We identify two variants with large effects. One variant, which introduces a stop codon in the GHR gene, is relatively frequent

  16. New faunistic records of Jewel beetles from Southern Italy and Sardinia (Coleoptera, Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Izzillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Buprestidae are reported for the first time from two Italian regions: Anthaxia (s. str. midasssp. oberthuri Schaefer, 1937, and Anthaxia (s. str. salicis (Fabricius, 1777 new to Campania, and Agrilus(Spiragrilus hyperici (Creutzer, 1799 new to Sardinia. Short notes on ethology and larval development ofA. midas oberthuri are also given.

  17. What type of regional policy for Europe? Theoretical reflections and policy lessons from Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2005-01-01

    In promoting European regional development, policymakers tend to pursue either an offensive, future-oriented or a defensive, tradition-preserving type of policy. Backed by theoretical notions and case evidence from an “ordinary” region, i. e. the Italian island of Sardinia, the following paper

  18. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-10-28

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.  Created: 10/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/30/2013.

  19. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  20. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  1. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  2. Investigation into Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalve mollusks farmed in Sardinia region and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tedde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites transmitted by fecal-oral ingestion of (oocysts, and are responsible for enteritis in several animal species and humans worldwide. These (oocysts can survive for over a year in aquatic environments and can accumulate in bivalve mollusks, which filter large volumes of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the natural occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in different specimens of edible bivalves mollusks from farming sites of the western and north-eastern coasts of Sardinia. From April 2011 to February 2012, 1095 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis and 240 of Crassostrea gigas were sampled from Olbia and Oristano gulf and San Teodoro pond. Hepatopancreas and gills, including the labial palp, were examined for oocysts and cysts after pooling and homogenisation using different techniques: i staining for light and fluorescence microscopy; ii direct immunofluorescence (IF Merifluor® test Cryptosporidium/ Giardia (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; and iii molecular procedures. However, in the context under study, all mollusks examined with the three main diagnostic techniques were negative for both parasites pointing out the hypothetically low zoonotic risk related to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalves, especially Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas.

  3. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  4. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  5. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  6. Paralytic shellfish poison algal biotoxins: Sardinia report 2002-2011 and non-compliance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppa Lorenzoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several microalgae of the genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenelle can produce an algal biotoxin, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP that can be accumulated in the shellfish edible tissues making them hazardous to the consumer’s health. In this paper we report i the results of PSP toxins survey carried out by mouse bioassays (mouse test AOAC 958.08 on 7457 samples of bivalve molluscs farmed in Sardinia and in other European countries and marketed in Sardinia region from 2002 to 2011, and ii the management of positive cases. Based on our experience it is very important to strictly apply the planned activities in order to prevent any risk and to protect the consumer’s and producer’s health.

  7. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole J?rgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582?1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532?1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardi...

  8. Water resource planning and water quality in the Riu Cixerri Basin (Southern Sardinia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coni, M.; Ferralis, M; Madonia, P.; Sechi, C.; Verde, C.

    2000-01-01

    Present paper deals with a hydrogeological and biological study of the Riu Cixerri watershed (Southern Sardinia), carried out in order to evaluate volumes and quality of surface waters. Variables of hydrogeological balance have been derived by the use of a G.I.S. based method. The obtained results underline the low reliability of data used for past water resource planning and the good self purification capability of the Cixerri river [it

  9. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological

  10. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  11. Measurements of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to supplement the baseline data on the distribution of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, which have already been reported, further measurements were carried out on sea water samples collected during 1974-75 cruises. In 1974 profile collections were conducted at a station approximately 50 km south of Monaco in addition to surface sampling at a few stations, while surface waters were taken from several stations covering wider regions of the western Mediterranean during the 1975 cruises. The measurement of 238 Pu as well as 241 Am were for the first time successful on the 1975 samples. These data are considered valuable as the basis for understanding transuranic biogeochemistry in the Mediterranean environment

  12. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  13. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  14. Relationship between Quarry Activity and Municipal Spatial Planning: A Possible Mediation for the Case of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Balletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, quarrying activity for the production of natural aggregates (sand, gravel, and crushed stone can result in overexploitation of the natural environment. This paper investigates the current state of natural and recycled aggregates in Sardinia Italy and how to limit the production of natural aggregates (NA and increase the use of recycled aggregates (RA. The municipalities of Cagliari, Sant’Antioco and Tortolì of Sardinia, Italy, were chosen as case studies because they fall within a particular territorial context. Owing to its geographic condition, the island of Sardinia must produce its own raw materials. The results of this research show how the combined use of NA and RA can help meet local and regional demand for aggregates. This proposal is derived from a needs assessment of NA based on urban masterplans for each municipality. Possible strategies for limiting the consumption of NA, as well as the use of RA, are also described.

  15. The late Variscan ferroan granite magmatism of southern Sardinia: inferences from Mo metallogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitza, Stefano; Conte, Aida Maria; Cuccuru, Stefano; Fadda, Sandro; Fiori, Maddalena; Oggiano, Giacomo; Secchi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Metallogeny is a powerful tool to investigate crustal evolution; a good example is offered by the Variscan basement of Sardinia and its Mo deposits. Mo ores are poorly represented in Variscan metallogenic provinces of Europe: however, in Sardinia, numerous small Mo deposits, often associated to Sn, W and F ores, are present, invariably related to an early Permian intrusive peak bracketed at about 290 Ma (Fadda et al., 2015; Naitza et al., 2017). In Sardinia, two main magmatic peaks have been schematized at pre-300 and 290 Ma. In southern Sardinia, the 290 magmatic peak is made up of several intrusive F-bearing rock-suites (Conte et al., 2016), belonging to ilmenite series, showing a slight peraluminous character and mostly classifiable as ferroan granites (sensu Frost and Frost, 2011). Mo-bearing granites form a distinct suite of relatively small plutons, emplaced at very shallow depth (about 1kb) in an exhumed Variscan low-grade basement. Peculiar characters of Mo-bearing granites are the occurrence of greisenized microgranite and granophyre cupolas, with fayalite-bearing pegmatites, and ilmenite, xenotime-(Y), monazite, fluorite, and local topaz as accessory phases. Recently, Conte et al. (2016) interpreted these granites as originated by partial melting of low crustal felsic metaigneous photoliths enriched in granophiles (Mo, Sn, W). Mo ores occur as: a) endo- and exo- quartz-muscovite greisens with molybdenite±Fe-Cu sulphides, and b) quartz-molybdenite±wolframite±Fe-Cu-Zn sulphides±fluorite±topaz hydrothermal veins and stockworks, hosted in granites or in country rocks. Redox state of magmas exerts a strong control on Mo metallogeny, as in Mo districts worldwide ores are usually hosted by high-fO2 magnetite series intrusions (Ishihara, 1981). The close field association of Sardinian Mo mineralization with ferroan, low-fO2 ilmenite-series granites may be explained in terms of Mo-enriched crustal sources of magmas, and very efficient geochemical

  16. "Disciplina clericorum" on VI century Sardinia according to the letters of Gregory the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marey

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with church life in Sardinia in the 6th century and is based on material from the letters of Gregory the Great. Metropolitan of Sardinia, Januarius, was not able to keep the island in order and to control his subordinate clerics; moreover, he himself was involved in crimes several times. The article studies various examples of violation of church discipline by clerics of Sardinia and their negligence of ordinances of church councils. Thus, priests often behaved in an improper and corrupt manner, did not obey the metropolitan, baptised incorrectly. The provincial council was rarely convened; several sees remained without a bishop due to Januarius’ negligence. All this much upset St. Gregory the Great, who did his best at trying to strengthen church discipline in the island. In his letters addressed to Januarius, the Pope scrutinised mistakes and faults of the latter appealing to the Bible and ordinances of conciliar canons. Typically, St. Gregory always provides arguments for his position. At the same time, he tried to raise Januarius’ authority in the eyes of the clergy, which he regarded as the base for order and stability. The letters of St. Gregory the Great demonstrate that church life in the region directly depended on metropolitan’s personality and character. This conclusion accords with the Cura pastoralis by St. Gregory which describes the epitome of a bishop: the bishop is able to manage his community and set his fl ock and clergy on the right path only on condition that he possesses certain moral standards.

  17. The exotic crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Decapoda, Grapsidae in the Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Relini

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853, not previously recorded in the Mediterranean, has been found by underwater observations in several localities of Linosa, Pelagie Islands, (Italy. This presence increases the list of alien Decapods in the Mediterranean, with a form which can be considered a western migrant.

  18. Reconstruction and outlook of the radionuclide transport in the Mediterranean seas chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maderich, M.

    1999-01-01

    A set of models was developed to reconstruct and predict in 1960-2010 the 137 Cs contamination in the system of Mediterranean seas that was result of the testing of nuclear weapons and the Chernobyl accident. It incorporates the submodels of the Black Sea, Azov Sea, Marmara Sea, Western and Eastern Mediterranean

  19. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    The staff at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco realized that they were favourably located to ?take the pulse of the Mediterranean? and begin an enquiry into its health. Practically all of the radioactivity in the water and sediments could be attributed to world-wide fallout from the nuclear tests of the 1960's. Unable to find enough radioactivity in the Mediterranean to work with in a meaningful way, the laboratory imported sediments from the Bikini-Eniwetok sites of the American thermonuclear tests, and sediments from the Irish Sea near the Windscale effluent pipe to do their experiments. Other experiments were carried out with relatively innocuous, short half-lived 237 Pu, made especially for the laboratory in Japan and in the USA. A proposal was made to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to monitor the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy elements in the Mediterranean. This report briefly discusses that work. Three sets of studies were carried out by the Monaco group to assess the current levels of pollutants in the Mediterranean: 1) Radioactivity; 2) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT's and polychlorinated biphenyls); 3) Heavy elements. As stated earlier, measurements showed that radioactivity in the ocean off Monaco is quite low, indicating that there are no major sources of radionuclides reaching the open ocean other than fallout. Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured by gas-chromatography. The results of this study were being published (Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977) but it can be said that the data are not much different than that for the Atlantic Ocean and Saragasso Sea. The western Mediterranean is clearly higher in PCB's than the eastern Mediterranean, but not unduly so. Less can be said about the trace or heavy elements because the patterns are so variable. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to detect and measure most trace elements. For the lower levels that appear in seawater, chemical

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

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    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  1. The Abad composite (SE Spain): a Messinian reference section for the Mediterranean and the APTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierro, F.J.; Hilgen, F.J.; Krijgsman, W.; Flores, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution integrated stratigraphy is presented for the Abad marls of the Sorbas and Nijar basins in SE Spain (preevaporitic Messinian of the Western Mediterranean). Detailed cyclostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of partially overlapping subsections were needed to overcome

  2. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  3. SEA effectiveness for landscape and master planning: An investigation in Sardinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montis, Andrea; Ledda, Antonio; Caschili, Simone; Ganciu, Amedeo; Barra, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The Italian administrative bodies and planning agencies have embraced with mixed feedbacks the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) through the European Directive 2001/42/EC. Concurrently, regional and local spatial planning practice have been characterized by a new approach inspired by landscape planning. The Italian region of Sardinia has been one of the pioneering administrative bodies in the Italian and European arena that has adopted landscape principles for the construction of its regional master plan (PPR, Piano Paesaggistico Regionale). Municipalities are now carrying out the review of their master plans to the PPR's prescriptions and indications. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to assess the level of SEA implementation in the municipal master plans of Sardinia, six years after the approval of the PPR. Rooted in the SEA international literature we construct a modular and adaptable on-line survey for officers involved in the review of municipal master plans. The results show that many Sardinian municipalities have not reviewed their master plans to the PPR's regulations yet and only a few municipalities have started this review process according to the SEA procedure. - Highlights: • We study strategic environmental assessment (SEA) effectiveness on land use plans • Four SEA implementation key issues are drawn from international literature • Data collection has included an on-line survey with close and open questions • Results indicate that SEA has been poorly implemented in landscape and master plans • Weak aspects include planning alternatives, financial resources, and monitoring

  4. Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium marinum in reared mullets: first evidence from Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuofermo, E; Pais, A; Polinas, M; Cubeddu, T; Righetti, M; Sanna, M A; Prearo, M

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium marinum is a slow-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, and it is considered the most common aetiologic agent of mycobacteriosis in wild and cultured fish. The diagnosis is principally made by histology when positive Ziehl-Neelsen stain granulomas are detected. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of mycobacteriosis in extensively cultured Mugilidae of two lagoons (Cabras and San Teodoro) from Sardinia by the use of histology, microbiology, PCR and DNA sequencing. Nine of 106 mullets examined were affected by mycobacteriosis, and the spleen was the most affected organ. The histology detected higher rate (100%) of infection in spleen than the culture and PCR (75% and 62.5%, respectively). The sequencing of hsp65 gene identified M. marinum as the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in the mullets examined. Mullets affected by mycobacteriosis were mainly fished in the San Teodoro lagoon characterized by critical environmental conditions. Histology remains the most common method in detecting fish affected by mycobacteriosis, and PCR-based methods are essential for species identification. Our finding are worthy of attention because mycobacteriosis caused by M. marinum in reared mullets was evidenced for the first time in Sardinia, suggesting that this disease may be underestimated also in other cultured fish species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetics, geography, and culture: the population of S. Pietro Island (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, G; Calò, C M; Lucia, G; Mameli, G E; Succa, V; Esteban, E; Moral, P

    1996-08-01

    An interesting aspect of the island of Sardinia (Italy) is th