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Sample records for sardines pearl millet

  1. Effect of malting conditions on pearl millet malt quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available and moderate malting loss. These malting conditions and the subsequent malt quality of pearl millet are similar to those reported for sorghum. Pearl millet malt can therefore be used for the production of sorghum type beers....

  2. Micronutrient density and stability in West African pearl millet – potential for biofortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Anna; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Gondah, Jadah

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is one of the most important cereals in West and Central Africa (WCA). Human populations in WCA are strongly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification, the development of pearl millet varieties with enhanced micronutrient levels...

  3. Pearl millet in diets of white Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Rogler, J C; Sullivan, T W

    1994-03-01

    In two 21-d experiments, the performance, nutrient utilization, and carcass composition of ducks fed diets containing pearl millet were compared with those fed diets containing corn. Corn, in diets at two protein levels (22 vs 18% in Experiment 1 and 22 vs 16% in Experiment 2), was replaced by pearl millet either on an equal-weight or isonitrogenous basis. During the first 2 wk of the first experiment, corn diets compared on an isonitrogenous basis were superior (P duck) and feed consumption (965 vs 914 g per duck); but when compared on an equal-weight basis, the millet diets were similar to the corn diets in promoting growth. No significant differences were observed for weight gain, feed consumption, or feed efficiency at the end of 3 wk. Over the 21-d study, the higher protein diets were more efficiently (P ducks fed the corn diets was greater (P growth performance differences across dietary protein levels were similar to those in Experiment 1. However in contrast to Experiment 1, feed consumption was similar for corn and pearl millet diets (776 vs 786 g per duck, respectively), and ducks fed the corn diets gained less (P duck) during the first 2 wk of Experiment 2. Results of the nutrient utilization trial conducted at the end of Experiment 2 revealed that diets containing pearl millet were higher (P ducks.

  4. PEARL MILLET [Pennisetum americanum (L.) LEEKE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    divided by coning and quartering method ... millet heads were in solid-wall containers ... co-infestor, the two estimates of internal ... Means in the same column with same infestation followed by dissimilar ietters differ significantly according to ...

  5. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferreira Leão; Lisete Chamma Davide; José Marcello Salabert de Campos; Antonio Vander Pereira; Fernanda de Oliveira Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (P. glaucum). Tetraploid (AAA'B) and pentaploid (AA'A'BB) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB) and pearl millet (AA) were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaplo...

  6. Total Iron Absorption by Young Women from Iron-Biofortified Pearl Millet Composite Meals Is Double That from Regular Millet Meals but Less Than That from Post-Harvest Iron-Fortified Millet Meals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Iron biofortification of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising approach to combat iron deficiency (ID) in the millet-consuming communities of developing countries. To evaluate the potential of iron-biofortified millet to provide additional bioavailable iron compared with regular millet and post-harvest iron-fortified millet, an iron absorption study was conducted in 20 Beninese women with marginal iron status. Composite test meals consisting of millet paste based on regular-iron, i...

  7. response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    small-effect genes has proved to be the most effective approach to control ... improved grain yield and stover quality; while significant ..... fodder yield in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Sr.] ... hermonthica (Del.) Benth in a tropical maize.

  8. Evaluation of milled pearl millet in the feeding of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Catelan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to estimate the nutritional value and the performance of growing rabbits fed different levels of pearl millet (ADR 7010. In the digestibility trial, nutritional values of pearl millet were determined in 22 45-day-old New Zealand White rabbits, allotted in a completely randomized design, subjected to two treatments - a reference diet and a test diet with 70% of its volume composed of reference diet and 30% of pearl millet - and 11 replications. The apparent digestibility values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and gross energy of the pearl millet were 88.7, 85.4, 24.4 and 75.0%, respectively. In the performance trial, 120 32-day-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Rabbits were allotted in a completely randomized design and subjected to six treatments, with 10 replications and two animals for each experimental unit. The diets were formulated with increasing levels of pearl millet (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, substituting the corn in the reference diet, according to the digestible energy. No differences were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass traits and feed cost per kilogram of rabbit. Regardless of the amount of corn substituted, pearl can replace corn in diets for growing rabbits.

  9. Inference of domestication history and differentiation between early- and late-flowering varieties in pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussert, Y; Snirc, A; Robert, T

    2015-04-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a staple crop in Sahelian Africa. Farmers usually grow varieties with different cycle lengths and complementary functions in Sahelian agrosystems. Both the level of genetic differentiation of these varieties and the domestication history of pearl millet have been poorly studied. We investigated the neutral genetic diversity and population genetic structure of early- and late-flowering domesticated and wild pearl millet populations using 18 microsatellite loci and 8 nucleotide sequences. Strikingly, early- and late-flowering domesticated varieties were not differentiated over their whole distribution area, despite a clear difference in their isolation-by-distance pattern. Conversely, our data brought evidence for two well-differentiated genetic pools in wild pearl millet, allowing us to test scenarios with different numbers and origins of domestication using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). The ABC analysis showed the likely existence of asymmetric migration between wild and domesticated populations. The model choice procedure indicated that a single domestication from the eastern wild populations was the more likely scenario to explain the polymorphism patterns observed in cultivated pearl millet.

  10. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  11. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours, run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours. The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU. Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU, trough (442 RVU, breakdown viscosity (20 RVU, final viscosity (975 RVU, setback (533 RVU, peak time (5.47 min and pasting temperature (89.60 °C. These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  12. Evolutionary history of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) and selection on flowering genes since its domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotault, Jérémy; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Buiron, Marylène; De Mita, Stéphane; Couderc, Marie; Haussmann, Bettina I G; Mariac, Cédric; Vigouroux, Yves

    2012-04-01

    The plant domestication process is associated with considerable modifications of plant phenotype. The identification of the genetic basis of this adaptation is of great interest for evolutionary biology. One of the methods used to identify such genes is the detection of signatures of selection. However, domestication is generally associated with major demographic effects. It is therefore crucial to disentangle the effects of demography and selection on diversity. In this study, we investigated selection in a flowering time pathway during domestication of pearl millet. We first used a random set of 20 genes to model pearl millet domestication using approximate Bayesian computation. This analysis showed that a model with exponential growth and wild-cultivated gene flow was well supported by our data set. Under this model, the domestication date of pearl millet is estimated at around 4,800 years ago. We assessed selection in 15 pearl millet DNA sequences homologous to flowering time genes and showed that these genes underwent selection more frequently than expected. We highlighted significant signatures of selection in six pearl millet flowering time genes associated with domestication or improvement of pearl millet. Moreover, higher deviations from neutrality were found for circadian clock-associated genes. Our study provides new insights into the domestication process of pearl millet and shows that a category of genes of the flowering pathway were preferentially selected during pearl millet domestication.

  13. Effect of food processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) IKMP-5 on the level of phenolics, phytate, iron and zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanabria Eyzaguirre, R.; Nienaltowska, K.; Jong, de L.E.Q.; Hasenack, B.B.E.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl millet is consumed as a staple food in semi-arid tropical regions. With a view to upgrading the micronutrient status of pearl millet-based foods, the effects of single operations and of porridge preparation scenarios on levels and in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc and mineral complexi

  14. Influence of germination on bioaccessible iron and calcium in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pearl millet is the staple for economically poorer section of the world’s population and improving its mineral bioaccessibility is one of the important approaches to promote its utilization. In the absence of any data on the bioaccessible mineral content from commercially available millet, two varieties namely Kalukombu (native) and Maharastra Rabi Bajra (hybrid) were germinated and its effect on the bioaccessible iron and calcium content was explored using an in-vitro method which simulates ...

  15. Performance of pearl millet hybrids under arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Manga, and Arun Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen male-sterile lines of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. found promising at CAZRI, Jodhpur were crossed with nine diverse restorers from different sources in this region, in a line x tester fashion to develop 144 hybrid combinations, with the objective to identify suitable A lines, R lines and hybrid combinations for arid Rajasthan. These hybrids were evaluated at three different locations in western Rajasthan (Tinwari, Pali and Jodhpur during the rainy season of 2003. Eighteen promising hybrids based upon their performance over locations during 2003, were again evaluated in larger plots during the rainy season of 2004. Considering grain yield over all the five locations during the two seasons 2003 and 2004, ten high yielding hybrids were identified. Among these hybrids grain yield ranged from 1932 kg/ha to 2293 kg/ha, and flowering time from 43 to 48 days. The highest yielding hybrid was ICMA 96111 x RIB-3135-18 followed by ICMA 98333 x RIB-3135-18, ICMA 98222 x CZI 9621, ICMA 98004 x RIB-3135-18, ICMA 97555 x RIB-3135-18 and ICMA 95555 x H 77/833-2. It was observed that the restorer lines RIB-3135-18, CZI 9621, H77/833-2, CZI 1676-2, MIR 97171 and ICMR 356 gave high yielding hybrids. Similarly male sterile lines, ICMA 98222, ICMA 97555 and ICMA 98004 were involved in promising hybrid combinations. The hybrid ICMA 98222 x CZI 9621, which was one of the top five high yielding hybrids, ranked first in a multilocation trial conducted during the rainy season of 2005, at Jodhpur, Bawal, Durgapura and Bikaner, representing extreme arid conditions. This hybrid again recorded 12.8% and 6.6% higher grain yield over national checks GHB 538 and ICMH 356 respectively in Initial hybrid trial 2007, and was promoted to the Advance Hybrid and Population Trial for Kharif 2008.

  16. Meat lipid profile of steers finished in pearl millet pasture with different rates of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the meat lipid profile from Devon beef steers finished in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum pasture and fed at different rates of concentrate supplementary diet. Twelve steers weighing 270 kg, at 12‑month‑average initial age, were randomly distributed into three treatments: pearl millet pasture; and pearl millet pasture plus a concentrate equivalent at 0.5 or 1.0% of body weight, with two replicates. Total contents of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the polyunsaturated:saturated ratio and other relevant fatty acids as the vaccenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega‑3, and omega‑6 were not affected by the consumption of a concentrate supplement at 0.5 or 1.0% live weight. However, the 0.5% supplementation level reduced the concentration of dihomo‑γ‑linolenic fatty acid (C20: 3 n‑6, while the 1.0% supplementation level elevated the content of docosahexaenoic (DHA (C22: 6 n‑3 fatty acid, and the omega‑6:omega‑3 ratio in meat. Consumption of up to 1.0% energy supplementation increases the omega‑6:omega‑3 ratio in meat from Devon steers grazing on pearl millet pasture.

  17. Genomic tools in pearl millet breeding for drought tolerance: Status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Debelo Serba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Penisetum glaucum (L R. Br. is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by hundreds of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

  18. Expression of a ß-1,3-glucanase from a biocontrol fungus in transgenic pearl millet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available . In this study a hydrolytic enzyme, ß-1,3-glucanase, from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride (gluc78) was introduced into the genome of a pearl millet breeding line, 842B, by particle bombardment. Constructs were prepared containing the gluc78 gene...

  19. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and pearl millet (P. glaucum. Tetraploid (AAA'B and pentaploid (AA'A'BB chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB and pearl millet (AA were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. The pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. Chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. Genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.

  20. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  1. Polygalacturonase-inhibitor proteins in pearl millet: possible involvement in resistance against downy mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ashok Prabhu; K. Ramachandra Kini; S. Niranjan Raj; Bruno M. Moerschbacher; H. S. Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) is a defense protein found in plant cell walls.It prevents the degradation of pectin by modulating the endo-polygalacturonase activity.The present study has used heterologous antibean PGIP probes to investigate the role of PGIP in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R.Br.] resistance against downy mildew caused by oomycete pathogen Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet.Northern blot analysis using bean pgip2 DNA fragment as probe showed an early and marked induction of transcripts (~1.2 kb) upon pathogen-inoculation in pearl millet cultivar resistant to downy mildew,with the maximum level observed at 24 and 48 h post-inoculation (h.p.i.).Western blot analysis of pearl millet total cell wall proteins using antibodies against bean PGIP showed the presence of a major band of ~43 kDa,and several minor ones.The protein accumulation was higher in resistant seedlings than in susceptible seedlings with a differential expression observed only in the case of incompatible interaction.lmmunocytochemical localization in epidermal peelings of coleoptiles and tissue-printing showed a similar trend in the PGIP accumulation.PGIP was found to localize in the epidermal as well as in the vascular regions of tissues.Higher accumulation was observed in the stomatal guard cells of resistant cultivar inoculated with the pathogen.PGIP activity of pearl millet total protein extracts when assayed against Aspergillus niger PG displayed differential PG inhibitory activities between the resistant and suceptible cultivars with resistant sample showing the highest inhibition of 16%,post-pathogen treatment.Thus,PGIP appeared to be an important player in pearl millet-S,graminicola interaction leading to host resistance.

  2. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  3. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s(-1) shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  4. No-Cook Process for Ethanol Production Using Indian Broken Rice and Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Gohel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No-cook process using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE was evaluated for Indian broken rice and pearl millet. One-factor-at-a-time optimization method was used in ethanol production to identify optimum concentration of GSHE, under yeast fermentation conditions using broken rice and pearl millet as fermentation feedstocks. An acid fungal protease at a concentration of 0.2 kg per metric ton of grain was used along with various dosages of GSHE under yeast fermentation conditions to degrade the grain proteins into free amino nitrogen for yeast growth. To measure the efficacy of GSHE to hydrolyze no-cook broken rice and pearl millet, the chemical composition, fermentation efficiency, and ethanol recovery were determined. In both feedstocks, fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery obtained through single-step no-cook process were higher than conventional multistep high-temperature process, currently considered the ideal industrial process. Furthermore, the no-cook process can directly impact energy consumption through steam saving and reducing the water cooling capacity needs, compared to conventional high-temperature process.

  5. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  6. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  7. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  8. Characterization of a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein in pearl millet and its differential expression in response to the downy mildew pathogen Sclerospora graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sujeeth, Neerakkal; Kini, Ramachandra K.; Shailasree, Sekhar; Wallaart, Eelco; Shetty, Shekar H.; Hille, Jacques; Barna, B.

    2012-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, JIM 20, derived against an extensin type of hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) from pea, showed high affinity for HRGP in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.]. Electrophoretic separation of Tris-SDS extracted proteins from suspension cells of pearl millet reveale

  9. EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND BACTERIAL INOCULANT ON THE TEMPERATURE, DENSITY AND pH OF PEARL MILLET SILAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANÍBAL COUTINHO DO RÊGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the temperature at different depths of the stack silo and strata front profile before and after the removal of silage. Also, the pH values in the upper and lower profile and the silage density of the fresh materials (FM and dry matter (DM in pearl millet silages with particle sizes of 5 or 20 mm, with or without inoculant, were assessed, using corn silage as controls. There was an interaction (P<0.05 silage × stratum profile and silage × depth profile for the temperatures before the removal of silage, and the pearl millet silages had lower temperatures in the upper stratum compared to corn. The temperature gradient between the silage and environment pearl millet and corn silos were smaller in the lower stratum profile. The temperature gradient after the removal of the silage was less than 50 cm deep at all the pearl millet silos. There were no differences in the densities of the FM and DM of the studied silages. The pH values of the silages before their removal were higher in the upper stratum and lower stratum in the bottom of all the pearl millet silages, in contrast with corn silage. The pearl millet silos had lower pH values in the lower stratum of the silo. Silages with 5 mm particle size provide lower temperatures in the middle portion of the panel before the removal of the silage. The use of bacterial inoculant in this study did not change the characteristics evaluated.

  10. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  11. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke;

    2008-01-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi...... of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85...

  12. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi...... to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other...

  13. Deciphering Genomic Regions for High Grain Iron and Zinc Content Using Association Mapping in Pearl Millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, N.; Satyavathi, C. Tara; Bharadwaj, C.; Nepolean, T.; Sankar, S. Mukesh; Singh, Sumer P.; Meena, Mahesh C.; Singhal, Tripti; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially deficiency of two mineral elements, iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] in the developing world needs urgent attention. Pearl millet is one of the best crops with many nutritional properties and is accessible to the poor. We report findings of the first attempt to mine favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc content through association mapping in pearl millet. An association mapping panel of 130 diverse lines was evaluated at Delhi, Jodhpur and Dharwad, representing all the three pearl millet growing agro-climatic zones of India, during 2014 and 2015. Wide range of variation was observed for grain iron (32.3–111.9 ppm) and zinc (26.6–73.7 ppm) content. Genotyping with 114 representative polymorphic SSRs revealed 0.35 mean gene diversity. STRUCTURE analysis revealed presence of three sub-populations which was further supported by Neighbor-Joining method of clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Marker-trait associations (MTAs) were analyzed with 267 markers (250 SSRs and 17 genic markers) in both general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM), however, MTAs resulting from MLM were considered for more robustness of the associations. After appropriate Bonferroni correction, Xpsmp 2261 (13.34% R2-value), Xipes 0180 (R2-value of 11.40%) and Xipes 0096 (R2-value of 11.38%) were consistently associated with grain iron and zinc content for all the three locations. Favorable alleles and promising lines were identified for across and specific environments. PPMI 1102 had highest number (7) of favorable alleles, followed by four each for PPMFeZMP 199 and PPMI 708 for across the environment performance for both grain Fe and Zn content, while PPMI 1104 had alleles specific to Dharwad for grain Fe and Zn content. When compared with the reference genome Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, Xpsmp 2261 amplicon was identified in intergenic region on pseudomolecule 5, while the other marker, Xipes 0810 was observed to be overlapping with aspartic

  14. A comparison of different stability models for genotype x environment interaction in pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Pabale and H. R. Pandya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four genotypes (hybrids of pearl millet were tested under eight environments in Gujarat. The models of Eberhart andRussell (1966, Perkins and Jinks (1968 and Freeman and Perkins (1971 applied to study genotype x environment interactionand were compared for their efficiency empirically. The genotypes GHB-788, GHB-832 and GHB-840 were observed as moststable and widely adapted over environments in all three models. On the basis of simplicity and computational convenience,Eberhart and Russell (1966 model was recommended.

  15. Pearl millet transformation system using the positive selectable marker gene phosphomannose isomerase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available for the world?s poorest and most food-insecure people in Africa and India. It is grown largely for its ability to produce grain under hot, dry conditions on infertile soils of low water-holding capac- ity, where other crops generally fail. Thus, it is produced... mainly in outlying areas peripheral to the major produc- tion and population centres of the developing world. Yearly, approximately 15 million tons of pearl millet is produced worldwide. The development of a reliable transformation protocol for this crop...

  16. Cereal domestication and evolution of branching: evidence for soft selection in the Tb1 orthologue of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stanislas Remigereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1 in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1 in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, an African outcrossing cereal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1. Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet. Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain

  17. Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Quantitative and Qualitative Forage Yield of Maize, Pearl Millet and Sorghum in Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Khalesro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to compare three summer forage grasses including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor cv. Speedfeed, corn (Zea mayz S.C. 704 and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Nutrifeed for green chop forage production in double cropping system, a field experiment was conducted at research field of Tarbiat Modares University on 2006 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a split- plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications. In this research three forage crops as main factor and nitrogen rates (100, 200 and 300 kg N. ha-1 from the urea source as the sub- plot were studied. Results showed the positive response of crops to nitrogen increment, in such a manner that millet with 300 kg N ha-1 produced 85.8 t ha-1 fresh forage (%20.3 more than sorghum and %30.9 more than corn. Regarding to the sustainable agriculture objects, millet and sorghum with 200 kg N ha-1could be suggested. Forage yield advantages of millet and sorghum to corn was %10 and %12 respectively. They produce 72.4 and 73.5 t ha-1 fresh forage under this treatment. Finally regarding to general advantages of sorghum and millet to corn, especially in unsuitable condition like as drought and poor soil fertility, it seems that changing the corn with sorghum or pearl millet could be an appropriate option. Also decision making for recommending one of sorghum and millet need to more information like qualitative attributes in details and determining animal feeding indices (voluntary intake using in vivo methods. Keywords: Sorghum, Pearl millet, Corn, Nitrogen, Forage, Organic matter, Crud protein

  18. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  19. Biology, genetics, and management of ergot (Claviceps spp.) in rye, sorghum, and pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Geiger, Hartwig H

    2015-02-25

    Ergot is a disease of cereals and grasses caused by fungi in the genus Claviceps. Of particular concern are Claviceps purpurea in temperate regions, C. africana in sorghum (worldwide), and C. fusiformis in pearl millet (Africa, Asia). The fungi infect young, usually unfertilized ovaries, replacing the seeds by dark mycelial masses known as sclerotia. The percentage of sclerotia in marketable grain is strictly regulated in many countries. In winter rye, ergot has been known in Europe since the early Middle Ages. The alkaloids produced by the fungus severely affect the health of humans and warm-blooded animals. In sorghum and pearl millet, ergot became a problem when growers adopted hybrid technology, which increased host susceptibility. Plant traits reducing ergot infection include immediate pollination of receptive stigmas, closed flowering (cleistogamy), and physiological resistance. Genetic, nonpollen-mediated variation in ergot susceptibility could be demonstrated in all three affected cereals. Fungicides have limited efficacy and application is weather dependent. Sorting out the sclerotia from the harvest by photocells is expensive and time consuming. In conclusion, molecular-based hybrid rye breeding could improve pollen fertility by introgressing effective restorer genes thus bringing down the ergot infection level to that of conventional population cultivars. A further reduction might be feasible in the future by selecting more resistant germplasm.

  20. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen. PMID:28322224

  1. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in selection of genes associated with pearl millet varietal quantitative traits in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mariac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of two years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability.

  3. Biolistic-mediated transformation protocols for maize and pearl millet using pre-cultured immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal food crop in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and a key feed crop in Asia, whereas pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple food that supplies a major proportion of calories...

  4. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  5. Rheological quality of pearl millet porridge as affected by grits size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Chhikara, Navnidhi; Anand, Tanupriya; Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-09-01

    Study was conducted to optimize pearl millet grits size for the preparation of acceptable porridge with skimmed milk powder (SMP). Pearl millet porridge was prepared with different grits size (1.410, 0.841, 0.595, and 0.420 mm). A positive (r = 0.904) correlation was observed between water absorption index and grits size. Porridge showed shear thinning behavior as, initially shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and later on decreased. Porridge prepared with larger grits (1.410 mm) exhibited higher firmness (38.4 ± 1.27 N) and viscosity (446 ± 3.9 cP), whereas smaller grits (0.420 mm) resulted in less viscous (118.8 ± 1.74 cP) and firm (20.4 ± 1.85 N) porridge. The medium grits (0.841 mm) produced porridge with acceptable firmness (30.7 ± 1.56 N) and viscosity (298.1 ± 8.81 cP) with moderate (6.0 ± 0.10) acceptability. To improve sensory quality of porridge (grits size 0.841 mm); skimmed milk powder at different levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 %) was added and its effect on various quality parameters was studied. SMP addition significantly (P ≤ 0.05) modified the gelatinization and gelling behavior of grits and decreased (P ≤ 0.05) all the pasting characteristics except pasting temperature, which increased from 77.1 ± 1.85 to 85.9 ± 3.46 °C. The peak (499 ± 6.6 cP) and final viscosity (450 ± 11.9 cP) of porridge (0.841 mm) prepared with 15 % SMP are quite similar. Hence, it maintains viscosity on cooling, similar to maximum viscosity attained during cooking. Keeping in view the rheological, firmness and sensory quality, 0.841 mm grits of pearl millet with 15 % SMP was found optimum for preparation of acceptable porridge.

  6. Analysis of reproductive isolation between pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.) and P. ramosum, P. schweinfurthii, P. squamulatum, Cenchrus ciliaris

    OpenAIRE

    Marchais, Louis; TOSTAIN, Serge

    1997-01-01

    Crosses between pearl millet lines and #Pennisetum ramosum$, #P. schweinfurthii$, #P. squamulatum$ or #Cenchrus ciliaris$ were observed for the frequency and development of zygotes, the possibility of embryo rescue, and the fertility of F1 hybrids obtained. Eight per cent of the ovules from diploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed small embryos which could not be rescued. However, 59% of the ovules from tetraploid millet x #P. ramosum$ crosses showed well-developed embryos that were easy ...

  7. Efficient regeneration of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) from shoot tip cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythili, P K; Madhavi, A; Reddy, V D; Seetharama, N

    2001-12-01

    A simple, genotype-independent and efficient method for plant regeneration using shoot tip explants of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was established. Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (0. 2 mg l(-1)) was used for induction of embryogenic calli. Development of numerous somatic embryos was observed within 10 days after transferring onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyl aminopurine (2 mg l(-1)) and indole 3-butyric acid (0. 5 mg l(-1)) under light (16 hr photoperiod). Histological observations confirmed the origin of somatic pro-embryoids and globular embryoids. Regenerated plants established in soil, grew normally and produced fertile seeds. RAPD analysis also revealed genetic uniformity of the regenerants. The short duration of time taken for regeneration (30-35 days) and its high frequency (78-87%) makes this system highly suitable for applications such as genetic transformation.

  8. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  9. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  10. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Manga, V.; Rao, Muktinutalapati V. Subba; Chittibabu, Malladi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves) with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs. PMID:27007899

  11. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R.; Kruger, J.; Taylor, J. R. N.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  12. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Kruger, J.; Taylor, J.R.N. [Department of Food Science and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  13. Biolistic-mediated transformation protocols for maize and pearl millet using pre-cultured immature zygotic embryos and embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kennedy, Martha M; Stark, Hester C; Dube, Nosisa

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal food crop in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, and a key feed crop in Asia, whereas pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is a staple food that supplies a major proportion of calories and protein to large segments of the populations living in the semi-arid tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The limitations of biological gene transfer with Agrobacterium tumefaciens specifically related to recalcitrant cereal crops, led to the development of alternative methods of which high-velocity microprojectiles, biolistic genetic transfer is the most successful and also the most widely employed. Agrobacterium facilitated transformation is the method of choice especially for deregulation of commercial transgenic food crop products, but biolistic-mediated transformation is still valid for proof of concept and functional genomics applications. Biolistic-mediated transformation and the production of transgenic plantlets via somatic embryogenesis of two maize strains viz. Hi-II (a laboratory strain) and M37W (a South African elite white maize genotype) as well as a pearl millet strain (842B) are described in this chapter. The stages described include: (1) proliferation of immature zygotic embryos for biolistic-mediated transformation, (2) induction and maintenance of transgenic embryogenic tissue on selection medium; (3) maturation (both morphological and physiological) of transgenic somatic embryos; and (4) germination of the somatic embryos to putative transgenic primary events. Maize and pearl millet cultures were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis as they are bipolar structures that shoot and root simultaneously. The culture media described in this chapter rarely induced or regenerated plantlets via organogenesis.

  14. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenet, Dorcus C; Leiser, Willmar L; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F W; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I G

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  15. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Leiser, Willmar L.; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H.; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F. W.; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T.; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I. G.

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  16. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bijay Kumar Sethi; Prativa Kumari Nanda; Santilata Sahoo; Sangeeta Sena

    2016-01-01

    α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The en...

  17. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcus C. GEMENET

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa (WA is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1 The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2 Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3 Plant responses to P deficiency; (4 Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5 Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6 Systems approaches to addressing soil P-deficiency in WA.Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not however be a sustainable solution in

  18. Seletividade do atrazine à cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum Atrazine selectivity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O milheto é uma espécie de destaque entre aquelas cultivadas em sucessão na região dos cerrados brasileiros. Embora o herbicida atrazine apresente potencial para ser utilizado nessa cultura, pouco tem sido feito para determinar a suscetibilidade dessa espécie em função do seu estádio de desenvolvimento no momento de aplicação. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade do herbicida atrazine à cultura do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, determinando a dosagem máxima de aplicação e os estádios da cultura que apresentem menor sensibilidade. Foram realizados dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, onde se determinou primeiramente a seletividade do herbicida para os cultivares ADR-300, ADR-500 e ADR-7010. Posteriormente, o cultivar ADR-500 foi avaliado em condições de dose-resposta do atrazine, em função do estádio fenológico de desenvolvimento. Este experimento foi realizado no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições, correspondendo a cinco doses de atrazine: 0; 0,5; 1,5; 2,5 e 4,0 kg de i.a. ha-1, aplicadas em três estádios de crescimento do milheto (duas, quatro e oito folhas expandidas. O cultivar ADR-500 apresentou a maior suscetibilidade entre os avaliados. Aplicações realizadas nos estádios mais precoces de crescimento do milheto promoveram os maiores níveis de intoxicação, redução do número de afílhos e do acúmulo de biomassa seca da parte aérea. Esses resultados intensificaram-se com o incremento da dose de atrazine. Com relação à massa da espiga, doses inferiores a 1,5 kg ha-1 não prejudicaram significativamente essa variável, independentemente do estádio de aplicação. É possível concluir que doses inferiores a 1,5 kg ha-1 de atrazine podem ser usadas de forma segura na cultura do milheto quando as plantas apresentarem quatro ou mais folhas no momento da aplicação.Pearl millet is an important species cultivated in succession in the Brazilian

  19. Effect of germination moisture and time on pearl millet malt quality - with respect to its opaque and lager beer brewing potential

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available level of extract. Malting losses were similar or lower than with sorghum. Thus, it appears that pearl millet malt has perhaps even better potential than sorghum malt in lager beer brewing, at least as a barley malt extender, especially in areas where...

  20. Oxidizable carbon and humic substances in rotation systems with brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crop-livestock integration system significantly increases the carbon content in chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. This study aimed to evaluate chemical indicators of SOM attributes for sites under brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in Goias, Brazil. A third area covered with natural Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão served as reference. Soil was randomly sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Total organic carbon stocks (TOC, oxidizable carbon fractions (OCF (F1>F2>F3>F4, carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions were evaluated. F1/F4, F1+F2/F3+F4, C-HAF/C-FAF and (C-HAF+C-FAF/C-HUM indices were calculated, as well as stocks chemical SOM fractions. Brachiaria/livestock produced greater TOC stocks than pearl millet/no livestock (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. In terms of OCF, brachiaria/livestock generally exhibited higher levels in F1, F2, F4 and F1/F4 than pearl millet/no livestock. C-HUM (0-10 cm and C-HAF (0-20 cm stocks were larger in brachiaria/livestock than pearl millet/no livestock. Compared to the Cerradão, brachiaria/livestock locations displayed higher values for TOC (5-10 and 10-20 cm, C-HAF and C-HAF/C-FAF (5-10 cm stocks. TOC, C-HAF stock and OCF show that land management with brachiaria/livestock was more efficient in increasing SOM than pearl millet/no livestock. Moreover, when compared with pearl millet/no livestock, brachiaria/livestock provided a more balanced distribution of very labile (F1 and recalcitrant (F4 carbon throughout soil layers, greater SOM humification. Brachiaria/livestock leads to higher values of F1 and F4 in depth when compared to pearl millet/livestock and provides a more homogeneous distribution of C-FAF and C-HAF in depth compared to Cerradão.

  1. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjunatha, G.; Raj, S. Niranjan; Shetty, Nandini Prasad

    2008-01-01

    , a structural analog of NO donor lacking NO moiety failed to protect the pearl millet plants from downy mildew indicating a role for NO in induced host resistance. Spatio-temporal studies corroborated that the protection offered by NO donor treatment was systemic in nature and a minimum of 3-day time gap...... experiments with NO donors showed no adverse effect either on the host or pathogen. Aqueous SNP seed treatment with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) priming was the most effective in inducing the host resistance against downy mildew both under greenhouse and field conditions. Potassium Ferrocyanide...... between the inducer treatment and subsequent pathogen inoculation was necessary for maximum resistance development. Disease protection ability of NO donors was also validated as durable in nature. Conversely, prior-treatment with NO scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5 tetrazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium...

  2. Transcriptional profiling in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.R. Br.) for identification of differentially expressed drought responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Minakshi; Jayanand; Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath

    2015-04-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is an important cereal of traditional farming systems that has the natural ability to withstand various abiotic stresses. The present study aims at the identification and validation of major differentially expressed genes in response to drought stress in P. glaucum by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) analysis. Twenty-two days old seedlings of P. glaucum cultivar PPMI741 were subjected to drought stress by treatment of 30 % Polyethylene glycol for different time periods 30 min (T1), 2 h (T2), 4 h (T3), 8 h (T4), 16 h (T5), 24 h (T6) and 48 h (T7) respectively, monitored by examining the RWC of seedlings. Total RNA was isolated to construct drought responsive subtractive cDNA library through SSH, sequenced to identify the differentially expressed genes in response to drought stress and validated by qRT-PCR.745 ESTs were assembled into a collection of 299 unigenes having 52 contigs and 247 singletons. All 745 ESTs were submitted to ENA-EMBL databases (Accession no. HG516611- HG517355). After analysis, 10 differentially expressed genes were validated namely Abscisic stress ripening protein, Ascorbate peroxidase, Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, Putative beta-1, 3-glucanase, Glyoxalase, Rab7, Aspartic proteinase Oryzasin, DnaJ-like protein and Calmodulin-like protein by qRT-PCR. The identified ESTs reveal a major portion of the stress responsive transcriptome that may prove to be a vent to unravel molecular basis underlying tolerance of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) to drought stress. These genes could be utilized for transgenic breeding or transferred to crop plants through marker assisted selection for the development of better drought resistant cultivars having enhanced adaptability to survive harsh environmental conditions.

  3. Intra-population genetic variance for grain iron and zinc contents and agronomic traits in pearl millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahalingam Govindaraj; Kedar N.Rai; Ponnusamy Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Crop biofortification is a sustainable approach for fighting micronutrient malnutrition in the world. The estimation of variance components in genetically broad-based populations provides information about their genetic architecture, allowing the design of an appropriate biofortification breeding method for cross-pollinated crops such as pearl millet. The objective of this study was to estimate intra-population genetic variance using self(S1) and half-sib(HS) progenies in two populations, AIMP92901 and ICMR312. Field trials were evaluated in two contrasting seasons(2009 rainy and 2010 summer; otherwise called environments) in Alfisols at ICRISAT, Patancheru. Analyses of variance showed highly significant variation for S1 s and HS progenies, reflecting high within-population genetic variation for both micronutrients and other key traits. However, the HS showed narrow ranges and lower genetic variances than the S1 for all of the traits. The micronutrients were highly positively correlated in S1(r = 0.77 to 0.86; P < 0.01) and HS(r = 0.74 to 0.77; P < 0.01)progenies of both populations, implying concurrent genetic improvement for both micronutrients. The genetic variance component was different among populations for Fe and Zn contents across environments, with AIMP92901 showing a greater proportion of dominance and ICMR312 greater additive variance for these micronutrients. The estimates of variance(additive and dominance) were specific for each population, given their dependence on the additive and dominance effects of the segregating loci, which also differ among populations. The possible causes for such differences were discussed. The results showed that the expression of these micronutrients in pearl millet shows largely additive variance, so that breeding high-iron hybrids will require incorporation of these micronutrient traits into both parental lines.

  4. Intra-population genetic variance for grain iron and zinc contents and agronomic traits in pearl millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahalingam Govindaraj; Kedar N. Rai; Ponnusamy Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Crop biofortification is a sustainable approach for fighting micronutrient malnutrition in the world. The estimation of variance components in genetically broad-based populations provides information about their genetic architecture, allowing the design of an appropriate biofortification breeding method for cross-pollinated crops such as pearl millet. The objective of this study was to estimate intra-population genetic variance using self (S1) and half-sib (HS) progenies in two populations, AIMP92901 and ICMR312. Field trials were evaluated in two contrasting seasons (2009 rainy and 2010 summer; otherwise called environments) in Alfisols at ICRISAT, Patancheru. Analyses of variance showed highly significant variation for S1s and HS progenies, reflecting high within-population genetic variation for both micronutrients and other key traits. However, the HS showed narrow ranges and lower genetic variances than the S1 for all of the traits. The micronutrients were highly positively correlated in S1 (r=0.77 to 0.86;P<0.01) and HS (r=0.74 to 0.77;P<0.01) progenies of both populations, implying concurrent genetic improvement for both micronutrients. The genetic variance component was different among populations for Fe and Zn contents across environments, with AIMP92901 showing a greater proportion of dominance and ICMR312 greater additive variance for these micronutrients. The estimates of variance (additive and dominance) were specific for each population, given their dependence on the additive and dominance effects of the segregating loci, which also differ among populations. The possible causes for such differences were discussed. The results showed that the expression of these micronutrients in pearl millet shows largely additive variance, so that breeding high-iron hybrids will require incorporation of these micronu-trient traits into both parental lines.

  5. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALPHA AMYLASE FROM SEEDS OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum typhoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdalin Kharkrang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase from pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides was purified to homogeneity through several steps involving change of pH (pH 7.0 to 6.0, lyophilization (-55 ºC, polyethylene glycol precipitation (3-15%, Sepharose 6 B column chromatography and CM-cellulose column chromatography. The 24 fold purified enzyme had specific activity of 580 units/mg protein. Native PAGE revealed a single protein band and activity staining revealed that the band corresponds to alpha amylase. SDS-PAGE also revealed a single protein band. The native molecular mass determined by gel filtration was 33 kDa. The sub-unit molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 33 kDa, suggesting that enzyme is a monomeric protein. The A280/A260 ratio was 1.5, clearly indicating that the enzyme is free from bound nucleotides. When the enzyme was stored at 4ºC in absence of any additive, t1/2 was 90 days. However, when the enzyme was stored at 4ºC in the presence of acetaminophen, t1/2 increased to 121 days. The Km and Vmax values are 0.5 mg/ml and 603 µmol/min/mg, respectively. The kcat was 335 s-1. From the Arrhenius plot, the activation energy was calculated to be 6.9 kcal/mol. When the enzyme was dialyzed against EDTA (1 mM, negligible loss in activity was observed suggesting that there is no absolute requirement of a divalent cation. However, divalent cations namely, Co2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ at 1mM concentration, activated the enzyme activity. Mn2+ inhibited the enzyme activity at the same concentration. NH4 + showed activation of the enzyme activity, Li + and K+ showed inhibition. Na+ had no effect on the enzyme activity. NAD+ activated the enzyme activity at 1 mM concentration while ATP, ADP, NADH inhibited the enzyme activity. The latter inhibitors at 3 mM concentration showed non-competitive inhibition. The Ki values of NADH, ATP and ADP were 3.96 mM, 2.0 mM and 4.48 mM, respectively. At 5 mM concentration, glycine, fructose1,6-bisphosphate and phenylalanine brought

  6. Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods▿

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolate...

  7. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Songre Ouattara, L.T.; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christele; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, B.; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a ...

  8. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  9. Integration of gene-based markers in a pearl millet genetic map for identification of candidate genes underlying drought tolerance quantitative trait loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Deepmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes underlying drought tolerance (DT quantitative trait loci (QTLs will facilitate understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also will accelerate genetic improvement of pearl millet through marker-assisted selection. We report a map based on genes with assigned functional roles in plant adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses and demonstrate its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL. Results Seventy five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and conserved intron spanning primer (CISP markers were developed from available expressed sequence tags (ESTs using four genotypes, H 77/833-2, PRLT 2/89-33, ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004, representing parents of two mapping populations. A total of 228 SNPs were obtained from 30.5 kb sequenced region resulting in a SNP frequency of 1/134 bp. The positions of major pearl millet linkage group (LG 2 DT-QTLs (reported from crosses H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 and 841B × 863B were added to the present consensus function map which identified 18 genes, coding for PSI reaction center subunit III, PHYC, actin, alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, uridylate kinase, acyl-CoA oxidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, MADS-box, serine/threonine protein kinase, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, zinc finger C- × 8-C × 5-C × 3-H type, Hd3, acetyl CoA carboxylase, chlorophyll a/b binding protein, photolyase, protein phosphatase1 regulatory subunit SDS22 and two hypothetical proteins, co-mapping in this DT-QTL interval. Many of these candidate genes were found to have significant association with QTLs of grain yield, flowering time and leaf rolling under drought stress conditions. Conclusions We have exploited available pearl millet EST sequences to generate a mapped resource of seventy five new gene-based markers for pearl millet and demonstrated its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL in this species. The reported gene

  10. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.

  11. Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 Using Pearl Millet and Its Structural Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Bijay K.; Jana, Arijit; Nanda, Prativa K.; DasMohapatra, Pradeep K.; Sahoo, Santi L.; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug−1) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%), β-pleated sheet (23.6%), and β-turn (27.4%). Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications. PMID:27242841

  12. Antisporulant Activity of Watery Extracts of Plants against Sclerospora graminicola Causing Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

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    S. A. Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Watery extracts of forty plant species commonly growing in across India have been screened for antisporulant activity against Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc. Schroet., the causative agent of pearl millet downy mildew. The collection represented 38 genera of 30 families. The extracts of thirteen species did not show any effect, whereas the activity of extracts of Allium sativum, Clematis gouriana, Evolvulus alsinoides, Mimusops elengi, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper nigrum and Tagetes erecta were commensurable to that of marketed botanical fungicides and Mikal 70 wp. The crude extracts of 12 species (Agave americana, Aloe vera, Artemisia parviflora, Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, Eucalyptus globosus, Euphorbia hirta, Leucas aspera, Murraya koenigi, Ocimum sanctum, Santalum album and Zingiber offinale completely inhibited the zoosprorangium formation while in the case of remaining 8 plants the crude extracts reduced only partially the sporulation. The antisporulant activity of commercialised Azadirachta preparation (Nutri-Neem was more pronounced than that of Reynutria based one (Milsana and Sabadilla (veratrin, however, these botanical preparations held off synthetic fungicides and the most active watery extracts.

  13. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling high Fe and Zn density in self and open pollinated grains of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

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    Sushil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a multipurpose grain/fodder crop of the semi-arid tropics, feeding many of the world’s poorest and most undernourished people. Genetic variation among adapted pearl millet inbreds and hybrids suggests it will be possible to improve grain micronutrient concentrations by selective breeding. Using 305 loci, a linkage map was constructed to map QTLs for grain [Fe] and [Zn] using replicated samples of 106 pearl millet RILs (F6 derived from ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2. The grains of the RIL population were evaluated for Fe and Zn concentration using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Grain mineral concentrations ranged from 28.4-124.0 ppm for Fe and 28.7-119.8 ppm for Zn. Similarly,grain Fe and Zn in open pollinated seeds ranged between 22.4-77.4 and 21.9-73.7 ppm, respectively. Mapping with 305 (96 SSRs; 208 DArT markers detected seven linkage groups covering 1749 cM (Haldane with an average intermarker distance of 5.73 cM. On the basis of two environment phenotypic data, two co-localized QTLs for Fe and Zn density on LG 3 were identified by composite interval mapping (CIM. Fe QTL explained 19% phenotypic variation, whereas the Zn QTL explained 36% phenotypic variation. Likewise for open pollinated seeds, the QTL analysis led to identification of two QTLs for grain Fe density on LG 3 and 5, and two QTLs for grain Zn density on LG 3 and 7. The total phenotypic variance for Fe and Zn QTLs in open pollinated seeds was 16% and 42%, respectively. Analysis of QTL × QTL and QTL × QTL× environment interactions indicated no major epistasis.

  15. Acceptability of Iron- and Zinc-Biofortified Pearl Millet (ICTP-8203-Based Complementary Foods among Children in an Urban Slum of Mumbai, India

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    Samantha Lee Huey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification, a method for increasing micronutrient content of staple crops, is a promising strategy for combating major global health problems, such as iron and zinc deficiency. We examined the acceptability of recipes prepared using iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZnPM (~80 ppm Fe, ~34 ppm Zn, varietal ICTP-8203, compared to conventional pearl millet (CPM (~20 ppm Fe, ~19 ppm Zn in preparation for an efficacy trial. Our objective was to examine the acceptability of FeZnPM compared to CPM among young children and mothers living in the urban slums of Mumbai. Standardized traditional feeding program recipes (n = 18 were prepared with either FeZnPM or CPM flour. The weight (g of each food product was measured before and after consumption by children (n = 125 and the average grams consumed over a 3-day period were recorded. Mothers (n = 60 rated recipes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Mean intakes and hedonic scores of each food product were compared using t-tests across the two types of pearl millet. There were no statistically significant differences in consumption by children (FeZnPM: 25.27 ± 13.0 g; CPM: 21.72 ± 6.90 g across the food products (P = 0.28. Overall mean hedonic scores for all recipes were between 7 to 9 points. CPM products were rated higher overall (8.22 ± 0.28 compared to FeZnPM products (7.95 ± 0.35 (P = 0.01. FeZnPM and CPM were similarly consumed and had high hedonic scores, demonstrating high acceptability in this population. These results support using these varieties of pearl millet in a proposed trial [http://Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02233764; Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI, reference number REF/2014/10/007731, CTRI number CTRI/2015/11/006376] testing the efficacy of FeZnPM for improving iron status and growth.

  16. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

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    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The enzyme was active for 40 min at 70°C with an optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time of 60 min. Amylase was compatible with all detergents tested having highest activity with Surf excel followed by Henko and Ariel. SDS and Tween 20 reduced the activity. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum α-amylase activity was attained in the presence of Ca2+, followed by Mg2+ and Mn2+. The activity of α-amylase was not considerably affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100. Amylase activity was accelerated in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not significantly (or slightly affect the activity and stability. Tween 20, urea (5%, and the reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited the activity of α-amylase. Owing to its noteworthy stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors, and metal ions, this α-amylase could be an impending enzyme for significant industrial exploitations.

  17. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, Laurencia T; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, Bréhima; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 +/- 4.2 and 75.8 +/- 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the alpha-GOS content.

  18. Development and characterization of a high temperature stress responsive subtractive cDNA library in Pearl Millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Donald; Tarafdar, Avijit; Biswas, Koushik; Sathyavathi, Tara C; Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Kumar, P Ananda

    2015-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.) is an important cereal crop grown mainly in the arid and semi-arid regions of India known to possess the natural ability to withstand thermal stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of high temperature response in pearl millet, 12 days old seedlings of P. glaucum cv. 841A were subjected to heat stress at 46 degrees C for different time durations ( 30 min, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h) and a forward subtractive cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA of heat stressed seedlings. A total of 331 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were obtained from randomly selected 1050 clones. Sequences were assembled into 103 unique sequences consisting of 37 contigs and 66 singletons. Of these, 92 unique sequences were submitted to NCBI dbEST database. Gene Ontology through RGAP data base and BLASTx analysis revealed that about 18% of the ESTs showed homology to genes for "response to abiotic and biotic stimulus". About 2% of the ESTs showed no homology with genes in dbEST, indicating the presence of uncharacterized candidate genes involved in heat stress response in P. glaucum. Differential expression of selected genes (hsp101 and CRT) from the SSH library were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. The ESTs thus generated are a rich source of heat stress responsive genes, which can be utilized in improving thermotolerance of other food crops.

  19. Padrões de comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras recebendo ou não suplemento em pastagem de milheto Ingestive behavior patterns of ewe lambs receiving or not supplement on Pearl millet pasture

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    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento ingestivo e os padrões de deslocamento e procura de forragem de cordeiras em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. foram avaliados quando estas foram mantidas exclusivamente em pastagem ou em pastagem recebendo suplemento (ração comercial fornecida diariamente às 17h. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições de área. Os animais que receberam suplemento reduziram o tempo de pastejo e aumentaram o tempo destinado às outras atividades. Os padrões de ingestão, deslocamento e procura de forragem foram alterados pelas mudanças na estrutura do pasto ao longo dos estádios de desenvolvimento do milheto e não foram modificados pelo recebimento de suplemento.The ingestive behavior and displacement and forage searching patterns of female lambs in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. were evaluated when lambs were kept exclusively on Pearl millet pasture and on pearl millet pasture receiving supplement. The supplement used was a commercial ration given daily at 17h. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replicates. The animals that received supplement reduced the grazing time and increased the idling time. The intake, displacement and forage searching patterns were influenced by changing on pasture structure along the Pearl millet stage of development and were not modified by supplement supply.

  20. Teste de envelhecimento precoce para sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto Accelerated aging test for ryegrass black oat grass and pearl millet seeds

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    Danton Camacho Garcia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade da aplicação e da padronização do teste de envelhecimento precoce em sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto foi verificada em três lotes, para cada espécie, com valores iniciais de germinação semelhantes. As sementes de cada lote foram submetidas ao teste por períodos de 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 41°C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar. Em aveia preta, o período de 24 horas estratifica lotes de sementes pelo vigor. Para milheto e azevém, o período de envelhecimento para estratificar lotes de sementes pelo vigor pode ser de 24 a 48 horas. Períodos de 72 a 120 horas são muito drásticos para as três espécies e impedem a estratificação de lotes de sementes pelo vigor.Accelerated aging test standardization for seeds of ryegrass, black oat grass and pearl millet was cheked in three lots, of each specie, with similar initial values of germination. The seeds of each lot were submited to periods of 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of temperature of 41°C and air relative humidity of 100%. In black oat grass the 24h period stratifies seed vigor among lots. However, for pearl millet and ryegrass the period can be of 24 to 48h. Periods of 72 to 120 hours are very severe to the three species and prevent the seed vigor lots stratification.

  1. Silage production and quality of pearl millet, sorghum, and corn hybrids grown from seed exposed to low doses of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.W.; Monson, W.G.; Hanna, W.W.; Constantin, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Just before planting, seeds of pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., (formerly P. typhoides) hybrid, ''Tift 23 x L/sub 1/,'' and corn, Zea mays L., hybrids ''Coker 71,'' ''DeKalb 1214,'' and ''Pioneer 3030'' were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 19.2 kR. ''FS26'' hybrid sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., seeds were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 kR. In one 2-yr. experiment, pearl millet, sorghum, and Coker 71 corn gave respective dry matter yields of 12, 166, 6,993, and 6,306 kg/ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) percentages of 45.7, 52.8, and 59.9. The heaviest exposures of ..gamma.. rays generally reduced yields of all species, and lighter exposures failed to increase yield significantly. Seed irradiation did not affect the quality (IVDMD) of the forage. In a 2-yr. corn hybrid experiment, DeKalb 1214 yielded 24 percent more dry matter and tolerated the heavy exposures of ..gamma.. rays better than Pioneer 3030 and Coker 71. None of the lower exposures increased yield significantly. (auth)

  2. Studies on long-term impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer use on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system in semi arid condition of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Pandey, R N; Sharma, B M

    2015-01-01

    A long-term field experiment on pearl millet - wheat cropping system with soil test crop response correlation (STCR) based fertilizer application was initiated during kharif- 2003 on a sandy loam soil (Typic Halustept) at a research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The aim of the experiment was to study the impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer application for targeted yield of pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence yield and changes in soil health. The result showed a significant and positive impact of integrated use of the fertilizerwith FYM on productivity of the cropping sequence and soil fertility. The STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations with FYM produced significantly higher grain and straw yields of pearl millet and wheat crops as compared to other treatments. The highest average (2003 to 2010-11) grain and straw yield of pearl millet (2.85 and 6.59 t ha(-1)) and wheat (5.32 and 7.17 t ha(-1)) was recorded with the application of STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2) for targeted level of yield 2.5 and 5.0 ha(-1), respectively. Average increase in grain and straw yield of pearl millet was 203 and 197% and 196 and 193% of wheat under T2 treatment over control (T4). After harvest of wheat crops (2010-11), the physical, biological properties and fertility status i.e. available N, P and K of soil were improved in the treatments where STCR based integrated fertilizer dose with 10 t FYM (T2) and FYM @20 t ha(-1)(T1) were applied in both the crops and were significantly higher as compared to T3 treatment except available phosphorus. Economic analysis based on average yield of eight cropping sequence (2003 to 2010-11), pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence gave maximum net return of Rs. 100,907 ha(-1) yr(-1) and total return of Rs. 64,992/ ha(-1)yr(-1) over control with STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2). It is concluded that STCR based integrated fertilizer can be adopted by the farmers

  3. Silage quality of pearl millet cultivars produced in different cutting agesQualidade da silagem de cultivares de milheto produzidas em diferentes idades de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Santos Cruvinel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The millet has being prominent in recent years, especially with the arrival of early genotypes with high nutritional value and productive potential, coming from breeding. As these genotypes are new, little information exists about them. Thus, it is important to obtain technical information, supported by scientific studies about the behavior of these materials considering the nutritional value and harvest for silage production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the silage quality of pearl millet genotypes grown in different cuts age. The experiment was carried out on the campus of the Agronomy, of the Rio Verde University. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial, with five genotypes of millet: ARD 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 and LAB 0732 and three cuts ages: 57, 65 and 73 days after sowing (DAS. The results showed that silages produced by millet, regardless of genotype, could be considered of nutritional value. Since this is a precocious material the best age that provided the best quality of these silages was when the materials were harvested at 57 DAS.O milheto vem ganhando destaque nos últimos anos, principalmente com a chegada de genótipos precoces e de alto valor nutritivo e potencial produtivo, oriundos do melhoramento genético. Por se tratarem de materiais novos, existem poucas informações sobre esses genótipos. Nesse sentido, é importante obter informações técnicas, apoiadas em estudos científicos, sobre o comportamento desses materiais em relação ao valor nutritivo e época de colheita para a produção de silagens. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de silagem de genótipos de milheto produzidas em diferentes idades de cortes. O experimento foi conduzido no Campus da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Rio Verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo, cinco

  4. Qualidade e valor nutritivo de silagem de genótipos de milheto produzidas com e sem inoculante bacteriano Quality and nutritional value of pearl millet genotypes silage produced with and without inoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jardim Taveira Privado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de silagem de genótipos de milheto produzidas com e sem inoculante bacteriano. O experimento foi conduzido no Campus da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Rio Verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, sendo, cinco genótipos de milheto: ADR 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 e LAB 0732 e dois tratamentos: com e sem adição de inoculante bacteriano. Os resultados demonstraram que as silagens produzidas com os novos genótipos de milheto, podem ser consideradas de boa qualidade. Contudo, a adição do inoculante bacteriano não teve efeito consistente sobre a qualidade das silagens, no que diz respeito aos teores de matéria seca, proteína bruta, hemicelulose e valores de pH. Apenas as frações fibrosas sofreram alterações com a adição do inoculante nos genótipos de milheto.The objective was to evaluate the quality of silage produced from millet genotypes with and without inoculants. The experiment was conducted on the campus of the Agronomy Faculty of Rio Verde University. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications in a factorial 5 x 2, with five pearl millet genotypes: ADR 500, ADR 7010, LAB 0730, LAB 0731 and LAB 0732 and two treatments: with and without addition of inoculants. The results showed that the silage produced from new genotypes of pearl millet can be considered of good quality. However, the addition of the inoculant had no consistent effect on the silage quality, considering dry matter, crude protein, hemicellulose and pH values. Only the fibrous fractions were modified with the addition of the inoculant in pearl millet genotypes.

  5. Role of plant growth regulators and a saprobic fungus in enhancement of metal phytoextraction potential and stress alleviation in pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus-e-Bareen; Shafiq, Muhammad; Jamil, Sidra

    2012-10-30

    "Assisted phytoextraction" involving application of chemical additives such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) has become a trend in phytoremediation technology. This study identifies a cost-effective, naturally available crude PGR (PGR1) that produces the same effects as the commercial PGR (PGR2), increasing metal uptake by plants and the reduction of metal stress. Assisted phytoextraction by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from a multi-metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Na and Zn) contaminated soil medium with tannery solid waste (TSW) soil amendments of 5 and 10%, was evaluated in a full-factorial pot trial with PGR1, PGR2 and Trichoderma pseudokoningii as factors. The effects of these phytoextraction assistants were measured through dry biomass production, heavy metal uptake, stress tolerance enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble protein content of plant, and phytoextraction efficiency. Dry biomass and multi-metal accumulation were the highest in the soil treatments with a combined application of PGR1, PGR2 and T. pseudokoningii and the lowest in the control. The soluble protein contents and the SOD and CAT values were the highest in the 10% TSW treatment provided with PGR2+T. pseudokoningii, while the lowest were in the control. Thus, application of crude PGR in combination with other phytoextraction assistants can increase biomass production as well as multi-metal accumulation in plants. However, the biochemical properties of the plant depend on the level of TSW stress in the soil treatment as well as the type of phytoextraction assistants.

  6. Genetic screening of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in a fermented pearl millet slurry and in the metagenome of fermented starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas.

  7. Potential of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria to replace the use of malt for partial starch hydrolysis to produce African fermented pearl millet gruel fortified with groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, L T; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Icard-Vernière, C; Rochette, I; Diawara, B; Guyot, J P

    2009-04-15

    Fermentation and starch hydrolysis of a pre-cooked pearl millet-groundnut (MG) slurry inoculated with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) or by back slopping was investigated as a substitute for the addition of malt to prepare infant gruels. The ALAB collection strain Lb. plantarum A6, and the endogenous microflora provided by back slopping were more efficient in acidifying and partially hydrolysing starch in the MG slurry than Lb. plantarum 6.1, isolated from the traditional process in Burkina Faso. Large amounts of maltotriose and maltotetraose accumulated in slurry fermented by strain A6. No accumulation of maltose was observed, which could be an advantage to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants such as yeasts. Starch hydrolysis in the MG slurry inoculated with strain A6 or by back slopping enabled preparation of high-energy density gruels (84.7+/-4.4 and 80.4+/-23.8 kcal/100 g of gruel, respectively) of liquid consistency. However variability was higher with back slopping.

  8. Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

  9. Viabilidade do grão de pólen de acessos de capim-elefante, milheto e híbridos interespecíficos (capim-elefante x milheto = Pollen viability in elephantgrass, pearl millet and interspecific hybrids (elephantgrass x pearl millet acessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a viabilidade do pólen em acessos de capim-elefante, milheto e híbridos interespecíficos por meio de germinação in vitro e coloração com carmim propiônico, orceína acética e corante de Alexander. Os testes de germinação foram realizados com grãos de pólen frescos e armazenados por 30 dias. Osacessos de capim-elefante e de milheto apresentaram alta viabilidade de pólen. Apenas um deles, quando avaliado com o corante de Alexander, mostrou baixa fertilidade. Para os híbridos, observou-se alta taxa de pólens funcionais com os corantes nucleares. Entretanto,o corante de Alexander confirmou a completa esterilidade desses acessos. Os acessos de capim-elefante e milheto apresentaram baixa porcentagem de pólens viáveis quando induzidos à germinação em meio de cultura. Nos híbridos foi constatada completa esterilidade do grão de pólen, condizente com as anormalidades meióticas relatadas naliteratura. Quanto ao armazenamento, os grãos de pólen de todos os acessos perderam completamente o poder germinativo.The aim of this work was to estimate the pollen viability in elephantgrass, pearl millet and interspecific hybrids accessionsthrough in vitro germination and staining with propionic carmine, acetic orcein and Alexander’s stain. The germination tests were accomplished with fresh pollen grains and stored for 30 days. The elephantgrass and peare millet accessions presented a high pollenviability. Just one of the accessions, when evaluated with Alexander's stain, showed low fertility. For the hybrid, a high rate of functional pollen was observed with the nuclear stain. However, Alexander's stain confirmed the complete sterility of those accessions. Elephantgrass and pearl millet accessions presented a low percentage of viable pollen grain, when induced to germination in culture medium. Complete sterility of the pollen grain was verified in the hybrid, agreeing with the meiotic abnormalities

  10. Cinética de fermentação ruminal de silagens de milheto Ruminal fermentation kinetics of pearl millet silages

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    R. Guimarães Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a degradabilidade da matéria seca e a cinética de fermentação ruminal das silagens de três genótipos de milheto (BRS-1501, NPM-1 e CMS-3, por meio da técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas. Para a comparação dos genótipos, foi utilizado o teste SNK (PThe dry matter digestibility and the fermentation kinetics of three pearl millet genotypes silages (BRS-1501, NPM-1, and CMS-3 were estimated by the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, using a completely randomized blocks design in a split plot arrangement. The genotypes means were compared by SNK test (P<0.05 and fermentation kinetics parameters estimated by regression of gas production on time using the France model. The greater cumulative gas production from 24 hours on was obtained by BRS-1501 genotype silage. The dry matter degradability (DMD values at 96 hours of incubation were 53.9% for BRS-1501, 51.7% for NPM-1, and 49.1% for CMS-3 silage. The lowest DMD (P<0.05 among the studied genotypes silages was observed for CMS-3 silage. The maximum potential of gas production ranged from 145.18ml/g of dry matter for CMS-3 genotype silage to 155.02ml/g of dry matter for BRS-1501 silage. The BRS-1501 genotype silage showed the highest potential of gas production and effective degradabilities.

  11. Genetic architecture of purple pigmentation and tagging of some loci to SSR markers in pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

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    Pusapati Varalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the construction of integrated genetic maps in pearl millet involving certain purple phenotype and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. These maps provide a direct means of implementing DNA marker-assisted selection and of facilitating "map-based cloning" for engineering novel traits. The purple pigmentation of leaf sheath, midrib and leaf margin was inherited together 'en bloc' under the control of a single dominant locus (the 'midrib complex' and was inseparably associated with the locus governing the purple coloration of the internode. The purple panicle was caused by a single dominant locus. Each of the three characters (purple lamina, purple stigma and purple seed was governed by two complementary loci. One of the two loci governing purple seed was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2090 in linkage group 1, with a linkage value of 22 cM, while the other locus was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2270 in linkage group 6, with a linkage value of 23 cM. The locus for purple pigmentation of the midrib complex was either responsible for pigmentation of the panicle in a pleiotropic manner or was linked to it very closely and associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2086 in linkage group 4, with a suggestive linkage value of 21 cM. A dominant allele at this locus seems to be a prerequisite for the development of purple pigmentation in the lamina, stigma and seed. These findings suggest that the locus for pigmentation of the midrib complex might regulate the basic steps in anthocyanin pigment development by acting as a structural gene while other loci regulate the formation of color in specific plant parts.

  12. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Sharathchandra R.; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S.; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar “HB3,” and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27895647

  13. PEARL MILLET AS SUBSTITUTE OF CORN IN FEEDING TO DAIRY GOATS UTILIZAÇÃO DO MILHETO COMO SUBSTITUTO DO MILHO EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS LEITEIRAS

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    Aldi Fernandes de Souza França

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum is an annual summer forage that grows in India and some African countries, used for human and animal feeding. Due to its high nutritive value it can be used for grain production and forage. Because of its physiologic characteristics, pearl millet is adapted to the soil and climate conditions of Brazilian cerrados region. This trial was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of pearl millet (grain + ears to dairy goat feeding. Sixteen dairy goat females were alloted in a Latin square design and submitted to four levels of substitution of millet ear corn for pearl millet. The percentual levels of substitution used were 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% that correspond to treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The results, obtained in terms of average of milk production in a period of six days, were: 4.471, 4.621, 4.911 and 4.771 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. It was not observed any statistical difference between treatments with the use of Tukey test at the probability level of 5%.

    KEY-WORDS: Pearl millet; dairy goat; feeding.

    O milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L Leeke se constitui em uma forrageira anual de verão muito utilizada na Índia e em alguns países da África, tanto para alimentação humana como animal. Apresenta alto valor nutritivo, podendo ser utilizada para a produção de grãos ou de forragens. Por suas características fisiológicas se adapta muito bem às condições edafoclimáticas dos cerrados. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o

  14. Comportamento ingestivo e consumo de forragem por cordeiras em pastagem de milheto recebendo ou não suplemento Feeding behavior and forage intake of ewe lambs on pearl millet pasture with or without supplementation

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    Felipe Jochims

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o comportamento ingestivo e o consumo de matéria seca de cordeiras recebendo diferentes tipos de suplemento em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke. Foram utilizadas 24 cordeiras com peso inicial de 30,2 ± 2,6 kg, distribuídas em três estratégias alimentares: pastagem de milheto exclusivamente; pastagem de milheto e suplementação com farinha de mandioca; e pastagem de milheto e suplementação com glúten de milho. Os suplementos foram fornecidos na quantidade de 1% do PV. Foram avaliados, em três datas, os tempos diários (min/dia de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e a taxa de bocados (boc/min das cordeiras. O consumo de matéria seca (CMS foi estimado pela relação entre a produção fecal e a indigestibilidade da matéria seca e a digestibilidade da MS, pelo método in vitro. A estimativa da excreção fecal foi realizada utilizando-se óxido de cromo como marcador externo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três estratégias alimentares, duas repetições de área e quatro animais-teste por repetição. O fornecimento de suplementos diminuiu o tempo de pastejo diário, a taxa de bocados e a massa de bocado. A ingestão de pasto foi menor entre as cordeiras que receberam glúten de milho que entre aquelas mantidas exclusivamente a pasto, todavia, a ingestão total de MS foi maior quando fornecidos os suplementos (947 g para suplementação com glúten de milho; 907 g para suplementação com farinha de mandioca; e 652 g para pastagem exclusiva. Cordeiras em pastagem de milheto sem suplementação permanecem mais tempo em pastejo.The feeding behavior and dry forage intake of ewe lambs receiving different types of supplementation on pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture was evaluated. Twenty-four ewe lambs with 30.2 ± 2.6 kg mean initial body weight (BW, distributed in three feeding strategies: grazing on pearl millet pasture; grazing on pearl millet pasture

  15. Aplicação de fosfato natural e reciclagem de fósforo por milheto, braquiária, milho e soja Rock phosphate fertilization and phosphorus recycling by pearl millet, Brachiaria sp., corn and soybean

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    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar, comparativamente, a capacidade extratora de P da soja (Glycine max, milho (Zea mays, braquiária brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, submetidos a diferentes doses do fertilizante fosfatado natural fosforita Alvorada, em condições controladas. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, corrigido e adubado com N, K e micronutrientes. As espécies foram cultivadas em vasos de 18 dm³ por 50 dias em casa de vegetação, com aplicação de 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de P2O5. As quantidades de fosfato natural foram calculadas com base na teor total de P2O5. O milho, ao contrário da soja, respondeu positivamente ao aumento da dose de P2O5 via fosforita Alvorada. A Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, apesar da menor produção de matéria seca em relação ao milheto, apresentou alta eficiência na absorção de P, mesmo com o fornecido deste nutriente por meio de fonte pouco solúvel. O milheto apresentou-se como importante espécie de cobertura do solo, graças ao alto potencial para produção de fitomassa e reciclagem de P num intervalo de tempo relativamente curto (50 dias.The objective of this experiment was to compare the ability of soybean (Glycine max, corn (Zea mays, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum for P-uptake, at different levels of the Alvorada natural rock phosphate, under controlled conditions. The soil used was a dystrophic Hapludalf (180 g kg-1 clay, which was limed and fertilized with N, K and micronutrients. The crops were grown in 18 dm³ pots for 50 days in a greenhouse, at different P2O5 rates (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. The amount of rock phosphate was calculated based on the total P2O5 content. Contrasting to soybean, there was a positive response of maize to higher P2O5 doses. The dry matter production by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu was lower than that observed for pearl millet, but it still

  16. Climate, Anchovy, and Sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkley, David M.; Asch, Rebecca G.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Distribution, phenology, nutrient supply, plankton composition and production, habitat compression, fishing, and acclimation and adaptation may be affected by ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and altered hydrology. Observations of populations and evaluation of model skill are essential to resolve the effects of climate change on these fish.

  17. Produção e qualidade de pastagens de Coastcross-1 e milheto utilizadas com vacas leiteiras Production and quality of Coastcross-1 and pearl millet pastures utilized with dairy cows

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    Luciene Fernanda Barros Scaravelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de pastagens do gênero Cynodon, em propriedades leiteiras do Rio Grande do Sul, tem crescido, especialmente na última década. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a produção de matéria seca, a qualidade e a composição botânica de pastagens de Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon x C. nlemfluensis e milheto (Pennisetum americanum cv. Comum, sob sistema de pastejo rotacionado, com vacas em lactação da raça Holandês. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem no pré-pastejo (MFPP, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TAD, a produção total de forragem (PTF e a composição botânica das pastagens. Para o milheto e a Coastcross-1, foram avaliados os componentes estruturais: lâmina foliar (LF, colmo + bainha (CB, outras espécies (OE e material morto (MM. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para MFPP, TAD, PTF e PB. O milheto apresentou maior disponibilidade de lâminas foliares (PThe use of pastures of the genus Cynodon has increased, for the last decade especially in dairy properties of Rio Grande do Sul. This research aims to compare the dynamic, dry matter production, quality and botanical composition of Coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon x C. nlemfluensis and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Comum pastures. The pastures were utilized by lactating Holstein dairy cows under rotational stocking system. Pregraze dry matter availability (DMA, daily dry matter accumulation rate (DMR, total dry matter production (TDM were evaluated. For the botanical composition, the structural components: leaf blade (LB, stem + sheat (SS, dead material (DMT of pastures and other species (OS were evaluated. Before and after grazing, samples were collected by hand-plucking in order to determine the crude protein concentration (CP and neutral

  18. Potássio lixiviado da palha de aveia-preta e milheto após a dessecação química Potassium leaching from black oat and pearl millet straw after chemical desiccation

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    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a lixiviação de K da palha de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa e de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, utilizando-se chuva simulada em diferentes períodos após a dessecação química. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos, e aos 50 dias da emergência foram manejadas com herbicida e submetidas à chuva simulada de 5 e 10 mm, aos 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias após a dessecação (DAD. A quantidade de K lixiviado das palhas, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1 de matéria seca, aumentou à medida que o estado de senescência das plantas evoluiu após a dessecação. Com a aplicação de 10 mm de chuva aos 15 DAD, a palha de aveia-preta disponibilizou, aproximadamente, 11,1 kg ha-1 de K. A água da chuva extrai maior quantidade de K da palha de aveia-preta em relação à palha de milheto, tanto com a lâmina de 5 mm como de 10 mm, e essas diferenças são maiores de acordo com o estado avançado de desidratação do material vegetal.Potassium leaching from black oat (Avena strigosa and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum straw as affected by simulated rainfall at different moments after chemical desiccation was evaluated. Cover crops were grown in pots, in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty days after emergence, plants were sprayed with herbicide. Three, 6, 9 and 15 days after the desiccation the straw received simulated rains corresponding to 5 and 10 mm, considering a mulch of 8 t ha-1. The amount of K leached from plant residues increased after the desiccation. Fifteen days after the desiccation, a rainfall of 10 mm leached 11.1 kg ha-1 of K. The higher potential of black oat straw to leach K was observed with 10 mm of rain. The amount of K released by rains from black oat straw is greater from the pearl millet with 5 and 10 mm, and this difference increases according to the loss of water of the tissues.

  19. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  20. Effects of charcoal-enriched goat manure on soil fertility parameters and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in a sandy soil from northern Oman

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    Melanie Willich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of charcoal feeding on manure quality and its subsequent application to enhance soil productivity has received little attention. The objectives of the present study therefore were to investigate the effects of (i charcoal feeding on manure composition, and (ii charcoal-enriched manure application on soil fertility parameters and growth of millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.. To this end, two experiments were conducted: First, a goat feeding trial where goats were fed increasing levels of activated charcoal (AC; 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of total ration; second, a greenhouse pot experiment using the manure from the feeding trial as an amendment for a sandy soil from northern Oman. We measured manure C, N, P, and K concentrations, soil fertility parameters and microbial biomass indices, as well as plant yield and nutrient concentrations. Manure C concentration increased significantly (P<0.001 from 45.2% (0% AC to 60.2% (9% AC with increasing dietary AC, whereas manure N, P, and K concentrations decreased (P<0.001 from 0% AC (N: 2.5%, P: 1.5%, K: 0.8% to 9% AC (N: 1.7%, P: 0.8%, K: 0.4%. Soil organic carbon, pH, and microbial biomass N showed a response to AC-enriched manure. Yield of millet decreased slightly with AC enrichment, whereas K uptake was improved with increasing AC. We conclude that AC effects on manure quality and soil productivity depend on dosage of manure and AC, properties of AC, trial duration, and soil type.

  1. Milheto em rações para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante a reversão sexual - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1796 Pearl millet in diets to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during sex reversion - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1796

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar a inclusão de milheto em rações para a tilápia do Nilo durante a fase de reversão sexual, sobre os parâmetros finais de peso, comprimento, sobrevivência e eficiência da reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 1.200 larvas de tilápia do Nilo, distribuídas em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados composto por seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. As seis diferentes rações experimentais foram formuladas, com níveis crescentes de inclusão de milheto (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% e 10%, sendo estas com 38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal/kg de energia digestível. O peso final médio das tilápias apresentou um aumento linear (p 0,05. O milheto pode ser incluído em até 10% na ração da tilápia do Nilo durante o período de reversão sexual.The present study aimed to evaluate pearl millet inclusion in diets of Nile tilapia during sex reversion, on final parameters of weight, length, survival, and effectiveness of sex reversion. One thousand and two hundred Nile tilapia larvae were distributed in twenty four hapas, which were installed in four 1,000L tanks. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replicates. Six different experimental diets were formulated with different levels of pearl millet (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%, contain 38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal/kg of digestible energy. The final weight of Nile tilapia showed a linear (P>0.01 growth proportional to pearl millet increase, but none of the others showed significant difference (P<0.05 between treatments. The pearl millet can be included up to 10% of Nile tilapia diet during sex reversion.

  2. Efeitos da inclusão de níveis crescentes de milheto (Pennisetum Glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação Effect of feeding increasing levels of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de desempenho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade nutricional e econômica da utilização de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 40 suínos (metade machos castrados e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 25,1±2,11 kg, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e dois animais (um macho castrado e uma fêmea por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto (0, 25, 50 e 75%. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de milheto sobre o consumo diário de ração (CDR, o ganho diário de peso (GDP e a conversão alimentar (CA na fase de crescimento. Entretanto, na fase de terminação, constatou-se efeito quadrático para o CDR e GDP, comprovando que a inclusão de 26,44% de milheto otimizou o GDP. A inclusão de até 75% de milheto em rações para suínos em crescimento e terminação atende aos requerimentos nutricionais dos animais nessas fases, sendo economicamente viável quando o valor de mercado corresponde a 70% do valor do milho.A performance trial was carried out to evaluate the nutritional and economical analyses of feeding increasing dietary levels of pearl millet for growing and finishing pigs. Forty crossbreed pigs averaging initial body weight of 25.1 ± 2.1 kg were assigned to four treatments as a randomized blocks design with five replicates and two pigs (one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit. The treatments contained the followign levels of pearl millet: 0, 25, 50 and 75%. No effects on daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, and feed:gain ratio (FGR in the growing phase was detected. However, in the finishing phase, quadratic effect on DWG and DFI was observed, showing that the inclusion of 26.44% of pearl millet increased DWG. The inclusion of pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of growing and

  3. ADDITION OF PEARL MILLET STRAW TO SOIL FOR REDUCTION OF SOUTHERN BLIGHT IN COMMOM BEAN ADIÇÃO DE PALHA DE MILHETO AO SOLO PARA REDUÇÃO DA PODRIDÃO DO COLO EM FEIJOEIRO

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    João Vicente Pereira Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Many plants, such as pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, have been cultivated with the purpose of covering or being incorporated to soil. This practice might improve soil chemical, physical and biological characteristics. These changes in soil features can affect diseases, especially those caused by soil-borne pathogens, such as Sclerotium rolfsii. In this study, a group of experiments was conducted in a randomized block design to evaluated the effects of pearl millet straw addition (N = 0.8%; P = 0.14%; K = 1.76%; Ca = 0.52%; Mg = 0.22%; S = 0.12%; B = 6.8 mg kg-1; Cu = 12.7 mg kg-1; Fe = 412 mg kg-1; Mn = 39.5 mg kg-1; Zn = 30.3 mg kg-1; and Na = 360 mg kg-1 and seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris southern blight, cultivated in a greenhouse, and also on the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. native population. The addition of straw (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1, and 30 t ha-1 reduced the severity of the disease, while the seed inoculation with Rhizobium did not. There was a significant increase of fluorescent Pseudomonas populations in soils with straw. These results indicate that the addition of pearl millet straw to soil can reduce the disease and favour the fluorescent Pseudomonas population growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Sclerotium rolfsii; Pennisetum glaucum; Phaseolus vulgaris; fluorescent

  4. Bioactivities and antiradical properties of millet grains and hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-09-14

    Antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts of kodo and pearl millet whole grains, dehulled grains, and hulls were examined by monitoring inhibition of radical-induced DNA scission, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and phospholipid liposome oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC), hydroxyl and peroxyl radical inhibition, and antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells were also determined. Major hydroxycinnamic acids in dehulled grains and hulls were identified and quantified using HPLC. Phenolic extract of kodo millet exhibited higher inhibition activities against oxidation of LDL cholesterol and liposome than that of pearl millet. All phenolic extracts exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA scission. The TPC of hulls of kodo and pearl millets were 3 times higher than those of their corresponding whole grains. At the end of 96 h of incubation, kodo millet extracts inhibited cell proliferation in the range of 75-100%. Antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts were in the order hull > whole grain > dehulled grain. Dehulling reduced the antioxidant potential of whole millet grains. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the major hydroxycinnamic acids, and their contents ranged from 17.8 to 1685 μg/g defatted meal and from 3.5 to 680 μg/g defatted meal, respectively. Dehulled grains, as well as the hull fraction, may serve as potential sources of nutraceutical and functional food ingredients in health promotion.

  5. Utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15-30kg de peso vivo Utilization of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain on feeding of starting pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, (L. R. Brown na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15 aos 30kg de peso vivo. Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho, utilizando-se 48 leitões híbridos comerciais, sendo metade machos e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 14,9 ± 2,01kg. Utilizou-se a variedade IAPAR-IA98301 de milheto (MS: 90,61%; PB: 11,64%; Ca: 0,05%, P: 0,29% e 3.181kcal ED kg-1. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (0, 20, 40 e 60% de inclusão de milheto, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão do milheto em rações para suínos na fase inicial não influenciou o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e o custo em ração por quilograma de suíno produzido. Em uma relação onde o preço do milheto corresponde a 70% do preço do milho, o custo em ração do quilograma de suíno produzido também não foi alterado. Os resultados sugerem que o milheto IAPAR-IA98301 pode ser incluído em rações de suínos na fase inicial até o nível de 60%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown utilization on feeding of initial pigs (15-30kg of body weight. A performance trial was conducted by using 48 crossbred pigs (a half barrows and a half females with initial weight of 14.93 + 2.01kg with the use of IAPAR-IA98301 species of pearl millet (DM 90.61%; CP 11.64%; Ca 0.05%; P 0.29% and 3,182 kcal DE kg-1. A randomized blocks designwas used, with four treatments (0; 20; 40 and 60% of pearl millet inclusion, with six repetitions and two animals per experimental unit. The pearl millet inclusion on starting pigs diets did not influence on daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio and cost in diet per kilogram of pig produced during the initial phase. The results, suggest that the pearl millet IAPAR-IA98301 can be included in

  6. Optimization and functionality of millet supplemented pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Gull

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMillets are having superior nutritional qualities and health benefits; hence they can be used for supplementation of pasta. Pasta was prepared using composite flour (CF of durum wheat semolina (96% and carrot pomace (4% supplemented with finger millet flour (FMF, 0-20g, pearl millet flour (PMF, 0-30g and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, 2-4g. Second order polynomial described the effect of FMF, PMF and CMC on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability of extruded pasta products. Results indicate that an increasing proportion of finger and pearl millet flour had signed (p≤0.05 negative effect on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability. However, CMC addition showed significant (p≤0. 05 positive effect on firmness, overall acceptability and negative effect on gruel loss of cooked pasta samples. Numeric optimization results showed that optimum values for extruded pasta were 20g FMF, 12g PMF and 4g CMC per 100g of CF and 34ml water with 0.981 desirability. The pasta developed is nutritionally rich as it contains protein (10.16g, fat (6g, dietary fiber (16.71g, calcium (4.23mg, iron (3.99mg and zinc (1.682mg per 100g.

  7. Protoplast production from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids Obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e milheto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain protoplasts from napier grass and pearl millet triploid hybrids as a basis for future studies on chromosomal duplication. Explants were taken from mesophyll of in vitro- and in vivo-cultured plants or from calli of two triploid hybrids (H1 and H2, which were treated with enzymatic solutions containing different concentrations of cellulase R-10 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% with an additional 0.2% macerozyme and 0.1% driselase or 1.0% pectolyase Y-23 and 0.5% hemicellulase. Enzymatic digestion was monitored once every hour for five hours. Protoplasts were obtained from in vitro and in vivo leaflets of both triploid hybrids, and in vitro leaflets were the best explant sources. The quantity of produced protoplasts varied according to the hybrid, the enzymatic solution and the treatment time.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a obtenção de protoplastos de híbridos triplóides entre o capim-elefante e o milheto como base para futuros trabalhos de duplicação cromossômica. Foram utilizados explantes de mesofilo de plantas cultivadas in vitro e in vivo, ou de calos de dois híbridos triplóides (H1 e H2, os quais foram tratados com soluções enzimáticas em diferentes concentrações da enzima celulase R-10 (0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, acrescidas de 0,2% macerozyme e 0,1% driselase ou 1,0% pectolyase Y-23 e 0,5% hemicelulase. A digestão enzimática foi monitorada a cada hora durante 5 horas. Obtiveram-se protoplastos a partir de folhas in vitro e in vivo dos dois híbridos triplóides, sendo as folhas in vitro as melhores fontes de explante. A quantidade de protoplastos variou em função do híbrido, da solução enzimática e do tempo de tratamento.

  8. Avaliação econômica e desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de milheto em substituição ao milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.5761 Economic evaluation and performance of broilers fed with different levels of pearl millet in substitution of corn - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.5761

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Villa Alves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de determinar o valor energético do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum ADR 7010 e avaliar o desempenho e a viabilidade econômica dos frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo níveis crescentes de milheto ADR 7010. No Experimento 1 foram utilizados 72 frangos de corte com 21 dias de idade em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos, seis repetições de nove aves cada. A energia metabolizável aparente do milheto foi de 3.362,24 kcal kg-1 de matéria seca e 3.066,00 kcal kg-1 de matéria natural e o teor de proteína bruta de 12,6%. No Experimento 2 foram utilizados 960 pintos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e 32 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis níveis de substituição do milho pelo milheto, variando de 0 a 100%. Observou-se efeito linear dos níveis crescentes do milheto sobre o ganho de peso e consumo de ração no período de 1-21 dias e no ganho de peso, no período de 1-41 dias de idade. Em rações isoenergéticas e isoaminoacídicas, o milho pode ser substituído pelo milheto ADR 7010 em nível de 100%, o que corresponde a cerca de 60% de inclusão de milheto nas rações para frangos de corte, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e com maior viabilidade econômica.Two experiments were carried out to determine the energy value, performance and economical feasibility of broiler chickens feeding on different levels of ADR 7010 pearl millet. Experiment 1 was conducted by using 72 broilers with 21 days of age distributed in metabolism cages. A completely randomized experimental design was conducted, with two treatments, six replicates and nine broilers per experimental unit. Pearl millet replaced 40% of reference diet. Values of apparent metabolizable energy of ADR 7010 pearl millet were 3,362 kcal kg-1 (as dry matter and 3,066 kcal kg-1 (as feed basis and 12.6% crude

  9. Potencial produtivo, alterações da estrutura e qualidade da pastagem de milheto submetida a diferentes níveis de nitrogênio Productive potential, structure changes and quality of pearl millet under different nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Heringer

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a produção de matéria seca (MS, eficiência de utilização, taxa de recuperação do N, densidade e qualidade de forragem, foi realizado um experimento de pastejo em milheto sob níveis crescentes de N (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg/ha, em um delineamento completamente casualizado com duas repetições. Foram estudadas a densidade de forragem por estrato e total e a distribuição dos componentes lâmina foliar, colmo + bainha e material morto nos distintos estratos da pastagem (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 e >40 cm acima do nível do solo. Utilizaram-se novilhas em um sistema de pastejo contínuo com uma oferta de 10 kg/dia de MS/100 kg PV. Para manter a oferta pretendida, foi usada a técnica "put-and-take". A produção de MS apresentou relação quadrática com os níveis de N. A taxa de recuperação e de eficiência de utilização do N mostraram relação linear negativa com as doses de N. Houve aumento na contribuição de lâminas foliares e redução no percentual de colmos + bainhas, material morto e na densidade da forragem do estrato inferior até o topo da pastagem em todos tratamentos. A adubação nitrogenada não alterou a densidade de forragem e a relação folha/colmo. A relação dos níveis de N com a porcentagem de proteína bruta das frações colmo + bainha e material morto, foi linear positiva do topo para a base da pastagem e para lâminas foliares até 30 cm de altura. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica dos componentes foi indiferente aos níveis de N, à exceção de lâminas foliares acima de 10 cm, que apresentaram relação quadrática com as doses de N.It was conducted an experiment with pearl millet under grazing with different levels of N (0, 250, 300, 450 and 600 kg/ha. The objective was to study the dry matter (DM production, the utilization efficiency, the recuperation rate, forage density and quality. The experiment was completely randomized design with two replications

  10. Biofortification in Millets: A Sustainable Approach for Nutritional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, A.; Ravindhran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world’s population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. HarvestPlus group realized the importance of millet biofortification and released conventionally bred high iron pearl millet in India to tackle iron deficiency. Molecular basis of waxy starch has been identified in foxtail millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet to facilitate their use in infant foods. With close genetic-relatedness to cereals, comparative genomics has helped in deciphering quantitative trait loci and genes linked to protein quality in finger millet. Recently, transgenic expression of zinc transporters resulted in the development of high grain zinc while transcriptomics revealed various calcium sensor genes involved in uptake, translocation, and accumulation of calcium in finger millet. Biofortification in millets is still limited by the presence of antinutrients like phytic acid, polyphenols, and tannins. RNA interference and genome editing tools [zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)] needs to be employed to reduce these antinutrients. In this review paper, we discuss the strategies to accelerate biofortification in millets by summarizing the opportunities and challenges to increase the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients. PMID:28167953

  11. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  12. Harnessing sorghum and millet biotechnology for food and health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights recombinant DNA technology as a powerful tool to enhance the gene pools of sorghum and pearl millet crops regarded as jewels of Africa. Although important advances in the improvement of these species have been made...

  13. Atividade residual de herbicidas pré-emergentes aplicados na cultura da soja sobre o milheto cultivado em sucessão Effect of the residual activity of pre-emergent herbicides applied in soybean on pearl millet cultivated in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Dan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade residual de herbicidas utilizados no manejo de plantas daninhas em pré-emergência da cultura da soja, bem como verificar seus efeitos sobre o milheto cultivado em sucessão. Utilizaram-se parcelas de 80 m², em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas 5 x 4, correspondendo à aplicação dos herbicidas imazaquin (0,160 kg ha-1, diclosulam (0,035 kg ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,600 kg ha-1 e flumioxazin (0,050 kg ha-1 e uma testemunha, aplicados logo após a semeadura do cultivar de soja Msoy-6101. Nas subparcelas, realizou-se a semeadura do milheto, cultivar ADR-7010, em quatro períodos, correspondendo a 0, 40, 80 e 120 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas (DAA. Durante a condução do ensaio, foram determinados os níveis de intoxicação, estande, altura e massa seca da parte aérea das plantas de milheto. No final do ciclo foi avaliado o rendimento de grãos da cultura. O híbrido de milheto ADR-7010 apresentou elevada sensibilidade com relação à atividade residual dos herbicidas sulfentrazone, diclosulam e imazaquin quando cultivado logo após a aplicação destes. A bioatividade dos herbicidas imazaquin, diclosulam e flumioxazin não foi suficiente para alterar o rendimento de grãos do milheto cultivado em sucessão à soja (120 DAA, mostrando que esse intervalo de tempo é suficiente para dissipação desses herbicidas. Dos herbicidas pré-emergentes avaliados, o sulfentrazone apresentou maior atividade residual, influenciado negativamente o rendimento da cultura durante o intervalo de tempo estudado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the persistence of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in soybean crop and the effects of these herbicides on pearl millet grown in succession. The herbicides imazaquin (0.160 kg ha-1, diclosulam (0.035 kg ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.600 kg ha-1, and fumioxazin (0.050 kg ha-1 were used immediately

  14. Setaria viridis as a model system to advance millet genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crop.

  15. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência na cultura da soja sobre o milheto cultivado em sucessão Effect of the residual activity of herbicides applied in post-emergence soybean on pearl millet grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Dan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade residual de herbicidas utilizados em pós-emergência da cultura da soja sobre o milheto cultivado em sucessão. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura argilosa em região de cerrado. Os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl (0,015 kg ha-1, imazethapyr (0,060 kg ha-1, imazethapyr (0,100 kg ha-1 e fomesafen (0,250 kg ha-1 foram utilizados em pós-emergência do cultivar de soja Msoy-6101. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas (5 x 4. Nas subparcelas, realizou-se a semeadura do milheto (híbrido ADR-7010 em quatro períodos, correspondendo a 0, 40, 80 e 120 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas (DAA. Durante a condução do ensaio, avaliou-se a intoxicação da cultura aos 7 e 28 dias após a emergência, o estande, a altura e a matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de milheto. Ao final do ciclo da cultura, determinou-se o rendimento de grãos. O imazethapyr (0,060 kg ha-1 e chlorimuron-ethyl (0,015 kg ha-1 não alteraram significativamente o rendimento da cultura do milheto em semeaduras posteriores a 80 DAA. Para fomesafen, o intervalo mínimo de segurança entre a aplicação e a semeadura do milheto foi de 100 dias. Por outro lado, maior persistência foi observada para imazethapyr na dose 0,100 kg ha-1, chegando a 120 dias de bioatividade sobre o milheto, que teve seu rendimento de grãos alterando mesmo quando semeado durante esse período.The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual activity of herbicides used in post-emergence soybean on Pearl Millet grown in succession. The experiment was conducted in clay soil in cerrado region. The herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl (0.015 kg ha-1, imazethapyr (0.060 kg ha-1, imazethapyr (0.100 kg ha-1 and fomesafen (0.250 kg ha-1 were used in post-emergence soybean cultivar Msoy-6101, in plots of 80 m² that were subdivided into sub-plots of

  16. AND PEARL MILLET IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop breeding and variety release systems remain largely focused on national markcts ... Community (SADC) test sites into 6 groups according to their similarity of line— yield différentiation. ... strategy for irnprovin g the efficiency and impacts.

  17. Viabilidade do grão de pólen de acessos de capim-elefante, milheto - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1052 Pollen viability in elephantgrass, pearl millet and interspecific hybrids - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a viabilidade do pólen em acessos de capim-elefante, milheto e híbridos interespecíficos por meio de germinação in vitro e coloração com carmim propiônico, orceína acética e corante de Alexander. Os testes de germinação foram realizados com grãos de pólen frescos e armazenados por 30 dias. Os acessos de capim-elefante e de milheto apresentaram alta viabilidade de pólen. Apenas um deles, quando avaliado com o corante de Alexander, mostrou baixa fertilidade. Para os híbridos, observou-se alta taxa de pólens funcionais com os corantes nucleares. Entretanto, o corante de Alexander confirmou a completa esterilidade desses acessos. Os acessos de capim-elefante e milheto apresentaram baixa porcentagem de pólens viáveis quando induzidos à germinação em meio de cultura. Nos híbridos foi constatada completa esterilidade do grão de pólen, condizente com as anormalidades meióticas relatadas na literatura. Quanto ao armazenamento, os grãos de pólen de todos os acessos perderam completamente o poder germinativoThe aim of this work was to estimate the pollen viability in elephantgrass, pearl millet and interspecific hybrids accessions through in vitro germination and staining with propionic carmine, acetic orcein and Alexander’s stain. The germination tests were accomplished with fresh pollen grains and stored for 30 days. The elephantgrass and peare millet accessions presented a high pollen viability. Just one of the accessions, when evaluated with Alexander's stain, showed low fertility. For the hybrid, a high rate of functional pollen was observed with the nuclear stain. However, Alexander's stain confirmed the complete sterility of those accessions. Elephantgrass and pearl millet accessions presented a low percentage of viable pollen grain, when induced to germination in culture medium. Complete sterility of the pollen grain was verified in the hybrid, agreeing with the meiotic

  18. EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN (Zea mays BY PEARL MILLETS (Pennisetun americanun IN RATIONS FOR FINISHING SWINE AVALIAÇÃO DA SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE MILHO (Zea mays PELO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nunes Bandeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine finisher ration. Twenty cross-bred swine (Landrace x Large White weighing 53.00kg had in their rations different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution to the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5 replacement levels x 2 sexes. With the results obtained in this experiment, one may infer that the substitution of corn by millet is possible to finisher swine rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Millets; pig; finishing.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 20 suínos mestiços (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 53,00kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 ( 5 níveis de substituição x 2 sexos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de terminação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; suínos; terminação.

  19. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  20. Striga: A Persistent Problem on Millets

    KAUST Repository

    Kountche, B.A.

    2017-01-07

    Striga are obligate root-parasitic plants of the major agricultural cereal crops, including millets, in tropical and semi-arid regions of Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Consequently, they cause severe to even complete losses in crop grain yield. Though limited in their efficiency, the control strategies available today represent major progress toward combating Striga when compared with the absence of any means some years ago. Hence, efforts have led to the development of powerful approaches for understanding and exploiting the complex intricate host-parasitic plant interactions. It is widely agreed that genetic resistance is the most practical and economically feasible method for sustainable control of Striga. Hence, research efforts have been deployed over the past decades to identify resistance sources in certain millet crops, principally sorghum and pearl millet, to characterize the mechanisms underlying the resistance and to understand the genetic basis of the identified resistance phenotype. Furthermore, application of the modern breeding tools, such as molecular markers, has revolutionized the field of search for Striga resistance. Information thus generated have been extensively used to identify several sources of resistance to Striga and individual genes/QTLs conferring host-plant resistance have been deployed for improving Striga resistance in sorghum varieties. More interestingly, we are facing an accelerated progress in the genomic and biotechnological research that should soon provide important understanding of some crucial developmental mechanisms in both the parasite and their host plants, thereby enhancing the efficiency of breeding for Striga resistance in millets. In this paper we provide a detailed state-of-the-art account on the recent progress and perspectives for Striga research and management in millets.

  1. "Pearl Sister"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    HE Xiuying is the general manager of the Beihai Pearl Company in a small city by the Gulf of Beibu in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Local people like to call her "Pearl Sister," because they have seen with their own eyes how He Xiuying has been transformed from an ordinary fisherwoman into a pearl expert and entrepreneur as pearl production has developed in Beihai. Born into a poor family, He Xiuying had to help her parents support her

  2. Produção forrageira e composição bromatológica de combinações genômicas de capim-elefante e milheto Fodder production and bromatological composition of genomic combinations in elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar o comportamento agronômico de combinações genômicas oriundas do cruzamento entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, visando determinar o potencial de Pennisetum glaucum para o melhoramento da qualidade forrageira do capim-elefante. Três cultivares de capim-elefante e 11 combinações genômicas foram avaliadas para produção de matéria verde total (PMV, produção de matéria seca total (PMS, percentagem de matéria seca (%MS, produção de matéria seca de folhas (PMSF, produção de matéria seca de caule (PMSC, relação caule/folha (RFC, altura (ALT, vigor fenotípico (VF, número de perfilhos (NP, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, proteína bruta (PB e digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (DIVMS. Excetuando RFC e NP, todas as demais características apresentaram diferenças significativas para os genótipos (p The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of genomic combinations from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (E. Leek, in order to determine the Pennisetum glaucum potencial as a germoplasm for elephant grass improvement. Three cultivars and eleven genomic combinations were evaluated for fresh forage production (PMV, total dry matter production (PMS, dry matter ratio (%MS, leaves dry matter production (PMSF, stem dry matter production (PMSC, leaf/stem ratio (RFC, height (ALT, plant vigor (VF, number of tillers (NP, acid detergent fiber ratio (FDA, Neutral detergent fiber ratio (FDN, crude protein ratio (PB and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS. All characteristics, except for RFC and NP, showed significant difference for genotypes (p < 0.05, point out to the genetic variability among the evaluated genotypes. As to forage dry matter production, the HCM-5x-2 genomic combination outstood the pentaploids while the HCM-4x-2 outstood

  3. COMPARISON OF NOZZLES IN PULVERIZATION TO DISSECATION OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum americanum COMPARAÇÃO DE BICOS DE PULVERIZAÇÃO NA DESSECAÇÃO DO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Auxiliadora Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was carried out in 1998, at experimental field of Federal University of Goiás – Brazil with the purpose of studying the drop penetration of glyphosate in the millet crop to weed control, using the nozzles XR 1102, XR 11003 and X-3. The effect of drops density was evaluated at three heigths in the row and between row. The results obtained in this experiment showed that X-3 nozzle as the best applicated at apical level of millet plants in the two position evaluated.

    KEY-WORDS: Nozzles; glyphosate; density drops.

    O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 1998, na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia (GO. Objetivou-se estudar a penetração de glyphosate aplicado com os bicos tipo XR 11002, XR 11003 e X-3 na cultura do milheto, para controle de plantas daninhas e para análise dos efeitos da densidade de gotas dessas aplicações, avaliadas em três alturas nas linhas e entre linhas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o bico X-3, utilizado na altura apical do milheto nas duas posições avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bicos de pulverização; densidade de gotas.

  4. Desempenho, qualidade e composição de ácidos graxos do ovo de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações formuladas com milho ou milheto contendo diferentes níveis de óleo vegetal - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1257 Pearl millet and corn based rations supplemented with different levels of soybean oil on performance and egg quality of laying hens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1257

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Moraes Jardim Filho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar o desempenho, a qualidade e a composição dos ovos de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com milho ou milheto suplementadas com óleo de soja. 256 poedeiras Isa Babcock com 37 semanas foram distribuídas em delineamento em blocos casualizados com 8 tratamentos, 2 blocos e 4 repetições de 8 aves. O experimento durou 16 semanas divididos em quatro ciclos de 28 dias. Os tratamentos foram: ração com milho sem óleo de soja (OS, com 2,5%, 3,5% e 4,5% OS, ração milheto com 3,3%, 4,3% e 5,3% OS. O desempenho não foi afetado pela inclusão do milheto e óleo. Verificou-se, diminuição da qualidade da casca com os crescentes níveis de óleo. O milheto e o óleo de soja aumentaram os teores de ácido linoléico, linolénico e DHA. O milheto reduziu as relações linoléico/DHA, linoléico / linolénico + DHA e total de lipídios / (linoléico + linolénico + DHAThis experiment was carried out to evaluate the use of pearl millet or corn based rations supplemented with soybean on the egg quality parameters of laying hens. 256 Isa Babcock hens, 37 weeks of age, were allotted in a randomized block design with two blocks and 4 replications of eight hens per experimental unit. In a 16-week feeding trial divided into 4 periods of 28 days, the eight experimental diets were: corn with 0%, 2.5%, 3.5% and 4.5% soybean oil, and pearl millet with 3.3%, 4.3% and 5.3% soybean oil. No significant differences (p<0.05 were detected for the performance among treatments. The soybean oil supplementation of diets in higher levels decreased eggshell quality. The inclusion of pearl millet and soybean oil in rations increased the deposition of linoleic, linolenic and docosahexanoic acid in yolk. Pearl millet was also efficient in enhancing the linoleic/DHA, linoleic/ (linolenic+DHA and total yolk lipids/polyunsaturated fatty acids relations

  5. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  6. Composição química, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da energia de diferentes milhetos (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown em suínos Chemical composition, nutrients and energy digestibility of pearl millets (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown fed to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, objetivando-se estudar o valor nutricional de quatro diferentes milhetos (BN2, COMUM, IAPAR e IAPAR-REPASSE processados em moinhos com três tipos de peneiras (diâmetros de furo de 3, 2 e 1 mm. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD da energia bruta (CDEB e o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade (CM da energia bruta (CMEB relativos à peneira de 3 mm foram: 63,09 e 61,20% (COMUM; 71,57 e 69,66% (IAPAR e 67,39 e 65,60% (BN2. Os CD e CM da energia do COMUM foram inferiores ao IAPAR e ambos foram semelhantes ao BN2. O IAPAR-REPASSE apresentou CDEB de 70,62% e CMEB de 68,49%, semelhante ao IAPAR. O IAPAR-1 mm apresentou maior CDEB e CMEB (84,61 e 81,41% que o IAPAR-3 mm (70,59 e 68,71% e o IAPAR-2 mm (77,73 e 75,46%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED e energia metabolizável (EM para o IAPAR (3 mm foram de 3.030 kcal/kg e 3.001 kcal/kg, respectivamente. Verificou-se ED de 3.083 e 3.355 kcal/kg e EM de 2.993 e 3.228 kcal/kg para o IAPAR (2 e 1 mm. O IAPAR-REPASSE apresentou valores de 2.849 kcal/kg (ED e 2.763 kcal/kg (EM, enquanto o COMUM (3 e 2 mm, de 2.574 e 3.022 kcal/kg (ED e 2.497 e 2.932 kcal/kg (EM, e o BN2 (3 e 2 mm, de 2.692 e 3.047 kcal/kg (ED e 2.620 e 2.966 kcal/kg (EM. As diferentes variedades de milheto apresentaram variações em sua composição química que resultaram em diferenças no valor nutricional, sendo o milheto IAPAR o que apresentou melhor valor, seguido pelo BN2 e o COMUM.Two digestibility trials were carried out, to study the nutritional value of four types of pearl millet (BN2, Comum, Iapar and Iapar-Repasse, grounded through 3, 2, and 1 mm screen. The digestibility coefficient (DC of gross energy (GEDC and gross energy metabolization coefficient (GEMC relative to 3 mm screen were: 63.09 and 61.20% (Comum; 71.57 and 69.66% (Iapar and 67.39 and 65.60% (BN2. The GEDC and GEMC of COMUM were lower than IAPAR and both were similar to BN2. The IAPAR-REPASSE showed GEDC (70

  7. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  8. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION OF SOYBEAN, PEARL MILLET, AND COTTON IN A NO-TILL ROTATION SYSTEM IN THE CERRADO REGION DOSES E FORMAS DE APLICAÇÃO DA ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NA ROTAÇÃO SOJA, MILHETO E ALGODÃO EM SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of potassium fertilizer application, as related to rate, placement (in-row, broadcast, and split topdress and time (before sowing, at sowing, and topdressing, in a soybean, pearl millet, and cotton no-till rotation system, in a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (Hapludox, in Turvelândia, Goiás State, Brazil (17o51’S, 50o18’W. The experimental design was a factorial randomized block, with 4 replications. Potassium source was KCl. Potassium was applied to soybean (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, and 180 kg ha-1 of K2O in the planting row or broadcasted before sowing, at sowing, or topdressed. For cotton, the K rates were 0 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, 120 kg ha-1, and 240 kg ha-1 of K2O, applied before sowing and placed in the planting row, with none or one topdressing, or split in two applications. The pre-planting cotton K was applied in the pearl millet. There was no effect of potassium fertilization on soybean yield. As a cover crop, pearl millet used, more efficiently, the 60 kg ha-1 of K2O rate. Results showed that the best cotton agronomic efficiency was obtained with 146 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied before sowing. Results also showed positive effects of potassium fertilization on cotton fiber quality.

    Análise de cruzamentos dialélicos entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. 1. Características morfoagronômicas = Analysis of diallel crosses between elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. 1. Morphoagronomic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC de dez características morfoagronômicas, por meio de cruzamentos dialélicos entre onze genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e doze de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. utilizando o método 4 domodelo proposto por Griffing (1956. Os 132 híbridos interespecíficos foram avaliados no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos, de março de 2001 a abril de 2002, na Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Estado de Minas Gerais.Observou-se variabilidade genética nitidamente superior entre os genitores de capimelefante. Desse modo, convém frisar que a estratégia de melhoramento intra-específico, principalmente em capim-elefante, poderá proporcionar maiores ganhos para a maioria dascaracterísticas do que a praticada de forma interespecífica. As melhores combinações híbridas para produção de forragem, tanto da planta integral, quanto da fração foliar, foram BAG-64 x Wrajpop 88, BAG-64 x HiGrop, BAG-19 x BN 2 e BAG-19 x NPM 1.This work aimed to estimate general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA in ten morphoagronomic characteristics through diallel crossing among eleven elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and twelve pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. genotypes using the method 4, Griffing (1956 model. The 132 interespecific hybrids were evaluated in a complete randomized block design, with three replications, from march of 2001 to april of 2002, in Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais State. The genetic variability was superior in elephantgrass genitors, so that intraspecific breeding, mainly in elephantgrass, can result in greater gains to almost all characteristics than to intraspecific mode. The best hybrid combinations to forage production, both in integral plant and in leaf fraction, were BAG-64x Wrajpop 88, BAG-64

  9. Análise de cruzamentos dialélicos entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. 2. Características bromatológicas = Analysis of diallel crosses between elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. 2. Bromatologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Vander Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Cento e trinta e dois híbridos interespecíficos obtidos por cruzamentos dialélicos entre onze genótipos de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e doze de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. foram avaliados em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos, de março de 2001 a abril de 2002, na Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Estado de Minas Gerais. Objetivou-se estimar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC de oito características bromatológicas, utilizando o método 4 do modelo proposto por Griffing (1956. Verificou se que, para a característica percentagem de proteína bruta, não foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os genitores. Os cruzamentos F94-28-3 x ICMV 87901, F92-97-3 x ICMV 87901, F93-4-2 x Wrajpop 88, F92-101-2 x ICMV 221, F92-101-2 x Senpop e F93-4-2 x NPM 1 destacaram-se com relação às características relacionadas com a digestibilidade da forragem, aliadas a reduzidos teores de fibra, principalmente a mais insolúvel (%FDA.One hundred-thirty-two interespecific hybrids obtained through dialel cross among eleven elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and twelve pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. genotypes were evaluated in a complete randomized block design, with three replications, from march of 2001 to april of 2002, in Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais State. This work aimed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA in eight bromatologic characteristics using the method 4, Griffing (1956 model. There was not genetic variability among parents, considering crude protein percentage characteristic. F94-28-3 x ICMV 87901, F92-97-3 x ICMV 87901, F93-4-2 x Wrajpop 88, F92-101-2 x ICMV 221, F92-101-2 x Senpop, and F93-4-2 x NPM 1 crosses were better considering forage digestibility characteristics, as reduced percentage of fibers, mainly the insoluble (%ADF.

  10. Diapause initiation and incidence in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): the role of the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzubil, P B; Mensah, G W; McCaffery, A R

    2000-08-01

    The role of the host plant in the development of larval diapause in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson) was investigated in northern Ghana in 1996 and 1997. Surveys conducted in farmers' fields in the Guinea and Sudan savannah revealed that of all the upland cereals grown, the insect survived the dry season only in stalks and stubble of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum and late sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. This observation was confirmed by results from field trials conducted at the Manga Research Station. In these studies, C. ignefusalis larvae entered diapause only in late millet and late sorghum, with a higher incidence in the former. The insect neither attacked nor entered diapause in maize planted during the same period as the other crops. Results from controlled experiments showed that diapause incidence in the preferred host, millet, was higher in older than in younger plants, suggesting that host plant maturation is a key factor influencing the development of larval diapause in C. ignefusalis.

  11. Liquid pearls

    CERN Document Server

    Bremond, Nicolas; Bibette, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video reports how to form liquid core capsules having a thin hydrogel elastic membrane named liquid pearls. These fish-egg like structures are initially made of a millimetric liquid drop, aqueous or not, coated with an aqueous liquid film containing sodium alginate that gels once the double drop enters a calcium chloride bath. The creation of such pearls with micrometer thick membrane requires to suppress mixing until gelling takes place. Here, we show that superimposing a two dimensional surfactant precipitation at the interface confers a transient rigidity that can damp the shear induced instability at impact. Based on this, pearls containing almost any type of liquids can be created. The video focuses on the dynamics of the entry of the compound drop into the gelling bath.

  12. A Nigerian Millet Based Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial and sensory qualities of freshly processed and reconstituted Kununzaki beverages prepared from steeped millet ... Materials and Methods. Préparation of .... computer package. .... Agboola, S.D. (1987): Srorage and preservation.

  13. [Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor,…

  14. Induction of segmental interchanges in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, J; Srinivasachar, D

    1979-01-01

    Dry seeds of two varieties of Pennisetum typhoides (2n=14), 'Tift 23-B' and 'Bil-3B', were treated with gamma rays, diethyl sulphate (DES) and ethylene imine (EI) at their approximate LD50 dosages and the pollen mother cells of the M1 (first generation immediately after the seed treatment) plants were analysed at diakinesis for multivalent configurations resulting from segmental interchanges. While quadrivalents and trivalents were commonly found in all the mutagenic treatments, hexavalents were seen in the gamma-ray treatment only. Ring quadrivalents were common in all the treatments and their frequency was higher in gamma-ray treatment than in the treatments with the chemical mutagens of which EI produced more quadrivalents than DES. The variety 'BIL3B' was more responsive to all the mutagens used than 'Tift-23B' in which, excepting in gamma-ray treatment, no multivalents were observed in EI and DES treatments.The quadrivalents induced by different mutagens were of different types involving different chromosomes, indicating some kind of specificity of the mutagens in causing chromosome breaks. Thus, in EI-induced quadrivalents the nucleolar chromosome, the shortest chromosome of the complement, was involved, whereas in the case of DES and gamma rays it was the longest chromosome of the complement that was involved in the quadrivalent. Apparently the breaks must have been produced in different chromosomes preferentially.Self-pollinated seeds of two heterozygotes whose interchanges were induced by EI and gamma rays were given a second cycle treatment with gamma rays, again at the LD50 dosage (35 kR), and interchange stocks involving different chromosomes, up to a maximum of eight chromosomes were realized. Alternate use of EI and gamma rays offered better possibilities of obtaining inter-change heterozygotes involving more, if not all, chromosomes in a ring than two successive treatments with gamma rays alone.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of pearl millet (Pennisetum glauccum [L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied ... ding reliable information for the calculation of genetic dis- tance and pedigree studies. Thus, for genetic diversity assessment, molecular markers offer considerable ad- .... morphism (%) = total number of bands - number of monomorphic.

  16. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  17. Furan in canned sardines and other fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Celine; Crews, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-seven different samples of canned sardines and other fish sold in the United Kingdom were analysed for their furan content using a validated automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. All 37 samples contained detectable furan, with an average level of 26 μg kg(-1). The maximum furan content was in canned fish containing tomato sauce, which had an average of 49 μg kg(-1) and in canned fish packed with lemon which had an average of 55 μg kg(-1). All fish in brine or in oil contained less than 20 μg kg(-1) furan. Furan levels recorded in fish packed in extra virgin olive oil were low with an average of 2 μg kg(-1).

  18. Although South African sardine (or pilchard, Sardinops sagax) were ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (iii) as anchovy and sardine frequently shoal together during their first ... Fishery Resources Division, Food and Agricultural Organization, Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100, Rome, Italy. ...... risk and “scope for growth” as performance criteria.

  19. Anchovy Engraulis capensis and sardine Sardinops sagax currently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    within-season variability in factors affecting sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis recruitment. .... variogram. ... formerly SF, unpublished data) were based on length ..... the front offshore, along with many eggs and larvae.

  1. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyuan Lu

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  2. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  3. Pearls: diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah I

    2010-02-01

    Double vision may arise from ocular, neurologic, or extraocular muscle disorders. The approach to patients with diplopia requires a systematic approach to the history and the physical examination. There are many challenges in the evaluation of diplopia, ranging from the patient's mental status to the fine points of the examination. This article provides a process for interviewing and examining these patients, explaining the rationale and differential diagnosis of various clinical presentations. Common causes of monocular and binocular diplopia are addressed by the pattern of diplopia described by the patient. The examination and the interpretation of examination findings are presented by incorporating the "upside-down-and-backwards" concept. This review offers some Pearls-perhaps even diamonds-on evaluating patients who complain of diplopia, as well as those who have eye movement abnormalities but can't articulate their symptoms.

  4. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  5. Worldwide, where anchovies Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    sardine Sardinops sagax co-occur, the two species alternate in ... the west coasts of South America and southern Africa, ... of extinction in the wild within 100 years (Croxall et al. 1996) ..... able to penguins year-round, compared to the seasonal.

  6. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  7. Ectopic enamel pearl

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Rathva

    2012-01-01

    Enamel pearls are one of a number of different enamel structures that can be found on the roots of deciduous and permanent teeth. They have a distinct predilection for the furcation areas of molar, particularly the maxillary third and second molars. However, they have been found less commonly on the apical portions of the root. This report describes an unusual case of enamel pearl on apical third of mandibular molar teeth. Enamel pearl was confirmed as predisposing factor for the cause of loc...

  8. Early millet use in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; WANG Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; Xie, Fei; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; WANG Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng

    2012-01-01

    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early p...

  9. Avaliação de clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e de um híbrido com o milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. submetidos a estresse hídrico. 2. Valor nutritivo Evaluation of elephant grass clones (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. and an elephant grass x pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. hybrid submitted to water stress. 2. Nutritive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glesser Porto Barreto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu e Mott e de um híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto (híbrido HV-241, cultivados sob diferentes condições de umidade (com e sem estresse hídrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Na parcela principal, estudou-se o efeito dos regimes de umidade e nas subparcelas, os diferentes clones. Foram avaliados os teores de matéria seca (% MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os materiais submetidos a estresse hídrico apresentaram elevado grau de dessecação (mais de 58% de MS, sobretudo os cultivares de capim-elefante. As plantas submetidas a estresse hídrico apresentaram teores de PB (17,58% significativamente superiores aos das irrigadas (14,45%, sendo que, entre os cultivares, apenas o Cameroon (14,68% PB diferiu dos demais (16,46% PB. Quanto aos teores de FDN, não se verificou diferença entre os dois regimes de umidade, mas os cvs. Mott e Cameroon apresentaram teores superiores (61,79% aos do cv. Roxo de Botucatu e do híbrido HV-241 (56,60%. Não foi verificada diferença na DIVMS entre os regimes de umidade nem entre os diferentes clones, sendo o valor médio de 53,07%.This trial aimed to study the nutritive value of three Elephant grass clones (Cameroon, Roxo de Botucatu and Mott and an Elephant grass with pearl millet hybrid (HV-241 cultivated under two different humidity conditions (with and without water stress. A randomized block design with split plots and three replicates was used. In the main plot, the effect of the humidity regimes was studied and in the split plot, the different clones. The dry matter (DM; crude protein (CP and of neutral detergent fiber (NDF content; and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD were analyzed. The materials submitted to water stress showed a

  10. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  11. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  12. Ectopic enamel pearl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Rathva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Enamel pearls are one of a number of different enamel structures that can be found on the roots of deciduous and permanent teeth. They have a distinct predilection for the furcation areas of molar, particularly the maxillary third and second molars. However, they have been found less commonly on the apical portions of the root. This report describes an unusual case of enamel pearl on apical third of mandibular molar teeth. Enamel pearl was confirmed as predisposing factor for the cause of localized periodontitis; it is very important to recognize their radiographic aspect to ensure proper treatment of involved teeth.

  13. Determination of the volatile composition in brown millet, milled millet and millet bran by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingke; Tang, Xia; Zhang, Yuzong; Zhao, Wei

    2012-02-24

    The volatile compounds from brown millet (BM), milled millet (MM) and millet bran (MB) were extracted using simultaneous distillation/extraction with a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The extracts were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 65 volatile compounds were identified in all of the samples. Among these compounds, 51, 51 and 49 belonged to BM, MM and MB, respectively. Aldehydes and benzene derivatives were the most numerous among all of the compounds. Three compounds (hexanal, hexadecanoic acid and 2-methylnaphthalene) were dominant in the BM and MM materials. Eight compounds (hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, hexadecanoic acid and 2-pentylfuran) were dominant in the MB materials. Apart from the aromatic molecules, which were present in all fractions, compounds present only in BM, MM or MB were also identified.

  14. Limestone, gypsum and residual effect of fertilizers in the biomass production and nutrient cycling of millet plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can provide a higher nutrient cycling. This study aimed to determine the effect of annual applications of gypsum and lime to the soil surface and of fertilizer doses to the previous crop (soybean in the dry biomass production and nutrient accumulation by plants of pearl millet grown in succession, under no-tillage system. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 4x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the combination of four types of soil conditioner (lime, lime + gypsum, gypsum and control, split in three parts (2 t ha-1 of lime and 1,0 t ha-1 of gypsum; 2 t ha-1 of lime and 1 t ha-1 of gypsum; and 1 t ha-1 of lime and 0.5 t ha-1 of gypsum, and four fertilizing rates with P (triple and simple superphosphate and K (potassium chloride (0%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the recommended fertilizing, applied at the sowing of the previous crop (soybean. Liming provided increments in the dry biomass production and in the accumulation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S by millet plants. The application of gypsum did not increase the millet dry biomass yield. The use of increasing rates of fertilizers in the previous crop (soybean increased the biomass dry matter, density and accumulation of nutrients by millet plants. The intercropping of millet as a cover crop, with the residual effect of the fertilizer applied in the summer crop, provided a nutrient cycling that can be used by the following crops.

  15. Inventory and Characterization of Sardine (Sardinella Sp. Oil from Java Island-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Parameter of fish oil quality could be observed from an omega-3 fatty acid content, antioxidant activity, Peroxide Value (PV, Free Fatty Acid (FFA value, total oxidation (totox value, density and viscosity, level of toxicity and its heavy metals content. This study aimed to determine the quality of sardine oils which was obtained as by product of fish meal and fish canning industry. Sardine A and B had different fatty acid composition. Based on toxicity test, it was known that sardine oil B (572.02 ppm had higher toxicity than sardine oil A (726.03 ppm. Heavy metal analysis results showed that sardine oil A had Pb concentration at 0.118 ppm, it passed a standard limit (≤0.1 ppm and it might be harmful for consumption. Peroxides value of sardine oil A and B was 13.33 meq/kg and 5.00 meq/kg, respectively. The highest FFA value was sardine oil B (3.948% then followed by sardine oil A (0.423%. Value of p-anisidine of sardine oil A and B was 1.09 and 0.88 meq/kg. The highest totox value was sardine oil A (27.76 meq/kg then followed by sardine oil B (10.88 meq/kg. Viscosity of sample B (270 cPs was higher than A (69 cPs and sample B (1.02 g/cm3 was denser than sample A (0.92 g/cm3.

  16. Pearl Harbor Biological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-30

    Distribution of Porifera (Wet Weight in Grams) Collected in Piling Samples from Pearl Harbor, Oahu 2.4-26 2.4-7. Syllidae 2.4-28 2.4-8. Cirratulidae...COLLECTED FROM PEARL HARBOR m .-. Sped es/Group Porifera Demospongiae Cnidaria Hydrozoa Hydrdda Anthozoa Actlnarla Stolchactlnldae Radianthus...and abundance data for 113 taxa (species, genera and higher taxa) are provided in Table 2.4-4. Wet weights are listed for all sponges ( porifera ). The

  17. Changes on quality parameters of surimi and surimi gels produced from frozen whiting and sardine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Burcu Şen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, whiting (Theragra chalcogramma, Pallas, 1814 and sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbum, 1792 were used as a raw material for surimi production. Every 30 days direct gels and kamaboko gels produced from frozen surimi packages during the 60 days storage. At the end of the washing sycle of the fish mince 88% of myoglobin content in sardine mince were suspended. Protein amount of whiting, whiting surimi, sardine and sardine surimi were detected 19.65 %, 18.00 %, 20.96 % and 19.27 %, respectively. Whitening values of surimi gels from whiting and sardine surimi were detected higher in direct gels at 60. days of storage as 63.57 and 67.62 respectively. TBA values of whiting surimi was determined 2.71 mg malonaldehyde/kg at the end of 60 days storage while it was determined as 5.79 mg malonaldehyde/kg for sardine. According to the results of TBA and microbiological analyses, the surimi from sardine and whiting was not exceed the acceptable limits. Although surimi made from whiting were determined as ‘acceptable’ at second month of storage, surimi made from sardine were no longer acceptable because of the oxidation problem according to the results of sensory analyses.

  18. Optimization of a chemical method for skinning of sardines (Sardina pilchardus during canning processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches is used for canning purposes. The most common product presentation is a beheaded sardine with skin and bones packed in a tin can. Canned sardines can also be presented skinless and boneless. For this last type of product, after beheading and evisceration, sardines are placed in trays, cooked and then skinned by hand, one by one, and placed in the tins, a process involving high labour costs. The aim of this work was to develop a chemical process for peeling raw sardines and its subsequent application in a canning industry processing line just after the beheading and evisceration step and before cooking. Potassium hydroxide treatments (pellets a.r. 85% KOH were applied at concentrations of 2, 3 and 4% (v/v, distilled water. Frozen sardines were beheaded and eviscerated after thawing and immersed in the different potassium hydroxide solutions at 93ºC (pH respectively 13, 13 and 13.02 for 3 min and further washed with distilled water at 100°C. In this first set of experiments, fat sardines were used (average of 9.86% of fat, w/w. The best performance, with respect to skin removal, was achieved with the 2% potassium hydroxide immersion (pH 13. With this treatment the skin was totally removed after immersion. With the other tested concentrations portions of skin were always visible and in some cases changes in texture with breakdown of muscle structure and changes of colour occurred. It was decided to perform a second set of experiments using the 2% KOH treatment, but this time applied to low fat sardines (average of 4.77% of fat, w/w, following the same subsequent procedures. The results showed that the lower fat sardines are more prone to surface changes of colour and major muscle breaks than fat sardines after the potassium hydroxide treatment. In the canning industry for this type of product (skinless and boneless only fat sardines are used to assure the total removal of skin. This treatment of 2% KOH

  19. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  20. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  1. Reconstruction of trophic pathways between plankton and the North Iberian sardine (Sardina pilchardus using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bode

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on phyto- and zooplankton by juvenile (< 1 year old and adult sardines (Sardina pilchardus was inferred from analyses of natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in samples from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain collected at the beginning of the upwelling season and peak spawning period of sardine. Plankton samples were fractionated through nets of 20, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ?m mesh-size and the muscle protein of individual sardines was isolated before isotopic determinations. Up to six planktonic components and two sardine feeding types were identified from the modes in the frequency distributions of isotope abundance values. Also, the most probable pathways for carbon and nitrogen flows between compartments were analysed. The resulting food web revealed a relatively large degree of omnivory, both in plankton and sardine components, which confirms that complex trophic interactions could also occur in pelagic upwelling ecosystems. Young sardines had isotope abundance values clustered around a single mode in the frequency distribution, while adult sardines displayed two main modes. These modes are interpreted as representative of two extreme feeding types: one related to the individual capture of zooplankton prey and the other to unselective filter-feeding. Although both types of feeding could include micro- (20-200 ?m and mesozooplankton (200-2000 ?m prey, phytoplankton appears to be ingested mainly by filter-feeding. However, even adult sardines must be mainly zoophagous to achieve the observed isotopic abundance values, taking into account current assumptions on stable isotope enrichment through trophic levels. From the differences in the resulting pathways using either carbon or nitrogen isotopes, we interpreted that sardines acquire most of the protein nitrogen from zooplankton while a substantial fraction of their carbon would derive from phytoplankton. These interpretations agree with the information

  2. Pesticides on millet in Mali (NRI Bulletin 50)

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The Mali Millet Pest Project (Projet Pilote Britannique), financed by Britain's Overseas Development Administration (ODA) studied the control of millet pests in north-west Mali between 1985 and 1991. The project was executed by Mali's Service National de Protection des vegetaux (SNPV) and ODA's Natural Resources Institute (NRI). These six years of observations, field trials and socio-economic research have produced a wealth of information on the pests of Sahelian millet.

  3. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  4. Growing Water Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  5. The Pearl of Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since Fanghua opened it first store in the Grand Hyatt Hotel near Beijing’s Wangfujing Street in January 2005, the pearl brand has gone from strength to strength.In August 2007,two new stores were opened, both standing in Beijing’s prime locations -the Shangri-La Hotel and the China

  6. Remotely sensed chlorophyll: A putative trophic link for explaining variability in Indian oil sardine stocks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Meenakumari, B.; Raman, M.; Kumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.

    and explain the phenomena of interannual variability. Earlier research has indicated that the probable appearance and disappearance of sardines is an active movement in search of food and favourable conditions. But no specific study has been carried out...

  7. FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gopal; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html), a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity. PMID:23951158

  8. Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Zhang

    Full Text Available The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20 to 151.14 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20 to 305.81 (Mi2504-6 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6 to 147.32 (Gumi20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52 to 136.48 (Gumi 20 µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties.

  9. Water Pearls Optics Challenges for Everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Water pearls are superabsorbent polyacrylate beads that can expand about 200 times when submerged in water and are often used for decorative purposes in flower vases. A bag of pearls costs about a dollar. The pearls are very useful for teaching science, especially optics. Since water pearls are mainly made of water, their index of refraction…

  10. Water Pearls Optics Challenges for Everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Water pearls are superabsorbent polyacrylate beads that can expand about 200 times when submerged in water and are often used for decorative purposes in flower vases. A bag of pearls costs about a dollar. The pearls are very useful for teaching science, especially optics. Since water pearls are mainly made of water, their index of refraction…

  11. Iron fertilisation by Asian dust influences North Pacific sardine regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongsong

    2015-05-01

    Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100 years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing

  12. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  13. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  14. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongfang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P. Beauv.. Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059, θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027 when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively. The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population

  15. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  16. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  17. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Nutritional, technological, and medical approach of finger millet (Eleusine coracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Gull

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. is also known as African millet and is commonly called “ragi” in India. It has excellent nutritional value and is even superior to other common cereals. It is a richest source of calcium (344 mg and magnesium (408 mg than other millets. Predominant fatty acids of this millet are oleic (49%, linoleic (25%, and palmitic acids (25%. Finger millet contains both water-soluble and lipo-soluble vitamins. Emerging bakery products prepared from this millet are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and bread. Being gluten free, it is suitable for individuals suffering from celiac disease. Finger millet grain is a rich source of several phytochemicals. Finger millet possesses blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, and antiulcerative, wound healing properties as indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Commonly used processing techniques for this millet are milling, malting, popping, and decortications.

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  19. Isolation and culture of protoplasts of Côte d'Ivoire's pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... protoplasts have the ability to regenerate whole plants. The objective of ... Approximately 13,106 protoplasts / g were isolated from cell suspensions. ..... totipotency (see differentiation and dedifferentiation of. Poaceae plant ...

  20. Analysis of genetic relationships of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from Zimbabwe, using microsatellites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and indigenous farmer given names. Analysis was done by PAGE stained with ethidium bromide. Simple matching coefficients were compared and the genetic relationships between genotypes were clarified on dendrograms by unweighted pair-group averages (UPGMA). Two...

  1. and time-effective procedure for genotyping pearl millet in resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Spec™ Plus Spectrophotometer (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.) at UV absorption of 260 nm, .... DNA extraction procedures were combined to develop a new simplified ..... A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of ...

  2. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  3. nutritional composition of a full diallel-crossed forage pearl millet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... quality of 'maiwa' Pennisetum glaucum, for forage, in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three inbred lines ... sorghum (Sorgum bicolor) or maize (Zea mays) (Kevin and Blaine, 1991). ..... combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems.

  4. Pearls are self-organized natural ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Checa, Antonio G; Rousseau, Marthe

    2013-07-02

    Pearls, the most flawless and highly prized of them, are perhaps the most perfectly spherical macroscopic bodies in the biological world. How are they so round? Why are other pearls solids of revolution (off-round, drop, ringed pearl), and yet others have no symmetry (baroque pearls)? We observe that with a spherical pearl the growth fronts of nacre are spirals and target patterns distributed across its surface, and that this is true for a baroque pearl, too, but that in pearls with rotational symmetry spirals and target patterns are found only in the vicinity of the poles; elsewhere the growth fronts are arrayed in ratchet fashion around the equator. We argue that pearl rotation is a self-organized phenomenon caused and sustained by physical forces from the growth fronts, and that rotating pearls are an example--perhaps unique--of a natural ratchet.

  5. An association of external and internal enamel pearls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan S; Charan C

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of an association of external enamel pearl with internal enamel pearl on the root of a molar. To the best of our knowledge, association of external and internal enamel pearls has not been previously reported. We discussed the histogenesis of enamel pearls and proposed that internal enamel pearl formation may be a continuation of formation of external enamel pearl.

  6. EFFECT OF PRESSING ON THE SHELF LIFE OF SUNDRIED WHITE SARDINE (ESCUALOSA THORACATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Priyadarshini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate and explore a method for preparation of salted and dried white sardine which would have organoleptically sound attributes viz., color, flavor, taste and texture. It could however be concluded from the results of present study that the sun dried pressed samples were in better condition than the unpressed sample.

  7. Little genetic variation in the oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps Val., from the western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Enzyme gene variability in the oil sardine, @iSardinella longiceps@@, from three localities along the western coast of India was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Out of 19 loci scored, no locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion. Seven loci...

  8. Temporal genetic variation as revealed by a microsatellite analysis of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) archived samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara;

    2012-01-01

    The Adriatic stock of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) has experienced large interannual demographic fluctuations over the last 30 years, with a severe decline beginning in 1991 and continuing until 1997. In the present study, six microsatellite loci were used on a time series collection of...

  9. [Fatty acids in sardine canned in tomato sauce from different fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Gónzalez, M I; Montaño Benavides, S; Pérez-Gil Romo, F

    2001-12-01

    Numerous investigations have pointed out the importance that the fatty acids have in the process health-illness, and that the marine resources are excellent sources of the series omega 3 and omega 6. In Mexico, the sardine is a product of marine origin of wide consumption due to its high readiness and low cost. The objective of the present study was to determine the fatty acids profile (FA) in sardine canned in tomato sauce coming from different fishing areas (A) of the Mexican Pacific. There were randomly obtained 8 commercial mark (5 cans of each mark) of sardine canned in tomato sauce; they were classified in sardine of South Baja California Sur (A1), Sonora (A2) and Sinaloa (A3). The samples without draining were liquified and thereafter were obtained the methyl esters of fatty acids that were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In all the areas they were identified and quantified as 3 FA omega 3 (linolenic, EPA and DHA) and 2 AG omega 6 (linoleic and arachidonic); this source is rich in FA monounsaturated and also presents a considerable quantity of trans FA (18:1n9t and 18:2n6t). The DHA was the most abundant AG in all the areas (3064-4704 mg/100 g); finally, the relationships omega 3/omega 6 were from 3.5 (A1) up to 8.9 (A3). In conclusion, sardine canned in tomato sauce of the mexican Pacific is a rich food in omega-3 and omega-6 FA, independently of the processing area.

  10. Keeping quality of vacuum-packed smoked sardine fillets: microbiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, A; Peláez, C; Moral, A

    1989-03-01

    The effect of mixed smoking (2 h at 30 degrees C and 45 min at 75 degrees C was studied on the keeping quality of lean and fatty sardine fillets from fish caught in the Mediterranean Sea in March and June, respectively. Raw material for smoking included both fresh and frozen sardine fillets. Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed over the storage period, which lasted for 120 days at 0 +/- 1 degrees C. Smoking reduced the viable microbial flora values from 3-5 x 10(4) cfu/g to 2 x 10(2) cfu/g. The antimicrobial action of smoking, combined with that of vacuum packaging, had the effect of producing a gram-positive flora made up mainly of lactic acid bacteria. A practical consequence of this was to extend the shelf life of the smoked sardines for a period of 4 months. Frozen storage of samples at -18 degrees C for 6 months prior to smoking affected the behaviour of the microbial flora during cold storage at 0 degrees C, but did not affect the behaviour of the flora over a period of 3 months frozen storage, since the initial numbers of bacteria decreased and microbial growth was retarded. Furthermore, at the end of the storage period, the number of bacteria in the samples of frozen fatty sardines were higher than in the samples of frozen lean sardine. Physical conditions, therefore appear to exert an influence on bacterial growth. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia were not detected during the storage period.

  11. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  12. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  13. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  14. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  15. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response of foxtail millet and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Chen, Jing; Molla, Mohammad Mainuddin; Wang, Chao; Diao, Xianmin; Shen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet, as a leading variety in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, can provide broad potential benefits to human health. However, its digestion properties have not been reported. So in this study, the in vitro starch digestibilities and in vivo glycemic indices (GI) of foxtail millet and pure millet products were investigated. The results showed that starch digestibility of the foxtail millet flour is obviously lower than that of wheat flour. However, deproteinization and heating significantly increased its rapidly digestible starch and decreased its slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. The GIs of pure millet products were in the following order: millet porridge (93.6 ± 11.3) > millet steamed bread (89.6 ± 8.8) > No. 1 millet pancake (75.0% millet flour and 25.0% extrusion flour, 83.0 ± 9.6) > No. 2 millet pancake (without extrusion flour, 76.2 ± 10.7) > cooked millet (64.4 ± 8.5). They were significantly positively correlated with the rapidly digestible starch (r = 0.959), degree of gelatinization (r = 0.967) and estimated glycemic index (r = 0.988). Both in vitro and in vivo tests suggested that boiling, steaming and extrusion enhanced the formation of digestible starch and subsequently increased the GI values. Additionally, the No. 1 millet pancake and cooked millet had a relatively gentle stimulation on β-cell. Therefore, foxtail millet, especially the cooked millet, may serve as a potential source of nutraceutical and functional food that could delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  16. [Design of a HACCP plan for the industrial process of frozen sardines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2009-09-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system to identify, assess and control the hazards related with production, processing, distribution and consumption in order to get safe food. The aim of this study was to design a HACCP plan for implementing in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The methodology was based in the evaluation of the accomplishment of the pre-requisite programs (GMP/SSOP in a previous study), the application of the principles of the HACCP and the sequence of stages settles down by the COVENIN Venezuelan standard No 3802. Time-temperature was recorded in each processing step. Histamine was determined by VERATOX NEOGEN. Results showed that some sardine batches arrived to the plant with high time-temperature records, finding up to 5 ppm of histamine due to the abuse of temperature during transportation. A HACCP plan is proposed with the scope, the selection of the team, the description of the product and the intended use, the flow diagram of the process, hazard analysis and identification of CCP, monitoring system, corrective actions and records. The potential hazards were identified as pathogen growth, presence of histamine and physical objects in the sardines. The control measures of PCC are referred as control of time-temperature during transportation and processing, monitoring of ice supplies and sanitary conditions in the process.

  17. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachir Bouchikhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify thefreshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ±1°C, in air. The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine sampleswere introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors wererecorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxidesemiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensorconductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis wasperformed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neuralnetworks (PNN, fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN and support vector machines(SVM. The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognitionmethods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergoneby sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness ofsardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtainedwith SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classificationperformances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  18. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  19. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  20. Evaluation of ecophysiological characteristics of intercropping of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.

  1. Influence of smoking and packaging methods on lipid stability and microbial quality of Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Sardine (Sardinella gibossa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprian, Odoli O; Van Nguyen, Minh; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Jonsson, Asbjorn; Tomasson, Tumi; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and microbial quality of smoked capelin (two groups differing in lipid content) and sardine was studied, with the aim of introducing capelin in the smoked sardine markets. Lipid hydrolysis (phospholipid and free fatty acids) and oxidation index (hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), fatty acid composition, and total viable count were measured in raw and packaged smoked fish during chilled storage (day 2, 10, 16, 22, 28). Lipid hydrolysis was more pronounced in low lipid capelin, whereas accelerated lipid oxidation occurred in high lipid capelin. Muscle lipid was less stable in sardine than capelin. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) constituted 12% of fatty acids in capelin and 19% in sardine. Vacuum packaging as well as hot smoking retarded bacterial growth, recording counts of ≤log 5 CFU/g compared to ≥log 7CFU/g in cold smoked air packaged. Smoked low lipid capelin was considered an alternative for introduction in smoked sardine markets. PMID:26405526

  2. Pearl A Probabilistic Chart Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Magerman, D M; Magerman, David M.; Marcus, Mitchell P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a natural language parsing algorithm for unrestricted text which uses a probability-based scoring function to select the "best" parse of a sentence. The parser, Pearl, is a time-asynchronous bottom-up chart parser with Earley-type top-down prediction which pursues the highest-scoring theory in the chart, where the score of a theory represents the extent to which the context of the sentence predicts that interpretation. This parser differs from previous attempts at stochastic parsers in that it uses a richer form of conditional probabilities based on context to predict likelihood. Pearl also provides a framework for incorporating the results of previous work in part-of-speech assignment, unknown word models, and other probabilistic models of linguistic features into one parsing tool, interleaving these techniques instead of using the traditional pipeline architecture. In preliminary tests, Pearl has been successful at resolving part-of-speech and word (in speech processing) ambiguity, dete...

  3. Foxtail Millet Planting Willingness of Farmers in North China Based on Analysis of SPSS Statistical Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjun; MA; Huijun; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the field survey of the foxtail millet planting,processing and sales in foxtail millet production areas,it found out basic demands of foxtail millet farmers and processing enterprises for policies. It made statistical analysis with the aid of SPSS statistical software. It found that current situation of China’s foxtail millet industry is not optimistic. Finally,it came up with policy recommendations including enhancing actual effect of policy,establishing special fund,increasing scientific and technological support,and encouraging mechanized planting.

  4. Improving the Quality of Sardine Fish Oil by Degumming Using Sodium Cholride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Prima Christiani Hulu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish oil is determined by some parameters such as primary and secondary grade oxidation, fatty acid profile and physical qualities which include viscosity, density, color and clarity. Sardine fish oil by-products of fish meal processing can be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularlyeicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Degumming is one of steps that can be carried out to improve the quality of sardine fish oil. The processing will help to reduce oxidation and eliminate the impurity of the oil that influence the quality of fish oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium chloride solution degumming on the quality of sardine fish oil to fulfill International Fish Oil Standard (IFOS. Fish oil purification was done by degumming of 5% H2O,  followedby sodium chloride solution with ratio of fish oil and sodium chloride solution were 1:1; 1:3, and 1:5. The sodium chloride solution concentrations of 5% and 8% for 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The next steps after degumming process were followed by alkali neutralization and bleached by absorbent. The best treatmentwas at  concentration of 5%  sodium chloride solution, ratio fish oil with sodium chloride solution 1:1 on a long time degumming processed 20 minutes. The best quality of fish oil, according to IFOS, was resulted from the treatments combination of free fatty acid 0.21±0.00%, peroxide value 0.43±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidin value 2.22±0.04 mEq/kg and total oxidation 3.11±0.14  mEq/kg.

  5. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  6. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  7. Relative role of life-history traits and historical factors in shaping genetic population structure of sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine pelagic fishes exhibit rather complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are the result of both historical processes and present day gene flow. Comparative multi-locus analyses based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers are probably the most efficient and informative approach to discerning the relative role of historical events and life-history traits in shaping genetic heterogeneity. The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a small pelagic fish with a relatively high migratory capability that is expected to show low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. Previous genetic studies based on meristic and mitochondrial control region haplotype frequency data supported the existence of two sardine subspecies (S. p. pilchardus and S. p. sardina. Results We investigated genetic structure of sardine among nine locations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using allelic size variation of eight specific microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering and assignment tests, maximum likelihood estimates of migration rates, as well as classical genetic-variance-based methods (hierarchical AMOVA test and RST pairwise comparisons supported a single evolutionary unit for sardines. These analyses only detected weak but significant genetic differentiation, which followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to Mantel test. Conclusion We suggest that the discordant genetic structuring patterns inferred based on mitochondrial and microsatellite data might indicate that the two different classes of molecular markers may be reflecting different and complementary aspects of the evolutionary history of sardine. Mitochondrial data might be reflecting past isolation of sardine populations into two distinct groupings during Pleistocene whereas microsatellite data reveal the existence of present day gene flow among populations, and a pattern of isolation by distance.

  8. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  9. Protein Modifications after Foxtail Millet Extrusion: Solubility and Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of illustrating the effects of extrusion cooking on the solubility of proteins in foxtail millet and their molecular basis, foxtail millet was extruded at five barrel temperature profiles and feed moisture contents. The proteins of raw and extrudate samples were extracted with six solutions sequentially. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of total protein and Starch Granule-Associate Protein (SGAP was performed. Extrusion caused a significant decrease in globulin, setarin and glutelin fractions with a corresponding increase in SDS- and SDS+2-ME-soluble and residual fractions. Increasing extrusion temperature or moisture content all led to SDS-soluble fraction decrease, while SDS+2-ME-soluble fraction increase. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that disulfide bond cross-linking occurred among glutelin and with setarin subunits. Extrusion had a less pronounced impact on the 60 kDa SGAP than the other middle-high molecular weight subunits. It is the protein-protein interaction shift from electrostatic force to hydrophobic and/or hydrogen forces and covalent disulfide cross-links that contributed to the decreased solubility of protein in foxtail millet extrudates.

  10. Análise econômica da produção da sardinha na região sudeste do Brasil Economical analysis of the sardine yield in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available A surplus-yield model of Schaefer (1954; 1957 was used to study a maximum sustainable yield of the Brazilian sardine. Applying the prices of sardine and operation cost, an economical yield of sardine was discussed. The maximum sustainable yield of sardine was estimated on 173 thousands metric tons and the optimum fishing effort was 28,292 sets of net. With the operation cost of Cr$ 71,040.00 per cruise, the price of sardine has to be higher than Cr$ 10,00/kg.

  11. Biological aspects on the cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis grown on broomcorn millets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mingguang; LIANG Yong

    2003-01-01

    A novel method was developed to use glutinous broomcorn millets (Panicum miliaceum L.) as solid substrate to make cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis specifically pathogenic to planthoppers, leafhoppers and aphids. Steamed millets with water content of 45% were inoculated with a liquid culture of P. delphacis at a ratio of 20% (v/w) and then incubated at 25℃ and L:D 12:12. The millets cultured for 3-17 d exhibited high potential for conidialproduction. The 5-d-old millet culture sporulated most abundantly, discharging up to 17.12 (±1.31) × 104 conidia/ millet. The cultures incubated for 7-11 d also had a satisfactory sporulation capability, yielding 13.00-13.90 × 104 conidia/millet. Compared to 2.32 (±0.34) × 104 conidia discharged from each of Myzus persicae adults killed by P. delphacis and a ≤60-h duration of sporulation, eachof the millets cultured for 5-11 d produced 5.6-7.4 times more conidia with an over doubled duration for conidial discharge (144 h). Among 106 M. persicae adults exposed to the shower of conidia discharged from the cultured millets, a total mortality of 69.8% caused by P. delphacis infection was observed within 7 d after exposure, but no death was attributed to the fungal infection in the aphids unexposed. The results indicate that the millet cultures of P. delphacis are biologically similar to aphid cadavers killed by the same fungus. Due to the superiority of the cultured millets to the cadavers in sporulation potential and duration, the method for making cultures of P. delphacis on the broomcorn millets is highly recommended for use in study of entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control. This is the first report on the success of the solid culture of Pandora species on cereals.

  12. Qingdao - Pearl onthe Shandong coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Qingdao, its name is synonymous with beer. Tsingtao Beer, one of the country’s finest, has put the city firmly onto the international scene. However, there is so much more to this pearl on the coast of Shandong Province. As China goes forward to the 2008 Olympics the city will become even better known for it has been chosen as the venue for the ocean sailing events.Qingdao occupies a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea. It is hilly, with a coastline of rocky headlands connected by fine curving sandy beaches. Its natural

  13. Mixed layer depth variations in the Kuroshio Extension in relation to Japanese sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, I.; Nishikawa, H.; Itoh, S.

    2008-12-01

    Mixed layer depths in and south of the Kuroshio Extension changed from deep to shallow states in the late- 1980s and early-1990s. This change corresponded to the collapse of Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus). This mixed layer shoaling was accompanied by lower temperature in 200-400m depths and higher temperature near the surface. Wintertime field survey in 2006 (Hakuho-maru KH06-1 cruise) demonstrated that late winter maximum mixed layer depth reach deeper with the greater isothermal depth of 14-15degC and higher temperature in 300-400m depth. High-resolution ocean model hindcast data suggests that the accelerated near-surface Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension associated with the elevated sea-surface height anomaly enhanced the heat transport near the surface. This greater heat advection near the surface overrides the cooler subtropical mode water that was created in the previous years possibly causes the shallower winter mixed layer and collapse of the Japanese sardine.

  14. Minor Millets as a Central Element for Sustainably Enhanced Incomes, Empowerment, and Nutrition in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Padulosi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Minor millets comprise a group of cereal species that are genetically diverse and adapted to a range of marginal growing conditions where major cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize are relatively unsuccessful. Millets require few inputs and withstand severe biotic and abiotic stresses. They are also more nutritious than major cereals. Despite these advantages, neglect in several arenas has resulted in a steady decline in the cultivation of minor millets in India over the past few decades. As part of a United Nations global project on underutilized species, we undertook action research intended to stem the decline in cultivation and enhance the conservation and use of minor millets in 753 households spread across 34 villages in four states of India. Our aim was to improve incomes, nutritional status, and empowerment, especially for women. Overall, our holistic approach to mainstreaming species such as finger millet, little millet, foxtail millet, and barnyard millet indicates that these neglected and underutilized species can play a strategic role in improving many dimensions of livelihoods.

  15. Current Status and Perspective Development of Broomcorn Millet Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper analyzed present status of broomcorn millet produc- tion in China, including cultivation methods, fertilization utilization, diseases, insect pests and disasters, machinery development, planting benefit and other aspects. [Method] The corn millet data reported by China Industrial and Technological Re- search System of Millet in 2011 were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis of EXCEL. [Result] The results show that 17 678.57 kg/ha of farm manure, 155.77 kg/ha of urea, 259.5 kg/ha of compound fertilizer, 203.13 kg/ha of phosphate fertilizer and 75 kg/ha of potash fertilizer were used in China; the national mechanization degree of broomcorn millet production is lower than 30% in all; the average income of broomcorn millet production is 10 503.33 yuan/ha, and the VCR is 2.64; most broomcorn millet producing areas are affected by mild pests and diseases, very few are affected by mild and moderate pests and diseases, and the impact of natural disasters is the lightest. [~onclusien] Currently fertilizer utilization for broomcorn millet is proper but the mechanization level and planting benefit are low, natural disasters, pests and diseases are not severe; finally the authors proposed some suggestions on the fertilizer utilization, mechanization production, benefit increasing, disaster warning, disease and insect controlling and government policy-making for broomcorn millet production.

  16. Spatially-explicit bioenergetics of Pacific sardine in the Southern California Bight: are mesoscale eddies areas of exceptional prerecruit production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerwell, Elizabeth A.; Lavaniegos, Bertha; Smith, Paul E.

    Previous research shows that offshore mesoscale eddies in the Southern California Bight region are areas where sardine larval abundance is significantly increased relative to inshore, slope and surrounding offshore waters. In order for mesoscale eddies to be a mechanism linking climate and sardine population variability they must be areas of exceptional prerecruit production. Temperature and prey data from various Southern California Bight (SCB) habitats, including offshore eddies, were applied to a spatially-explicit bioenergetic model which predicts sardine prerecruit growth potential. Growth potential was similar in inshore, slope, and eddy regions (11% and 12% day -1), and was lower in the offshore region, 9% day -1. To estimate production in eddy and non-eddy habitats, growth potential was multiplied by habitat-specific estimates of sardine larval biomass from at-sea surveys. A production index, a measure of potential production resulting from individual growth rate potential and local abundance, was greater in the model cyclonic eddy than in all other regions by more than an order of magnitude. In fact, the production index in the eddy was four times greater than in all other regions combined.

  17. Effect of controlled lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the microbiological and chemical qualities of Moroccan sardines (Sardina pilchardus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndaw, A; Zinedine, A; Faid, M; Bouseta, A

    2008-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were assayed for the conservation of fresh sardine "Sardina pilchardus". Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii was used for inoculation of sardine fillets in a solution of NaCl (5%, w/w) and glucose (4%, w/w) concentration in water. Microbial counts including Standard Plate Count (SPC), LAB, yeasts, coliforms, Salmonella, staphylococci and Clostridium were followed during two weeks of storage at 30 degrees C. Determinations of chemical parameters including pH, dry matter, fat, ash, total nitrogen (NT), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) were carried out under the same conditions. Chemical determinations showed a net pH decrease from an initial value of 6.05 in raw sardine fillets to 4.3 after 16 days of fermentation. Increases in TMA content and TBVN were observed. Microbiological control showed that LAB counts reached a level up to 3.10(9) cfu/g after 4 days of fermentation. After two weeks, fermented fish was free of coliforms and Salmonella. The inhibition of pathogenic microflora including staphylococci and Clostridium was also observed. The results indicated that controlled LAB fermentation could be used as a successful process for biopreservation of sardines produced in huge quantities in Morocco.

  18. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  19. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  20. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Vegetable oils and tomato sauce are usually adopted as coatings (liquid medium. In fact, oil has a preserving effect and contributes to make the product more palatable. Its protective action lies in the ability to insulate products from air, rather than having an active bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. Among the different types of coatings the most commonly used in canning are: olive oil, seed oils and different sauces, such as tomato sauce. Tomato sauce has also vegetable oil on its formulation. The amount of coating substance can affect the nutritional composition as well as texture properties of the sardines. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of whole, skinless and boneless canned Portuguese Sardines (Sardina pilchardus. An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ash content, texture and colour profile of canned sardine with different kinds of coatings: olive oil, sunflower oil and tomato sauce. The obtained results showed that protein and carbohydrates content were not significantly influenced by the coating used, varying between 5%-8% and13%-18%, respectively. For the moisture content it was found that the samples with tomato sauce were 2.2-fold higher than the samples with sunflower oil, and 1.3-fold higher than the samples with olive oil, independently of being whole, skinless or boneless sardine. As

  1. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barra

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater. Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80% was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches

  2. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu;

    2012-01-01

    ) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9......, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified....

  3. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, S; Krishnaswamy, K; Sudha, V; Malleshi, N G; Anjana, R M; Palaniappan, L; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Finger millet or ragi is one of the ancient millets in India (2300 BC), and this review focuses on its antiquity, consumption, nutrient composition, processing, and health benefits. Of all the cereals and millets, finger millet has the highest amount of calcium (344mg%) and potassium (408mg%). It has higher dietary fiber, minerals, and sulfur containing amino acids compared to white rice, the current major staple in India. Despite finger millet's rich nutrient profile, recent studies indicate lower consumption of millets in general by urban Indians. Finger millet is processed by milling, malting, fermentation, popping, and decortication. Noodles, vermicilli, pasta, Indian sweet (halwa) mixes, papads, soups, and bakery products from finger millet are also emerging. In vitro and in vivo (animal) studies indicated the blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, antiulcerative, wound healing properties, etc., of finger millet. However, appropriate intervention or randomized clinical trials are lacking on these health effects. Glycemic index (GI) studies on finger millet preparations indicate low to high values, but most of the studies were conducted with outdated methodology. Hence, appropriate GI testing of finger millet preparations and short- and long-term human intervention trials may be helpful to establish evidence-based health benefits.

  4. HARP NWHI- Pearl and Hermes Reef

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off Pearl and Hermes Reef in 2009. It has been recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time frames for information).

  5. Aspects of legal communitarianism in Greece: between Millet and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal and political percepts pertaining to ethnic belonging in Greece are closely linked to the ideological understanding of Greekness, a legacy of the Ottoman Greek-Orthodox millet system. Complementary to this image of the national self, minority protection law on Muslims and Jews was and still is partially formed through millet-like paradigms. Greece’s territorial expansion made all inhabitants of the annexed provinces Greek citizens en masse: in addition to those that were deemed eligible to belong to the Greek nation, Jewish and Muslim communities also acquired Greek citizenship. For these communities the self-autonomy of the Ottoman millet structure in education and religious matters was transformed into minority protection, through special rights (community schools, Moufti’s jurisdiction, Muslim foundations, military conscription attributable through religion to citizens of the state. En Grecia, la interpretación ideológica del carácter griego está estrechamente relacionada con los preceptos legales y políticos relativos a la pertenencia étnica, legado del sistema millet otomano griego-ortodoxo. Como complemento a esta percepción de la identidad nacional, la ley de protección de las minorías musulmanas y judías estuvo, y todavía está parcialmente formada por paradigmas milletianos. La expansión territorial de Grecia convirtió de forma masiva a los habitantes de las provincias anexadas en ciudadanos griegos: entre los que se consideró que reunían los requisitos necesarios para pertenecer a la nación griega, se encontraban las comunidades judías y musulmanas. En ambos casos, la autonomía en temas de educación y religión que disfrutaban dentro de la estructura milletiana de los otomanos, se transformó en protección minoritaria, a través de derechos especiales (escuelas de la comunidad, jurisdicción Moufti, fundaciones musulmanas, el reclutamiento militar atribuibles a los ciudadanos del estado a través de la

  6. Effects of sea depths and sizes of winged pearl oysters (Pteria penguin on pearl culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inthonjaroen, N.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental aspects and biology of pearl oysters are the important conditions affecting pearl production. In order to obtain commercially valuable pearl from winged pearl oysters, Pteria penguin, three sizes (shell-length of the oysters: small (130-135 mm, medium (160-165 mm and large (185-200 mm were suspended at 2 m (surface, 5 m (mid-depth and 8 m (bottom below the sea surface from February to November, 2001. Using a factorial design, the data were randomly recorded by month. All sizes of the pearl oysters at the surface produced pearl of significantly greater thickness than those at the greater depths. The small-sized pearl oysters at the surface depth produced the thickest pearl (0.612 mm. which took only 7 months for harvesting, and the pearl thickness was correlated with growth response in shell length. In contrast to the growth rate in tissue weight and mortality rates which were 36.00, 26.00, 24.00% at the surface depth; 30.60, 24.60, 16.00% at mid-depth and 25.30, 19.30, 12.00% at the bottom for the small, medium and large-sized oysters, respectively. The results depended on infestation of fouling organisms on oyster shells which were much more intense at the surface than at a greater depths and slowed the growth rate in tissue weight, especially in the small-sized oysters. However, there was a greater amount of many kinds of plankton, the food resource of marine animals, at surface than at greater depths, so it retained shell-length growth and pearl production of the small-sized oysters: The other environmental factors, such as salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and sea water temperature, at all depths did not have an impact on the pearl oyster rearing.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Namibian Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. (Pearl Millet) Landraces Analyzed by SSR and Morphological Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBenedict, Billy; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Kwembeya, Ezekeil; Maggs-Kölling, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Current Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation's food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces. A sample of 96 genotypes was further analyzed by SSR using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and revealed a value of 0.45 indicating low genetic diversity. Ordination using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) on SSR data confirmed clusters generated by UPGMA for the 96 P. glaucum accessions. UPGMA phenograms of 29 morphological characterized genotypes were generated for SSR and morphology data and the two trees revealed 78% resemblance. Lodging susceptibility, tillering attitude, spike density, fodder yield potential, early vigour, and spike shape were the phenotypic characters upon which some clusters were based in both datasets. It is recommended that efforts should be made to widen the current gene pool in Namibia.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Namibian Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. BR. (Pearl Millet Landraces Analyzed by SSR and Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy McBenedict

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation’s food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces. A sample of 96 genotypes was further analyzed by SSR using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and revealed a value of 0.45 indicating low genetic diversity. Ordination using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA on SSR data confirmed clusters generated by UPGMA for the 96 P. glaucum accessions. UPGMA phenograms of 29 morphological characterized genotypes were generated for SSR and morphology data and the two trees revealed 78% resemblance. Lodging susceptibility, tillering attitude, spike density, fodder yield potential, early vigour, and spike shape were the phenotypic characters upon which some clusters were based in both datasets. It is recommended that efforts should be made to widen the current gene pool in Namibia.

  9. Performance of broilers fed during 21 days on mash or pellet diets containing whole or ground pearl millet grain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, TR; Ludke, M do CM M; Ludke, JV; Santos, MJB dos; Lima, MR; Santos, PA dos

    2013-01-01

    ...), with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density...

  10. Transgenic and herbicide resistant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) R.Br. via microprojectile bombardment of scutellar tissue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girgi, M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available or uidA) under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or the maize Ubiquitin1 promoter (the CaMV 35S is not a maize promoter). For the delivery of the DNA-coated microprojectiles, either the particle gun PDS 1000/He or the particle inflow gun...

  11. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post-tensioning......, and gives a large positive bending moment below the load and a smaller negative bending moment in the unloaded side. When the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept is compared to other pre-fabricated arch bridge solutions we find a number of advantages when using Pearl-Chain Bridges: Straight elements, combination...

  12. Exploitation des larves de sardine Limnothrissa miodon au lac Kivu (R.D.C. : danger potentiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaningini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva's Catch of Sardine Limnothrissa miodon in Lake Kivu (RD Congo : Potential Danger ?. Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  13. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Development of a New Foxtail Millet Germplasm with Super Early Maturity and High Iron Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng-li; SUN Shi-xian; CHENG Ru-hong; HUANG Wen-sheng; LIU Jun-xin; QU Zhu-feng; XIA Xue-yan; SHI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    Super Early Maturation No.2 is a new foxtail millet germplasm developed by using the targeted-character-gene-bankbreeding method. It has several outstanding characteristics. (1) Super early maturity. It can normally mature in Bashang,Hebei Province, China, where the altitude is around 1 400 meters, and it needs 1 650℃ of effective accumulated temperature in the growing period. (2) Millet is rich in iron. The iron content of the millet of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 54.10 mg kg-1,which is 62.0% higher than the average iron content of the foxtail millet varieties in China. (3) High crude fat content. Its crude fat content is 6.24%, which is 54.1% higher than the average content of foxtail millet varieties in China. (4) High crude protein content. The average of the crude protein content of all the foxtail millet varieties in China is 12.71%, only5% varieties surpass 14%, however, the crude protein content of Super Early Maturation No.2 is 14.36%, which is rare in improved varieties of foxtail millet in China. (5) Overall characteristics are good.

  15. Characterization of Sorghum and Millet with Special Reference to Fatty Acid and Volatile Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum and millet are important food staples in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. Sorghum and millet are cereal grains that have prospective to be used as substitute to wheat flour for celiac patients. These are considered as the good source of many important and essential fatty acids. The volatile profiling of these two important crops is comparable to other cereals as well. The present study was an effort to explore biochemical composition of commercially available sorghum and millet varieties with special reference to their fatty acid and volatile profiling. Chemical composition of sorghum and millet was determined according to respective methods. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and then subjected to GC-FID for fatty acids analysis. The results indicated that both sorghum and millet oils are rich in essential fatty acids comprising mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Main fatty acids that are identified in current study includes palmitic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, behenic acid, linoleic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, myristic acid, etc. On the other hand volatile compounds from sorghum and millet were determined by preparing their respective volatile samples by using calvenger apparatus with suitable volatile extracting solvent. Volatile samples were then subjected to GC-MS analysis and respected results were compared with NIST library. About 30 different volatiles were identified in millet varieties while 35 different compounds were discovered in sorghum varieties belonging to aldehydes, ketones, benzene derivatives, esters, alcohols, sulphur compounds.

  16. The use of pelagic fish as proxies of environmental contamination: a case study with sardine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioindicators to analyze marine ecosystems contamination is often made difficult due to the absence of appropriate species. Pelagic fish species, captured by commercial fishing fleets around the world, can be successfully used to assess contaminant levels, by determining their body burden in specific compounds. However the study of biological responses elicited by such compounds, through the analysis of biomarkers, is highly dependent on the physiological and reproductive status of the organisms. Such confounding factors elicit seasonal fluctuations that difficult the extrapolation of data. Sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, being easily available through commercial fisheries. The present work intended to explore the potential of this species in biomonitoring studies, by simultaneously using enzymatic biomarkers and condition indices determined in fish landed in three commercial harbors along the west coast of Portugal. This strategy allowed devising spatial and temporal patterns in the sardine metapopulation. Results evidenced significant variability in both biochemical and physiological profiles of the fish, which were coherent among all sampling sites. Throughout the year, large seasonal differences for most markers were reported, which were strongly linked to the reproductive cycle and its physiological consequences (acquisition of energy, mobilization of energy reserves, etc.. It was possible to conclude that seasonality acts as a strong factor underlying chronological physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are usually employed as indicators of contamination. These effects can limit the usefulness of such a biomarker approach unless seasonality is not accounted for, and if no background values are known from previous studies. In this sense, studies such as this are pivotal to establish a baseline for biomonitoring studies. Also, despite the difficulty in

  17. Effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce made from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kishimura, Hideki; Simpson, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), at levels of 0%, 10% and 20%, on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce produced from the sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) with different salt concentrations (15%, 20% and 25%) were monitored during fermentation for 180 days. Fish sauces prepared from sardine with spleen supplementation contained greater total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen than did those without spleen a...

  18. A study of the life history of Brazilian sardines, Sardinella aurita: I. Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the region of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the Ilha Grande region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied during five cruises for the 1969 1970 period. Using the shipboard fertilized eggs and the planktonic eggs, morphological descriptions of Brazilian sardine eggs are given. Spawning occurs during the summer from September to March in the coastal water off Ilha Grande to Ilha de São Sebastião down to a depth of 100 meters. Spawning may take place a few hours prior to midnight. lt was noticed that spawning has a close relationship to an area of cold water up welling. Spawning groups are isolated and spawning is small in scale in this region. Temperature and salinity in the spawning area range between 18-24ºC and 35.1-35.9‰ respectively.O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo da fase inicial do ciclo de vida da sardinha (Projeto SOL e verifica o seu potencial re produtivo ("spawning power" na costa sul do Brasil. Cinco viagens à região da Ilha Gran de foram realizadas com o N/Oc. " Prof. W. Besnard" e barco "Emilia". Os resultados estão resumidos, a seguir: 1. Os ovos sao esféricos e o espaço pe rivitelino é amplo. O diâmetro medio dos ovos e de 1,18 mm, cuja distribuição é de 1,00 - 1,32 mm. O espaço perivitelino mede, em média, 0,143 mm, com distribuição entre 0,061-0,254 mm. Geralmente o glóbulo de oleo é único, porém, às vezes apresenta-se segmentado em dois ou três. O seu diâmetro médio é de 0,140 mm, com distribuição entre 0,091 0,182 mm. 2. Podemos supor que a hora de desova da sardinha, nesta região, é pouco antes da meia-noite. Os ovos coletados numa mesma área e num mesmo dia, provenientes de um mesmo grupo de "desovantes", foram classificados em grupos de sardinhas que desovaram na área durante uma viagem de pesquisa. O tamanho dos cardumes de sardinha "desovante" não é grande como os da sardinha da Califórnia. 3. A área de desova, sôbre a plataforma continental, estende-se desde a Ilha de S

  19. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suman; Srivastava, Sarita; Tiwari, Neha

    2015-08-01

    Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the

  20. Assessing pearl quality using reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy: does the same donor produce consistent pearl quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamangkey, Noldy Gustaf F; Agatonovic, Snezana; Southgate, Paul C

    2010-09-20

    Two groups of commercial quality ("acceptable") pearls produced using two donors, and a group of "acceptable" pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones) showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver) showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected with UV

  1. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Southgate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of commercial quality (“acceptable” pearls produced using two donors, and a group of “acceptable” pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected

  2. Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl, trick or true?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A bibliographic study is made of Mestica calappa, the Coconut pearl. It is concluded that if pearls do grow in coconuts, they are exceedingly rare, and the ones analyzed on structure and chemical composition were fake ones.

  3. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Luc Goron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana, foxtail millet (Setaria italica, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum, barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp., and little millet (Panicum sumatrense. Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed orphan cereals. Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers (e.g. nutritional quality which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  4. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  5. Hidden Diversity in Sardines: Genetic and Morphological Evidence for Cryptic Species in the Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rey C.; Willette, Demian A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine. PMID:24416271

  6. Hidden diversity in sardines: genetic and morphological evidence for cryptic species in the goldstripe sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey C Thomas

    Full Text Available Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine.

  7. Resource potential and status of pearl oyster fishery in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Many cultivable species of pearl oysters are known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago which is an important region in the world distribution of pearl oysters. An account of the development of Indian pearl fisheries that took place over...

  8. Pearls of Publishing: Advice for Increasing Your Acceptance Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J; Provencher, Matthew T; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-07-01

    Pearls of wisdom can be a convenient and efficient strategy to improve performance. As Editors, we employ pearls to standardize the review and editorial process, and we offer our own pearls to you to help facilitate acceptance of submitted research manuscripts with the ultimate goal of strengthening scientific conclusions that can affect patient care, and ultimately, improve outcome.

  9. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  10. 78 FR 75207 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9068 of December 5, 2013 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2013 By the... resolve. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we honor the men and women who selflessly sacrificed... forces of tyranny and oppression in the Second World War. In remembrance of Pearl Harbor and to...

  11. 75 FR 76613 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8614 of December 7, 2010 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2010 By the... service members and civilians awoke on a quiet Sunday to a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese... lives lost were forever seared into our national memory. The deadly attack on Pearl Harbor did...

  12. Teaching about Pearl Harbor. Curriculum Enhancement Series #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Anna Marshall

    These materials consist of sample lesson plans for teaching about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, in both U.S. and world history classes. The lesson plans challenge students to examine how current attitudes toward the Japanese may be rooted in World War II and Pearl Harbor. Selected bibliographies on Pearl Harbor, World…

  13. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  14. Clinical Pearls in pediatric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit; Mathew, Joseph; Jindal, Atul; Verma, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    This series of Clinical Pearls presents four cases presenting with infection. Each of these cases had clinical clues to the correct diagnosis, which could be picked up on meticulous history, clinical examination, or basic laboratory investigations. The authors highlight the important lessons to be learnt from each case. The first is a 7 year old boy with recurrent respiratory tract infections since early life. Clinical examination revealed the presence of dextrocardia and situs inversus and bronchiectasis leading to a diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. The second case is a 1.5-month-old infant who presented with meningitis and increasing head size since birth. CSF examination and CT scanning led to the correct diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasmosis. The next case is an infant with high grade fever and neck swelling. He had the rare Lemierre's syndrome comprising of oro-pharyngeal infection, suppurative thrompbophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and systemic dissemination of septic emboli. The fourth case is a 2-year-old infant with recurrent respiratory tract infections and discharging neck swellings from early life. Repeated testing for tuberculosis was negative. The diagnosis was Chronic granulomatous disease. The authors describe the clinical approach and investigations in these cases; along with an outline of the management.

  15. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)

    OpenAIRE

    Walaa Kamel Mousa; Schwan, Adrian L.; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the maj...

  16. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Changes in Foxtail Millet Planting Area in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; LIU; Yu; ZHAO; Fei; LIU; Shunguo; LI; Guirong; WANG; Xinshi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Since reform and open to the outside world,foxtail millet planting area in Hebei Province has constantly reduced,and its planting region has changed from the whole province into some regions,with obvious changes. In this paper,by using qualitative and quantitative approaches like chart analysis,summarizing,Delphi method and osculating value model,the influencing factors of changes in millet growing region in Hebei Province were studied. The results showed that the changes of millet planting area were closely related to many factors,such as little investment in scientific research,weak policy support,a single consumer product demand,the rapid development of other staple crops, labor migration,relatively low comparative effectiveness and physiological characteristics of the millet itself. Then some suggestions were put forward,such as increasing research support,strengthening scientific research strength,researching and developing deeply processed products, expanding consumer groups,improving millet policy support,providing subsidies for planting the improved varieties,researching and developing various types of machinery,and increasing millet production technology training.

  18. Utilization of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica from Papua as an Alternative Feedstuff to Substitute Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Tirajoh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Papua foxtail millet (Setaria italica is a plant which has been used as a source of carbohydrate, but it has not been used optimally. High demand in consuming corn as a poultry feeds provides an opportunity for Papua foxtail millet to be used as a substitute for corn in feed. Evaluation of nutritive values and antinutrient shows that Papua foxtail millet potential to be used as feed stuff. Studies on cultivation technology, evaluation of the nutritive values and antinutrient and its benefits as an alternative feed are relatively limited. The results shows that the Papua foxtail millet contains dry matter (88.37%, ash (0.86%, protein (12.07%, fat (2.76%, crude fiber (1.93%, metabolizable energy (3,139 kcal/kg and anti-nutritional factors (3.07% of phytate and 0.01% of tannins. Several studies reported that the use of Papua foxtail millet at various levels (25-100% in feed, can substitute corn and give a positive response on consumption, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass composition and percentages and egg production. It can be concluded that the Papua foxtail millet can be used as a corn substitution in poultry feed.

  19. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides.

  20. Partners in Leadership for Pearl River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Members of the 2007 class of Partners in Leadership toured NASA Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on Jan. 11. They visited the center's B Test Stand, part of the center's rocket engine test complex. The Partners in Leadership training program is designed to teach Pearl River County leaders about their county's government, economic development, health and human services, history and arts, environment and education during a 10-month period. The program, sponsored by the Partners for Pearl River County, helps fulfill the mission of the economic and community development agency.

  1. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  2. Pearls and pitfalls in the horror cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzi, R M

    1998-01-01

    Observations on the neurologic signs and symptoms of Count Dracula, Wolfman, and Frankenstein's Monster are presented as viewed by a specialist in neuromuscular disease. Key clinical features of these horror movie figures illustrate a variety of pearls in the diagnosis of a variety of neurologic disorders, including porphyria, lead poisoning, osteosclerotic myeloma, and myasthenia gravis.

  3. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanna Hema

    Full Text Available Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD, were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  4. [Effects of Cu2+ stress on DNA polymorphism of genome in foxtail millet of different genotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Xian; Fu, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Xi-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-01

    Cu2+ is an essential element for plant growth, and is one of the major elements in the environment. In order to investigate the physiological characteristics and geno-toxicity effects of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) Beauv) under different Cu2+ stress, four genotypes of foxtail millet (Zhaogu, Huangmi, An06, D2-8) from Shanxi, China were cultivated for 30 days in a pot filled with soil of with different mass concentrations of Cu2+ (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg.kg-l). Effects of Cu2+ stress on DNA damage of genome in foxtail millet were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) , and the contents of soluble sugar, proline and MDA were tested. The result showed that the content of soluble sugar had a trend of initial increased followed by decline in all four foxtail millet seedlings in response to the rising Cu2+ concentration, and the maximum value was 50 mg.kg-1. At Cu2 concentrations of 200 mg. kg-1 or more, the soluble sugar content in the four kinds of millet showed an average reduction of 32.44% to 56.5% compared to that of the control group. The result showed that proline synthesis was enhanced at low concentrations (less than 50 mg.kg-1) , but inhibited at high concentrations (more than 100 mg.kg-1), and the contents of MDA in the four genotypes of foxtail millet were significantly increased compared with the control group (P different genotypes of millet showed different response in the physiological and genetic damage under Cu2+ stress. The change of DNA polymorphism using RAPD technique could be used as the biomarkers to find genotoxic effects of Cu2+.

  5. Nucleus Pearl Coating Process of Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana (Unionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASMEN MANALU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor which is a weakness of sea water pearl production are high costs, the risk of major business failures and a long coating time. From the issue of freshwater pearls appear to have prospects of alternative substitution for sea water pearl. This present study aimed to evaluate effect of loads (the number and diameter nucleus on freshwater pearl coating process and the number and size of the appropriate nucleus diameter, to produce the optimum coating thickness of half-round pearls. The research consists of experimental implantation of 2, 4, and 6 nucleus number per individual mussel was maintained by the method stocked in hapa in bottom waters. Observation method and factorial randomized block design used in the study of the influence of the load to the successfulness of pearl coating and the pearl layer thickness. The results showed that A. woodiana can be utilized as a producer of freshwater pearls. In addition, the number of optimum nucleus that can be attached to the mussel A. woodiana was 2 grains/individuals with a diameter of 10 mm. Shells implanted with the optimum nucleus diameter and number of pearls produced the highest layer thickness of 17 m after 9 months cultivation. This result was good enough compared with the layer thickness of sea water pearl production after the same cultivation time.

  6. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  7. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  8. Genetics, Development, and Application of Cytoplasmic Herbicide Resistance in Foxtail Millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Gui-su; DU Rui-heng; HOU Sheng-lin; CHENG Ru-hong; WANG Xin-yu; ZHAO Xiu-ping

    2007-01-01

    The effect of cytoplasmic herbicide resistant gene in millet plants was studied. The heterozygous populations and isogenic lines with homocaryotic alloplasmic genes were obtained by crossing and reciprocal crossing of cytoplasmic herbicide resistant plants with susceptive plants of foxtail millet. The characters of F1, F2, backcross and composite cross groups, and the growth and development of isogenic lines were compared. The cytoplasmic herbicide resistant gene slowed the development of seedling, delayed heading, and shortened the milking stage in the foxtail millet plant. Yield capacity and main agronomic characters were all affected by the cytoplasmic herbicide resistant gene in most of the backcross, composite cross, and F2 populations. However, there was stronger hybrid vigor in F1. The backcrosses,composite crosses, and F2 populations were widely separated and some of them had good characters similar to those of susceptive groups. The plant characters and development of foxtail millet were negatively affected by the cytoplasmic herbicide resistant gene. The authors proposed a method of using hybrid vigor to obtain high yield and avoid the negative effects of herbicide resistance cytoplasm in plant growth. The expected results could be obtained by selecting individuals in separate populations of fast developed seedlings, well-developed roots, and with capacities of early heading and fast milking. Guided by the principal mentioned above, many high yield lines and hybrid crosses of foxtail millet with herbicide resistant cytoplasm were obtained.

  9. Foxtail millet: nutritional and eating quality, and prospects for genetic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HE,Bin ZHANG,Xingchun WANG,Hongying LI,Yuanhuai HAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet is a minor yet important crop in some areas of the world, particularly northern China. It has strong adaptability to abiotic stresses, especially drought, and poor soil. It also has high nutritional value. Foxtail millet is rich in essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals, and is considered to be one of the most digestible and non-allergenic grains available and has significant importance for human health. Given foxtail milletrsquo;s ability to adapt to abiotic stresses associated with climate change, it is more important than ever to develop breeding strategies that facilitate the increasing demand for high quality grain that better satisfies consumers. Here we review research on foxtail millet quality evaluation, appearance, cooking and eating quality at the phenotypic level. We review analysis of the main nutrients in foxtail millet, their relationships and the biochemical and genetic factors affecting their accumulation. In addition, we review past progress in breeding this regionally important crop, outline current status of breeding of foxtail millet, and make suggestions to improve grain quality.

  10. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  11. Modelling physical-biological interactions in the Southeast Brazil Bight: transport patterns of Brazilian Sardine larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Gherardi, D. F.; Pezzi, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    The advection of Brazilian Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) eggs and larvae in the SBB was modeled using an individual-based model (Ichthyop) and a hydrodynamic model (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to test for differences in larval retention for five spawning areas with high probability of egg occurrence: i) two areas north of the domain - Cape Frio and Rio de Janeiro, ii) one in the middle in Sao Sebastiao, and iii) two in the South in Paranagua. According to previous studies, this encompasses the known spawning habitat. Advective processes and physical characteristics, such as water temperature and salinity, were considered to determine larvae transport and survival. The hydrodynamic model grid has a horizontal resolution of 1/12o. Results of monthly mean Sea Surface Temperature (MSST) and Sea Surface Height (MSSH) indicate there isn't warming or cooling trend over the years, and the seasonal cycle well represented. These results were compared with satellite-derived data from the AVHRR sensor and AVISO project. Model results accurately represent the position and shape of the main surface structures observed in the satellite data. Monthly MSST maps for the experiment period indicate that the model tends to underestimate temperatures in upwelling areas and overestimate in the Brazil Current region, with differences mostly around ±1oC. For MSSH, although the model represents well the main surface ocean structures, it tends to underestimate along the domain. Temperature-salinity diagrams plotted in a coastal area for December of four years (1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988), near Ubatuba region, are consistent with field collected data, suggesting that the main water masses in SBB are reliably represented. The IBM experiments were carried out during the summer of six years (1980, 1981, 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993). For each year, 20000 eggs were released, distributed in the five areas, and tracked for 45 days. At the end of simulation, the mortality due to

  12. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  13. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  14. Pascale Sardin. Samuel Beckett et la passion maternelle ou l’hystérie à l’œuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe MURAT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La parution d’un ouvrage critique sur Samuel Beckett tombe évidemment à point nommé, puisque certaines des grandes pièces de ce dramaturge figurent au programme de deux concours de recrutement (session 2010 : Endgame pour l’agrégation externe d’Anglais, En attendant Godot et Oh les beaux jours pour l’agrégation externe de Lettres modernes. Il serait pourtant erroné de voir dans le livre de Pascale Sardin une publication « opportuniste » à destination des seuls candidats des concours. La pers...

  15. Effects of magnetic field on fluidization properties of magnetic pearls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maoming Fan; Zhenfu Luo; Yuemin Zhao; Qingru Chen; Daniel Tao; Xiuxiang Tao; Zhenqiang Chen

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external magnetic field on the fluidization behavior of magnetic pearls was carried out. Magnetic pearls are a magnetic form of iron oxide that mainly consists of Fe2O3 which are recovered from a high-volume power plant fly ash from pulverized coal combustion. Due to its abundance, low price and particular physical and chemical properties, magnetic pearls can be used as a heavy medium for minerals or solid waste dry separation based on density difference. This paper introduces the properties of magnetic pearls and compares the performance of magnetic pearls fluidised bed operation with or without an external magnetic field. Experimental results show that an external magnetic field significantly improves the fluidization performance of magnetic pearls such as uniformity and stability.

  16. Replacement of corn in the diet of broiler chickens using foxtail millet produced by 2 different cultivation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Samie, A H; Edriss, M A; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi, G; Van Kessel, A; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    Foxtail millet is well-suited to climatic conditions in semi-arid tropic regions where it is cultivated using both agro-ecologic and conventional cultivation practices. This study evaluated the nutritional value, digestibility, and physiological effects of agro-ecologic and conventionally cultivated foxtail millet in comparison with corn. Chemical and TME(n) analysis of foxtail millet cultivated conventionally and agro-ecologically indicated similar nutritional value. In total, 432 eight-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks, using a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, were randomly assigned to 4 replicate pens for each of 6 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Experimental diets were formulated by replacing corn with conventional or agro-ecologic millet at 3 levels (33, 66, or 100% of corn replacement). Body weight at 21 and 42 d of age was higher (P < 0.05) at 100% millet inclusion versus the lower inclusion levels. At 42 d of age, feed intake and feed conversion ratios were also improved (P < 0.05) at the 100% millet inclusion level. Similarly, the apparent ileal digestibility of CP increased (P < 0.05) for 100% millet diets. There were no differences in ileal digestibility of nutrients between millet growth conditions. Millet inclusion level significantly affected small intestinal morphology such that crypt depth was lowest (P < 0.05) in the 100% inclusion group for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 28 d of age, and for duodenum and ileum at 42 d of age. The villus crypt ratio was also highest (P < 0.05) in the 100% millet inclusion group for jejunum and ileum at 28 d of age, and duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 42 d of age. Millet growth condition did not markedly affect small intestinal morphology. Serum antibody responses to Gumboro and Newcastle diseases were not affected by millet inclusion level or growth condition. In conclusion, foxtail millet could be considered as an alternate cereal for inclusion in the diet of broiler chickens. Broiler chicken performance and

  17. The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: New light on neolithic foodways in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Jones, Martin K; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Guoxiang; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing body of archaeobotanical evidence for the harvesting of millet in Eurasia prior to 5,000 cal. BC. Yet direct evidence for the extent of millet consumption in this time period is rare. This contradiction may be due to millet crops making only a minor contribution to the diet before 5,000 BC. In this article, drawing from recent excavations in North China, we present evidence for millet crops making a substantial contribution to human and animal diets in periods, which correspond chronologically with the time depth of the archaeobotanical record. We infer that in eastern Inner Mongolia, human adoption of millets, which may or may be not related to substantial agriculture, happened at the Early Neolithic, with direct dates between 5,800 and 5,300 cal. BC.

  18. Effect of Ethanol on Germination and Enzyme Activities in Finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Kulkarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of ethanol the end product of alcoholic fermentation on the growth of finger millet (var. GPU-28, CO-9 seedlings of two finger millet was studied as a means of evaluating growth responses under anoxia. The germination was delayed by ethanol treatment in case of both the cultivars. Ethanol treatment affected the growth of both radicle and coleoptile of seedlings. In this respect the radicle growth is more sensitive to ethanol than the coleoptile in both varieties of finger millet. The activities of enzymes nitrate reductase, ATPase, acid phosphatase, amylase were reduced by alcohol treatment in germinating seeds of both the cultivars. However, lower concentration of alcohol (1% caused stimulation of peroxidase in var. CO-9. In case of var. GPU-28 showed stimulation of enzyme alkaline phosphatase in both concentration of alcohol.

  19. Silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.P Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal was evaluated. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications in a factorial 3 x 4, with three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha: marandu, xaraés, and piatã and four levels of millet meal 0, 5, 10, and 15%. The addition of millet meal improved the quality of B. brizantha silage. The inclusion of the additive at 15% provided the best nutritional values. The piatã silage had the lowest contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin and the highest content of total digestible nutrients, being a better quality silage as compared to those of xaraés and marandu grasses.

  20. Characterization of millet and buckwheat sourdoughs fermenting with autochthonous Pediococcus pentosaceus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata CHOIŃSKA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus pentosacues strains, isolates from naturally fermenting millet and buckwheat sourdoughs, were used as starters for millet and buckwheat sourdoughs fermentation in order to evaluate their metabolic activity in native sourdough environment. For comparison, fermentation of studied non-wheat sourdoughs with a wheat isolate was done. Generally, sourdoughs fermented with autochthonous isolates are characterized by higher value of TTA and lactic acid compared to sourdoughs fermented with wheat isolates. The observed differences in TTA value between the sourdoughs prepared with autochthonous pediococci and the ones with wheat isolate were more pronounced in the case of millet sourdoughs. Glucose concentration and lactic acid production varied depending on the used pediococci strains and fermentation time.

  1. Study on Negative-pressure Precision Millet Seed-metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional millet drilling method has a problem of labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, so a negative-pressure precision millet seed-metering device was designed to realize millet precision dibble seeding. Single factor experiment researches effect of rotational speed and air-chamber vacuum of seed-metering device on its seed-metering passing rate, repeat-sowing rate and leak-sowing rate. By means of orthogonal experiment method, optimal parameters of seed-metering device were defined, which was 20 r/min rotational speed, 4 mm bore diameter, 1.5 KPa air-chamber vacuum and 55 mm air cut valve arc length. The field test result shows that the seed-metering device meets completely standards of “Single-seed (Precise Seeder Technological Requirements” and agronomic requirements.

  2. Rheological properties of refined wheat - millet flour based dough under thermo-mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subir K; Tiwari, Anu; Mishra, Atishay; Singh, Alok

    2015-05-01

    Designed experiments were conducted to study the rheological properties of baking dough prepared from different refined wheat flour (RWF) - barnyard millet blends with varying amount of water (WA), salt and sugar. Dough was subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in Mixolab, in which rheological properties were recorded in terms of five different torques. Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of input variables (WA, barnyard millet, salt and sugar; all expressed as per cent of base flour) on torques recorded by Mixolab. Optimum values of input variables were obtained with constraints based on torque values which represented the qualities of acceptable bread dough. The models predicted that a dough with 57, 26, 1.8 and 3.3% of water, barnyard millet, salt and sugar, respectively, can be used for bread baking purposes.

  3. Assessment of aflatoxigenicAspergillusand other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenicAspergillusspecies, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium......% in sesame kernels). AllA. parvisclerotigenusisolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% ofA. avusstrains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55;p = 0.......02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report onA. parvisclerotigenusin sesame....

  4. Remembering Pearl Harbor at 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Sopcheck, Janet; Milbrath, Gwyneth

    2016-12-01

    : On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need. Here are the stories of a few of those nurses.

  5. Rates of return to sorghum and millet research investments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereyesus, Yacob A; Dalton, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015. The average rate of return to sorghum and millet R&D investment is between 54-76 percent per year. All studies computed social rather than private RORs because the technologies were developed using public funds originating from host country National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and international organizations such as the INTSORMIL CRSP, ICRISAT and others. Nearly three quarter of the studies focused only on sorghum (72 percent) and around one tenth of the studies (8 percent) on millet. Regression models analyzed the determinants of variation in the reported RORs. Results show that ex-ante type and self-evaluated type of analyses are positively and significantly associated with the ROR estimates. Compared to estimates conducted by a university, results from international institutions and other mixed organizations provided significantly smaller estimates. Estimates conducted at national level also are significantly lower than those conducted at sub-national levels. The ROR is higher for studies conducted in the United States and for those conducted more recently. The study also reconstructed modified internal rate of return (MIRR) for a sub-sample of the reported RORs following recent methods from the literature. These results show that the MIRR estimates are significantly smaller than the reported ROR estimates. Both results indicate that investment in sorghum and millet research generates high social rates of

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) using shoot apex explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, S Antony; Ignacimuthu, S

    2011-09-01

    A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for finger millet using shoot apex explants. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring binary vector pCAMBIA1301, which contained hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) as selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene, was used for optimization of transformation conditions. Two finger millet genotypes, GPU 45 and CO 14, were used in this study. The optimal conditions for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet were found to be the co-cultivation of explants obtained on the 16th day after callus induction (DACI), exposure of explants for 30 min to agrobacterial inoculum and 3 days of co-cultivation on filter paper placed on medium supplemented with 100 μM acetosyringone (AS). Addition of 100 μM L: -cysteine in the selection medium enhanced the frequency of transformation and transgenic plant recovery. Both finger millet genotypes were transformed by Agrobacterium. A frequency of 19% transient expression with 3.8% stable transformation was achieved in genotype GPU 45 using optimal conditions. Five stably transformed plants were fully characterized by Southern blot analysis. A segregation analysis was also performed in four R(1) progenies, which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. The inheritance of transgenes in R(1) progenies was also confirmed by Southern blot analysis. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of finger millet in the future.

  7. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases.

  8. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases. PMID:26491574

  9. Dans l’atelier de l’écrivain (autofictif. L’enterrement de la sardine de Patrice Lessard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Randall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available L’enterrement de la sardine, dernier roman de la trilogie lisboète de Patrice Lessard, nous introduit à la fois dans le labyrinthe de la vieille ville de Lisbonne et dans celui de la narration de deux romans en train de se faire. La distinction entre fiction et autobiographie proposée dans l’avant-propos s’effondre vite devant les multiples intrusions du « réel » dans la fiction et de la fiction dans le « réel ». De plus, la facture fragmentaire de l’ensemble pose un défi au lecteur qui se trouve en plein atelier de l’écrivain, devant un portrait de l’artiste inachevé, inachevable. L’enterrement de la sardine, the final volume of Patrick Lessard’s Lisbonne trilogy, plunges the reader into the labyrinth of Lisbonne’s old city as well as into the meanders of two novels in the making. The distinction between fiction and autobiography presented in the preface quickly dissolves in the face of the multiple intrusions of the “real” world into the fictional one and vice versa. The fragmentary nature of the entire text poses a challenge to the reader, who seems to have wandered into the writer’s workshop to confront an unfinished — perhaps unfinishable — self-portrait.

  10. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  11. Manual of FOCUS PEARL version 1.1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titak A; Berg F van den; Boesten JJTI; Kraalingen D van; Leistra M; Linden AMA van der; Alterra Green World Research; LBG

    2001-01-01

    The PEARL model is used to evaluate the leaching of pesticide to the groundwater in support to the Dutch and European pesticide registration procedures. PEARL is an acronym for Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales. The model is a joint product of Alterra Green World research an

  12. Manual of FOCUS PEARL version 1.1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titak A; Berg F van den; Boesten JJTI; Kraalingen D van; Leistra M; Linden AMA van der; Alterra Green World Research; LBG

    2001-01-01

    The PEARL model is used to evaluate the leaching of pesticide to the groundwater in support to the Dutch and European pesticide registration procedures. PEARL is an acronym for Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales. The model is a joint product of Alterra Green World research an

  13. 32 CFR 705.31 - USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. 705.31... NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.31 USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor. (a) Limited space and the desirability of keeping the Memorial simple and dignified require...

  14. Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnu, K V; Ajeesh Kumar, K K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Lekshmi, R G K; Sreerekha, P R; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-08-02

    Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings. Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

  15. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  16. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  17. Phenotypic Responses of Twenty Diverse Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. Accessions to Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Habiyaremye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, little research has been conducted on the phenotypic responses of proso millet to drought and deficit irrigation treatments in the dryland wheat-based cropping systems of the Palouse bioregion of the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate critical agronomic traits of proso millet, including emergence, plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, and grain yield, with and without supplemental irrigation. Twenty diverse proso millet accessions, originating from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Morocco, the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and the United States, were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments under organic conditions in Pullman, WA, from 2012 to 2014. Irrigation was shown to significantly improve emergence and increase plant height at stem extension and to hasten ripening of all the varieties, whereas heading date was not affected by irrigation in two of the three years tested. Irrigation resulted in higher mean seed yield across all varieties, with ‘GR 665’ and ‘Earlybird’ performing best under irrigation. Seed yield was highest in ‘GR 658’ and ‘Minsum’ in the non-irrigated treatment, suggesting the importance of identification and utilization of varieties adapted to low rainfall conditions. The highest yielding varieties in irrigated systems are unlikely be the highest yielding in dryland systems. Our results suggest that millet has potential as a regionally novel crop for inclusion in traditional dryland cropping rotations in the Palouse ecosystem, thereby contributing to increased cropping system diversity.

  18. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids and antinutritional characteristics of germinated foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A central composite rotatable design was applied to analyse the effects of independent variables [soaking time (ST, germination time (Gt and temperature (GT] on responses [antioxidant activity (AoxA, total phenolic contents (TPC and flavonoid contents (TFC]. The results indicated that with increase in ST, Gt and GT, AoxA, TPC (free/bound and TFC (free/bound of foxtail millet increased significantly. The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized germinated foxtail millet flour with the highest AoxA (90.5%, TPC (45.67 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g sample and TFC (30.52–43.96 mg RU/g sample were found with soaking time of 15.84 min having germination temperature of 25°C. The optimized germinated foxtail millet flour was nutritionally rich as it produced higher protein (14.32 g/100 g, dietary fibre (27.42 g/100 g, calcium (25.62 mg/kg, iron (54.23 mg/kg, magnesium (107.16 mg/kg and sodium (69.45 mg/kg per kg as compared to un-germinated foxtail millet flour.

  19. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Antony Ceasar

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance.

  20. Durability of Materials in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller

    is stabilized by casting a fill material between the spandrel walls of the arch. Finally, the road surface is cast on top of the fill material. New bridges are designed for a service lifetime of at least 100 years. Hence, the specifications of the materials used in Pearl-Chain Bridges are high. This PhD study...... documents that the materials used in Pearl-Chain Bridges have the necessary strength and durability to ensure their longevity. The scope of the PhD study is limited to assessing the fill material placed on the Pearl-Chain arch, and the mortar joints and lightweight aggregate concrete used in the Pearl...... and pervious concrete were also investigated. The most suitable fill material for Pearl-Chain Bridges depends on the particular bridge design; the results obtained and presented in the present PhD study provide guidance on how to decide which fill material is most suitable regarding strength, permeability...

  1. Determinação da composição química e energética do milheto e sua utilização em rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade Determination of chemical composition and energy value of millet and their use in rations of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Gomes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para determinar o valor nutricional do milheto e avaliar sua utilização como alimento energético em rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, foram determinados os teores de matéria seca (88,53%, energia bruta (3.604 kcal/kg, energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (2.656 kcal/kg, proteína bruta (12,71%, fibra bruta (5,40%, extrato etéreo (3,10%, cálcio (0,029% e fósforo (0,31% e, no segundo experimento, foi determinado o desempenho produtivo dos frangos no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo 0; 10; 20; 30 ou 40% de milheto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, composto de cinco níveis de milheto e dois sexos, com quatro repetições de 20 aves por unidade experimental. Os parâmetros analisados foram o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. O desempenho dos frangos alimentados com as rações com maiores níveis de milheto foi significativamente melhor, o que pode estar relacionado ao aumento do nível de óleo na dieta. A inclusão de milheto é recomendável em níveis de até 20% em rações para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade.This research was carried out to determine the nutritional value of pearl millet, and to evaluate their utilization as energetic source in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days old. Two experiment were conducted: in the first, the chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus and gross energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance were determined. In the second experiment, the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days old fed diets with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of pearl millet were determined. A completely randomized design, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement (level of millet and sex, with four replicates and 20 birds per experimental unit, was used

  2. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  3. Bioethanol production from spent mushroom compost derived from chaff of millet and sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, Peter; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Tindyebwa, Teddy A M; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Waldron, Keith W; Malakar, Pradeep K

    2017-01-01

    In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol. These conditions were then used as a basis for larger scale assessments with high substrate concentrations (30% w/v). Millet-based compost had a low cellulose content and, at a high substrate concentration, did not liquefy effectively. The ethanol yield was 63.9 g/kg dry matter (DM) of original material with a low concentration (19.6 g/L). Compost derived from sorghum chaff had a higher cellulose content and could be liquefied at high substrate concentration (30% w/v). This enabled selected furfural-resistant yeasts to produce ethanol at up to 186.9 g/kg DM of original material and a concentration of 45.8 g/L. Spent mushroom compost derived from sorghum chaff has the potential to be an industrially useful substrate for producing second-generation bioethanol. This might be improved further through fractionation and exploitation of hemicellulosic moieties, and possibly the exploitation of the mycelium-containing final residue for animal feed. However, spent compost derived from millet does not provide a suitably high concentration of ethanol to make it industrially attractive. Further research on the difficulty in quantitatively saccharifying cellulose from composted millet chaff and other similar substrates such as rice husk is required.

  4. Mineralization and Osteoblast Cells Response of Nanograde Pearl Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to characterize the thermal, mineralization, and osteoblast cells response of pearl nanocrystallites. The results obtained from X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectra demonstrate that the pearl nano-crystallites can induce the formation of an HA layer on their surface in SBF, even after only short soaking periods. The in vitro cell response to nano-grade pearl powders is assessed by evaluating the cytotoxicity against a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line and by characterizing the attachment ability and alkaline phosphatase activity of mouse bone cells (MC3T3-E1, abbreviated to E1 and bone marrow stromal precursor (D1 cells. The cytotoxicities of pearls were tested by the filtration and culture of NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The viability of the cultured cells in media containing pearl crystallites for 24 and 72 h is greater than 90%. The bone cells seen in these micrographs are elongated and align predominately along the pearl specimen. The cells observed in these images also appeared well attached and cover the surface almost completely after 1 h. The pearl nanocrystallites had a positive effect on the osteogenic ability of ALP activity, and this promoted the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs significantly at explanations.

  5. FORMULASI PANGAN DARURAT BERBENTUK FOOD BARS BERBASIS TEPUNG MILLET PUTIH (Panicum milliaceum L.) DAN TEPUNG KACANG MERAH (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raden Baskara Katri Anandito; Siswanti Siswanti; Edhi Nurhartadi; Rini Hapsari

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain a formula emergency food in the form food bars made from white millet flour and red bean flour. Foodbars made with Intermediate Moisture Food (IMF) technology with wet dyeing technique. This study used completely randomized design (CRD), which consists of a single factor, namely the variation formula white millet flour and red bean flour. The results showed that the formula food bars with the highest level of consumer acceptance in the composition of 15 g of white m...

  6. FORMULASI PANGAN DARURAT BERBENTUK FOOD BARS BERBASIS TEPUNG MILLET PUTIH (Panicum milliaceum L. DAN TEPUNG KACANG MERAH (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Baskara Katri Anandito

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain a formula emergency food in the form food bars made from white millet flour and red bean flour. Foodbars made with Intermediate Moisture Food (IMF technology with wet dyeing technique. This study used completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of a single factor, namely the variation formula white millet flour and red bean flour. The results showed that the formula food bars with the highest level of consumer acceptance in the composition of 15 g of white millet flour, red bean flour 10 g, 2 g sugar, 10 g margarine, milk full cream 13 g, 6.043 g and the addition of water. In 100 g of food bars contained water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and caloric value a respectively of 16.45%, 1.45%, 10.99%, 35.39%, 42.26%, 0 , 81 and 233.80 kcallbar. Keywords: Emergency food, food bars, red bean flour, white millet flour   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh formula pangan darurat berbentuk food bars berbahan dasar tepung millet putih dan tepung kacang merah. Food bars dibuat dengan teknologi Intermediate Moisture Food (IMF dengan teknik pencelupan basah. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari satu faktor yaitu variasi formula tepung millet putih dan tepung kacang merah (15:10; 12,5:12,5; 10:15. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula food bars dengan tingkat penerimaan konsumen tertinggi pada komposisi tepung millet putih 15 g, tepung kacang merah 10 g, gula halus 2 g, margarine 10 g, susu full cream 13 g, dan penambahan air 6,043 g. Dalam 100 g food bars terkandung air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat nilai a  dan kalori berturut-turut sebesar 16,45%,1,45%, 10,99%, 35,39%, 42,26%, 0,81 dan 233,80 kkallbar. Kata kunci: Food bars, pangan darurat, tepung kacang merah, tepung millet putih

  7. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdiets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (Pdiets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdiets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdiet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  8. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  9. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  10. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  11. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B.; D’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M.; Whiteman, Michael R.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.; Murphy, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60–100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets. PMID:28119699

  12. 谷子理想株型育种研究初报%A Preliminary Study on Breeding of Ideal Plant in Millet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宏山

    2009-01-01

    To further increase millet yield, the ideal plant in millet has become the goal of high yield breeding for millet. Taking crossbreeding or dynamic breeding technique as dominant and technologies such as modern selection or system selection as subsidiary, progenies with ideal plant are selected by using new germplasms such as Lilvgu and Lizigu with the significant difference in plant type to other cultivars as parents. The genetic characteristics of new germplasms in breeding are also emphatically analyzed to summarize the breeding experience of ideal plant, which has been proved that the combination of ideal plant and heterosis utilization is one of the important ways to raise millet yield breakthrough.

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  15. Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  16. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM. Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  17. Pearl River Fish Kill Post Incident Monitoring Report 2012 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF) completed a three year fish and mussel monitoring project during the years 2012 through 2014 in the Pearl...

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  19. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Bai; Jiamu Dai; Guang Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM). Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  1. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  2. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  3. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  5. 2003 Pearl River County, Mississippi Lidar: Flood Plain Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar data was collected primarily for flood plain mapping within Pearl River County, MS. The data were processed into separate Bare Earth and First Surface...

  6. Technological properties and probiotic potential of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from West African fermented millet dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Akabanda, Fortune

    2015-01-01

    or health advantage (probiotics). With the aim of selecting potential probiotic starter cultures, Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented millet dough were investigated for technological properties and probiotic traits in-vitro. RESULTS: A total of 176 L. fermentum strains were assessed...... for technological properties including rate of acidification, exopolysaccharide production and amylase activity. Following this, 48 strains showing desirable technological properties were first screened for acid resistance. Sixteen acid resistant strains were assessed for additional probiotic properties including...... determination of technological and probiotic properties have shown strain specific difference among L. fermentum strains isolated from fermented millet dough. Sixteen (16) L. fermentum strains have been shown to possess desirable technological and probiotic characteristics in vitro. These strains are therefore...

  7. Genetic diversity for grain Zn concentration in finger millet genotypes: Potential for improving human Zn nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramegowda Yamunarani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the world population suffers from micronutrient malnutrition, particularly Zn deficiency. It is important to understand genetic variation for uptake and translocation behaviors of Zn in relevant crop species to increase Zn concentration in edible parts. In the present study, genetic variation in grain Zn concentration of 319 finger millet genotypes was assessed. Large genetic variation was found among the genotypes, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 86 μg g− 1 grain. Uptake and translocation studies with Zn/65Zn application in 12 selected low-Zn genotypes showed wide variation in root uptake and shoot translocation, with genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 showing greater uptake and translocation. Genotypes GEC164 and GEC543 showed increased grain Zn concentration. Genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 also showed improved yield under Zn treatment. Appreciable variation in grain Zn concentration among finger millet genotypes found in this study offers opportunities to improve Zn nutrition through breeding.

  8. Constant harvest rate for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California based on catchability-at-length estimations

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Constant harvest rate as a management strategy for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California is supported by an analysis of variations in the catchability coefficient (q), stock abundance and commercial catch. Catchability was analyzed based on population length-structured data standard length (SL), expressed as CPUE, for 26 fishing seasons (1972-1973 to 1997-1998). We used a deterministic model of catchability to estimate the catchability-at-length assuming ...

  9. Pearling instabilities of membrane tubes with anchored polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafrir, I; Sagi, D; Arzi, T; Guedeau-Boudeville, M A; Frette, V; Kandel, D; Stavans, J

    2001-02-05

    We have studied the pearling instability induced on hollow tubular lipid vesicles by hydrophilic polymers with hydrophobic side groups along the backbone. The results show that the polymer concentration is coupled to local membrane curvature. The relaxation of a pearled tube is characterized by two different well-separated time scales, indicating two physical mechanisms. We present a model, which explains the observed phenomena and predicts polymer segregation according to local membrane curvature at late stages.

  10. Pearling Instabilities of Membrane Tubes with Anchored Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsafrir, Ilan; Sagi, Dror; Arzi, Tamar; Guedeau-Boudeville, Marie-Alice; Frette, Vidar; kandel, Daniel; Stavans, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the pearling instability induced on hollow tubular lipid vesicles by hydrophilic polymers with hydrophobic side groups along the backbone. The results show that the polymer concentration is coupled to local membrane curvature. The relaxation of a pearled tube is characterized by two different well-separated time scales, indicating two physical mechanisms. We present a model, which explains the observed phenomena and predicts polymer segregation according to local membrane curv...

  11. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ENRICHED BIO-DIGESTER LIQUID MANURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET

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    SUDHEENDRA SAUNCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of enriched bio-digester liquid manure (BDLM with poultry manure & rock phosphate equivalent to 60 kg N ha-1 had led lead to the significant grain yield (3893 kg ha-1 and straw yield (7228 kg ha -1 of finger millet compared to recommended practice which was in turn due to growth parameters viz., plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production and tillers

  13. Antioxidant properties of wheat as affected by pearling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika; Dexter, Jim; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-08-23

    The effects of pearling on the content of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of two Canadian wheat classes, namely, Canada Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum; CWAD) and Canada Western Red Spring; Triticum aestivum L.; CWRS) were examined. The antioxidant activity of wheat phenolics was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of photochemiluminescence (PCL), Rancimat method, inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and DNA. The phenolic composition of wheat extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of both pearled grains and byproducts significantly decreased as the degree of pearling increased. Among grains, the unprocessed whole grains demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity. The byproducts always demonstrated higher antioxidant capacity compared to the pearled grains, regardless of the wheat class. The resultant byproducts from 10-20% pearling possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. Processing of cereals may thus exert a significant effect on their antioxidant activity. The concentration of grain antioxidants is drastically reduced during the refining process. As phenolic compounds are concentrated in the outermost layers, the bran fractions resulting from pearling may be used as a natural source of antioxidants and as value-added products in the preparation of functional food ingredients or for enrichment of certain products.

  14. Initial formation stage and succedent biomineralization of pearls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Fen [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Tian, Liangguang [Shandong Institute of Supervision and Inspection on Product Quality, Jinan 250100 (China); Xu, Xiangang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbhu@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-04-01

    The initial formation stage and succedent biomineralization of pearls were studied using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A new initial formation phase with needle-like structure which is found to be nanocrystallites of aragonite was discovered. As a result, two possible formation modes are proposed to describe the initial formation stage of pearls. As for the succedent mineralization of “brick and mortar” structure, nanostripes were first discovered inside the “brick” (aragonite platelet), compared with the foregoing finding of nanograins. The various nanostructures of aragonite platelet allow us to reconsider the role of the inter- and intracrystalline organic material surrounding CaCO{sub 3}, and a possible biomineralization mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: • A new initial formation mineral phase was discovered in pearl. • Nanograins and nanostripes inside aragonite platelets were found in pearl. • Two possible initial formation stages were proposed for pearl. • A possible biomineralization mechanism of nacre in pearl was proposed.

  15. Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Metwal, Mamta; Kaur, Sanveen; Gupta, Atul K.; Puranik, Swati; Singh, Sadhna; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Supriya; Babu, B. K.; Sood, Salej; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research. PMID:27446162

  16. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone, and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside. Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  17. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  18. Analyzing millet price regimes and market performance in Niger with remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essam, Timothy Michael

    This dissertation concerns the analysis of staple food prices and market performance in Niger using remotely sensed vegetation indices in the form of normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI). By exploiting the link between weather-related vegetation production conditions, which serve as a proxy for spatially explicit millet yields and thus millet availability, this study analyzes the potential causal links between NDVI outcomes and millet market performance and presents an empirical approach for predicting changes in market performance based on NDVI outcomes. Overall, the thesis finds that inter-market price spreads and levels of market integration can be reasonably explained by deviations in vegetation index outcomes from the growing season. Negative (positive) NDVI shocks are associated with better (worse) than expected market performance as measured by converging inter-market price spreads. As the number of markets affected by negatively abnormal vegetation production conditions in the same month of the growing season increases, inter-market price dispersion declines. Positive NDVI shocks, however, do not mirror this pattern in terms of the magnitude of inter-market price divergence. Market integration is also found to be linked to vegetation index outcomes as below (above) average NDVI outcomes result in more integrated (segmented) markets. Climate change and food security policies and interventions should be guided by these findings and account for dynamic relationships among market structures and vegetation production outcomes.

  19. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Puranik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans require more than 20 mineral elements for healthy body function. Calcium (Ca, one of the essential macromineral, is required in relatively large quantities in the diet for maintaining a sound overall health. Young children, pregnant and nursing women in marginalized and poorest regions of the world, are at highest risk of Ca malnutrition. Elderly population is another group of people most commonly affected by Ca deficiency mainly in the form of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Improved dietary intake of Ca may be the most cost-effective way to meet such deficiencies. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.], a crop with inherently higher Ca content in its grain, is an excellent candidate for understanding genetic mechanisms associated with Ca accumulation in grain crops. Such knowledge will also contribute toward increasing Ca contents in other staple crops consumed on daily basis using plant-breeding (also known as biofortification methods. However, developing Ca-biofortified finger millet to reach nutritional acceptability faces various challenges. These include identifying and translating the high grain Ca content to an adequately bioavailable form so as to have a positive impact on Ca malnutrition. In this review, we assess some recent advancements and challenges for enrichment of its Ca value and present possible inter-disciplinary prospects for advancing the actual impact of Ca-biofortified finger millet.

  20. Development Of Cookies Using A Combination Of Foxtail Millet And Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Sambavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we developed three different types of cookies using a combination of foxtail millet and wheat flour. The ratio of foxtail millet flour and wheat flour changed as 60 50 and 45 and cookies were prepared. In order to determine consumer acceptability 9 point hedonic test was done with 32 untrained panelists serving and results were statistically analyzed to identify the best formulation. The sensory qualities namely appearance texture flavor aftertaste overall acceptability and proximate analysis specifically moisture crude protein crude fat crude fiber and ash of the cookies were determined. The findings indicated that the sensory evaluation 55 foxtail millet 45 wheat flour sample was highly accepted as best formulation in terms of texture aftertaste and overall acceptability. There was no statistically significant p0.05 difference in appearance and flavor. In the best formulation moisture content is 4.6 crude fat is 5.7 crude protein is 13.1 crude fiber 0.07 and ash 1.0.

  1. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics—An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B. Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S.; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2–4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet. PMID:27881984

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of MYB Transcription Factor Superfamily in C4 model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehanathan Muthamilarasan

    Full Text Available MYB proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, playing important roles in diverse developmental and stress-responsive processes. Considering its significance, several genome-wide analyses have been conducted in almost all land plants except foxtail millet. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. is a model crop for investigating systems biology of millets and bioenergy grasses. Further, the crop is also known for its potential abiotic stress-tolerance. In this context, a comprehensive genome-wide survey was conducted and 209 MYB protein-encoding genes were identified in foxtail millet. All 209 S. italica MYB (SiMYB genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. Gene duplication study showed that segmental- and tandem-duplication have occurred in genome resulting in expansion of this gene family. The protein domain investigation classified SiMYB proteins into three classes according to number of MYB repeats present. The phylogenetic analysis categorized SiMYBs into ten groups (I-X. SiMYB-based comparative mapping revealed a maximum orthology between foxtail millet and sorghum, followed by maize, rice and Brachypodium. Heat map analysis showed tissue-specific expression pattern of predominant SiMYB genes. Expression profiling of candidate MYB genes against abiotic stresses and hormone treatments using qRT-PCR revealed specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiMYBs. Taken together, the present study provides a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MYB TFs in foxtail millet to dissect their functions in response to environmental stimuli.

  3. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.] Genomics - An Important Nutri-cereal of Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salej Sood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologues from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2-4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet.

  4. KUALITAS MUTU BAHAN MENTAH DAN PRODUK AKHIR PADA UNIT PENGALENGAN IKAN SARDINE DI PT. KARYA MANUNGGAL PRIMA SUKSES MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Agustin Wulandari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutu ikan kaleng tergantung pada kesegaran bahan mentah, cara pengalengan, peralatan dan kecakapan serta pengetahuan pelaksana-pelaksana teknis, sanitasi dan higiene pabrik dan lingkungan.  Kesegaran bahan mentah sangat penting dalam industri perikanan.  Kesegaran adalah tolak ukur untuk membedakan ikan jelek dan bagus kualitasnya.  Bila kualitas bahan mentah bagus, maka produk yang dihasilkan juga bagus.  Untuk mengendalikan mutu produk yang dihasilkan perusahaan diperlukan suatu sistem yang terkendali dan dapat mengendalikan seluruh aktifitas yang mempengaruhi mutu produk. Khusus untuk produk perikanan lahirnya konsep HACCP mendorong negara-negara maju menerapkan sistem pengawasan mutu ini kepada produsen sebagai jaminan mutu produknya. Dari hasi studi pustaka dan penelitian serta pengamatan langsung pada PT. Karya Manunggal Prima Sukses Muncar,  ternyata diketahui bahwa mutu bahan baku dan produk akhir berupa ikan kaleng sardine saus tomat yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI 01-3548-1994.  Sedangkan penerapan konsepsi HACCP belum terlaksana dengan baik sehingga diperlukan perbaikan, baik GMP dan SSOP pada unit pengolahan.Kata kunci : Mutu ikan kaleng, HACCP.  The quality of a certain tinned-fish depends on several things; those are the freshness of raw materials, tinning technique, devices, knowledge, and capability of the technicians, sanitation and hygienist of the factory. The freshness of raw materials is important in fishery industries.  Freshness is one of indicators in determining fish quality. If raw materials are in good quality so that the product will be. To maintain quality of a product in certain factory, system that are able to control all of the elements affecting product quality, is absolutely needed. In fishery product, availability of HACCP, encourage the advanced-countries to apply a monitoring system of product quality to the producer as a kind of quality guarantee. From the study of certain literature

  5. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  6. A preliminary analysis of the state of exploitation of the sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792, in the gulf of Annaba, East Algerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedairia, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on 2,859 specimens of sardine, Sardina pilchardus, collected biweekly from November 2006 to October 2007. Samplings were carried out at the fishing port of Annaba where purse-seine methods are used for small-scale fishing at depths from 15 to 30 m. Data concerning the exploitation of catches were analysed by means of two software packages: i FISAT (2004, which we used to determine the essential parameters for the study of dynamics; and ii VIT (2000, the most suitable tool for stock assessment based on the application of length cohort analysis (LCA together with a yield per recruit analyses (Y/R based on a short series of data. VIT (2000 assumes steady state and functions with pseudo-cohorts, requiring knowledge of the catches over one year only instead of a historical series of several years. The results of this application revealed that the exploitable average biomass of the sardine stock, composed of 28 length sizes from 6.5 to 20 cm with a step of 0.5 cm, was around 4,778.93 tons, of which 2,513 tons (53% were spawning stock. The size and the average age of the sardine stock were 12.5 cm and 2.7 years. Total biomass balance (D was estimated at 5,508.64 tons. This corresponded to growth in weight of 4,453.77 tons, (80.85%, as compared to recruitment of only 1,054.86 tons (19.15%. Losses were caused mainly by natural mortality (M, estimated at 3,823.14 tons, and accounting for 69.40%. This was higher than fishing mortality (F which was 1,685.5 tons (30.60%. We estimated the yield per recruit (Y/R of sardine at 2.682 g. This value was lower than the threshold of maximum yield per recruit at 3.413 g. Though preliminary, these results indicate that the sardine population can be considered to be in a situation of under-exploitation in this area. The stock is moderately exploited for F0.1 a reference considered more appropriate for management. Applying the precautionary principle, fishing efforts should not increase and we

  7. Cardiovascular responses to millet pounding activity among women in a rural community in Northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Jajimaji, Fati; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Jabbo, Abdul-Hameed A

    2017-01-01

    Pounding food items in a wooden mortal is a common home chore in many communities in African and Asian countries. However, no empirical data exist on energy expenditure during this activity, and whether the activity can be considered a light, moderate, or vigorous intensity physical activity is unknown. This study was aimed at gaining insights into energy expenditure during millet pounding through cardiovascular responses to millet pounding activity, and to explore possible differences in response between women who pound millet as their occupation (habitual millet pounders) and those who pound millet only for their own home cooking but not as a job (nonhabitual pounders). A total of forty apparently healthy women performed millet pounding activity in standing position for 15 min durations, and their cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBPs), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) at rest, and immediately after pounding activity were assessed. Significant increases in the subjects' cardiovascular parameters in the range of 7-12, 1-5, and 19-21 point values above the resting levels for SBP, DBP, and HR, respectively, were observed. Significantly higher SBP was also observed for the habitual pounders than the values for the nonhabitual pounders, whereas RPE was significantly higher for the nonhabitual pounders than for the habitual pounders in response to pounding. This study suggests that millet pounding substantially stresses the cardiovascular system sufficiently to place the activity within the moderate intensity category. Further studies on energy cost of this house chore, using instrumentation that is capable of direct measure of oxygen consumption, is warranted. Résumé Contexte: Le fait de battre des aliments dans un mortier en bois est une corvée à domicile fréquente dans de nombreuses communautés des pays d'Afrique et d'Asie. cependant, Il n'existe pas de données empiriques sur

  8. Soil salinity under deficit drip irrigation of potato and millet in in an arid environment

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    Kamel Nagaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of deficit irrigation (DI with saline water on soil salinity in a drip-irrigated potato and millet fields was investigated. We had compared proportional soil salinity developed under Full and DI under drip irrigation. For both experiments, the treatments were (1 Full, control treatment where rooting zone soil water content was increased to field capacity at each irrigation; (2 DI80; (3 DI60 and DI40; 20, 40 and 60% deficit irrigation compared to Full treatment were applied, respectively. Soil salinity was assessed using the isosalinity maps constructed with grid soil sampling of plant root zone at harvest. Results show that high spatial variability was observed in salinity along soil profiles when applying saline water with drip irrigation for potato. For the DI40 and DI60 treatments, high soil salinity was recorded in the upper soil layer close to the emitter. Increase of soil salinity within soil depths of 30 cm or below was also observed under DI60 and DI40 treatments. The lowest increase was noted under the full treatment. Surface soil salinity was somewhat higher under DI60 and DI40 compared with that of full and DI80 irrigation treatments. The distribution of salts around the dripper changes during the crop season according to applied irrigation treatments, with overall higher concentrations between the drippers and towards the margin of wetted band. Iso-salinity maps at harvest of potato showed that the surface layer of 30 cm depth had the lowest salinity which gradually increased at deeper zones irrespective of the treatment. Salt accumulation essentially occurred at wetting front between the drippers and the plant row. Although salt accumulation was relatively highest along the row under DI treatments, the area of accumulation was relatively shifted toward the center between the rows and the drip line. The results also show the importance of the potato cropping season to benefit from the leaching of soluble salts with the

  9. A Review of Nutrient Management Studies Involving Finger Millet in the Semi-Arid Tropics of Asia and Africa

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    Malinda S. Thilakarathna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn is a staple food crop grown by subsistence farmers in the semi-arid tropics of South Asia and Africa. It remains highly valued by traditional farmers as it is nutritious, drought tolerant, short duration, and requires low inputs. Its continued propagation may help vulnerable farmers mitigate climate change. Unfortunately, the land area cultivated with this crop has decreased, displaced by maize and rice. Reversing this trend will involve achieving higher yields, including through improvements in crop nutrition. The objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the literature concerning yield responses of finger millet to inorganic fertilizers (macronutrients and micronutrients, farmyard manure (FYM, green manures, organic by-products, and biofertilizers. The review also describes the impact of these inputs on soils, as well as the impact of diverse cropping systems and finger millet varieties, on nutrient responses. The review critically evaluates the benefits and challenges associated with integrated nutrient management, appreciating that most finger millet farmers are economically poor and primarily use farmyard manure. We conclude by identifying research gaps related to nutrient management in finger millet, and provide recommendations to increase the yield and sustainability of this crop as a guide for subsistence farmers.

  10. Research Millet Cultivation Technology and Value%小米的价值及种植技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志锋

    2014-01-01

    Millet is also known as corn, is one of the“the five cereals”in China. Millet has 8000 years of cultivation history, is China’s major food crops that originated in the Yellow River Basin country, millet are grown all over the world from our outgoing. Millet is rich in various nutrients needed by the body, mainly for the wine, vinegar, porridge, etc., is very popular. Are briefly described and the value of millet cultivation management.%小米也被称作粟米,是我国“五谷”之一。小米有8000多年的种植历史,是我国的主要粮食作物,起源于我国黄河流域,世界各地种植的小米都是从我国传出的。小米富含人体所需的各种营养元素,主要用于酿酒、酿醋、熬粥等,深受人们喜爱。现简要介绍小米的价值和种植管理。

  11. Effects of Dietary Proteins of Proso, Japanese and Korean Foxtail Millets on Lipid Metabolism and Type-2 Diabetes in Rats and Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyuki Nishizawa; M-R Choi; Y-Y. Choi; Y. Miyakoshi; D. Sato; T. Togawa; T. Nagasawa; Y. Ito; M Watanabe; M. Sato

    2005-01-01

    @@ Summary We examined the effects of dietary Japanese millet protein (JMP) and Korean foxtail millet protein (KFMP) on lipid metabolism and type 2 diabetes in rats and mice. When type 2 diabetic rats were fed with JMP for 20 days, plasma glucose levels lowered, whereas those of HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin rose significantly compared to the control group.

  12. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  13. Fluctuations in the spawning stock biomass and recruitment of the brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis 1977-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cergole

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southeastern coast of Brazil, catches of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis have been decreasing from more than 200 thousand tons/year in the early '70s to about 32 thousand tons in 1990. From 1994 to 1997, catches recovered slightly (118 thousand tons, dropping then to about 20 thousand tons in 1999-2000. Extensive investigations on biology and stock assessment of Brazilian sardine have been developed in the '80s, providing stock biomass and recruitment estimates based on commercial fishing data obtained from 1977-1992. The present paper aims to update biological and stock assessment parameters from sardine data obtained during two acoustic surveys carried out in 1995 and commercial catches from the 1993-1997 period. Results from both cruises showed the weight-length relationship Wt=0.0000019. Lt3,26 (90-240 mm total length and four age classes (mostly class II+. In the commercial catches, sardines belonged to ages 0+ and 3+ years old (mostly older than 1-year old with 90-250 mm total length. Annual growth parameters were: Li=275 mm, K= 0.55 (1996, and Li=273 mm, K=0.50 (1997. Total mortality (Z and natural mortality (M coefficients were: Z= 3.8; M= 0.7 -1.2 (1996, and Z= 3.6; M= 0.6 - 1.1 (1997. The variation amplitude of M is due to the application of several different methods. Considering the historical series of 21 years of data (1977-1997, results showed that the stock went through two favorable periods (1980-84, 1989-94 and one unfavorable period (1985-89. 1997 seems to have been the beginning of a new unfavorable period, revealing recruitment cycles likewise other stocks from California and Japan.Na costa sudeste do Brasil, as capturas da sardinha-verdadeira {Sardinella brasliensis decresceram de mais de 200 mil t/ano no início dos anos 70 para cerca de 32 mil t em 1990. De 1994 a 1997, as capturas se recuperaram alcançando 118 mil t, caindo então para cerca de 20 mil t em 1999-2000. Estudos abrangentes sobre a

  14. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations.

  15. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog;

    2011-01-01

    the shade of six randomly selected Parkia biglobosa trees during one season in south-central Burkina Faso. The area under the canopy of each tree was divided into four main plots according to cardinal directions, and sub-divided into three concentric zones. Control plots were established outside the tree...

  16. Cereal domestication and evolution of branching : Evidence for soft selection in the Tb1 orthologue of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Lakis, Ghayas; Rekima, Samah; Leveugle, Magalie; Fontaine, Michaël C; Langin, Thierry; Sarr, Aboubakry; Robert, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these tar

  17. Weeding method and pre-sowing tillage effects on weed growth and pearl millet yield in a sandy soil of the West African Sahelian zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, M.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Weed control for the West African Sahel rainfed crops is done mainly manually, resulting in high labor requirements. Because of the seasonality of rainfed farming, weed control is often late and incomplete, resulting in considerable losses in crop yield. We examined the case of weed control in conti

  18. Efficient in vitro plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldach, KH

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available ) and various cytokinins; (2) the addition of AgNO3; (3) the use of maltose or sucrose as a carbon source. Modifications in the phytohormones alone resulted in the regeneration of fertile sorghum plants at high efficiency. Significant increases...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MILLET AND SORGHUM FLOUR POLYPHENOLS FROM NORTHERN IVORY COAST: CAPACITIES AT PROTECTING LDL AGAINST OXIDATION MEDIATED BY CU2+ AND AAPH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctar CISSE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Millet and sorghum, the more used food in the northern of Ivory Coast are known for their polyphenol contents. In this study, total phenolic contents from white and red sorghums and millet were determined. The aim of this study was to analyze their antioxidant capacity to protect LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+ / AAPHcompared to red wine and olives oil wastewater. Red sorghum which had about 3 times higher phenolic compounds than white sorghum and millet, showed a specific antioxidant activity (SAA of 168 while white sorghum and millet had a SAA respectively of 97 and 66. In a compared study, we found that red sorghum protection is 6 times higher 46 min than red wine 6.85 min and olives oil wastewater 7.15 min. Sorghum and millet, from its phenolic compounds has a good potential as natural food to prevent the oxidation of LDL therefore to play an antiartherosclerotic role in pathophysiological conditions.

  20. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  1. Women in History--Pearl Buck: An Advocate for Women and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Pearl Buck, an advocate for women's rights and minority children, an author of Chinese history, and a pioneer in many ways. Buck established the Welcome House in 1949 in order to help unadoptable children find families (Conn, 1996). In 1964, Buck founded the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, now Pearl S. Buck International, which…

  2. Women in History--Pearl Buck: An Advocate for Women and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Pearl Buck, an advocate for women's rights and minority children, an author of Chinese history, and a pioneer in many ways. Buck established the Welcome House in 1949 in order to help unadoptable children find families (Conn, 1996). In 1964, Buck founded the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, now Pearl S. Buck International, which…

  3. 3 CFR 8463 - Proclamation 8463 of December 4, 2009. National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009 8463 Proclamation 8463 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8463 of December 4, 2009 Proc. 8463 National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2009By the President of... by the Imperial Japanese on Pearl Harbor was an attempt to break the American will and destroy...

  4. Effect of germination on the structures and physicochemical properties of starches from brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Baik, Hyun-Wook; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2017-07-22

    Four selected grains (brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet) were subjected to germinate and changes in granule morphology, molecular structure, crystalline structure, and physicochemical properties of isolated starch were investigated. The germinated starches showed pits and holes on the surface of the starch granules and the particle size distributions shifted slightly to smaller size as the germination time increased. Germination led to decrease in amylose content, while molecular weights of the germinated starches showed no significant changes. The relative crystallinity of all selected grain starches decreased significantly during germination. Compared to the native starches, the germinated starches had lower retrogradation enthalpy. Brown rice and oat starches exhibited marginal increases in peak viscosities, whereas those of sorghum and millet starches decreased significantly during germination. Amylose leaching of brown rice and oat starches decreased after germination, whereas sorghum and millet starches showed an increase in amylose leaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Des millets aux nations From millets to nations: the construction of national identities in the novel You too, are you Greek? by Vassilios Christopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pitsos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur de ce roman construit son intrigue sur l’histoire de plusieurs familles d’une part au moment de l’effondrement d’un monde, celui des millets de l’Empire ottoman fondé sur le principe de l’identification des individus en fonction de leurs croyances religieuses et, d’autre part, lors de la mise en place d’une nouvelle organisation politique, celle des États-nations obsédés par l’idée de la définition de l’individu sur la base de critères nationaux. L'exemple narratif dominant est celui du passage du millet des Roums à la nation des Grecs. Il s’agit d’un roman polyphonique quant à l’expression d’expériences traumatisantes issues de politiques de nettoyage ethnique et culturel, menées par les différentes parties impliquées dans les événements qui agitent l’Empire ottoman à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle. Dans ce sens, l’écriture de ce roman s’oppose aux lectures exclusivistes de l’événement historique, largement diffusées par les mythologies nationales balkaniques visant à exalter les souffrances de nos compatriotes et de nos coreligionnaires, tout en effaçant ou occultant les destins tragiques des Autres.The author of this novel puts in plot the history of various families, at the moment of the fall from one hand, of an entire world, this of ottoman empire’s millets, based on the principle of individual identification following their religious beliefs and during the establishment on the other hand, of a new political organization, this of State-Nations, obsessed by the idea of individual definition on the basis of national criteria. The predominant narrative paradigm is this of the Roum millet transition towards the Greeks' nation. It is about a polyphonic novel, regarding to the expression of traumatic experiences issued by the ethnic and cultural cleansing policies, conducted by the different actors implicated in the events which stirred up trouble in the ottoman

  6. The mining of pearl formation genes in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Nomura, Naoko; Riho, Chihiro; Maeyama, Kaoru; Nagai, Kiyohito; Watabe, Shugo

    2012-04-01

    Recent researches revealed the regional preference of biomineralization gene transcription in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata: it transcribed mainly the genes responsible for nacre secretion in mantle pallial, whereas the ones regulating calcite shells expressed in mantle edge. This study took use of this character and constructed the forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries. A total of 669 cDNA clones were sequenced and 360 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) greater than 100 bp were generated. Functional annotation associated 95 ESTs with specific functions, and 79 among them were identified from P. fucata at the first time. In the forward SSH cDNA library, it recognized mass amount of nacre protein genes, biomineralization genes dominantly expressed in the mantle pallial, calcium-ion-binding genes, and other biomineralization-related genes important for pearl formation. Real-time PCR showed that all the examined genes were distributed in oyster mantle tissues with a consistence to the SSH design. The detection of their RNA transcripts in pearl sac confirmed that the identified genes were certainly involved in pearl formation. Therefore, the data from this work will initiate a new round of pearl formation gene study and shed new insights into molluscan biomineralization.

  7. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha(-1) reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha(-1) and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha(-1) (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha(-1). With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha(-1,) Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21.

  8. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  9. Water pollution remote sensing for Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruru; Xiong, Shouping; Qin, Yan

    2008-10-01

    Water pollution on the Delta of Pearl River is increasingly serious and to command the fact of pollution is the key of the control. A remote sensing model for water pollution base on single scattering is deduced in this paper. To avoid the effect by turbidity of water, by analysis the characteristics of the energy composition of multiple scattering, a factor of second scattering is deduced to build a double scattering model, and the practical arithmetic for the calculation of the model is put forwarded and then used to the pollution remote sensing over the Pearl River Delta. The precision of the result is validated by the synchronous measured data on water surface. The result of remote sensing showed that all of the North River, East River and West River are polluted in Pearl River Delta, and the most serious pollution is take place around Guang Zhou City and Dong Guan City.

  10. Super-light Structures with Pearl-chain Reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2010-01-01

    of prefabricated segments of a strong material, assembled by one or more prestressing wires. By means of pearl-chain reinforcement, it becomes affordable to provide structures with a wide variety of shapes. This allows a more resource-economical design, because it removes practical hindrances for application...... of compression zones with optimal curved shapes. Some benefits of SLS with pearl-chains are: considerable savings on materials, energy, and CO2, reduction of costs, no scaffolding, cheaper moulds, faster assembly on site, improved durability, good thermal insulation, good indoor-climate, user friendly operation...

  11. Pearling in cells: A clue to understanding cell shape

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Ziv, Roy; Moses, Elisha; Safran, Samuel A; Bershadsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Gradual disruption of the actin cytoskeleton induces a series of structural shape changes in cells leading to a transformation of cylindrical cell extensions into a periodic chain of "pearls". Quantitative measurements of the pearling instability give a square-root behavior for the wavelength as a function of drug concentration. We present a theory that explains these observations in terms of the interplay between rigidity of the submembranous actin shell and tension that is induced by boundary conditions set by adhesion points. The theory allows estimation of the rigidity and thickness of this supporting shell. The same theoretical considerations explain the shape of nonadherent edges in the general case of untreated cells.

  12. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  13. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  14. The use of UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy as an objective tool to evaluate pearl quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W

    2012-07-01

    Assessing the quality of pearls involves the use of various tools and methods, which are mainly visual and often quite subjective. Pearls are normally classified by origin and are then graded by luster, nacre thickness, surface quality, size, color and shape. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, spectroscopy measurements were performed using the Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy technique. The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral data (inputs) were smoothed to reduce the noise, fed into ANNs and correlated to the pearl's quality/grading criteria (outputs). The developed ANNs were successful in predicting pearl type, mollusk growing species, possible luster and color enhancing, donor condition/type, recipient/host color, donor color, pearl luster, pearl color, origin. The results of this study shows that the developed UV-Vis spectroscopy-ANN method could be used as a more objective method of assessing pearl quality (grading) and may become a valuable tool for the pearl grading industry.

  15. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)₈-fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  16. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, R L

    1997-10-01

    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V V; Thayumanavan, Thangavelu

    2016-08-18

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. Copyright © 2016 Nadiga et al.

  18. Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfegó, Mariona; Canivell, Silvia; Hanzu, Felicia A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Martínez-Medina, Margarita; Murillo, Serafín; Mur, Teresa; Ruano, Elena G; Linares, Francisca; Porras, Nuria; Valladares, Silvia; Fontalba, Maria; Roura, Elena; Novials, Anna; Hernández, Cristina; Aranda, Gloria; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Simó, Rafael; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-04-18

    Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention. There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline. Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during

  19. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Pinheiro; Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-01-01

    Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Ve...

  20. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  1. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  2. Dietary Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jason; Puranik, Swati; Yadav, Rama; Manwaring, Hanna R.; Pierre, Sandra; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed toward 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention. This review aims to give an overview on the general consensus of current dietary and nutritional recommendation for diabetics. In light of such recommendation, the use of plant breeding, conventional as well as more recently developed molecular marker-based breeding and biofortification, are discussed in designing crops with desired characteristics. While there are various recommendations available, dietary choices are restricted by availability due to geo-, political-, or economical- considerations. This particularly holds true for countries such as India, where 65 million people (up from 50 million in 2010) are currently diabetic and their numbers are rising at an alarming rate. Millets are one of the most abundant crops grown in India as well as in Africa, providing a staple food source for many poorest of the poor communities in these countries. The potentials of millets as a dietary component to combat the increasing prevalence of global diabetes are highlighted in this review. PMID:27729921

  3. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  4. DNA Transfer from Wild Millet to Common Wheat by Asymmetric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGAi-Xia; XIAGuang-Min; CHENHui-Min

    2004-01-01

    Following differing periods of long-term subculture and selection, two types of calli of the same wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinan 177) were obtained. The one (named Cha 9) grew fast and easily formed cell suspensions that were non-regenerable, but the protoplasts possessed a high division capacity. The other (named 176) was regenerable, but the derived protoplasts grew slowly. Fusion combination between either Cha 9 or 176 protoplasts and UV-treated wild millet (SetaHa italica L. Beaur.) protoplasts failed to produce regenerated green plants. However, when the two types of wheat protoplasts were mixed together as recipient and fused with wild millet, green plants were obtained. The hybrid nature of regener-ated calli and plants was confirmed by the analysis of cytological, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequences and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The chloroplast genomes of hybrids were analyzed with several wheat-specific chloroplast microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) primers. A hybrid clone carrying recipient DNA of Cha 9 and 176, as well as both nuclear and chloroplast donor DNA had a high regeneration capacity and produced more vigorous green plants than did the other clones.

  5. Dietary interventions for type 2 diabetes: How millet comes to help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed towards 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention. This review aims to give an overview on the general consensus of current dietary and nutritional recommendation for diabetics. In light of such recommendation, the use of plant breeding, conventional as well as more recently developed molecular marker-based breeding and biofortification, are discussed in designing crops with desired characteristics. While there are various recommendations available, dietary choices are restricted by availability due to geo-, political- or economical- considerations. This particularly holds true for countries such as India, where 65 million people (up from 50 million in 2010 are currently diabetic and their numbers are rising at an alarming rate. Millets are one of the most abundant crops grown in India as well as in Africa, providing a staple food source for many poorest of the poor communities in these countries. The potentials of millets as a dietary component to combat the increasing prevalence of global diabetes are highlighted in this review.

  6. [cDNA library construction from panicle meristem of finger millet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, V; Pirko, Ia V; Isaenkov, S V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    The protocol for production of full-size cDNA using SuperScript Full-Length cDNA Library Construction Kit II (Invitrogen) was tested and high quality cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) was created. The titer of obtained cDNA library comprised 3.01 x 10(5) CFU/ml in avarage. In average the length of cDNA insertion consisted about 1070 base pairs, the effectivity of cDNA fragment insertions--99.5%. The selective sequencing of cDNA clones from created library was performed. The sequences of cDNA clones were identified with usage of BLAST-search. The results of cDNA library analysis and selective sequencing represents prove good functionality and full length character of inserted cDNA clones. Obtained cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle represents good and valuable source for isolation and identification of key genes regulating metabolism and meristematic development and for mining of new molecular markers to conduct out high quality genetic investigations and molecular breeding as well.

  7. Glycemic index and quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) flakes with enhanced shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kavita B; Chimmad, Bharati V; Itagi, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Little millet is a minor cereal crop contains several nutraceutical components. Ready To Cook (RTC) flakes of the millet exhibited higher total dietary fiber content (22.40 %) compared to dehulled grain (15.80 %). One serving (30 g) of RTC flakes provided 2.25 g of protein, 0.13 g of fat, 0.13 g of total minerals, 9.67 mg of iron and zero trans fats. The flakes possessed a medium Glycemic Index (GI) of 52.11 ranging from 41.57 to 61.80 among normal volunteers. Glycemic Load (GL) of the flakes was a low of 9.24. The RTC flakes exhibited an acceptability index of 81.11. The flakes possessed a shelf life of more than 6 months with an acceptability index of 67.55, moisture content of 11.82 per cent and Free fatty acid content of 18.02 per cent at the end of sixth month of storage period.

  8. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach.

  9. The Effect of Vegetation Productivity on Millet Prices in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.E. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 923, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pinzon, J.E. [Science Systems and Applications Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 923, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Prince, S.D. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses have used both food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite-derived vegetation indices that measure vegetation production to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these two food security indicators is explored here using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used: 8 km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) carried on the NOAA series of satellites, and monthly millet prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results show that the growing season vegetation production is related to the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall, it resulted in higher prices, and well-distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. The correspondence between vegetation production and millet prices is used to produce maps of millet prices for West Africa.

  10. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  11. 16 CFR 23.21 - Misrepresentation as to cultured pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation as to cultured pearls. 23.21 Section 23.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.21 Misrepresentation as to cultured...

  12. Morphological change in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Xu, Y.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.; Zheng, J.; Chen, X.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) have been investigated using bathymetric charts, underwater Digital Elevation Models, remote sensing data and Geographic Information Systems. Water depths were extracted from digitized charts to explore the accretion–erosion characteristics of thr

  13. The Diabetes Pearl : Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Riet, Esther; Schram, Miranda T.; Abbink, Evertine J.; Admiraal, Wanda M.; Dijk-Schaap, Marja W.; Holleman, Frits; Nijpels, Giel; Ozcan, Behiye; Pijl, Hanno; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Silvius, Bianca; Tack, Cees J.; de Valk, Harold W.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geographical areas

  14. The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van't Riet, E.; Schram, M.T.; Abbink, E.J.; Admiraal, W.M.; Dijk-Schaap, M.W.; Holleman, F.; Nijpels, G.; Ozcan, B.; Pijl, H.; Schaper, N.C.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Silvius, B.; Tack, C.J.J.; Valk, H.W. de; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geograph

  15. The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van 't Riet (Esther); M.T. Schram (Miranda); E.J. Abbink (Evertine); W.M. Admiraal (Wanda); M.W. Dijk-Schaap (Marja); F. Holleman (Frits); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); B. Özcan (Behiye); H. Pijl (Hanno); N. Schaper; E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); B. Silvius (Bianca); C.J. Tack (Cees); H.W. de Valk (Harold); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geogra

  16. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Collection of pearl oyster seed using artificial collectors is a critical step in the production of cultured ... settled on spat collectors set to collect Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin seed in shallow ... experiments conducted in Kenya between 2002 and. 2005. ..... the macrofauna and the bivalves follow a similar.

  17. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  18. The Government Role in Pan-Pearl River Delta Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiFan; LuRucai

    2004-01-01

    THE Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD) Regional Cooperation development strategy has received the central government and relevant State Council departments' immediate attention. As regional cooperation operates under a market system, the governmental role is service-oriented, while enterprises have more decision making power.

  19. Raymond Pearl and the shaping of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-02-01

    Raymond Pearl (1879-1940) was a significant figure in the field of biology. He founded the journal Human Biology and almost single-handedly promoted and established the scientific discipline of human biology. His scientific versatility was one of his most important features during the first four decades of the 20th century, and he played a major role in developing the fields of biodemography, human population biology, human life-cycle and life span approaches, fertility, growth, the biology of longevity and senescence, and mortality. He was one of the earliest biologists to combine biometric analyses and experimental studies to explore the dimensions of human biology. Pearl also was broadly educated in the arts, music, literature, history, the classics, and science. His writing was sophisticated and often witty, and his views were sometimes provocative and controversial. His network of colleagues and friends among the literary and science worlds was substantial. The following biographical memoir of Raymond Pearl is designed to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the founding of his journal Human Biology and is a tribute to this great scientist. Pearl's sudden death at age 61 truncated a scientific career that was one of the most productive of the 20th century.

  20. Assembly and lifting of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Viebæk, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Pearl-Chain arches were invented at the Technical University of Denmark in cooporation with the company Abeo A/S. The system uses specially designed, pre-fabricated concrete elements that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape, which is then lifted into place. The arches can be used both...

  1. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    , pre-fabricated, composite, lightweight, concrete deck elements (SL-Decks), that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape. The two Pearl-Chain arches, each with a span of 13m and a rise of 1m, were placed on a post tensioned bearing plate prepared in advance. The aches are tested with load...

  2. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  3. The effect of combined traditional and novel treatments on oxidative status of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) muscle lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Montero, Pilar

    2014-09-01

    Fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with beneficial effects on human health; however, these lipids are very sensitive to auto-oxidation reactions, leading to loss of nutritional and sensory quality. The effect of traditional (brining, smoking) and novel (addition of polyphenolic extracts, high pressure) preservation processes on the antioxidant/oxidative status of muscle lipids from dolphinfish and sardine was studied. Brining with oregano or rosemary aqueous extracts, as well as smoking, gave rise to deposition of phenolic compounds (9-42, 1.5-4.5 and 0.4-2.3 µg phenol/g for smoked, oregano-brined and rosemary-brined samples, respectively) in the muscle of both fish species. The antioxidant activity, as measured by ferric reducing ability, was also improved after brining with antioxidant extracts or smoking, results ranging from 8.9 to 82 mM FeSO4 · 7H2O equivalents/mg muscle depending on the treatment and the fish species. Consequently, fish lipid oxidation (as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) derived from brining and pressurizing, applied alone or in combination, was reduced between 6.6 and 69.8% depending on the treatment and the fish species. The combination of brining with oregano extract and light smoking showed an additional antioxidant effect, as compared with that obtained by smoking, on reducing sardine lipid oxidation derived from brining and pressurizing.

  4. Preparation of triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil using a Rhizomucor miehei lipase: focus in the EPA/DHA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bernardino, Raul J; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2014-02-01

    The increasing evidence on the differential biochemical effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) raises the need of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid concentrates with different amounts of these fatty acids. In the present work, physicochemical and enzymatic techniques were combined to obtain acylglycerols, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), rich in n-3 fatty acids. Sardine oil was obtained by washing sardine (Sardina pilchardus) mince with a NaHCO3 solution, hydrolyzed in a KOH-ethanol solution, and concentrated with urea. The esterification reaction was performed in the stoichiometric proportion of substrates for re-esterification to TAG, with 10 % level of Rhizomucor miehei lipase based on the weight of substrates, without any solvent, during 48 h. This procedure led to approximately 88 % of acylglycerols, where more than 66 % were TAG and the concentration of n-3 fatty acids was higher than 60 %, the EPA and DHA ratio (EPA/DHA) was 4:1. The content of DHA in the unesterifed fraction (free fatty acids) increased from 20 to 54 %, while the EPA level in the same fraction decreased from 33 to 12.5 % (EPA/DHA ratio ≈1:4). Computational methods (density functional theory calculations) have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level to explain some of the experimental results.

  5. The Use of UV-Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy as an Objective Tool to Evaluate Pearl Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the quality of pearls involves the use of various tools and methods, which are mainly visual and often quite subjective. Pearls are normally classified by origin and are then graded by luster, nacre thickness, surface quality, size, color and shape. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, spectroscopy measurements were performed using the Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy technique. The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral data (inputs) were smoothed to reduce the noise, fed into ANNs and correlated to the pearl’s quality/grading criteria (outputs). The developed ANNs were successful in predicting pearl type, mollusk growing species, possible luster and color enhancing, donor condition/type, recipient/host color, donor color, pearl luster, pearl color, origin. The results of this study shows that the developed UV-Vis spectroscopy-ANN method could be used as a more objective method of assessing pearl quality (grading) and may become a valuable tool for the pearl grading industry. PMID:22851919

  6. Doxorubicin-loaded PLA/pearl electrospun nanofibrous scaffold for drug delivery and tumor cell treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiamu; Jin, Junhong; Yang, Shenglin; Li, Guang

    2017-07-01

    A drug-loaded implantable scaffold is a promising substitute for the treatment of tissue defects after a tumor resection operation. In this work, natural pearl powder with good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity was incorporated into polylactic (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was also loaded in the PLA/pearl scaffold, resulting in a drug-loaded composite nanofibrous scaffold (DOX@PLA/pearl). In vitro drug delivery of DOX from a PLA/pearl composite scaffold was measured and in vitro anti-tumor efficacy was also examined, in particular the effect of the pearl content on both key properties were studied. The results showed that DOX was successfully loaded into PLA/pearl composite nanofibrous scaffolds with different pearl content. More importantly, the delivery rate of DOX kept rising as the pearl content increased, and the anti-tumor efficacy of the drug-loaded scaffold on HeLa cells was improved at an appropriate pearl powder concentration. Thus, we expect that the prepared DOX@PLA/pearl powder nanofibrous mat is a highly promising implantable scaffold that has great potential in postoperative cancer treatment.

  7. The Use of UV-Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy as an Objective Tool to Evaluate Pearl Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of pearls involves the use of various tools and methods, which are mainly visual and often quite subjective. Pearls are normally classified by origin and are then graded by luster, nacre thickness, surface quality, size, color and shape. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, spectroscopy measurements were performed using the Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy technique. The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral data (inputs were smoothed to reduce the noise, fed into ANNs and correlated to the pearl’s quality/grading criteria (outputs. The developed ANNs were successful in predicting pearl type, mollusk growing species, possible luster and color enhancing, donor condition/type, recipient/host color, donor color, pearl luster, pearl color, origin. The results of this study shows that the developed UV-Vis spectroscopy-ANN method could be used as a more objective method of assessing pearl quality (grading and may become a valuable tool for the pearl grading industry.

  8. Analysis on Ecological Footprint of the Urban Agglomeration in Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Yi; CHENG; Huan; BAI; Zhong-yan; PENG; Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to calculate and analyze ecological footprint of the urban agglomeration in Pearl River Delta in 2009. [Method]9 cities in Pearl River Delta as research zone, by using calculation model of the ecological footprint, ecological footprint and security of the urban agglomeration in Pearl River Delta were calculated. Current situation and sustainable development condition of the ecological environment in Pearl River Delta were conducted quantitative analysis. [Result] Except construction land and woodland, other 4 kinds of lands were all in ecological deficit states in Pearl River Delta. Especially arable land and fossil fuel land had obvious ecological deficit. [Conclusion]Biological resource consumption level and energy consumption level in Pearl River Delta were higher. We ought to take a variety of measures to reduce ecological deficit, making development manner turn toward sustainable direction.

  9. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cadmium on physiological parameters of cereal and millet plants-A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, Prem Prakash; Bhatt, Ritika; Sihag, Santosh; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-03-04

    Metal load is an abiotic stress that becomes stronger by continual industrial production, wastage, and long-range transport of contaminants. It deteriorates the conditions of agricultural soil that leads to lower growth of cereals as well as decreasing nutritional value of harvested grains. Cadmium (Cd) entry by food chain also affects the health of population. The present study is focused on finding out the superior cereal variety under increasing Cd regime. The plants were grown in increasing Cd levels (0-1000 µM) in the medium and were investigated on 15th day of the exposure. Various parameters like antioxidative enzymes and osmoprotectant levels were studied in both roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Analysis of stress tolerance mechanisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and better partitioning of Cd in roots indicated kodo millet to be more stress tolerant than wheat.

  11. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  12. Mathias Millet, Jean-Claude Croizet, L’école des incapables ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cayouette-Remblière, Joanie

    2016-01-01

    L’ouvrage de Millet et Croizet mérite de faire date en sociologie de l’éducation, tant il rend compte de la manière dont, au sein des classes, les « pédagogies invisibles », les « catégories de l’entendement professoral », les contraintes structurelles et pédagogiques, la « forme scolaire », l’injonction à l’autonomie, la psychologisation des difficultés scolaires ou encore les inégalités sociales de conditions d’existence des élèves s’articulent pour reproduire et légitimer les inégalités so...

  13. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  14. Experts and novices use the same factors--but differently--to evaluate pearl quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tani

    Full Text Available Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading and expert participants' pearl grading skill and then compare the novices' grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices' grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts' grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices' consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices' trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%. This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts.

  15. Simulations of contact angle induced pearling for sliding drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Scott; Mayo, Lisa; Moroney, Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Droplets sliding down an incline can develop a corner or a cusp at their rear, or undergo a pearling transition whereby the tail breaks up into a number of smaller satellite droplets. These phenomena have been of interest since the experimental work of. It appears that the experimental investigation of this problem is limited due to the inherent difficulty of minimising contact angle hysteresis, whereby physical or chemical heterogeneities of the substrate cause pinning and distortion of the droplet. By applying a lubrication model with a disjoining pressure term, we investigate these flows numerically in order to further shed light on how certain conditions (such as contact angle) affect the corner-cusp-pearling transition. We acknowledge support from the ARC Linkage Project LP100200476.

  16. Distribution, status and threats of the freshwater pearl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolmen D and Kleiven E. 2008. Distribution, status and threats of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Margaritiferidae in Norway. Fauna norvegica 26/27: 3-14.The distribution of Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus in Norway is mainly along the coast and in the lowland. Based on a questionnaire sent to county governors’ offices and municipal administrations in Norway, about 430 former and existing localities have been recorded, of which about 300 are still-existing. However, the real number is probably more than twice as large. Central Norway has the highest number of documented sites. The northernmost locality is at Berlevåg (Finnmark at 70°50’N lat., and the highest verified record is near Snåsa (Central Norway at 472 m a.s.l. The great majority of localities are associated with Cambro-Silurian volcano-sedimentary rocks or situated below the postglacial marine limit, i.e. in areas not too poor in calcium. The species is an early immigrant, and a landlocked population in Central Norway has probably existed since 8900 14C-yr B.P. The pearl mussel has become extinct during the past few decades at as many as 30% of its localities, mostly due to urbanisation and pollution. There is a high correlation between the density of people in a county (or the proportion of cultivated land and the “density” of extinct pearl mussel populations (r=0.91. Other threats considered were hydropower regulations, excavations and constructional work in the watercourse, fishing for pearls, acidification and natural droughts or floods. In spite of the negative trend, some large populations still exist, with local densities >100 ind. m-2 and numbers of up to 1 mill. ind. km-1 river stretch. The Norwegian stock probably consists of >300 mill. ind.

  17. Pearl necklace sign in diabetic macular edema: Evaluation and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirasagar Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 The purpose of this study was to describe significance and prevalence of the newly reported pearl necklace spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT sign, in diabetic macular edema (DMO, (2 to track the course of this sign over a period of at least 10 months. Materials and Methods: The pearl necklace SDOCT sign refers to hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the retina, recently described for the first time in 21 eyes with chronic exudative maculopathy. A retrospective analysis was performed of SDOCT images of all patients presenting to the DMO referral clinic of a tertiary eye care center, over a period of 24 months. Images of patients displaying this sign were sequentially analyzed for at least 10 months to track the course of the sign. Results: Thirty-five eyes of 267 patients (13.1% were found to display the pearl necklace sign. Twenty-eight eyes responded to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment with resolution of edema. In 21 eyes, the dots coalesced to form a clump, visible in the infrared fundus photograph as hard exudates; in seven eyes, dots disappeared without leaving visible exudates. In three eyes, the sign was seen in subfoveal cystoid spaces, with subsequent development of hard exudates, and drop in visual acuity of 20 letters or more. Conclusion: Pearl necklace SDOCT sign is not infrequent in DMO. This sign is a precursor to hard exudates in the majority of cases. If this sign is seen subfoveally, drop in visual acuity can be expected, despite treatment.

  18. Chemical Composition of Ground Pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus is a crop pest in Colombia, withspecial impact on fig, grass, rubus and tomato plants. The insect is resistant to externalinsecticide application because it produces a thick waxy shell that isolates it from theenvironment. The composition of this shell was determined by NMR and MS as atriglyceride, whose fatty acid is transformed into other products with the metamorphosis ofthe insect. Additionally, several enzymatic inhibitors were assayed to control the insectwith negative results.

  19. Building Energy Audit Report for Pearl Harbor, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy audit was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at selected Pearl Harbor buildings, identify cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the findings of that assessment.

  20. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis: II. spawning in 1970 and 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of eggs of Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, are presented for the years 1970 and 1971 and compared with that of the previous year (1969. The spawning size of three spawning seasons was calculated using Tanaka's method. Incubation time of sardine eggs was estimated using the method of Ahlstrom. During three spawning seasons a considerable change in the relative spawning size was observed. The spawning season (during spring and summer in the southern hemisphere of 1970-71 was poor when compared with those of 1969-70 and 1971-72. A slight change in the average diameter of eggs in different spawning seasons was also observed. The relation between oceanographie conditions and spawning size was analysed. It is suggested that the warm water covering the spawning ground during the 1970-71 spawning season may have caused an unsuccessful spawning in this year.O presente trabalho apresenta a distribuição e abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, na costa sul do Brasil nos anos de 1970 e 1971. Um dos principais objetivos do estudo quantitativo de ovos e larvas de peixes é estimar o tamanho do estoque, através da abundância de ovos desovados. Com essa finalidade, a computação da abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira foi feita usando o método apresentado por Tanaka (1955. O tempo de incubação dos ovos de sardinha foi estimado com base no método da Ahlstrom (1943. A quantidade de ovos desovados variou durante os tres anos (1969 a 1971. Foi feita uma comparação entre a abundância total de ovos desovados e a freqüência de ocorrência de ovos nas estações da região estudada. Os índices de abundância mostram que a desova na época de 1970-71 foi muito fraca, comparada com as de 1969-70 e de 1971-72. Para esclarecer a relação entre a variação anual de tamanho da desova e a condição ambiental, foi analisada a temperatura e salinidade da água na area de desova. Os

  1. The Effect of Osmo and Hormone Priming on Germination and Seed Reserve Utilization of Millet Seeds under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh Asadi Aghbolaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed priming with osmo and hormone priming on growth and seed reserve utilization of millet seeds under drought stress. Treatments were combinations of 4 levels of drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar and 3 levels of seed priming and control with 3 replications. Results showed that with increase in drought stress, germination components such as germination percentage, germination index, mean time to germination, normal seedling percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, weight of utilized (mobilized seed and seed reserve utilization efficiency decreased, but seed priming showed lower reduction. The highest germination characteristics and seed reserve utilization was obtained by priming in control conditions. It is concluded that priming results in improvement in germination components of millet in drought stress conditions.

  2. Antibiotics in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta and Pearl River Estuary, China: concentrations, mass loading and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihai; Yan, Wen; Li, Xiangdong; Zou, Yongde; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shichun

    2013-11-01

    Ten antibiotics belonging to three groups (macrolides, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were investigated in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China for assessing the importance of riverine runoff in the transportation of contaminants from terrestrial sources to the open ocean. All antibiotics were detected in the eight outlets with concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 127 ng L(-1). The annual mass loadings of antibiotics from the PRD to the PRE and coast were 193 tons with 102 tons from the fluoroquinolone group. It showed that antibiotics decreased from the riverine outlets to the PRE and open ocean. Risk assessment showed that most of these antibiotics showed various ecological risks to the relevant aquatic organisms, in which ofloxacin (OFL), erythromycin (ETM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) posed high ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments.

  3. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation.

  4. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  5. 小米手机战略定位分析%Strategic Positioning Analysis on Millet Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿

    2014-01-01

    小米手机的成本领先战略和差异化战略发挥了小米科技的长处,使小米以一种独特的商业模式迅速将自己推向了科技企业前列,其互联网直销模式、口碑营销、相对低水平的价位、随意更换系统等差异化的用户体验等都是小米手机取得成功的关键。若想获得长期竞争优势,小米手机还需要对其成本领先和差异化战略进行微调,以达到可持续的认可和发展。%The cost leadership strategy and differentiation strategy of millet mobile phone give play to the strength of millet science and technology,make the millet rapidly to the forefront in science and technology enterprises in a unique business model,its differentiation user experience such as Internet direct sales model,word of mouth marketing,relatively low price, random replacement system,etc is the key to success of millet mobile phone. To gain long-term competitive advantage,mil-let mobile phone also needed to fine -tune its cost leadership and differentiation strategy, in order to achieve sustainable recognition and development.

  6. 16 CFR 23.20 - Misuse of terms such as “cultured pearl,” “seed pearl,” “Oriental pearl,” “natura,” “kultured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.20 Misuse of terms such as “cultured... inhabiting the Persian Gulf and recognized in the jewelry trade as Oriental pearls. (d) It is unfair...

  7. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  9. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  10. Evaluation of Eleven Macro and Micro Elements Present in Various Hybrids of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. Americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadir Shar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-451 and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e.zinc (50mg/kg, manganese (8mg/kg, and copper (8mg/kg was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83720 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-7704, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83720 in the edible part of millet plants (grains cultivars respectively.

  11. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction AGENCY... Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, and which could be needed at other times as well. This proposed revision... (but is not limited to) the navigation safety situation created by reconstruction of the Pearl...

  12. Increasing dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus export by the Pearl River (Zhujiang)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Li, Lili; Luan, Shengji; Wang, Huanzhi; Yang, Shunshun; Zhang, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    The Pearl River (Zhujiang in Chinese) has been exporting excess of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), causing eutrophication in the coastal waters of southern China for decades. However, sources of these nutrients and their locations are not well studied for the Pearl River basin. As a consequence,

  13. Pearl and Ronda: Revaluing Mothers' Literate Lives to Imagine New Relationships between Homes and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Norton-Meier, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Stories about Pearl Bright and Ronda Thompson (pseudonyms), two mothers whose literacy lives offered possibilities for new relationships with their children's elementary school, are recounted in this article. Negative personal schooling histories and lack of academic successes kept Pearl from trusting the educational system and motivated Ronda to…

  14. Pearl Harbor--A Study in the Application of the Principles of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    University Press, 1962. Articles and Periodicals 9. Barnhart, Michael A. "Planning the Pearl Harbor Attack: A Study in Military Politics," Aerospace Historian...15. Taussig , Joseph K. Jr. "I Remember Pearl Harbor." United States Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 98, No. 12 (December 1972): pp. 18-24. 16. "The

  15. Water vapor transport in the Pearl River basin and its influence on NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yin-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using NECP/NCAR monthly average data and 216 months average monthly precipitation data of the University of Delaware during 1982-1999. Analyzed the precipitation vapour transport process affects precipitation in the Pearl River Basin in different seasons. On this basis, the seasonal differences NDVI changes in climate-driven factors in the Pearl River Basin.

  16. Molecular modeling of membrane tube pearling and the effect of nanoparticle adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongtao; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang

    2014-06-14

    The shape transformation of membrane tubes, also known as pearling, is thought to play an important role in a variety of cellular activities, like intracellular transport. Despite considerable experiments have investigating this phenomenon, the detailed molecular mechanism as well as how environmental factors affect the tube pearling instability is still ambiguous. In this work, we use computer simulation techniques to obtain a molecular-level insight into the tube pearling process. We find that the tube morphology is strongly determined by the water pressure inside membrane tubes. For example, the tube shrinkage and subsequent bending is observed when we decrease the inner water pressure. Contrarily, as we increase the inner water pressure, the tube pearling tends to occur in order to reduce the surface energy. Besides, our simulations show that the membrane tube pearling is regulated by the adsorption of nanoparticles (NPs) in two competing ways. One is that the NP adsorption can exert an additional membrane tension and thus promote the pearling and subsequent division of membrane tubes. On the other hand, the NP adsorption can locally rigidify the membrane and thus contrarily restrain the tube pearling. Therefore, the NP size, NP concentration and NP-membrane adhesion strength will collectively regulate the tube pearling process.

  17. Congress Investigates: Pearl Harbor and 9/11 Congressional Hearing Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…

  18. Reflections on Development Strategy of Pearl River Delta: In Comparison with Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. A comparison between Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta 1.1 Basic conditions 1.1.1 Location, area and scope Located in the southeast of Guangdong Province, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an economic zone is a compound delta

  19. Millet seeds mixed with phosphate fertilizers Sementes de milheto misturadas com fertilizantes fosfatados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The small size of millet seeds is the main cause for lack of uniformity at sowing, especially because most farmers do not have appropriate seeders. Mixing seeds and phosphate fertilizers would improve seeding, resulting in a better crop stand. To study the effects of such mixture on the physiological quality of seeds, millet seeds were mixed with single superphosphate or triple superphosphate (1 kg of seeds: 2.5 kg of fertilizer, and stored in plastic bags for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours before sowing, under laboratory conditions. After storage, seeds were separated and their moisture and electrical conductivity were determined. Seeds were then submitted to germination test under laboratory conditions. Seeds mixed with fertilizer and non-mixed seeds, utilized as a control, were sown under greenhouse conditions and the percentage of emergence and seedling emergence speed were determined. Because of acidic residues, the single and triple superphosphates negatively affected the germination and vigor of millet seeds proportionally to the increase in time of contact with the fertilizer.O tamanho reduzido das sementes de milheto dificulta sua semeadura uniforme, principalmente para os produtores que não possuem semeadoras apropriadas. Assim, a mistura das sementes com os fertilizantes fosfatados vem sendo utilizada para facilitar a semeadura. Entretanto, o período de contato pode provocar prejuízos na germinação e no vigor. Avaliou-se a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milheto submetidas a diferentes períodos de contato (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120h com os fertilizantes superfosfato simples (SFS e superfosfato triplo (SFT, em um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 8x2 (n=4. Os atributos químicos e físicos dos fertilizantes foram previamente determinados. Foi utilizada a proporção de 1 kg de sementes para 2,5 kg de fertilizante. Após manutenção da mistura em saco plástico no laborat

  20. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  1. Pearl formation: persistence of the graft during the entire process of biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud-Haond, S; Goyard, E; Vonau, V; Herbaut, C; Prou, J; Saulnier, D

    2007-01-01

    Most bivalves species of the genus Pinctada are well known throughout the world for production of white or black pearls of high commercial value. For cultured pearl production, a mantle allograft from a donor is implanted into the gonad of a recipient oyster, together with a small inorganic bead. Because of the dedifferentiation of cells during the first steps of the host oyster's immunological reaction, so far the fate of the graft and its exact role in the process of pearl formation could not be determined via classical histological methods. Here we report the first molecular evidence of the resilience of the graft in the recipient organism by showing that cells containing genome from the donor are still present at the end of pearl formation. These results suggest the existence of a unique biological cooperation leading to the successful biomineralization process of nacreous secretion in pearl formation.

  2. Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Proso Millet Starch%糜黍淀粉理化性质及消化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 冀佩双; 罗旭枭; 穆虹彰; 秦雁鹏; 牛宇; 乔志军

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet starch were prepared from glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet flour by an alkaline method and theirgranule morphology, infrared spectral characteristics, transmittance, solubility, water-holding capacity, retrogradation stability and digestibility were explored. The results showed that the amylopectin content was 91.78% and amylose content was 8.21% in glutinous proso millet starch. The amylopectin content was 65.28% and amylose content was 34.72% in nonglutinous proso millet starch. The contents of resistant starch in nonglutinous proso millet flour and starch were higher than those in nonglutinous proso millet flour and starch, and all four values were over 50%. Glutinous proso millet starch showed better transparency and weaker retrogradation stability than did nonglutinous proso millet starch. Water-holding capacity and solubility of both glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet starch showed an upward trend with increasing temperature.%以黍子面和糜子面为原料,用碱法制备黍子淀粉和糜子淀粉,对其颗粒形态、红外光谱特性、透光率、溶解度、持水力、凝沉稳定性以及消化性等性质进行研究。结果表明:黍子淀粉中支链淀粉含量为91.78%,直链淀粉含量为8.21%;糜子淀粉中支链淀粉含量为65.28%,直链淀粉含量为34.72%。糜子面粉、黍子面粉及其淀粉中的抗性淀粉含量均超过50%,糜子面和糜子淀粉中的抗性淀粉含量均分别高于黍子面和黍子淀粉。黍子淀粉的透光率高于糜子淀粉。糜子淀粉凝沉稳定性强于黍子淀粉。糜子淀粉和黍子淀粉的溶解度、持水力随温度的升高,呈现上升趋势。

  3. Effect of urea treatment on the nutritive value of local sorghum and millet straw: a comparative study on growing performance of Djallonke rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kanwe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two tons of and chopped millet and sorghum straws have been treated with an urea solution at 5% (100 kg of straw, sprinkled with 50 lt. of solution. Treated straws were used as basic diet (900 g day associated to 100 g of cotton cake for 24 growing Djallonke rams in comparison to non treated straws. Four groups of animals were fed for 98 days with: urea treated sorghum (UTSS, not treated sorghum straw (NTSS, treated millet (UTMS, non treated millet straw (NTMS. Treated straws presented an increase of NDF of about 9%, of total nitrogen from 2 to 3 times while digestibility of dry matter increased respectively by 8,8% and 23,0% respectively in treated sorghum and millet. Also dry matter intake increased by 4,5% and 15,5% for treated sorghum and millet respectively compared to non treated. Mean weekly weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.05 for UTSS e UTMS compared to NTSS e NTMS. While the weekly weight gain, did not differed between UTSS vs. UTMS and NTSS vs. NTMS. At the end of the trial the UTSS and UTMS group presented a weight gain of about 40% and 38.7%, of their initial weight; while the gain for both NTSS and NTMS was respectively of 31.1% and 29.5%.

  4. Soil Management Practices to Improve Nutrient-use Efficiencies and Reduce Risk in Millet-based Cropping Systems in the Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koala, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility and moisture deficit are among the main constraints to sustainable crop yields in the Sahel. A study therefore, was conducted at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center, Sadore in Niger to test the hypothesis that integrated soil husbandry practices consisting of manure, fertilizer and crop residues in rotational cropping systems use organic and mineral fertilizes efficiently, thereby resulting in higher yields and reduced risk. Results from an analysis of variance showed that choice of cropping systems explained more than 50% of overall variability in millet and cowpea grain yields. Among the cropping systems, rotation gave higher yields than sole crop and intercropping systems and increased millet yield by 46% without fertilizer. Rainfall-use efficiency and partial factor productivity of fertilizer were similarly higher in rotations than in millet monoculture system. Returns from cowpea grown in cowpea-millet rotation without fertilizer and the medium rates of fertilizers (4 kg P.ha-1 + 15 kg N.ha-1 were found to be most profitable in terms of high returns and low risk, principally because of a higher price of cowpea than millet. The study recommends crop diversification, either in the form of rotations or relay intercropping systems for the Sahel as an insurance against total crop failure.

  5. It Could Be a Pearl to You: Exploring Recruitment and Retention of the Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS) With Hard-to-Reach Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Hammerback, Kristen; Snowden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We partnered with 3 social service organizations to identify hard-to-reach populations, barriers to reach, and strategies for improving recruitment and retention for Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS), a home-based depression-care management program for elders. We conducted semistructured interviews with staff and former PEARLS participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Veterans, African Americans, Filipino men, other immigrants and English-language learners, old-older adults, rural communities, and people with limited education were identified as hard to reach. The themes of trust, cultural appropriateness, meet them where they are, and framing and reframing, cut across barriers to participation in PEARLS and approaches for overcoming these barriers. Research findings will be used to inform technical assistance activities with PEARLS providers, changes to PEARLS program and training materials, and future PEARLS research activities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Super-light concrete with pearl-chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    half that of similar structures in concrete and steel. They are heat-insulating, fire-resistant and they open up the possibility for large spans and the creation of advanced shapes. Fields of application include roofs, shells, beams, columns, walls, façades, offshore structures, tunnels and structures...... the applicability and to reveal any potential hidden problems. Continuing research will aim to reduce the weight and thereby the resource consumption further. In addition, the paper introduces pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a new principle for creating compression and tension zones. A small number of simple...

  7. Employed Farmers in the Pearl River Delta and Related Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As a special weak group in agricultural floating population,employed farmers make special historic contribution to socio-economic development of the Pearl River Delta.However,employed farmers are faced with survival difficulties,which lead to a series of social issues.From historical origin,current situations and social issues,we put forward countermeasures to solve problems of employed farmers:solve the household registration of employed farmers;raise the compensation standard of land expropriation and demolition;cancel the admission threshold;provide reemployment guidance;and establish management funds of employed farmers.

  8. Cultural diversity in nursing education: perils, pitfalls, and pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-05-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence.

  9. EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PEARL RIVER MOUTH BASIN UPSURGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Changmin

    1997-01-01

    @@ Exploration and development in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the northern South China Sea is rising.Petroleum contracts with foreign oil companies have been signed for five block, i.e. block 15/23 (with Shell China Petroleum Development B.V.), block 15/26 and 15/35 (with Cairn Energy PLC), block 15/34 (with Santa Fe Energy Resources, inc.) and block 27/11 (with Kerr-McGee Corp.). The oil output has been increasing by million tons each year with a yield of 11.83 million tons in 1996.

  10. Experimental program on debris reflooding (PEARL) results on prelude facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, G.; Garcin, T.; Eymery, S.; March, P.; Fichot, F., E-mail: georges.repetto@irsn.fr, E-mail: thierry.garcin@irsn.fr, E-mail: philippe.march@irsn.fr, E-mail: stephane.eymery@irsn.fr, E-mail: florian.fichot@irsn.fr [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France)

    2011-07-01

    The “Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire” is developing simulation tools to be used in the safety studies, for the optimization of the Severe Accident Management strategy and to assess the probabilities to stop the progress of In-vessel core degradation in a Nuclear Power Plant. The objective of the experimental program PEARL is to extend the validation of debris reflooding models in 2D and 3D situations. The aim is to predict the consequences of the water reflooding of a severely damaged reactor core where a significant part of the core has collapsed and formed a debris bed. (author)

  11. Reticulate evolution in Panicum (Poaceae): the origin of tetraploid broomcorn millet, P. miliaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Harriet V; Badakshi, Farah; Romanova, Olga; Howe, Christopher J; Jones, Martin K; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2014-07-01

    Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) is a tetraploid cereal, which was among the first domesticated crops, but is now a minor crop despite its high water use efficiency. The ancestors of this species have not been determined; we aimed to identify likely candidates within the genus, where phylogenies are poorly resolved. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences from P. miliaceum and a range of diploid and tetraploid relatives were used to develop phylogenies of the diploid and tetraploid species. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with genomic DNA as a probe was used to characterize the genomes in the tetraploid P. miliaceum and a tetraploid accession of P. repens. In situ hybridization showed that half the chromosomes of P. miliaceum hybridized more strongly with labelled genomic DNA from P. capillare, and half with labelled DNA from P. repens. Genomic DNA probes differentiated two sets of 18 chromosomes in the tetraploid P. repens. Our phylogenetic data support the allotetraploid origin of P. miliaceum, with the maternal ancestor being P. capillare (or a close relative) and the other genome being shared with P. repens. Our P. repens accession was also an allotetraploid with two dissimilar but closely related genomes, the maternal genome being similar to P. sumatrense. Further collection of Panicum species, particularly from the Old World, is required. It is important to identify why the water-efficient P. miliaceum is now of minimal importance in agriculture, and it may be valuable to exploit the diversity in this species and its ancestors.

  12. Expression of Finger Millet EcDehydrin7 in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Venkat Raman, K; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-09-01

    One of the critical alarming constraints for agriculture is water scarcity. In the current scenario, global warming due to climate change and unpredictable rainfall, drought is going to be a master player and possess a big threat to stagnating gene pool of staple food crops. So it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that enable the plants to cope with drought stress. In this study, effort was made to prospect the role of EcDehydrin7 protein from normalized cDNA library of drought tolerance finger millet in transgenic tobacco. Biochemical and molecular analyses of T0 transgenic plants were done for stress tolerance. Leaf disc assay, seed germination test, dehydration assay, and chlorophyll estimation showed EcDehydrin7 protein directly link to drought tolerance. Northern and qRT PCR analyses shows relatively high expression of EcDehydrin7 protein compare to wild type. T0 transgenic lines EcDehydrin7(11) and EcDehydrin7(15) shows superior expression among all lines under study. In summary, all results suggest that EcDehydrin7 protein has a remarkable role in drought tolerance and may be used for sustainable crop breeding program in other food crops.

  13. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Nasiri Kokhdan, Syamak

    2015-02-05

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  14. YIELD, QUALITY AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE AS INFLUENCED BY ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS IN FINGER MILLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vajantha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake by finger millet and soil fertility status at harvest during kharif 2013 at Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle, ANGRAU. The results revealed that significantly highest grain yield (37.21 q ha-1, protein content (8.82%, N uptake (84.80 kg ha-1, P uptake (12.04 kg ha-1, No. of tillers/plant (2.5, No. of fingers/ear head (13 were recorded in inorganic treated plot when compared with organic treated plot (35.08 q ha-1 of grain yield, 8.61% of protein content,75.29 kg ha-1 of N uptake, 11.58 kg ha-1 of P uptake, 2.2 tillers/plant, 11 fingers/earhead. Organic carbon content in soil was increased in organic plot (0.02% only when compared with intial value. In both the treatments available N was reduced and available K was increased when compared with initial available N and K.

  15. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri

    2015-02-01

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  16. The Teatro Guindalera Project. An Interview with Juan Pastor MilletFernandez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª-Yolanda Fernández-Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Juan Pastor Millet was born in Alicante in 1943. He has a degree in Drama and did his training with William Layton and Arnold Taraborrelli in Laboratorio T.E.I. Till 1980 he worked as a theatre, cinema and TV actor. As an independent director he has produced plays by both Spanish and foreign contemporary authors, and also by classic ones like Calderón de la Barca, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Molière, Ibsen, Strindberg and Brecht. From 1987 till 2006 he combined his job as a director with his job as a Drama teacher at RESAD (Real Escuela Superior de Arte Dramático. In November 2003 he opened his own Studio and Theatre House in Madrid – Guindalera. From then on he devotes all his time to the family project Guindalera Escena Abierta  together with his wife Teresa Valentín-Gamazo and their daughter, the actress María Pastor. In 2009 while they were celebrating Brian Friel’s 80th anniversary staging three of his plays – El Juego de Yalta, Molly Sweeney and Bailando en Lughnasa – they were awarded the prestigious “Premio Ojo Crítico de Teatro” for their commitment to new authors and their pedagogical character.

  17. Alterações de alguns atributos físicos e das frações húmicas de um Nitossolo vermelho na sucessão milheto-soja em sistema plantio direto Changes in some physical properties and in humic fractions of a Nitosol cropped with a millet - soybean succession under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Roberto Brancalião

    2008-02-01

    ; 3 (H3 - harvest only at first flowering and removal of biomass; H4 - harvest only at first flowering and biomass maintenance, and H5 - free growth, with no harvest. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from four layers (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m to evaluate the physical properties. To quantify the humic fractions (C-HA, C-FA and C-HU, only the layers 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m were analyzed. Pearl millet dry matter yield followed the order S1 > S2 > S3. Bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity and total porosity varied according to the millet sowing date. The continuous increment of biomass with a cut at each flowering and maintenance of the soil cover resulted in the greatest increase in the less stable OM fractions (humic and fulvic acids. To obtain a better soil cover, and improve soil physical quality (low bulk density, high total porosity and higher soybean yield, millet sowing is recommended in the second and third date with harvest only after the first flowering, and always maintaining the millet residue on the soil surface.

  18. The fate of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel (Scomber scombrus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus and sardine (Sardina pilchardus in relation to prevailing currents in the Bay of Biscay: Could they affect larval survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of eggs and larvae of three pelagic species, mackerel, horse mackerel and sardine, in the Bay of Biscay was studied in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The spatial distribution was clearly different between the years studied and corresponds quite precisely to different water circulation regimes. Mackerel and horse mackerel larvae are more affected by the prevailing currents than sardine, as their spawning grounds are located offshore, far from the shelf break where the current velocities are higher. Survival rates for mackerel and horse mackerel were higher in 2001, when the offshore larval transport was stronger. However, for sardine, the mortality rate hardly varied between years. The abundance of 25-day-old larvae, considered as an index of the survival rate, appears to be a good recruitment indicator, at least for 1998, 2001 and 2004. Our results did not support the hypothesis of Bakun (1996, which states that dispersion of early life stages towards open ocean waters should cause high larval mortality. At least under the conditions observed for the years studied, the retention of larvae offshore appears to have a positive effect on larval growth and/or survival.

  19. Aragonite observed in the prismatic layer of seawater-cultured pearls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hongyan; ZHANG Beili; LEE I-S; QIN Zuolu; TONG Zhangfa; QIU Shuheng

    2007-01-01

    The prismatic layer is obviously different from the parallel layer in seawater-cultured pearls.X-ray diffraction (XRD),optical microscopy(OM)and micro-infrared(IR)spectroscopy have been applied to characterize the crystallized layers of high-and low-quality seawater-cultured pearls produced in South China.The result shows that the prismatic layer is not only composed of calcite as reported in previous researches.Three types of prisms were found in seawater-cultured pearls:calcite prism,aragonite prism and calcite and aragonite prism.Therefore,we have a new understanding of the biomineralization of the prismatic layer in seawater-cultured pearls.The result makes us review the traditional viewpoint that the increased content of aragonite improves the quality of pearls.We discovered that some seawater prismatic pearls almost completely composed of aragonite have the worst quality.We thought that the thickness and the spatial distribution of prisms are the main factors that can affect the quality of seawater-cultured pearls.

  20. Reproduction-related genes in the pearl oyster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshie; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Satoh, Nori; Awaji, Masahiko

    2013-10-01

    Molluscan reproduction has been a target of biological research because of the various reproductive strategies that have evolved in this phylum. It has also been studied for the development of fisheries technologies, particularly aquaculture. Although fundamental processes of reproduction in other phyla, such as vertebrates and arthropods, have been well studied, information on the molecular mechanisms of molluscan reproduction remains limited. The recently released draft genome of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata provides a novel and powerful platform for obtaining structural information on the genes and proteins involved in bivalve reproduction. In the present study, we analyzed the pearl oyster draft genome to screen reproduction-related genes. Analysis was mainly conducted for genes reported from other molluscs for encoding orthologs of reproduction-related proteins in other phyla. The gene search in the P. fucata gene models (version 1.1) and genome assembly (version 1.0) were performed using Genome Browser and BLAST software. The obtained gene models were then BLASTP searched against a public database to confirm the best-hit sequences. As a result, more than 40 gene models were identified with high accuracy to encode reproduction-related genes reported for P. fucata and other molluscs. These include vasa, nanos, doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors, vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, and others. The set of reproduction-related genes of P. fucata identified in the present study constitute a new tool for research on bivalve reproduction at the molecular level.

  1. Practice based research networks impacting periodontal care: PEARL Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P; Grill, Ashley; Vena, Don; Terracio, Louis; Naftolin, Frederick

    2013-05-01

    In 2005, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research /National Institutes of Health funded the largest initiative to date to affect change in the delivery of oral care. This commentary provides the background for the first study related to periodontics in a Practice Based Research Network (PBRN). It was conducted in the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research & Learning (PEARL) Network. The PEARL Network is headquartered at New York University College of Dentistry. The basic tenet of the PBRN initiative is to engage clinicians to participate in clinical studies, where they will be more likely to accept the results and to incorporate the findings into their practices. This process may reduce the translational gap that exists between new findings and the time it takes for them to be incorporated into clinical practice. The cornerstone of the PBRN studies is to conduct comparative effectiveness research studies to disseminate findings to the profession and improve care. This is particularly important because the majority of dentists practice independently. Having practitioners generate clinical data allows them to contribute in the process of knowledge development and incorporate the results in their practice to assist in closing the translational gap. With the advent of electronic health systems on the horizon, dentistry may be brought into the mainstream health care paradigm and the PBRN concept can serve as the skeletal framework for advancing the profession provided there is consensus on the terminology used.

  2. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  3. “延安小米”品牌建设思路与对策%Reflections and Strategies on the Brand Construction of"Yan′an Millet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏安; 王飞; 妙佳源; 韩芳

    2015-01-01

    谷子是延安的优势和特色农作物,“延安小米”品牌建设对促进延安谷子可持续发展具有重要意义。文章探讨了“延安小米”的产业优势和品牌价值,从农户、政府和企业三个角度阐述了“延安小米”品牌建设的现状,分析了该品牌在建设过程中存在的问题,并对“延安小米”品牌建设提出了品牌宣传、发展思路、标准化生产、科技投入、品牌形象建设和品牌维护等建议。%Foxtail millet is a superior and characteristic crop in Yan'an. The brand construction of"Yan'an Millet"has a great significance on the sustainable development of foxtail millets in Yan'an. Firstly, the industry strength and brand value of"Yan'an Millet"were discussed in the paper. Then, the present situation of "Yan'an Millet" brand construction was illustrated from the standpoints of farmers, local government and enterprises, respectively. At last, reflections and strategies on the brand construction of "Yan'an Millet" were proposed from six aspects which were brand promotion, development strategies, standardized production, science and technology input, brand-image improvement and brand maintenance.

  4. Comparative Study on Methods for Extracting Starch from Millet%小米淀粉提取方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓冬; 李颖

    2011-01-01

    The starch content of millet was 50% ~ 60%. This paper introduced starch extraction methods such as the lye, surface active agent and protease extraction method to explore the nature of the impact of different extracting methods on millet starch properties. The results showed that: The millet starch extracted by 0.2% NaOH had a lower gelatinization temperature, a harder gel and easy - to - retrogradation property, but greater solubility and swelling power, which showed that it had a damage on millet starch granules to a certain degree. The millet starch extracted by 1% enzyme had larger residues of fat and protein, denser structure, higher pasting temperature and paste viscosity, but worse solubility and swelling power. Yield of the millet starch extracted by 1% SDS was higher than that of starch extracted by 0.2% NaOH and 1% enzyme. And the starch had lower protein residue and higher pasting viscosity. Considered comprehensively, the millet starch extracted by the surfactant extraction could reflect the nature of millet starch granules better.%小米含淀粉约50%~60%.试验以小米为原料,采用碱液、表面活性剂、蛋白酶等方法提取小麦淀粉,分析提取方法对小米淀粉性质的影响.结果表明:0.2%NaOH提取的小米淀粉糊化温度较低,凝胶硬度较大,易于回生,溶解度和膨润力较大,对小米淀粉颗粒有一定程度的破坏.1%酶法提取的小米淀粉脂类和蛋白质的残留量较大,结构紧密,糊化温度和糊化黏度较高,溶解性和膨润力较差.1%SDS法提取小米淀粉的得率相对于碱法和酶法高,蛋白质残留量低,糊化黏度较高.综合考虑,表面活性剂法提取的小米淀粉能较好的反映小米淀粉颗粒的性质.

  5. Response of broomcorn millet(Panicum miliaceum L.)genotypes from semiarid regions of China to salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minxuan; Liu; Zhijun; Qiao; Shuang; Zhang; Yinyue; Wang; Ping; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of crops is becoming more and more important, owing to the constant increase of salinity in arid and semi-arid regions. Broomcorn millet(Panicum miliaceum L.),generally considered tolerant to salinity, can be an alternative crop for salt affected areas.To assess genotypic variation for vegetative-stage salinity tolerance, 195 broomcorn millet accessions from a core collection were evaluated for germination percentage, shoot length,and root length during germination in 8 m L of deionized water(control) or 8 m L of a120 mmol L-1salt solution(treatment). Six genotypes with different levels of salt tolerance were selected based on the growth parameters and ion concentrations in plant at the seedling stage and used for confirmation of the initial salinity response. Substantial variation for salinity tolerance was found on the basis of salt damage index [(germination percentage under control- germination percentage under salinity) / germination percentage under control × 100, SDI] and 39 accessions exhibited strong salt tolerance with SDI lower than 20%. The salt tolerance performance of the genotypes was generally consistent across experiments. In the seedling growth study, seedling number, root length and belowground biomass were adversely affected(showing more than 70%, 50%, and 32%reduction, respectively) in sensitive genotypes compared to tolerant genotypes(35%, 31%,and 3% reduction, respectively) under 160 mmol L-1Na Cl treatment. In general,whole-plant salinity tolerance was associated with increased Na+concentration and Na+/K+ratio, and salt-tolerant genotypes often had higher root and lower shoot Na+concentration than sensitive ones. Na+concentration in root was closely related to salt tolerance and may be considered as a selection criterion for screening salt tolerance of broomcorn millet at the seedling or vegetative stages.

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. for gene discovery and marker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which is well adapted to extreme environments such as drought, heat and salinity with an efficient C4 carbon fixation. Discovery and identification of genes involved in these processes will provide valuable information to improve the crop for meeting the challenge of global climate change. However, the lack of genetic resources and genomic information make gene discovery and molecular mechanism studies very difficult. Here, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet using Illumina sequencing technology. After sequencing, a total of 45,406,730 and 51,160,820 clean paired-end reads were obtained for two genotypes Yumi No.2 and Yumi No.3. These reads were mixed and then assembled into 113,643 unigenes, with the length ranging from 351 to 15,691 bp, of which 62,543 contings could be assigned to 315 gene ontology (GO categories. Cluster of orthologous groups and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG analyses assigned could map 15,514 unigenes into 202 KEGG pathways and 51,020 unigenes to 25 COG categories, respectively. Furthermore, 35,216 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in 27,055 unigene sequences, of which trinucleotides were the most abundant repeat unit, accounting for 66.72% of SSRs. In addition, 292 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the two genotypes, which were significantly enriched in 88 GO terms and 12 KEGG pathways. Finally, the expression patterns of 4 selected transcripts were validated through quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. Our study for the first time sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet, which not only provided a rich sequence resource for gene discovery and marker development in this important crop, but will also facilitate the further investigation of the molecular mechanism of its favored agronomic traits and beyond.

  7. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality.

  8. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  9. Cultivation Techniques of Summer Millet in Taian Area%泰安地区夏谷栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮

    2011-01-01

    总结了适合泰安地区夏谷种植的3种方式,即直播、育苗移栽、麦田套种,以期为该地区夏谷的种植提供参考。%Three cultivation methods in Taian area were overviewed,including direct-seeding,seedling and transplant,interplanting in wheat field, so as to provide reference for the cultivation of summer millet in Taian area.

  10. DISINTEGRANT EFFECT OF FINGER MILLET (ELEUSINE COROCANA STARCH ON DISSOLUTION PROFILE AND DISINTEGRATION TIME IN HIGH DOSE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Shiihii et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Starch was extracted from the grains of finger millet (Eleusine corocana, by steeping in water for 24 hours. The extracted starch was used as a disintegrant, at the concentrations of 2.5-12.5%w/w to compressed paracetamol tablet in comparism with maize starch BP. Results show that, there is no significant difference in the disintegration time or dissolution rate of tablets containing the two starches. Tablets containing Eleusine corocana met compendia requirements for disintegration time and dissolution rate. The starch is recommended as a disintegrant in tablet formulation.

  11. Whole plant acclimation responses by finger millet to low nitrogen stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Luc Goron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The small grain cereal, finger millet (FM, Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn, is valued by subsistence farmers in India and East Africa as a low-input crop. It is reported by farmers to require no added nitrogen, or only residual N, to produce grain. Exact mechanisms underlying the acclimation responses of FM to low N are largely unknown, both above and below ground. In particular, the responses of FM roots and root hairs to N or any other nutrient have not previously been reported. Given its low N requirement, FM also provides a rare opportunity to study long-term responses to N starvation in a cereal. The objective of this study was to survey the shoot and root morphometric responses of FM, including root hairs, to low N stress. Plants were grown in pails in a semi-hydroponic system on clay containing extremely low background N, supplemented with N or no N. To our surprise, plants grown without deliberately added N grew to maturity, looked relatively normal and produced healthy seed heads. Plants responded to the low N treatment by decreasing shoot, root and seed head biomass. These declines under low N were associated with decreased shoot tiller number, crown root number, total crown root length and total lateral root length, but with no consistent changes in root hair traits. Changes in tiller and crown root number appeared to coordinate the above and below ground acclimation responses to N. We discuss the remarkable ability of FM to grow to maturity without deliberately added N. The results suggest that FM should be further explored to understand this trait. Our observations are consistent with indigenous knowledge from subsistence farmers in Africa and Asia that this crop can survive extreme environments.

  12. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  13. Development of a vegetable spreadable paste made from sorghum and millet whole grain flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Aimaretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: current nutritional guidelines recommend increasing the consumption of products based on whole grain cereals since they are rich in dietary fibers and bioactive components. The technological and sensory properties of these products are still a challenge for the food industry. The aim of the study was increase the availability of whole-grain based products through the development of aspreadable vegetable paste, pâté-type, suitable for the increasing celiac population.Material and Methods: sorghum and millet whole grain flours were obtained. The rest of the ingredients were evaluated and selected according to the characteristics desired for the product. The centesimal composition of the paste as well as its sensory properties and life time were analyzed.Results: the ingredients selected were (in %: margarine (16.7, sugar (1.1, salt (1.1, ascorbic acid (2.0, calcium propionate (0.3, pregelatinized starch (2.7, soy protein (25.1 and xanthan gum (0.5. The life time was followed for 28 days across (i chemical analysis of: humid (55.5-51.3%, p-value = 0.000741, peroxide index (<0.1 meqO2/Kg acid index (4.3-6.2 mgK(OH/g; (ii microbiological counts of: clostridium, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp (absence, aerobic mesophiles, total coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and moulds and yeasts which (<100; (iii sensory evaluation (acceptable.Conclusions: a spreadable paste was obtained which was 100% vegetable with organoleptic properties similar to those of a pâté, which can be stored for a period of 28 days.

  14. Soil salinity and water productivity of carrot-millet system as influenced by irrigation regimes with saline water in arid regions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia - El Mokh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted for three years to determine the effects of irrigation regimes with saline water (3.6 dS/m on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot and millet under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot and millet were grown during fall-winter and summer seasons on a sandy soil and surface and drip-irrigated with well water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Irrigation regimes consisted in water replacements of cumulated ETc at levels of 100% (SWB100, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in SWB100 treatment is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (SWB100-DI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. The results showed that soil salinity was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Higher soil salinity was maintained in the root zone with DI-60 and farmer irrigation treatments than full irrigation (SWB100. SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Soil salinity was kept within acceptable limits for the growth of the crops grown in the rotation when SWB100, SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 strategies were employed. The rainfalls received during fall-winter and spring periods were effective in leaching salts from the soil profile. During the three year period, carrot and millet yield was highest for the SWB100 full treatment, (29.5, 28.7 and 26.8 t/ha for carrot and 27.2, 28.3 and 26.9 q/ha for millet although no significant differences were observed with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (SWB100-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 deficit irrigation treatments caused significant reductions in carrot and millet yields through a reduction in roots number and weight, panicle number, kernel number and weight in comparison with SWB100. The farmer

  15. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  16. The commercial fishing of sardines (Triportheus spp. landed in the fishery market of Porto Velho, Rondônia (1990-2004: Yield and general profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jardim de Queiroz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The profile of sardine fishing, the Triportheus species, landed at the fishing market of Porto Velho (RO between 1990 and 2004, was established by analyzing variations in the intra- and inter-annual yield as well as the length and general characteristics of the fishing. The annual production varied from 15,372 to 78,340kg (average = 33,482kg, totaling 5.46% of the overall production during the studied period. These variations can be related to the changes in the fishermen’s effort, as a reflex to searching for alternatives for fishing, or related to the level of the river, since the greatest annual yields were preceded by years of having more intense flooding. The monthly production varied from 0 to 21,456kg (average=2,876kg. Greater values of production were obtained in periods of lower hydrological levels (dry season [r(Pearson= -0.53. p<0.0001]. The average capture per fisherman/day between 2003 and 2004 was 9.27kg. Rivers were the main environment from which the captures took place, mainly from the Jamari, Machado and Novo Aripuanã rivers, that are tributaries of the Madeira River. The lengths of the fishes varied from 70 to 380mm and presented a bimodal pattern, suggesting the presence of more than one species within the captures.

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 15 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Pearl and Hermes Reef, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Pearl Hermes Reef in...

  19. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  20. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 15 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef...

  2. 75 FR 56130 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our...

  3. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef in the Northwestern...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Pearl and Hermes Reef, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Pearl Hermes Reef in...

  6. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 13 sites at Pearl and Hermes...

  8. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  9. Building a competitive Pearl River Delta region: cooperation, coordination, and planning

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Papers mainly originated from the Seminar on Building a Competitive Pearl River Delta Region: Cooperation, Coordination and planning held on 8 July 2000 at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre

  10. Reviews [Review of "Visual Arts and Older People: Developing Quality Programs" by Pearl Greenberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sally

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Pearl Greenberg's book on developing art programs for older adults. Finds it useful as reference for adult educators and those specifically involved in establishing art classes for older adults but lacking in its chapters on suggested art projects. (AEM)

  11. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  12. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    July 2014 Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay P.F. Wang K. Richter I. D. Rivera -Duarte B...Technical Report 2036 July 2014 Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay P.F. Wang...K. Richter I. D. Rivera -Duarte B. Davidson B. Wild R. Barua SSC Pacific Q. Liao University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee J. Germano Germano

  13. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of...

  14. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    in the vault. This means that the structure can sustain 4 hours standard fire. That it has a very high level of sound insulation, efficient sound damping properties, optimized production, a low production of CO2 that has already given rise to several awards, and easy transport of plane elements instead of what......Arch vaults are known as optimal and impressive structures, but due to their curved shapes they are extremely costly to produce in countries, where the cost of labor is high. By means of super-light pearl-chain technology arch vaults can be constructed from equal plane prefabricated elements, which...... are assembled on the erection site by means of post-tensioning and lifted in place in buildings and bridges. The super-light SL-deck element is developed by the company Abeo Ltd and The Technical University of Denmark for plane floor structures in buildings. However, this deck element is designed in such a way...

  15. Fenomenologia del riutilizzo: Dante in M. Pearl e S. Meredith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gelmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Partendo da alcune riflessioni di Ceserani, il saggio propone l’analisi di due recenti rielaborazioni americane del capolavoro dantesco: il romanzo The Dante club di M. Pearl e il film indipendente Dante’s inferno, di S. Meredith. In entrambe le opere si mettono in luce l’efficacia del dispositivo del contrappasso in termini diegetici e il discorso politico implicito nelle due narrazioni. Starting with some brief remarks by Cesarani, the essay focuses on two recent American re-adaptations of Dante’s masterpiece, i.e. M. Pearl’s novel The Dante club and Dante’s inferno, an independent movie by S. Meredith. In each work, the author traces the effectiveness of the pattern of contrappasso in diegetic terms, along with their implicit political narratives. 

  16. Super-light concrete with pearl-chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    half that of similar structures in concrete and steel. They are heat-insulating, fire-resistant and they open up the possibility for large spans and the creation of advanced shapes. Fields of application include roofs, shells, beams, columns, walls, façades, offshore structures, tunnels and structures......-scale applications, such as façade elements, crash barriers and secondary structures. One special small-scale application of the principle is in frame building, where super-light frames with pearl-chain-reinforced components have some of the same advantages as timber-frame structures with regard to stability, heat...... insulation, economy and simple erection processes, but without the disadvantages of fire and rot....

  17. Estimation of bed shear stresses in the pearl river estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Wu, Jia-xue

    2015-03-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  18. Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses in the Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 吴加学

    2015-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  19. Pearls on fringes. A new trace of Girolamo da Cremona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Guernelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay is dedicate to Girolamo da Cremona, one of the leading illuminators in the second half of the XV Century in North and Central Italy. Trained in the circle of Andrea Mantegna, the artist was active in several Italian cities like Ferrara, Mantua, Siena and Venice, and was one of the inventor of a new kind of manuscript’s marginal decoration, consisted in the use of pearls, jewels and cameos. Motifs that we find in the frontispiece of the Breviarium Romanorum now in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (Inc. Chig. V. 4939, printed in Venice in 1481 by Giovanni de Colonia, fellow of Nicolas Jenson. Previously unattributed, the incunabula shows the artist’s style and decorative solutions. The article also suggests that a possible source for this repertoire could be the art of Renaissance Ferrara, where it can be detect in the Muses of Belfiore.

  20. Pearls and pitfalls of ethical issues in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, M P

    2001-12-01

    The growth of bioethics as a practical, meaningful player in the arena of health care has paralleled that of clinical neurology not only in time but also in interaction between the two disciplines. Almost every advance in neurology has spawned an ethical dilemma, the unraveling of which has brought new insights to both fields of endeavor. The myriad ways in which this parallel growth has touched one clinical neurologist, the persons with whom he has been privileged to work, and those for whom they have cared is offered in reflection on the meaning of ethics, the essence of concepts such as "brain death," the pain of truth telling, the complexity of informed consent, the societal dimension of the "vegetative state," and finally, even the business of medicine. Should readers not find any pearls of wisdom in this offering, the author can at least hope it will prevent them from falling into the same pits.