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Sample records for sardinelle sardinella aurita

  1. Climate modulates the effects of Sardinella aurita fisheries off Northwest Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Corten, A.; Tjoe-Awie, P.; Coca, J.; Hamady, B.

    2008-01-01

    The fluctuating abundance of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) in Mauritanian waters over the past ca. 20 years can be related to environmental dynamics off Northwest Africa. Trends in the fishery are evaluated using FAO data, acoustic surveys, and catch statistics from the EU fleet (1996-2006).

  2. Biochemical and Functional Properties of Sardinella (Sardinella aurita By-Product Hydrolysates

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    Ali Bougatef

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 6.62, 9.31 and 10.16 were prepared from heads and viscera of sardinella (Sardinella aurita by treatment with Alcalase®. The liquid hydrolysates were spray dried. All spray dried by-product hydrolysates contained 73 to 75 % of proteins and low content of lipids. Reversed-phase HPLC profiles showed that low DH hydrolysates contained high hydrophobic peptides and the extent of hydrolysis resulted in an increase of fish hydrophilic peptides. Some functional properties of FPHs were assessed and compared with those of casein or the undigested sardinella protein. Solubility increased while emulsifying capacity and whippability decreased with the increase in the degree of hydrolysis. The product, with a DH of 10.16 %, had an excellent solubility (100 % over a pH range of 6.0–10.0. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates was also tested. All FPHs exhibited more than 50 % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The antioxidant activity of FPH with 10.16 % DH was about 73 % of that of α-tocopherol, a natural antioxidative agent.

  3. Fisheries management of round sardinella Sardinella aurita along North Sinai coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Mohamed Al-beak

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the biological and population parameters required for proposing a preparation to sustain and manage this valuable fish resource. Methods:Aging was done by scales reading, and growth was estimated by using the back-calculation method. The values of growth parameters L∞, k and to were calculated by von Bertalanffy model. Results: The results of growth parameters L∞, k and towere 28.36 cm, 0.184 per year and–0.843 7 per year, respectively. Mortality coefficient, survival and exploitation rates estimated to perceive yield per recruit and biomass per recruit. Conclusions: Biological reference points and virtual population analysis were prepared to plan appropriate managements forSardinella aurita fisheries.

  4. The link between migration, the reproductive cycle and condition of Sardinella aurita off Mauritania, north-west Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Mantingh, I.T.; Wague, A.

    2007-01-01

    The annual migration pattern of round sardinella Sardinella aurita up and down the north-western African coast between 12° N (Senegal) and 22° N (western Sahara) was shown to be associated with spawning activity and a distinct seasonality in fish condition, based on monthly sampling from commercial

  5. Insights on stock structure of round sardinella Sardinella aurita off north-west Africa based on otolith shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M; Jeyid, A M; Jaafour, S; Yahyaoui, A; Diop, M; Amara, R

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the geographic variability in otolith shape of round sardinella Sardinella aurita as a tool for stock discrimination. Fish were analysed from six sampling locations from Senegal to the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 78%. Group A: Nador (Alboran Sea), group B: Casablanca (northern Morocco) and group C: Senegalese-Mauritanian. The results of this study confirm the absence of an Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea transition for this species, the Gibraltar Strait acting as an efficient barrier for S. aurita population separation. Off north-west Africa, fish from northern Morocco form a single group which is clearly isolated from Senegalese-Mauritanian waters, confirming the existence of a distinct stock in this area. Among group C, some discontinuity exists and suggests the existence of a sedentary fraction of S. aurita in northern Mauritania (Arguin Bank). The results are discussed in relation to oceanographic features and physical barriers to dispersal and fish management strategy in the study area.

  6. Effets de deux hydrolysats de protéines de poisson (Sardina pilchardus et Sardinella aurita sur le transport inverse du cholestérol et le statut redox, chez le rat soumis à un régime enrichi en cholestérol |Effects of two fish protein hydrolysates (Sardina pilchardus and Sardinella aurita on reverse cholesterol transport and redox status, in rat fed a cholesterol-enriched diet

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    Nora Athmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies have reported that marine peptides have antioxidant effect. However, few have focused on their cholesterol-lowering effect. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sardine (Sardina pilchardus and sardinelle (Sardinella aurita protein hydrolysates on reverse cholesterol transport, and antioxidant status, in rat fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. Materials and methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats (350±15g were divided into three groups, and fed 20% casein and 1% cholesterol for 15 days. During this period, two groups received by gavage sardine protein hydrolysates (HPS or sardinelle (HPA solution. The 3rd group received water (GC. Results. Cholesterolemia was 1.7-fold lower in hydrolysates fed groups. The lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity was respectively, 1.7- and 1.6-fold higher in HPS and HPA groups. Phospholipids values of high density lipoprotein (PL-HDL were 1.4-fold lower in HPS compared with GC group. Cholesteryl esters amounts of HDL (CE-HDL were respectively, 1.7- and 1.5-fold higher in HPS and HPA groups. Liver and muscle thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were respectively reduced by 68% and 29% in HPS and 48.5% and 63.6% in HPA group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased by 32% in liver and 78% in muscle of HPA. Conclusion. It seems that HPS and HPA act favorably on reverse cholesterol transport, and improve oxidative stress, in rat fed cholesterol- enriched diet.

  7. Spatial variability of helminth parasites and evidence for stock discrimination in the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847), off the coast of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, M; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2016-05-01

    Three digeneans - Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910), Aphanurus stossichii (Monticelli, 1891) and Lecithochirium sp. - and one tetraphyllidean cestode larva were used as biological tags to discriminate the stock of Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847). In total, 579 fish were examined in five zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte and Kelibia in the north, Mahdia in the east, Gabes and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses used for the separation of S. aurita allowed for the identification of two discrete stocks. Sardinella aurita from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis clumped together as a single stock. Parahemiurus merus and A. stossichii were the most important species in determining the location of sampled fish from these regions. Specimens from Mahdia and Gabes were grouped as one stock characterized by the presence of Lecithochirium sp. and larvae of the Tetraphyllidea. These results were corroborated by comparing the parameters of prevalence and mean abundance of parasites among zones. The separation of S. aurita between localities after pooling specimens from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis and separately pooling those from Mahdia and Gabes also allowed the identification of two discrete stocks, one in offshore waters from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis characterized by the digeneans P. merus and A. stossichii and one in inshore waters from Mahdia and Gabes characterized by Lechithochirium sp. and tetraphyllidean larvae.

  8. Heavy metals content by ICP-OES in Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus from the Strait of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Furci, Patrizia; Cicero, Nicola; Pollicino, Gianmichele; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    In this study copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and vanadium content was measured in the muscles and gills of 24 fishes (Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus) caught in the Strait of Messina, by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with microwave digestion techniques. In general, it was found that arsenic was higher than other analytes in all fish species, particularly its content was much higher in S. aurita than in the other two exemplary species. Lead and cadmium were always detected with values below the legal limits (CE no. 1881/2006 and subsequent modification CE no. 629/2008).

  9. Kannibalisme onder sardinella's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantingh, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Verslag van het RIVO onderzoek in Mauritanië naar de biologie van sardinella. Om de migratiepatronen van de Sardinella aurita in de Noord-west-Afrikaanse wateren te achterhalen zijn gegevens van Nederlandse trawlers en lokale kano's gebruikt. Ook ontdekte men kannibalisme onder sardinella's

  10. Kannibalisme onder sardinella's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantingh, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Verslag van het RIVO onderzoek in Mauritanië naar de biologie van sardinella. Om de migratiepatronen van de Sardinella aurita in de Noord-west-Afrikaanse wateren te achterhalen zijn gegevens van Nederlandse trawlers en lokale kano's gebruikt. Ook ontdekte men kannibalisme onder sardinella's

  11. Structure and function of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and cornea in the eye of Sardinella aurita (Clupeidae, Teleostei

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    Mostafa Ali Salem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and the cornea in the eye of a teleost, Sardinella aurita was examined by light and electron microscopy. The retinal pigment epithelium forms a single layer of cells joined laterally by cell junctions. Centrally in the retina these cells are columnar, while more peripherally they become cuboidal in shape. The basal (scleral border of the pigment epithelial cells is not infolded but is relatively smooth. Phagosomes containing lysosome-like bodies are also common features of the retinal pigment epithelium. Numerous melanosomes (pigment granules are abundant throughout the epithelial cells. These melanosomes probably absorb light which has passed through the photoreceptor layer. Four photoreceptor cells were identified; rods, long single cones, short single cones and double cones. The presence of these types suggests a diversity of photoreceptor function. Square mosaic pattern of cones and well-developed choroid gland are also main features of the eye. The inner segment of rods and cones were rich in organelles indicating much synthetic activity. Calycal processes projecting from cone outer segments are also observed. The cornea includes an epithelium with a complex pattern of surface microplicae, a basement membrane, dermal stroma, an iridescent layer, scleral stroma, Descemet’s membrane and endothelium. The autochthonous layer which is seen in some teleosts has not been observed in the cornea of this species. These and other observations were discussed in relation to the photic environment and habits of this fish.

  12. Baja diferenciación genética entre poblaciones de sardina, Sardinella aurita, del oriente venezolano

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la gran importancia de Sardinella aurita como recurso pesquero de la región del Caribe, se estudió la diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones de Mochima, Golfo de Cariaco y Morro de Puerto Santo, en el oriente de Venezuela, y se compararon los niveles de variación y subdivisión poblacional con las poblaciones del Mediterráneo y la costa Atlántica de África, anteriormente reportadas. Para esto, se obtuvieron 15 individuos de cada una de tres poblaciones, utilizando una muestra de músculo para extraer el ADN total. Se amplificó un fragmento que incluye la región de control del ADN mitocondrial y se determinaron los patrones de restricción por medio del análisis por RFLP con las enzimas Taq I, Eco RI, Hae III y Alu I. La amplificación de esta región produjo un fragmento de aproximadamente 1000 bp o, rara vez, uno de 1100 pb. El análisis de RFLP demostró la presencia de sólo un haplotipo con las dos variantes de tamaño. El FST resultante del análisis de las diferencias entre poblaciones venezolanas fue menor de 0.06 y el AMOVA demostró que no existían diferencias significativas entre ellas. Estos resultados concuerdan con la presencia de poca diferenciación genética entre estas poblaciones, por lo que no se puede descartar la presencia de una población panmíctica en esta región. Una comparación de las poblaciones venezolanas con las poblaciones del Mediterráneo y África, reportadas con anterioridad, produjeron valores de FST muy bajos entre las venezolanas y las del Mediterráneo, mientras que las comparaciones entre las de Mauritania, Senegal, Costa de Marfil y Ghana produjeron valores de FST diez veces mayores.

  13. A peptidomic approach for the identification of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides in sardinelle protein hydrolysates fermented by Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Ines; Mora, Leticia; Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Aristoy, Maria-Concepción; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-11-01

    Antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (SPHs) obtained by fermentation with Bacillus subtilis A26 (SPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (SPH-An6) were investigated. Both hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays. Further, they were found to exhibit ACE-inhibitory activity. Peptides from SPH-A26 and SPH-An6 were analyzed by nESI-LC-MS/MS and approximately 800 peptides were identified. Identified peptides derived mainly from myosin (43% and 31% in SPH-An6 and SPH-A26, respectively). Several peptides identified in both hydrolysates were found to share sequences with previously identified antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides based on Biopep database. Some of these peptides were selected for synthesis and their biological activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized peptides, NVPVYEGY and ITALAPSTM were found to be the most effective ACE-inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.23mM, respectively. On the other hand, NVPVYEGY, which exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, showed the highest reducing power and peroxyl radical scavenging activities, followed by SLEAQAEKY and GTEDELDKY. The results of this study suggest that fermented sardinelle protein hydrolysates are a good source of natural antioxidant peptides and could have the potential to act as hypotensive nutraceutical ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypolipidemic, antiobesity and cardioprotective effects of sardinelle meat flour and its hydrolysates in high-fat and fructose diet fed Wistar rats.

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    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antiobesity, hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of fermented sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) produced with two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6). Wistar rats were fed during 10weeks a standard laboratory diet, a high caloric diet (HCD) and a HCD coupled with the oral administration of sardinelle meat flour (SMF) or FSPHs. HCD caused hyperlipidemia and increased body weight (BW). The daily oral administration of FSPHs or SMF reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) serum levels, and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless, FSPHs were found to be more efficient than SMF. FSPHs also lowered hepatic TC and TG content and decreased the pancreatic lipase activity. Further, the administration of FSPHs or SMF decreased the BW gain, the food intake and the relative epididymal adipose tissue weight. FSPHs exhibited a potent cardioprotective effect against heart attack, which was demonstrated by returning atherogenic indexes to their normal levels and the conservation of standard histological structure of the heart and aorta. The overall results indicate that FSPHs contained bioactive peptides which significantly attenuated hyperlipidemia, and might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rats fed HCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru from lombok strait with fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrus; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Utomo, Didik Huswo; Sartimbul, Aida; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Widodo, Nashi

    2012-01-01

    Lombok Strait has abundance of Sardine, Sardinella lemuru, which contains such high amount of omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3). However, the genetic relationship of S. lemuru with other commercial fish rich in omega-3 has not been widely studied yet. Studies on genetic proximity of S. lemuru with the other marine fish using 12S rRNA gene is very important in order to obtain genetic information of the Sardine to develop an appropriate strategy for future conservation of the fish in Lombok Strait. The aim of this study was to find out the genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru living in Lombok Strait with the economically valuable fish and its correlation with omega-3 production. Sardinella lemuru were collected from Lombok Strait, the phylogenetic tree was done based on 12S rRNA gene through a neighbor-joining method to identify the relationship of Sardines and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid. The phylogenetic tree showed that Sardinella lemuru is similar to Sardinella aurita and has a close similarity with Sardinella maderensis. However, the relationship did not correspond to omega-3 production. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that the production of omega-3 is not specifically based on the proximity of the species, but it is more associated with conserved domain of Δ6-desaturase. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms still need to be elucidated.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed ΦST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups.

  17. Antioxidant activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates from Sardinella longiceps

    OpenAIRE

    JEEVITHA K; MOHANA PRIYA K; SAMANTA S. KHORA

    2014-01-01

    Sardinella longiceps were hydrolysed with the different concentration of proteolytic enzymes trypsin to obtain peptides with antioxidant activity. The degree of hydrolysis and yield of hydrolysates were found increasing with increasing the concentration of enzyme. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates were investigated through various assays. The hydrolysate exhibited the higher reducing power capability. The hydrolysates has shown a higher scavenging activity against DPPH, Superoxide, h...

  18. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  19. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis: II. spawning in 1970 and 1971

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of eggs of Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, are presented for the years 1970 and 1971 and compared with that of the previous year (1969. The spawning size of three spawning seasons was calculated using Tanaka's method. Incubation time of sardine eggs was estimated using the method of Ahlstrom. During three spawning seasons a considerable change in the relative spawning size was observed. The spawning season (during spring and summer in the southern hemisphere of 1970-71 was poor when compared with those of 1969-70 and 1971-72. A slight change in the average diameter of eggs in different spawning seasons was also observed. The relation between oceanographie conditions and spawning size was analysed. It is suggested that the warm water covering the spawning ground during the 1970-71 spawning season may have caused an unsuccessful spawning in this year.O presente trabalho apresenta a distribuição e abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, na costa sul do Brasil nos anos de 1970 e 1971. Um dos principais objetivos do estudo quantitativo de ovos e larvas de peixes é estimar o tamanho do estoque, através da abundância de ovos desovados. Com essa finalidade, a computação da abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira foi feita usando o método apresentado por Tanaka (1955. O tempo de incubação dos ovos de sardinha foi estimado com base no método da Ahlstrom (1943. A quantidade de ovos desovados variou durante os tres anos (1969 a 1971. Foi feita uma comparação entre a abundância total de ovos desovados e a freqüência de ocorrência de ovos nas estações da região estudada. Os índices de abundância mostram que a desova na época de 1970-71 foi muito fraca, comparada com as de 1969-70 e de 1971-72. Para esclarecer a relação entre a variação anual de tamanho da desova e a condição ambiental, foi analisada a temperatura e salinidade da água na area de desova. Os

  20. Integrative approach revises the frequently misidentified species of Sardinella (Clupeidae) of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, N; Rinkevich, B; Goren, M

    2016-11-01

    To deal with the difficulties of species differentiation and delimitation among the commercially important sardines from the genus Sardinella, an integrative approach was adopted, incorporating traditional taxonomy with four DNA markers (coI, cytb, 16s and nuclear rag2). Combining these methodologies has enabled a thorough re-description of three of the most common species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean: white sardinella Sardinella albella, fringescale sardinella Sardinella fimbriata and the goldstripe sardinella Sardinella gibbosa, as well as a description of a new species, Gon's sardinella Sardinella goni, from the island of Boracay, Philippines. In addition, extensive widespread sampling of S. gibbosa reveals a significant genetic separation between the populations from the western Indian Ocean and the west Pacific Ocean, despite no supporting morphological differentiation. An updated morphological key of the species of Sardinella of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean is also provided in order to minimize future misidentifications within these economically important taxa. Finally, the genetic and morphological variabilities within and between the investigated species are used to discuss their biogeographical distribution and possible processes of speciation. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

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    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  2. Genetic Differentiation of Japanese Sardinella (Sardinella zunasi)Populations in the Northwest Pacific Revealed by ISSR Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Yiping; GAO Tianxiang; MIAO Zhenqing

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of population genetic structure plays an important role in fisheries management.In this research,Inter-Simple-Sequence-Repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to evaluate the genetic structure of Japanese sardinella (Sardinella zunasi) populations in the Northwest Pacific.Eighty seven individuals from 5 locations were screened using 4 highly polymorphic primers.A total of 173 polymorphic loci were detected out of 191 loci amplified.Small but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the Chinese and Japanese populations by both AMOVA and pairwise Fsr analyses,which was further supported by cluster analysis.We consider that climate change during glaciations should be responsible for the genetic differentiation.Isolation by geographic distance among populations was observed,indicating that the distance might also lead to the genetic differentiation.However,no genetic structure was found within the populations off both the Chinese and Japanese coasts,indicating a high-level along-coast gene flow,which might result from ocean current transport and common ground for over-wintering.

  3. [Differential gene expression in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, I V

    2005-01-01

    The body of Aurelia aurita, as well as other diploblasts, consists of two epithelial layers: ectodermal and gastral epithelium. These two tissues are separated by mesoglea, or extracellular matrix. In most coelenterates mesoglea is acellular. In A. aurita mesogleal cells are scattered in mesoglea. Differential display PCR was used to compare mRNA pools from ectodermal epithelium, gastral epithelium and mesoglea. 4 novel gene fragments were cloned and sequenced. According to RTPCR results, one of these fragments is differentially expressed in the ectodermal epithelium.

  4. Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae, nome válido aplicado à sardinha-verdadeira no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lima de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A história nomenclatural de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 e de seu nome de substituição, Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 é apresentada, sendo confirmada a validade do primeiro por meio da aplicação dos dispositivos do Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.The nomenclatural history of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 and its replacement name Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 is presented, and the validity of the first confirmed through the application of the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

  5. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    of prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...

  6. Hidden Diversity in Sardines: Genetic and Morphological Evidence for Cryptic Species in the Goldstripe Sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rey C.; Willette, Demian A.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Santos, Mudjekeewis D.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine. PMID:24416271

  7. Hidden diversity in sardines: genetic and morphological evidence for cryptic species in the goldstripe sardinella, Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey C Thomas

    Full Text Available Cryptic species continue to be uncovered in many fish taxa, posing challenges for fisheries conservation and management. In Sardinella gibbosa, previous investigations revealed subtle intra-species variations, resulting in numerous synonyms and a controversial taxonomy for this sardine. Here, we tested for cryptic diversity within S. gibbosa using genetic data from two mitochondrial and one nuclear gene regions of 248 individuals of S. gibbosa, collected from eight locations across the Philippine archipelago. Deep genetic divergence and subsequent clustering was consistent across both mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Clade distribution is geographically limited: Clade 1 is widely distributed in the central Philippines, while Clade 2 is limited to the northernmost sampling site. In addition, morphometric analyses revealed a unique head shape that characterized each genetic clade. Hence, both genetic and morphological evidence strongly suggests a hidden diversity within this common and commercially-important sardine.

  8. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  9. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  10. Anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longicep oil against paw oedema on Rattus novergicus induced by 1% carrageenan

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    Rima Parwati Sari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: People usually used non steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID such as aspirin in chronic inflammation treatment. However, using NSAID at long term therapy will cause many effects such as nausea and vomiting. Sardinella longiceps oil, on the other side, is reported as an alternative treatment for anti-inflammation since it is natural and also contained eicosapentaenoid acid (EPA and decohexaenoic acid (DHA. Thus, it may reduce paw oedema. Purpose: The aim of this study was to know anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longiceps oil against paw oedema of Wistar rats induced by 1% carrageenan. Methods: The samples of this research were 32 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups, in group 1, the rats were given aquadest; in group 2, the rats were given aspirin; in group 3, the rats were given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil; in group 4, the rats were given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil. All of the rats, nevertheless, were given intraplantar induction of 1% carrageenan into the paw of rats to induce the inflammation condition. Results: All data were tested with normality test. The normal data were then analyzed with Homogenity of Variances and also ANOVA test which result showed significant differences. The data which showed significant differences were tested again with LSD test. result then showed that group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil had no significant differences from group given aspirin, but there were significant differences between group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil, and also between group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given aquadest. Conclusion: Sardinella longiceps oil could reduce paw oedema in Wistar rats induced with 1% carrageenan.Latar belakang: Penggunaan obat anti-inflamasi non steroid (OAINS seperti aspirin sering digunakan dalam pengobatan inflamasi kronis. Namun penggunaan OAINS

  11. Sphingophosphonolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids from Aegean jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotoglou, D M; Mastronicolis, S K

    2001-11-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate and identify several sphingophosphonolipids from Aurelia aurita, an abundant but harmless Aegean jellyfish, in which they have not previously been described. Total lipids of A. aurita were 0.031-0.036% of fresh tissue, and the lipid phosphorus content was 1.3-1.7% of total lipids. Phosphonolipids were 21.7% of phospholipids and consisted of a major ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-I; 18.3%), as well as three minor CAEP (II, III, IV) methyl analogs at 1.3, 1.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The remaining phospholipid composition was: phosphatidylcholine, 44.5%, including 36.2% glycerylethers; phosphatidylethanolamine, 18.6%, including 4.5% glycerylethers; cardiolipin, 5.6%; phosphatidylinositol, 2.6%; and lysophosphatidylcholine, 5.0%. In CAEP-I, saturated fatty acids of 14-18 carbon chain length were 70.8% and were combined with 57.3% dihydroxy bases and 23.4% trihydroxy bases. The suite of the three minor CAEP methyl analogs were of the same lipid class based on the head group, but they separated into three different components because of their polarity as follows: CAEP-II and CAEP-III differentiation from the major CAEP-I was mainly due to the increased fatty acid unsaturation and not to a different long-chain base, but the CAEP-IV differentiation from CAEP-I, apart from fatty acid unsaturation, was due to the increased content of hydroxyl groups originated from both hydroxy fatty acids and trihydroxy long-chain bases. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in total (76.7%), polar (83.0%), and neutral lipids (67.6%) of A. aurita. The major phospholipid components of A. aurita were comparable to those previously found in a related organism (Pelagia noctiluca), which can injure humans.

  12. Aurelia aurita-Cnidarian with a prominent medusiod stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Ivan V; Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatiana G; Podgornaya, Olga I

    2012-01-15

    Aurelia aurita has a complex life cycle that consists of several stages including alternating generations of medusa and polyps, huge sexual, and tiny asexual stages. Cnidarian is thought to possess two tissue layers: endoderm (gastroderm) and ectoderm, which are separated by mesoglea in medusa. The determination of the composition of the A. aurita jellyfish mesoglea was performed. New protein "mesoglein" was determined as one of the main components of mesoglea. Mesoglein is synthesized by mesogleal cells (Mc), which are populated A. aurita mesoglea as a high molecular mass precursor. Mc are involved in the formation of noncollagenous "elastic" fibers. Deduced amino acid sequence of mesoglein contains Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain and Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 domain. According to reverse transcription PCR, mesoglein is expressed in the mature medusa exclusively in the Mc. The sperm binding to the ZP is particularly important for successful fertilization. Antibodies against mesoglein stain the plate in the place of contact of germinal epithelium and oocyte. The structure found was named the "contact plate." The contact plate could be the precursor of the ZP. All our data suggest that Mc and, probably, the whole mesoglea originate from the epidermis (ectoderm). Computer search for mesoglein relatives reveals Nematostella and Trichoplax proteins as predicted ORFs, indicating that ZP proteins are quite ancient purchase in the evolution. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, Leonid S; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r) bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r) corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r) is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  14. Little genetic variation in the oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps Val., from the western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Enzyme gene variability in the oil sardine, @iSardinella longiceps@@, from three localities along the western coast of India was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Out of 19 loci scored, no locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion. Seven loci...

  15. A study of the life history of Brazilian sardines, Sardinella aurita: I. Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the region of Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of sardine eggs in the Ilha Grande region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied during five cruises for the 1969 1970 period. Using the shipboard fertilized eggs and the planktonic eggs, morphological descriptions of Brazilian sardine eggs are given. Spawning occurs during the summer from September to March in the coastal water off Ilha Grande to Ilha de São Sebastião down to a depth of 100 meters. Spawning may take place a few hours prior to midnight. lt was noticed that spawning has a close relationship to an area of cold water up welling. Spawning groups are isolated and spawning is small in scale in this region. Temperature and salinity in the spawning area range between 18-24ºC and 35.1-35.9‰ respectively.O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo da fase inicial do ciclo de vida da sardinha (Projeto SOL e verifica o seu potencial re produtivo ("spawning power" na costa sul do Brasil. Cinco viagens à região da Ilha Gran de foram realizadas com o N/Oc. " Prof. W. Besnard" e barco "Emilia". Os resultados estão resumidos, a seguir: 1. Os ovos sao esféricos e o espaço pe rivitelino é amplo. O diâmetro medio dos ovos e de 1,18 mm, cuja distribuição é de 1,00 - 1,32 mm. O espaço perivitelino mede, em média, 0,143 mm, com distribuição entre 0,061-0,254 mm. Geralmente o glóbulo de oleo é único, porém, às vezes apresenta-se segmentado em dois ou três. O seu diâmetro médio é de 0,140 mm, com distribuição entre 0,091 0,182 mm. 2. Podemos supor que a hora de desova da sardinha, nesta região, é pouco antes da meia-noite. Os ovos coletados numa mesma área e num mesmo dia, provenientes de um mesmo grupo de "desovantes", foram classificados em grupos de sardinhas que desovaram na área durante uma viagem de pesquisa. O tamanho dos cardumes de sardinha "desovante" não é grande como os da sardinha da Califórnia. 3. A área de desova, sôbre a plataforma continental, estende-se desde a Ilha de São Sebastião até a Ilha Grande (não ultra passando a linha de profundidade de 100 m. Desova intensiva ocorre a sudoeste da Ilha de São Sebastião até o sul da Ponta de Juatinga. 4. A desova ocorre de setembro a março, sendo mais intensa durante o verão. 5. O numero total estimado de ovos resultante da desova de dois cardumes foi de 8,24 x 10(9 para um e de 9.78 x 10(9 para outro, para a viagem de janeiro de 1970. 6. A desova ocorre em água da plataforma, de temperature entre 18-24ºC e salinidade 35,1 - 35,9‰. A desova está em relação íntima com água fria de fundo, que ressurge até perto da superfície.

  16. Prevalence of Nerocila depressa (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) on Sardinella albella from a Thai estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printrakoon, Cheewarat; Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2011-02-01

    The isopod Nerocila depressa is present on 54% of the market-sized white sardines ( Sardinella albella) caught from an estuary in the Trat province of Thailand. The ventral part of the body, especially the upper pectoral fin, was the area most frequently infected by this parasite. Parasite length was positively correlated with fish length, which suggests that the parasites attach to the fish at a young age. At the site of attachment, the parasites erode the epidermis, dermis and muscular tissue of the Sardinella. Such pathology may cause mortality in many fish. Infestation of this parasite was proportional to the weight of the fish. This study reports a new host for N. depressa attachment and is the first report of S. albella infestation in the Trat province where other known host fish species are cultured.

  17. Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Akriti; Biswas, Sumit; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2012-10-01

    Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract was studied for its anticoagulant activity in vitro. The Jellyfish Tentacle Extract (JFTE) showed very strong fibrinogenolytic activity by cleaving Aα and Bβ chain of fibrinogen molecule. The fibrinogenolytic activity was found to be stronger than some snake venom derived anticoagulants. JFTE also completely liquefied fibrin clots in 24 h. JFTE was found to contain both high and low molecular weight proteins/peptides. The fibrinogenolysis appears to be caused by high molecular weight fractions of the extract. It has been also noted that PMSF significantly reduced fibrinogenolytic activity and heating totally abolished it. Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of polyp-to-jellyfish transition in Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Björn; Wang, Wei; Graspeuntner, Simon; Li, Yizhu; Insua, Santiago; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Dirksen, Philipp; Böhm, Anna-Marei; Hemmrich, Georg; Sommer, Felix; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Rosenstiel, Philip; Bosch, Thomas C G; Khalturin, Konstantin

    2014-02-03

    The life cycle of scyphozoan cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in the drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown. We show in the moon jelly Aurelia aurita that the molecular machinery controlling transition of the sessile polyp into a free-swimming jellyfish consists of two parts. One is conserved and relies on retinoic acid signaling. The second, novel part is based on secreted proteins that are strongly upregulated prior to metamorphosis in response to the seasonal temperature changes. One of these proteins functions as a temperature-sensitive "timer" and encodes the precursor of the strobilation hormone of Aurelia. Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish transition in a basal metazoan and provide insights into the evolution of complex life cycles in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Population succession and feeding of scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita, in a eutrophic tropical lagoon in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W. T.; Chen, I. L.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and feeding of scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita, were investigated monthly from 1999 to 2002 in relation to environmental conditions in Tapong Bay, a eutrophic tropical lagoon in southwestern Taiwan. Medusae appeared throughout the year but exhibited seasonal dynamics that were correlated with hydrographic features in the bay. Most ephyrae of A. aurita occurred mainly in the lower flushed and eutrophic inner bay, and during the cold, dry season between November and February. They grew to young medusae with a maximum abundance in spring (March-May), but their numbers abruptly decreased during the warm and rainy summer season in June-September. The remaining medusae then grew rapidly to a maximal size of 29 cm. Mature females spawned in the following autumn when precipitation decreased but zooplankton food was still abundant. These mature individuals decreased in size after spawning and in winter. Gut content analysis revealed that A. aurita fed mainly on copepods and copepod nauplii and less on bivalve larvae and fish eggs. Prey selectivity indices indicated that larger medusae selected positively for copepods while small size medusae preferred copepod nauplii. The overall feeding effect of A. aurita on the standing stock of zooplankton was significant (27%) in the bay. Our results suggest that tidal flow and dense oyster culture pens were the two most important factors influencing the spatial distribution pattern of A. aurita in the bay, while precipitation affected the population abundance seasonally; decreasing water temperature coincided with the mass release of ephyra in late autumn and winter.

  20. STATUS STOK SUMBERDAYA IKAN LEMURU (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 berperan penting baik secara ekologi ekosistem laut dan ekonomi masyarakat pesisir di Selat Bali. Tingginya permintaan pasar terhadap ikan lemuru mengakibatkan aktivitas penangkapannya dilakukan secara terus-menerus sepanjang tahun sehingga mengancam kelestariannya. Untuk mengelola sumber daya ikan lemuru ini tetap lestari, maka salah satu bahan masukan yang diperlukan adalah status stok terkini. Namun, ketersediaan data yang terbatas menjadi penghambat dalam upaya mengevaluasi status pemanfaatan stok, khususnya untuk kegiatan perikanan skala kecil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status stok sumberdaya ikan lemuru di perairan Selat Bali yang dilakukan dari Agustus 2010 hingga Desember 2011. Pengkajian stok ikan lemuru dilakukan dengan pendekatan ratio potensi pemijahan yang berbasis ukuran panjang. Studi pustaka juga dilakukan untuk mendapatkan parameter-parameter life history sebagai pendukung analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa status stok ikan lemuru telah mengalami eksploitasi berlebih (over exploited yang diindikasikan dengan nilai Spawning Potential Ratio (SPRM. Upaya pemulihan stok perlu dilakukan sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam penelitian ini agar tercapainya SPR menjadi 20% dan 40% sebagai batas dan target biologi untuk keberlanjutan sumberdaya ikan lemuru. Bali sardinella (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 plays an important role in terms of the ecology of marine ecosystems and also the economy and livelihoods of coastal communities in Bali Strait. High market demand has consequence in fishing activities, which is carried out continuously throughout the year, so that could threaten of resources sustainability. So that current stock status was needed as important input for management measures. However, evaluation of stock status is constrained by lack of the data, especially for small-scale fisheries. This study aims to determine the stock status of Bali sardinella in the Bali

  1. [On some features of embryonic development and metamorphosis of Aurelia aurita (Cindaria, Scyphozoa)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭorova, T D; Kosevich, I A; Melekhova, O P

    2012-01-01

    Aurelia aurita is a cosmopolite species of scyphomedusae. Its major structural patterns and life cycle are well investigated. This work provides a detailed study on development and structure of the planula in A. aurita until it completes its metamorphosis. Lifetime observations and histological study performed during the settlement and metamorphosis of the planulae demonstrated that the inner manibrium linen of primary polyp (gastroderm) develops from the ectoderm of the planula posterior end. The spatial and temporal dynamics of serotonergic cells from the early embryonic stages until the formation of the primary polyp were studied for the first time. In addition, the distribution oftyrosinated tubulin and neuropeptide RFamide at different stages ofA. aurita development were studied.

  2. On natural metamorphosis inducers of the cnidarians Hydractinia echinata (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiher, M.; Berking, S.

    1999-11-01

    Hydractinia echinata and Aurelia aurita produce motile larvae which undergo metamorphosis to sessile polyps when induced by external cues. The polyps are found at restricted sites, A. aurita predominantly on rocks close to the shore, H. echinata on shells inhabited by hermit crabs. It has been argued that the differential distribution of the polyps in their natural environment largely reflects the distribution of the natural metamorphosis-inducing cues. In the case of H. echinata, bacteria of the genus Alteromonas were argued to meet these conditions. We found that almost all substrates collected in the littoral to induce metamorphosis in H. echinata, and several bacterial strains isolated from the sea, including the common E. coli, induce metamorphosis efficiently. In A. aurita metamorphosis may be induced by the water-air interface, whereby metamorphosis precedes (final) settlement.

  3. [Protein composition of mesoglea and mesogloeal cells of medusa Aurelia aurita].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikova, T G; Napara, T O; Podgornaia, O I

    2002-01-01

    Protein composition of mesoglea of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita was revealed in SDS-PAGE. Some major bands are visible in mesoglea of a mature medusa: 30, 45-47, 85 kDa, three bands between 100-200 kDa, and several bands with molecular weights > 300 kDa. Polyclonal antisera RA45/47 against protein 45 kDa were raised. RA45/47 react with 45-47 kDa protein in mesogleal sample and protein 120 kDa in mesogleal cells on immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analysis of A. aurita histological sections of young and mature medusae showed antigen localization in mesogleal cell granules and in the apical part of ectodermal cells. In mature medusae, the antigen was localized also in elastic fibers. We can conclude that in A. aurita mesogleal cells, along with ectodermal cells, take part in the formation of extracellular matrix of mesoglea.

  4. Chemische Zusammensetzung und Biomasseparameter der Ohrenqualle Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gerald

    1988-06-01

    During summer 1982 and 1983, measurements on the chemical composition and biomass parameters of Aurelia aurita from Kiel Fjord, Western Baltic, were made. The relationships between size vs. wet weight and wet weight vs. carbon content were determined. Dry weight accounted for less than 2% of wet weight in both years. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of whole medusae were 51 52, 14 and 1.4 mg/g dry weight (dw) respectively. The C:N ratio (by weight) was about 3.7 and the C:N:P-ratio (by atoms) was determined to be 94:22:1. Proteins and carbohydrates made up 59 and 29 mg/g dw. Lipids were estimated to be 19 mg/g dw. Using these data, it was possible to calculate the caloric content of the medusae to be about 0.55 cal/mg dw. In summer 1982, the organic content of different tissues (gonad, oral arm, umbrella) in unfertilized and fertilized females was studied. In unfertilized females, the gonads exhibited the highest values, the umbrella had the lowest values and the values of oral arm tissue were intermediate. However, in fertilized females the oral arm tissue was enriched, whereas the gonads were impoverished; both types of tissues exhibited very similar values. This pattern can be explained by the transfer of fertilized eggs from the gonads into the brood pouches of the oral arms.

  5. Ulcerative umbrellar lesions in captive moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Garner, M M; Wynne, J; Fish, S; Adams, L

    2013-05-01

    Over a period of 6 months, dozens of moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae from a single-species exhibit at the California Science Center (CSC) developed exumbrellar ulcers. Ulcers were progressive, causing umbrellar creases that expanded radially to the bell rim and occasional adoral erosions that extended into gastrovascular cavities. Husbandry interventions, including addition of ultraviolet light sterilizers, repopulation with fresh cultures, and enclosure disinfection, did not arrest the recurrence of lesions. Biopsies or whole specimens representing 17 medusae (15 affected and 2 grossly unaffected) from CSC and 2 control medusae from Aquarium of the Pacific were submitted to a private diagnostic laboratory and processed for light and electron microscopy. Microscopic lesions were present in all CSC medusae and were not observed or negligible in control medusae. Lesions included ulceration, necrosis, and hyperplasia in all umbrellar layers, with most severe lesions in the exumbrella and amoebocyte infiltration in the underlying mesoglea. Special stains, electron microscopy, and fungal culture did not associate microorganisms with the lesions. Bacterial cultures from the CSC population consistently grew Shewanella and Vibrio spp, both of which were considered commensal. Trauma and environmental stress are proposed as possible causes for the ulcers.

  6. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  7. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) from the Coast of Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Quratulan; Benzer, Semra; Elahi, Naeema; Ali, Qadeer Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in muscle tissue samples taken from Goldstripe sardinella (Sardinella gibbosa Bleeker, 1849) caught off the coast of Balochistan, Pakistan, in 2009 were determined. The samples were analyzed using a Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the muscle samples were 0.65±0.05 µg g(-1), 23.39±1.97 µg g(-1), 4.35±0.22 µg g(-1), 0.61±0.07 µg g(-1), 0.39±0.04 µg g(-1), and 6.59±0.33 µg g(-1), respectively. The Cd, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations did not exceed the regulatory limits, but the Mn concentrations were high enough to potentially pose health risks to humans consuming S. gibbosa. Therefore, the Mn concentrations in S. gibbosa from the Balochistan coast should be monitored regularly.

  8. Seasonal variations of heavy metal concentration in Sardinella sindensis (Day, 1878 from Balochistan coast

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    Quratulan Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations in muscle of sind sardinella [Sardinella sindensis (S. sindensis] from Balochistan coast, Pakistan. Methods: S. sindensis were collected from Balochistan coast, Pakistan, at autumn inter monsoon, north east monsoon, spring inter monsoon and south west monsoon during October 2005-September 2006. All samples were analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Generally, S. sindensis caught from Balochistan coast showed the accumulation level of Fe [(16.88 ± 5.60 µg/g], Cu [(2.74 ± 1.89 µg/g], Cd [(0.29 ± 0.25 µg/g], Zn [(4.29 ± 2.31 µg/g] and Pb [(0.24 ± 0.24 µg/g] in the muscle tissues. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in fish from Balochistan coast observed in this study were lower than the limit values. Therefore, all metal accumulations in S. sindensis have to be monitored continuously, especially in this region.

  9. Seasonal variations of heavy metal concentration in Sardinella sindensis (Day, 1878) from Balochistan coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuratulanAhmed; Semra Benzer; Naeema Elahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations in muscle of sind sardinella [Sardinella sindensis (S. sindensis)] from Balochistan coast, Pakistan. Methods: S. sindensis were collected from Balochistan coast, Pakistan, at autumn inter monsoon, north east monsoon, spring inter monsoon and south west monsoon during October 2005-September 2006. All samples were analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by AAnalyst 700 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Generally, S. sindensis caught from Balochistan coast showed the accumulation level of Fe [(16.88 ± 5.60) µg/g], Cu [(2.74 ± 1.89) µg/g], Cd [(0.29 ± 0.25) µg/g], Zn [(4.29 ± 2.31) µg/g] and Pb [(0.24 ± 0.24) µg/g] in the muscle tissues. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in fish from Balochistan coast observed in this study were lower than the limit values. Therefore, all metal accumulations in S. sindensis have to be monitored continuously, especially in this region.

  10. Minyak ikan Lemuru (Sardinella longicep menurunkan apoptosis osteoblas pada tulang alveolaris tikus wistar (Fish oil of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep reduced the osteoblast apoptosis in wistar rat alveolar bone

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    Didin Erma Indahyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is caused by periodontopatogen bacteria resulting the alveolar bone damage. The decrease of osteoblasts and the increased of osteoclasts can cause bone destruction. The decrease of osteoblasts, due to a disturbance of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Inflammatory mediators are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6 also tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α stimulates osteoblast apoptosis through gene expression, signaling molecules and receptor-forming osteoblasts. Fish oil of Lemuru, which is widely encountered in Indonesian coast, containing n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are quite high. Consumption of fish oil shown to reduce the expression of PGE2, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Lemuru (Sardinella longicep fish oil on osteoblast apoptosis of rat alveolar bone induced periodontal infection. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats, male, age 5 days, divided into 3 groups: group I rats induced with normal saline, group II rats induced by LPS, and group III rats induced with lemuru fish oil and LPS. Each group was divided into 2 sub-groups that would be sacrified at 13 days and 21 days of age. Fish oil was given at a dose 1ml/300-350 grams. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced with the purpose to cause periodontal infection in the maxillary buccal fold molar region with dose 5μl LPS/PBS 0.03 ml. After decapitation and decalcification, the maxilla was cut in 5μm thickness. Apoptosis was analyzed on DNA and detected by TUNEL reaction (transferase-mediated digoxigenin-deoxy-UTP nick end labeling. Results: The results showed that apoptosis of osteoblast cells was significantly smaller in rats induced by Lemuru fish oil. Conclusion: The study showed that Lemuru fish oil reduced the osteoblast apoptosis of rats alveolar bone induced periodontal infection by LPS.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal akibat bakteri peridontopatogen, menyebabkan

  11. Leishmania mexicana in Didelphis marsupialis aurita in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    E. L. A. Yoshida

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi identificada pela primeira vez a presença de L. mexicana em Didelphis marsupialis aurita, no Estado de São Paulo — Município de Conchas, através de caracterização bioquímica.

  12. Composition of Bacterial Communities Associated with Aurelia aurita Changes with Compartment, Life Stage, and Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Neulinger, Sven C; Pinnow, Nicole; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is recognized as a key player in marine ecosystems and a driver of ecosystem change. It is thus intensely studied to address ecological questions, although its associations with microorganisms remain so far undescribed. In the present study, the microbiota associated with A. aurita was visualized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and community structure was analyzed with respect to different life stages, compartments, and populations of A. aurita by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We demonstrate that the composition of the A. aurita microbiota is generally highly distinct from the composition of communities present in ambient water. Comparison of microbial communities from different developmental stages reveals evidence for life stage-specific community patterns. Significant restructuring of the microbiota during strobilation from benthic polyp to planktonic life stages is present, arguing for a restructuring during the course of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the microbiota present in different compartments of the adult medusa (exumbrella mucus and gastric cavity) display significant differences, indicating body part-specific colonization. A novel Mycoplasma strain was identified in both compartment-specific microbiota and is most likely present inside the epithelium as indicated by FISH analysis of polyps, indicating potential endosymbiosis. Finally, comparison of polyps of different populations kept under the same controlled laboratory conditions in the same ambient water showed population-specific community patterns, most likely due the genetic background of the host. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the associated microbiota of A. aurita may play important functional roles, e.g., during the life cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  14. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  15. Diagnoses of the State of Exploitation of Small Pelagic Stocks in Senegal by the Use of Size Frequencies: Case of Sardinella%体长频率分析法在塞内加尔沙丁鱼资源开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fambaye Ngom Sow; Birane Samb; 程和琴

    2010-01-01

    本研究利用Incofish项目开发的可持续发展指标开展渔业资源评估应用研究.研究对象为金色小沙丁鱼(Sardinella aurita)和短体小沙丁鱼(Sardinella maderensis).数据来源于1990年-2005年间塞内加尔个体渔业渔获量及由DR FRIDTJOF NANSEN调查船在塞内加尔海域获得的渔获量.采用Froese(2004年)提出的三个可持续捕捞指标,为渔业资源量的开发状况作出诊断和评估.这些指标包括:渔获物中成鱼的百分比(以100%为最佳)、达到最适开捕体长鱼的百分比(以100%为最佳)和大型产卵鱼的百分比(以0%为最佳,体长大于最适开捕体长1.1倍的雌鱼即为大型产卵鱼).分析结果表明:金色小沙丁鱼处于过度捕捞状态,幼鱼在其渔获物中占有优势地位,捕捞到的金色小沙丁鱼多数小于最适开捕体长,即生长型过度捕捞;短体小沙丁鱼处于充分开发利用状态.总体结果揭示,可持续捕捞指标能够成为替代或完善传统资源评估方法的有用工具.渔业相关的利益主体(包括公众)通过这些指标能够避免过度捕捞,从而更好地理解渔业管理.

  16. Abundance, growth and food demand of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in the western Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, H. W.; Oorthuysen, W.

    Medusae of Aurelia aurita are found in the western Wadden Sea from the beginning of May till August with maximum numbers of 250 to 500 individuals per 10 3 m 3 during May-June. The existence of a continuous ebb surplus suggests an origin from polyps living in the inner parts of the estuary and a transport or migration of the released medusae towards the North Sea. Growth is fast; a bell size of 20 cm diameter is reached within 3 to 4 months. The species is important as a predator from May to July, reaching maximum carbon biomass values of 12 to 18 g C·10 3 m -3. Predation by A. aurita may affect the recruitment of one of its food sources, viz. fish larvae.

  17. A novel Aurelia aurita protein mesoglein contains DSL and ZP domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, I V; Shaposhnikova, T G; Podgornaya, O I

    2007-09-01

    Body of the scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita consists of 2 epithelia -- epidermis and gastroderm. The layers are separated by a thick layer of extracellular matrix -- mesoglea. A. aurita has a lot of cells in the mesoglea unlike many other Cnidarians. The major protein of the mesoglea with apparent molecular mass of 47 kDa was detected by SDS-PAGE. A partial mRNA of the protein 1421 bp long was cloned and sequenced. The search for homologous nucleotide and protein sequences shows that the mRNA sequence is novel. Deduced amino acid sequence of 416 aa contains zona pellucida (ZP) domain and Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) domain. The protein was named mesoglein. According to reverse transcription PCR analysis it is expressed in the mature medusa exclusively in the mesogleal cells. Mesoglein belongs to the lowest phyla among ZP domain-containing proteins. The protein is supposed to be a structural element of the mesoglea extracellular matrix.

  18. Effects of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on oesteoblast proliferation in bone defect healing process

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    Rima Parwati Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone damage is the most common case in dentistry. One way to fix the bone damage is by using bone graft. Anadara granosa shell is a potential bone substitute since it is rich in calcium which can be processed into hydroxyapatite. The addition of Sardinella longiceps oil rich in omega-3 can modulate inflammation, thus accelerating the healing process. Purpose: This study aimed to determine effects of application of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on osteoblast proliferation in the healing process of bone defects. Method: The subjects were 32 male rats type Wistar divided into 4 groups (n = 8. Making defect was performed on the right bone of the femurs with a half of the diameter of round Mcisinger® Germany bur sized 18. The first group (K is a negative control group that was not given anything. The second group (AG was given Anadara granosa pasta. The third group (AM10 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 10% Sardinella longiceps oil. And, the fourth group (AM30 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 30% Sardinella longiceps oil. Next, preparations and animal euthanasia were performed on the 7th day after the treatment. The number of osteoblasts then was measured after making preparations for HPA with Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE. Afterward, tabulation of data followed by statistical analysis of Anova and HSD Tukey was carried out. Result: The average number of osteoblasts in Groups K, AG, AM10, and AM30 was 19.00, 34.63, 33.50, and 38.50. The results of Anova test showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Similarly, the results of Tukey-HSD test also showed significant differences (p<0.05 between Group K and all other groups (AG, AM10, and AM30. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between Group AG and Groups AM10 and AM30, as well as between Group AM10 and Group AM30. Conclusion: The application of the combination of Anadara granosa shell and Sardinella longiceps

  19. The effects of food and photoperiod on strobilation of Aurelia aurita polyps

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    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    After 30 days of experiment results showed 100 % survival independently of the treatment. In presence of food the strobilation increased (52.08 ± 4.11 % comparatively with the strobilation in polyps without food (33.33 ± 4.35% (pAurelia aurita. However face the necessity of the optimization of the culture jellyfish conditions for ornamental trade and as source of MNPs, more studies are necessary to turned profitable the mass production of this specie.

  20. Sterile polystyrene culture dishes induce transformation of polyps into medusae in Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Klaus; Siefker, Barbara; Berking, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Polyps of Aurelia aurita produce medusae once a year. Under laboratory conditions this process, termed strobilation, can be induced by lowering the incubation temperature for about two weeks. Here we report a fast induction of strobilation by sterile polystyrene culture dishes. The effect is abolished when the culture dishes are washed twice with hot water prior to the experiment. We recommend that polystyrene cultureware should be pre-washed whenever there is an indication of unusual effects.

  1. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  2. Respiratory response to temperature of three populations of Aurelia aurita polyps in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Danja P; Lucas, Cathy H; Thatje, Sven

    2017-01-01

    The benthic life stage (polyp or scyphistoma) of the bloom-forming jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1759), also known as the moon jellyfish, contributes to the seasonal occurrence and abundance of medusa blooms via asexual reproduction. A. aurita is widely distributed in coastal areas in northern Europe, and one of the most studied jellyfish species. While the physiology of the visible medusa is largely understood, understanding of the physiology of the perennial benthic life-stage is scarce. To measure the physiological tolerance of A. aurita, the scyphistoma's temperature sensitivity across its distributional range was investigated. Respiration rates of polyps from three northern European locations exposed to 11 temperatures between 2 and 22°C were measured. There was a significant difference in respiration rate among the three polyp populations, which may reflect on differences in their thermal tolerance window. A critical temperature was reached at 14°C with the metabolic rate decreasing below and above that temperature. This pattern was less pronounced in the Norwegian population but polyps were able to survive, at least temporarily, those temperatures exceeding their natural range. While polyps collected from northern Norway, with a narrow environmental thermal window, displayed a low baseline metabolism with a Q10 value of 1.2, polyps from southern England and Scotland had Q10 values of 1.6 and 2.5, respectively. Differences in polyps' respiration rates across their distributional range suggest that populations have evolved adaptations to local environmental thermal conditions.

  3. Production, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Fucoxanthin from the Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

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    Chengwu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L−1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g−1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor (Ø 3.0 cm inner diameter, resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L−1 day−1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50 of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL−1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition.

  4. A biophysical model of S. aurita early life history in the northern Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Vamara; Lett, Christophe; Penven, Pierrick; Bourlès, Bernard; Djakouré, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    S. aurita is the most abundant small pelagic fish in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Its reproduction and recruitment depend crucially on environmental conditions. We developed a biophysical model of S. aurita early life history by coupling offline an individual-based model with the regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS). We used this model to investigate the main factors driving variability in eggs and larval dispersal and survival in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Precisely, individuals were released from different spawning areas along the coast and tracked for a period of 28 days corresponding to their planktonic phase. Individuals that remained in the coastal recruitment areas at an age more than 7 days, at which they can supposedly actively retain themselves in a favorable area, were considered as recruited. Simulation results show the importance of the spawning areas around Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points where cyclonic eddies trap eggs and larvae along the coast, preventing their advection offshore by the Guinea Current. The spawning period also plays a key role in the recruitment success, with highest coastal retention obtained during the major upwelling period (July-September). We find that a second retention peak can occur during the minor upwelling period (February-March) when larval mortality due to temperature is included in the model. These results are in general agreement with knowledge of S. aurita reproduction in the northern Gulf of Guinea.

  5. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

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    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  6. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.

  7. Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

    2014-06-01

    Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

  8. Bacterially induced stolon settlement in the scyphopolyp of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G.

    1985-03-01

    Unsettled stoloniferous scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita Lamarck were offered different substrates for settlement under defined conditions. On addition of different biogenic and abiotic substrates, a pure strain of bacteria, a species of Micrococcaceae, was observed to trigger the settlement of the stolon. The settlement reaction only takes place following direct contact with the bacteria; sterile filtrated culture medium of the same bacterial strain was not able to induce settlement. The bacteria were found to be effective on stolon settlement during the logarithmic growth phase, but not during the stationary phase.

  9. Indomethacin induction of metamorphosis from the asexual stage to sexual stage in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Hisato; Okumura, Izumi; Kuroda, Rie; Tsujita, Natsumi; Arakawa, Kenji; Shoji, Jun; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We found while screening a chemical library that indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, induced strobilation (metamorphosis from the asexual to sexual stage) in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita. Indomethacin initiated strobilation in a dose-dependent manner, but was not involved in the progression of strobilation. Pharmacological experiments suggested that indomethacin could induce strobilation independently of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

  10. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita under experimental challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Baxter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp. are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  11. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Emily J; Sturt, Michael M; Ruane, Neil M; Doyle, Thomas K; McAllen, Rob; Harman, Luke; Rodger, Hamish D

    2011-04-07

    Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  12. Effects of nutrients and light intensity on the growth and biochemical composition of a marine microalga Odontella aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Song; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Sang, Min; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-11-01

    Algal biotechnology has advanced greatly in the past three decades. Many microalgae are now cultivated to produce bioactive substances. Odontella aurita is a marine diatom industrially cultured in outdoor open ponds and used for human nutrition. For the first time, we have systematically investigated the effects of culture conditions in cylindrical glass columns and flat-plate photobioreactors, including nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur), light intensity and light path, on O. aurita cell growth and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, β-1,3-glucan, lipids, and ash). The optimal medium for photoautotrophic cultivation of O. aurita contained 17.65 mmol/L nitrogen, 1.09 mmol/L phosphorus, 0.42 mmol/L silicon, and 24.51 mmol/L sulfur, yielding a maximum biomass production of 6.1-6.8 g/L and 6.7-7.8 g/L under low and high light, respectively. Scale-up experiments were conducted with flat-plate photobioreactors using different light-paths, indicating that a short light path was more suitable for biomass production of O. aurita. Analyses of biochemical composition showed that protein content decreased while carbohydrate (mainly composed of β-1,3-glucan) increased remarkably to about 50% of dry weight during the entire culture period. The highest lipid content (19.7% of dry weight) was obtained under 0.11 mmol/L silicon and high light conditions at harvest time. Fatty acid Profiles revealed that 80% were C14, C16, and C20, while arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) accounted for 1.6%-5.6% and 9%-20% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass production and characteristic biochemical composition Profiles make O. aurita a promising microalga for the production of bioactive components, such as EPA and β-1,3-glucan.

  13. HUBUNGAN PANJANG BOBOT, FAKTOR KONDISI DAN STRUKTUR UKURAN IKAN LEMURU (Sardinella lemuru DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lemuru merupakan jenis ikan hasil tangkapan utama kegiatan perikanan di perairan Selat Bali yang status pemanfaatannya sudah mengalami lebih tangkap dan memerlukan upaya pengelolaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan panjang dan bobot, faktor kondisi, serta struktur ukuran ikan lemuru di perairan Selat Bali. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Agustus 2010 hingga Desember 2011 dengan metode survei dan pengamatan langsung di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan panjang dan bobot ikan lemuru mengikuti persamaan W=0,007FL3,167 dan memiliki pola pertumbuhan allometrik positif (b>3 namun pada setiap bulannya mengalami perubahan pola pertumbuhan. Nilai faktor kondisi relatif berkisar antara 0,95-1,28 dan berfluktuasi setiap bulannya. Hasil ini diduga dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan makanan. Ikan lemuru berukuran kecil atau “sempenit” (<11 cmFL banyak tertangkap pada bulan Agustus dan September 2010 serta Juli dan November 2011 dan diduga pada waktu tersebut terjadi awal rekruitmen.   Bali sardinella (“lemuru” is mostly caught by fishers in the Bali Strait waters, and its status predicted have overfishing so that it needs to manage this resources. The purpose of this study to investigate the length-weight relationship, the condition factors and size structure of lemuru in the Bali Strait waters. The data was collected through survey and direct observation in the field from August 2010 to December 2011. The result of this study shows that length-weight relationship could be described as W = 0.007 FL3, 167. Nevertheless,  it is change on the growth pattern by monthly. The value of relative condition factors of lemuru were ranging from 0.95 to 1.28 and very fluctuated by monthly. It is predicted that influenced by feed availability in Bali Strait waters. The smaal size of lemuru, namely “sempenit (<11 cmFL are dominantly caught during August to September 2010 and July and November 2011 that indicated

  14. Prevalance and pathology of gastric tumours in Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) from Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; RamalingamVijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To carry out the survey of prevalence of gastric tumour in Sardinella longiceps of Parangipettai coastal waters, south east coast of India for a period of one year. Methods: Fish samples were directly collected from fishermen and also from auction yard. The prevalence of gastric tumour, gross pathology, radiography, histopathology, morphometric and meristic characters were investigated. Results: A total of 31 stomach tumour infected individuals were collected during the study period. The gross morphology showed distended abdomen and the radiograph exhibited enlargement of stomach. Autopsy of the infected fish exhibited reddish multilobed tumourous growth on the stomach. Histologically, the tumour lesions were characterized by the differential rate of glandular epitheloid and mesenchymal cells, polymorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei and mitotic activity. No evidence of local invasion and distinct metastases were observed in these cases. Conclusions: The tumours were diagnosed as gastric adenoma, myofibroblastoma, lipoma and fibrosarcoma. Among them myofibroblastoma is highly prevalent.

  15. Numerical study of the seasonal variability of Aurelia aurita ephyra abundance: Application to the JiaoZhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Wang, N.; Li, C.; Sun, S.

    2013-12-01

    The outbreaks of the inshore scyphozoan Aurelia aurita have been increasingly reported in the coastal waters of China in recent years, with detrimental impacts on local ecosystems and economies. The strobilation process is an important part of the A. aurita life cycle because it can increase the jellyfish population size by producing new jellyfish (ephyrae). Hence it is essential to investigate the strobilation dynamics in order to better understand and possibly predict jellyfish outbreaks. In this work, we present a model that provides a realistic simulation of the combined effects of temperature and food supply on the ephyra liberation dynamics. The parameterization of the model is based on the laboratory and field experiments and the literature. The model results show that temperature has a parabolic-like effect on liberated ephyra numbers. The numbers of liberated ephyra increase with temperature before reaching a peak and then decays. No ephyrae liberation occurs in very low or very high temperautres, despite the food level is high or not. While liberation occurs, high food supply increases ephyra production. Application of the model to JiaoZhou Bay with in-situ measured temperature and zooplanton abundance produces results coherent with the seasonal in situ observations. In JiaoZhou Bay, the ephyrae of A. aurita usually appear in early April, and reaches their peak in abundance in June and the jellyfish outbreaks reported occurs in July-August. Experiments with the model show that there are two main periods of strobilation in JiaoZhou Bay. The first begins at early march and reaches its peak in May. The second occurs during October to early December with its peak in November. The first strobilation period is in a good agreement with in situ observations. No available data in JiaoZhou Bay could be used to validate the second one. Nevertheless, occurrence of A. aurita ephyrae was reported in late October in similar latitudes such as in Tokyo Bay. No jellyfish

  16. Life-history stages of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita - towards a demographic understanding of jellyfish blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are conspicuous demographic events that have received increasing attention by the public and the scientific community over the last decades due to their negative impact on fisheries, tourism and other human industries. Several aspects of the complex life cycles of the jellyfish...... species involved in mass occurrence have been covered in previous studies, providing important insight into diverse life stage-specific adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Quantification of the demographic rates that characterize different life-history stages however has remained...... population dynamics and may inspire future research to sharpen an integrated view of jellyfish life histories in an ever changing environment. Such insight might be of particular importance beyond A. aurita in times of habitat eutrophication, climate warming and changes in species diversity....

  17. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  18. Structural analysis of O-glycans of mucin from jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) containing 2-aminoethylphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Makoto; Nakamura, Takemichi; Uzawa, Jun; Baba, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Seki, Hiroko; Ushida, Kiminori

    2009-11-02

    The structure of O-glycan in qniumucin (Q-mucin), which is a novel mucin extracted from jellyfish, was analyzed by a combination of NMR and ESI-MS/MS. A previously unidentified monosaccharide involved in the glycan chains was determined to be N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) substituted by 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) at the C-6. The O-glycans in Q-mucin from Aurelia aurita were proved to be mainly composed of three monosaccharides: GalNAc, AEP-(O-->6)-GalNAc, and P-6-GalNAc. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of an O-glycan structure of glycoproteins containing AEP. This exceptionally simple structure of Q-mucin and its potential use in material science and technology are revealed.

  19. Flexible margin kinematics and vortex formation of Aurelia aurita and Robojelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Vlachos, Pavlos; Priya, Shashank

    2014-01-01

    The development of a rowing jellyfish biomimetic robot termed as "Robojelly", has led to the discovery of a passive flexible flap located between the flexion point and bell margin on the Aurelia aurita. A comparative analysis of biomimetic robots showed that the presence of a passive flexible flap results in a significant increase in the swimming performance. In this work we further investigate this concept by developing varying flap geometries and comparing their kinematics with A. aurita. It was shown that the animal flap kinematics can be replicated with high fidelity using a passive structure and a flap with curved and tapered geometry gave the most biomimetic performance. A method for identifying the flap location was established by utilizing the bell curvature and the variation of curvature as a function of time. Flaps of constant cross-section and varying lengths were incorporated on the Robojelly to conduct a systematic study of the starting vortex circulation. Circulation was quantified using velocity field measurements obtained from planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV). The starting vortex circulation was scaled using a varying orifice model and a pitching panel model. The varying orifice model which has been traditionally considered as the better representation of jellyfish propulsion did not appear to capture the scaling of the starting vortex. In contrast, the pitching panel representation appeared to better scale the governing flow physics and revealed a strong dependence on the flap kinematics and geometry. The results suggest that an alternative description should be considered for rowing jellyfish propulsion, using a pitching panel method instead of the traditional varying orifice model. Finally, the results show the importance of incorporating the entire bell geometry as a function of time in modeling rowing jellyfish propulsion.

  20. Population Dynamics of Jellyfish Aurelia aurita (s.l. in Sihwa Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-pyo Hong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the population dynamics of Aurelia aurita in Sihwa Lake from April to October in 2009. Salinity ranged from 5.9 to 30.7 psu at the surface. Abundance of mesozooplankton ranged from 3 to 111,874 indiv. m−3. Ephyrae occurred from April to May with the peak in abundance occurring on 17 April. Maximum density of ephyrae was observed near the power transmission towers that are known to be habitats of polyps. Mortality of ephyrae was lower than in other areas because of the abundant prey concentration and the absence of predators. Young medusae occurred from April to July with the peak in abundance occurring on 8 May. Adult medusae occurred from May to July with the peak in abundance on 25 June and they disappeared before the rainy season. Planula occurred only in May and June with the peak in abundance on 25 June. Growth rates of Aurelia aurita ranged from −0.06 to 0.34 d−1, and decreased rapidly after May. The period in which adult medusa occurred was restricted, compared with those in other area in Korea (e.g., Masan Bay and Japan (e.g., Tokyo Bay. In the period of this study, the available food was limited in June and salinity decreased to ca. 20 psu in May because of the beginning of the wet season. We assumed that the exceptionally short period of occurrence of the medusa may be a response of adults to changes in temperature, salinity or food limitation which leads to the precocious maturation of young medusa and the release of planula and that the brief occurrence of medusa was caused by an abrupt decrease in activity after the release of planula.

  1. Flexible margin kinematics and vortex formation of Aurelia aurita and Robojelly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villanueva

    Full Text Available The development of a rowing jellyfish biomimetic robot termed as "Robojelly", has led to the discovery of a passive flexible flap located between the flexion point and bell margin on the Aurelia aurita. A comparative analysis of biomimetic robots showed that the presence of a passive flexible flap results in a significant increase in the swimming performance. In this work we further investigate this concept by developing varying flap geometries and comparing their kinematics with A. aurita. It was shown that the animal flap kinematics can be replicated with high fidelity using a passive structure and a flap with curved and tapered geometry gave the most biomimetic performance. A method for identifying the flap location was established by utilizing the bell curvature and the variation of curvature as a function of time. Flaps of constant cross-section and varying lengths were incorporated on the Robojelly to conduct a systematic study of the starting vortex circulation. Circulation was quantified using velocity field measurements obtained from planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV. The starting vortex circulation was scaled using a varying orifice model and a pitching panel model. The varying orifice model which has been traditionally considered as the better representation of jellyfish propulsion did not appear to capture the scaling of the starting vortex. In contrast, the pitching panel representation appeared to better scale the governing flow physics and revealed a strong dependence on the flap kinematics and geometry. The results suggest that an alternative description should be considered for rowing jellyfish propulsion, using a pitching panel method instead of the traditional varying orifice model. Finally, the results show the importance of incorporating the entire bell geometry as a function of time in modeling rowing jellyfish propulsion.

  2. PENGELOLAAN DAN PROFITABILITAS USAHA PENANGKAPAN LEMURU (SARDINELLA LEMURU BLEEKER,1853 DI SELAT BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Warih Madyeng Ratri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penangkapan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker,1853 di Selat Bali telah dilakukan jauh sebelum diperkenalkannya purse seine dua kapal (slerek yang mempunyai hasil tangkapan menggembirakan. Hasil studi sejak tahun 1974 menyimpulkan bahwa stok lemuru di Selat Bali dieksploitasi sangat intensif, sehingga mengancam kelangsungan stok lemuru dan melemahkan keuntungan sumberdaya. Pengelolaan perikanan lemuru di Selat Bali yang telah dilakukan sejak tahun 1977 dan terus diperbaharui sampai tahun 1992 perlu ditinjau kembali, mengingat peraturan dimaksud sudah tidak sesuai dengan kondisi di lapangan dan tidak dipatuhi oleh para pemangku kepentingan. Nelayan mematuhi aturan tentang pembatasan jumlah kapal, namun ukuran kapal, alat tangkap, jumlah ABK dan alat bantu lampu dilakukan penambahan besar-besaran. Peningkatan upaya ini dikhawatirkan akan mengancam keberlanjutan usaha. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan kajian untuk menganalisis profitabilitas usaha penangkapan dan masukan konkrit guna pengelolaan perikanan lemuru di Selat Bali. Sintesis hasil penelitian terdahulu di Selat Bali dan diperluas dengan data hasil observasi lapang dengan menggunakan model Max Aquero. Keuntungan total ekonomi usaha penangkapan di Selat Bali pada tahun 2007 mencapai Rp 205.856.283.770,- dengan hasil tangkapan lemuru sebanyak 254.691.315 kg dan tenaga kerja yang terlibat sebanyak 30.583 orang. Hasil tangkapan lemuru yang di publikasi oleh Provinsi Bali dan Jawa Timur adalah data yang tidak akurat. Mengingat informasi dari data tersebut merupakan landasan kebijakan, langkah konkrit perbaikan pengelolaan perikanan lemuru Selat Bali yang mendesak adalah perbaikan metode pendataan dan sumberdaya manusianya. The catching of lemuru in Bali Strait had been done long before two vessels purse seine (slerek which gave satisfactory result was introduced. The outcome of numerous studies conducted since 1976 concluded that lemuru stock in Bali Strait had been overexploited, so that it threaten

  3. Effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce made from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kishimura, Hideki; Simpson, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), at levels of 0%, 10% and 20%, on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce produced from the sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) with different salt concentrations (15%, 20% and 25%) were monitored during fermentation for 180 days. Fish sauces prepared from sardine with spleen supplementation contained greater total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen than did those without spleen a...

  4. Impact of secondary hard substrate on the distribution and abundance of Aurelia aurita in the western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, H; Augustin, C B; Hinrichsen, H H; Kube, S

    2013-10-15

    This study assessed the impact of secondary hard substrate, as being introduced into marine ecosystems by the establishment of wind farm pillars, on the occurrence and distribution of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita in the southwestern Baltic Sea. A two-year data sampling was conducted with removable settlement plates to assess the distribution and population development of the scyphozoan polyps. The data collected from these samples were used to set up a model with Lagrangian particle technique. The results confirm that anthropogenic created hard substrate (e.g. offshore wind farms) has the potential to increase the abundance of the A. aurita population. The distribution of wind farm borne jellyfish along Danish, German and Polish coasts indicates conflicts with further sectors, mainly energy and tourism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of segmentation in polyps of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) into medusae and formation of mirror-image medusa anlagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiher, M; Siefker, B; Berking, S

    2000-08-01

    Polyps of Aurelia aurita can transform into several medusae (jellyfish) in a process of sequential subdivision. During this transformation, two processes take place which are well known to play a key role in the formation of various higher metazoa: segmentation and metamorphosis. In order to compare these processes in bilaterians and cnidarians we studied the control and the kinetics of these processes in Aurelia aurita. Segmentation and metamorphosis visibly start at the polyp's head and proceed down the body column but do not reach the basal disc. The small piece of polyp which remains will develop into a new polyp. The commitment to the medusa stage moves down the body column and precedes the visible onset of segmentation by about one day. Segmentation and metamorphosis can start at the cut surface of transversely cut body columns, leading to a mirror-image pattern of sequentially developing medusae.

  6. Offshore dispersion of ephyrae and medusae of Aurelia aurita s.l. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from port enclosures: Physical and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Uye, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. have been increasingly significant, particularly in human perturbed coastal waters, where numerous artificial constructions increase suitable habitat for polyp populations. We examined the spatiotemporal dispersion process in 6 ports of ephyrae of A. aurita after release from strobilating polyps, to offshore waters of northern Harima Nada (eutrophic eastern Inland Sea of Japan) from January to May 2010. Almost exclusive occurrence of the ephyra stage in the ports demonstrated that their seeding polyps reside in the port enclosures, and liberated ephyrae are rapidly exported offshore by tidal water exchange. Post-ephyra stages occurred primarily outside the ports, and their age increased gradually offshore, ca. up to 9 km off the ports, and the pattern of age increase could be simulated by a simple diffusion model. However, there was an abrupt decline in A. aurita density beyond ca. 3 km off the shore, where jellyfish-eating Chrysaora pacifica medusae were prevalent. We conclude that physical forces are primarily responsible for offshore dispersion of A. aurita, and a biological factor, i.e. predation by C. pacifica, jointly affects the distribution pattern of A. aurita.

  7. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E ACEITABILIDADE DA SARDINHA (SARDINELLA BRASILIENSIS EM CONSERVA ADICIONADA DE MOLHO COM TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janise Pedroso COLEMBERGUE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O pescado é um alimento rico em proteínas, minerais, vitaminas e possui fácil digestão. A procura por alimentos prontos para o consumo, como pescado em conserva, ainda é uma opção interessante para o consumidor, devido ao tempo reduzido de preparação. As características sensoriais estão entre os principais determinantes na aquisição, consumo, aceitação e preferência dos produtos alimentícios por diferentes faixas etárias. A aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho de tomate foi avaliada por 50 provadores não treinados em ambiente laboratorial através de uma fi cha com escala hedônica de nove pontos. Além disso, a determinação da composição química foi realizada e comparada com os valores declarados no rótulo do produto. A aceitação obtida para este tipo de conserva foi de 84% e a média de pontuação de 7.56, sendo esta caracterizada entre “gostei” e “gostei muito”, observou-se ainda que 54% dos julgadores possuíam hábitos de consumir pescado em conserva. A composição química da sardinha em conserva obtida foi de 62,44±0,33% de umidade, 2,7±0,22% de resíduo mineral fi xo, 19,35±1,05% de proteínas e 15,11±0,6% de lipídios totais, apresentando-se de acordo com a rotulagem, exceto para o teor de lipídio. Este estudo permitiu observar a grande aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho com tomate, mesmo entre os julgadores que não possuíam o hábito de consumi-lo.

  8. ENRIQUECIMENTO AMBIENTAL X COMPORTAMENTO EM CATIVEIRO DE CALLITHRIX AURITA (É. Geoffroy, 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellus Pereira Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental foram utilizadas para avaliação dos comportamentos em cativeiro de um grupo de três indivíduos, duas fêmeas e um macho de Callithrix aurita (sagui-da-serra-escuro, cativos do Mantenedor de Fauna Silvestre da UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP. Foram implantados seis diferentes enriquecimentos alimentares e observações com duração de uma hora pelo método “focal sampling grupal” no período de agosto a novembro de 2015. Os comportamentos categorizados, inicialmente, eram Alimentação, Alerta, Comunicação, Social, Manutenção e Território. A categoria Cuidado Parental foi adicionada após o nascimento de dois filhotes. Percebeu-se que Alimentação e Alerta foram as categorias mais evidentes, que Cuidado Parental apareceu equilibrada entre os membros e as expressões de comportamentos típicos foram significantes para concluir que enriquecimentos ambientais melhoram o bem-estar animal de animal em cativeiro.

  9. Artificial substrates preference for proliferation and immigration in Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amounts of artificial marine substrates, in many parts of the world have been proposed as a potential driver of Aurelia spp. blooms, on account of providing extra habitats for the settlement and the proliferation of the benthic stage (polyps). Previous experiments have mainly focused on the substrate choices of Aurelia spp. planulae. However, substrate preferences for the proliferation and immigration of polyps have not been reported. We monitored the propagation and immigration of Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps on two natural and nine artificial substrates at constant temperature (20±0.5°C) and salinity (30±0.5) in beakers and a glass aquarium in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that, among artificial substrates, the highest number for polyp proliferation and immigration was found on nets, rigid polyvinyl chloride plates (RPVC), and wood. The lowest density of polyps was present on iron plates. Among natural substrates, the asexual reproduction rate of polyps on Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) shells was significantly higher than Azumapecten farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904). On the account of the distinction in the roughness, chemical properties and biofilms of these material surfaces, bare artificial or natural substrates discriminatively affect the proliferation and the immigration of Aurelia spp. polyps at laboratory. These observations suggest that, even in the natural environment, different materials and texture may influence the composition and the abundance of the fouling communities and the assemblages of polyps and, indirectly, have effects on the amounts of released medusae.

  10. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode.

  11. Plankton Dynamics and Aurelia auritaProduction in Two Contrasting Ecosystems: Comparisons and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. H.; Hirst, A. G.; Williams, J. A.

    1997-08-01

    The population dynamics and production of the Scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita(Lam.) were examined within two contrasting ecosystems on the south coast of England; Southampton Water, an open productive estuary, and Horsea Lake, an enclosed, brackish, man-made body of water. Annual A. auritaproduction in Southampton Water ranged between 31 and 58 mg C m -3year -1in different years (1990-94); while at Horsea Lake, annual production was 76 mg C m -3year -1in 1994. The potential impact of A. auritaon the mesozooplankton communities was estimated through measurements of in situsecondary production and transfer efficiency between the two populations. Using literature-based estimates for mesozooplankton production, the annual transfer efficiency between the mesozooplankton and A. auritapopulations in Southampton Water ranged between 9 and 26% in different years, and in Horsea Lake was 73% in 1994. These data imply that the abundant A. auritapopulation may have a significant impact on the mesozooplankton community of Horsea Lake, and in turn, the very small A. auritasizes observed indicate a severely food limited population. The ecological role of A. auritain Horsea Lake is discussed in view of the very low chl aand mesozooplankton numbers present.

  12. Functional morphology and fluid interactions during early development of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitl, K E; Millett, A F; Colin, S P; Dabiri, J O; Costello, J H

    2009-12-01

    Scyphomedusae undergo a predictable ontogenetic transition from a conserved, universal larval form to a diverse array of adult morphologies. This transition entails a change in bell morphology from a highly discontinuous ephyral form, with deep clefts separating eight discrete lappets, to a continuous solid umbrella-like adult form. We used a combination of kinematic, modeling, and flow visualization techniques to examine the function of the medusan bell throughout the developmental changes of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita. We found that flow around swimming ephyrae and their lappets was relatively viscous (1 < Re < 10) and, as a result, ephyral lappets were surrounded by thick, overlapping boundary layers that occluded flow through the gaps between lappets. As medusae grew, their fluid environment became increasingly influenced by inertial forces (10 < Re < 10,000) and, simultaneously, clefts between the lappets were replaced by organic tissue. Hence, although the bell undergoes a structural transition from discontinuous (lappets with gaps) to continuous (solid bell) surfaces during development, all developmental stages maintain functionally continuous paddling surfaces. This developmental pattern enables ephyrae to efficiently allocate tissue to bell diameter increase via lappet growth, while minimizing tissue allocation to inter-lappet spaces that maintain paddle function due to boundary layer overlap.

  13. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Panteleev, Pavel V; Balandin, Sergey V; Gizatullina, Albina K; Altukhov, Dmitry A; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Kokryakov, Vladimir N; Arseniev, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2012-12-07

    Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its (15)N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3(10)-helix and two α-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two α-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the "functional dyad" required for the high-affinity interaction with the K(+)-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesogleal cells of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita are involved in the formation of mesogleal fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikova, Tatiana; Matveev, Ivan; Napara, Tatiana; Podgornaya, Olga

    2005-11-01

    The extracellular matrix of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria), known as the mesoglea, is populated by numerous mesogleal cells (Mc). We determined the pattern of the Mc and the mesoglea, raised polyclonal antibodies (RA47) against the major mesogleal protein pA47 (47 kDa) and checked their specificity. In the mesoglea, RA47 stains pA47 itself. In immunoblots of Mc, RA47 stains bands of 120 kDa and 80 kDa; weaker staining is observed at pA47. The same staining pattern is seen on blots of jellyfish epidermal cells and of whole Hydra (Hydrozoa) or isolated mesoglea of Hydra. Our data indicate that pA47 is synthesized by Mc and epidermal cells as high molecular precursors. Using immunostaining techniques, we showed Mc to be involved in the formation of mesogleal non-collagenous (called "elastic" in classic morphological studies) fibres. The biochemical and morphological data suggest that Mc originate from the epidermis.

  15. Clearance rates of ephyrae and small medusae of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita offered different types of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Madsen, Caroline V.

    2011-01-01

    Prey selection and knowledge of the amounts of water processed by the early stages of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may at certain times of the year be crucial for understanding the plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems with mass occurrences of this jellyfish. In the present study we used two different methods ("clearance method" and "ingestion-rate method") to estimate the amount of water cleared per unit of time of different types and sizes of prey organisms offered to A. aurita ephyrae and small medusae. The mean clearance rates of medusae, estimated with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey by both methods, agreed well, namely 3.8 ± 1.4 l h - 1 by the clearance method and 3.2 ± 1.1 l h - 1 by the ingestion-rate method. Both methods showed that copepods (nauplii and adults) and mussel veligers are captured with considerably lower efficiency, 22 to 37% and 14 to 30%, respectively, than Artemia salina nauplii. By contrast, the water processing rates of ephyrae measured by the clearance method with A. salina nauplii as prey were 3 to 5 times lower than those measured by the ingestion-rate method. This indicates that the prerequisite of full mixing for using the clearance method may not have been fulfilled in the ephyrae experiments. The study demonstrates that the predation impact of the young stages of A. aurita is strongly dependent on its developmental stage (ephyra versus medusa), and the types and sizes of prey organisms. The estimated prey-digestion time of 1.3 h in a steady-state feeding experiment with constant prey concentration supports the reliability of the ingestion-rate method, which eliminates the negative "container effects" of the clearance method, and it seems to be useful in future jellyfish studies, especially on small species/younger stages in which both type and number of prey can be easily and precisely assessed.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas dhakensis Strain F2S2-1, Isolated from the Skin Surface of an Indian Oil Sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Mohan; Vaidyanathan, V V; Thayumanavan, Thangavelu

    2016-08-18

    Draft genome sequencing of Aeromonas dhakensis strain F2S2-1, isolated from the skin surface of an Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), has been carried out. The draft genome was roughly 4.7 Mb in size with 61.7% G+C content. Annotation of the genome yielded 4,337 genes coding for proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Annotation also revealed the presence of 52 genes linked to resistance to antibiotics/toxic compounds. Pathway analysis revealed the presence of novobiocin biosynthetic genes and genes for biosynthesis of a siderophore group on nonsynthetic peptides. Copyright © 2016 Nadiga et al.

  17. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  18. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  19. The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Matthew J; Jed, Jason

    2003-11-01

    It is not well understood how ontogenetic changes in the motion and morphology of aquatic animals influence the performance of swimming. The goals of the present study were to understand how changes in size, shape and behavior affect the hydrodynamics of jet propulsion in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and to explore how such changes affect the ontogenetic scaling of swimming speed and cost of transport. We measured the kinematics of jellyfish swimming from video recordings and simulated the hydrodynamics of swimming with two computational models that calculated thrust generation by paddle and jet mechanisms. Our results suggest that thrust is generated primarily by jetting and that there is negligible thrust generation by paddling. We examined how fluid forces scaled with body mass using the jet model. Despite an ontogenetic increase in the range of motion by the bell diameter and a decrease in the height-to-diameter ratio, we found that thrust and acceleration reaction scaled with body mass as predicted by kinematic similarity. However, jellyfish decreased their pulse frequency with growth, and speed consequently scaled at a lower exponential rate than predicted by kinematic similarity. Model simulations suggest that the allometric growth in Aurelia results in swimming that is slower, but more energetically economical, than isometric growth with a prolate bell shape. The decrease in pulse frequency over ontogeny allows large Aurelia medusae to avoid a high cost of transport but generates slower swimming than if they maintained a high pulse frequency. Our findings suggest that ontogenetic change in the height-to-diameter ratio and pulse frequency of Aurelia results in swimming that is relatively moderate in speed but is energetically economical.

  20. Microbacterium aureliae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Aurelia aurita, the moon jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurwinder; Mual, Parveen; Kumar, Narender; Verma, Ashish; Kumar, Anand; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a lemon-yellow-pigmented actinobacterium, strain JF-6T, isolated from Aurelia aurita, the moon jellyfish, collected from the Bay of Bengal coast, Kanyakumari, India, was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain had phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties that were consistent with its classification in the genus Microbacterium. Alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JF-6T with sequences from Microbacterium arthrosphaerae CC-VM-YT, Microbacterium yannicii G72T, Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum IFO 15077T, Microbacterium flavescens DSM 20643T, Microbacterium insulae DS-66T, Microbacterium resistens DMMZ 1710T and Microbacterium thalassium IFO 16060T revealed similarities of 98.95, 98.76, 98.43, 98.41, 98.41, 98.26 and 98.22 %, respectively. However, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbours confirmed that it represents a novel species within the genus. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The major menaquinones detected for strain JF-6T were MK-13 and MK-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine and the peptidoglycan was type B2β (Glu/Hyg-Gly-d-Orn). The DNA G+C content was 69.4 mol%. Based on these differences, strain JF-6T (=MTCC 11843T=JCM 30060T=KCTC 39828T) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species of Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium aureliae sp. nov. is proposed.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of the dynamic life cycle of the scypohozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhman, Vera; Malik, Assaf; Haas, Brian; Sher, Noa; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-02-14

    The moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a widespread scyphozoan species that forms large seasonal blooms. Here we provide the first comprehensive view of the entire complex life of the Aurelia Red Sea strain by employing transcriptomic profiling of each stage from planula to mature medusa. A de novo transcriptome was assembled from Illumina RNA-Seq data generated from six stages throughout the Aurelia life cycle. Transcript expression profiling yielded clusters of annotated transcripts with functions related to each specific life-cycle stage. Free-swimming planulae were found highly enriched for functions related to cilia and microtubules, and the drastic morphogenetic process undergone by the planula while establishing the future body of the polyp may be mediated by specifically expressed Wnt ligands. Specific transcripts related to sensory functions were found in the strobila and the ephyra, whereas extracellular matrix functions were enriched in the medusa due to high expression of transcripts such as collagen, fibrillin and laminin, presumably involved in mesoglea development. The CL390-like gene, suggested to act as a strobilation hormone, was also highly expressed in the advanced strobila of the Red Sea species, and in the medusa stage we identified betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, an enzyme that may play an important part in maintaining equilibrium of the medusa's bell. Finally, we identified the transcription factors participating in the Aurelia life-cycle and found that 70% of these 487 identified transcription factors were expressed in a developmental-stage-specific manner. This study provides the first scyphozoan transcriptome covering the entire developmental trajectory of the life cycle of Aurelia. It highlights the importance of numerous stage-specific transcription factors in driving morphological and functional changes throughout this complex metamorphosis, and is expected to be a valuable resource to the community.

  2. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Panteleev, Pavel V.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K.; Altukhov, Dmitry A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokryakov, Vladimir N. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its {sup 15}N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3{sub 10}-helix and two {alpha}-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two {alpha}-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the 'functional dyad' required for the high-affinity interaction with the K{sup +}-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  3. Extraction of fish body oil from Sardinella longiceps by employing direct steaming method and its quantitative and qualitative assessment

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    Moorthy Pravinkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the quantitative and qualitative properties of the extracted fish oil from Sardinella longiceps (S. longiceps. Methods: Four size groups of S. longiceps were examined for the extraction of fish oil based on length. The size groups included Group I (size range of 7.1–10.0 cm, Group II (size range of 10.1–13.0 cm, Group III (size range of 13.1–16.0 cm and Group IV (size range of 16.1– 19.0 cm. Fish oil was extracted from the tissues of S. longiceps by direct steaming method. The oil was then subjected to the determination of specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and observation of colour. Results: The four groups showed different yield of fish oil that Group IV recorded the highest values of (165.00 ± 1.00 mL/kg followed by Group III [(145.66 ± 1.15 mL/kg] and Group II [(129.33 ± 0.58 mL/kg], whereas Group I recorded the lowest values of (78.33 ± 0.58 mL/ kg in monsoon season, and the average yield was (180.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg fish tissues. These analytical values of the crude oil were well within the acceptable standard values for both fresh and stocked samples. Conclusions: The information generated in the present study pertaining to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of fish oil will serve as a reference baseline for entrepreneurs and industrialists in future for the successful commercial production of fish oil by employing oil sardines.

  4. Extraction of fish body oil fromSardinella longiceps by employing direct steaming method and its quantitative and qualitative assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moorthy Pravinkumar; Lawrence Xavier Eugien; Chinnathambi Viswanathan; Sirajudeen Mohammad Raffi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the quantitative and qualitative properties of the extracted fish oil from Sardinella longiceps(S. longiceps). Methods: Four size groups ofS. longiceps were examined for the extraction of fish oil based on length. The size groups included Group I (size range of 7.1–10.0 cm), Group II (size range of 10.1–13.0 cm), GroupIII (size range of 13.1–16.0 cm) and Group IV (size range of 16.1–19.0 cm). Fish oil was extracted from the tissues ofS. longiceps by direct steaming method. The oil was then subjected to the determination of specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and observation of colour. Results: The four groups showed different yield of fish oil that Group IV recorded the highest values of (165.00 ± 1.00) mL/kg followed by GroupIII [(145.66 ± 1.15) mL/kg] and Group II [(129.33 ± 0.58) mL/kg], whereas Group I recorded the lowest values of (78.33 ± 0.58) mL/kg in monsoon season, and the average yield was (180.0 ± 4.9) mL/kg fish tissues. These analytical values of the crude oil were well within the acceptable standard values for both fresh and stocked samples. Conclusions:The information generated in the present study pertaining to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of fish oil will serve as a reference baseline for entrepreneurs and industrialists in future for the successful commercial production of fish oil by employing oil sardines.

  5. [Morphodynamics of the contract plate in the course of oocyte maturation in the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Semaeostomae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, L S; Podgornaia, O I; Shaposhnikova, T G

    2012-01-01

    The structure forming in the area of contact between the oocyte and the germinal epithelium in the course of oocyte maturation of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is termed the contact plate. This study traces the successive stages of contact plate formation in the course of oocyte maturation at the light microscopic and ultrastructural levels. At early stages ofoocyte development, the appearance of granules is observed in the peripheral cytoplasm of the oocyte; these granules accumulate at the pole, which retains its connection with the germinal epithelium of the gonads. Two types of these granules are recognized: (1) granules with homogeneous content and (2) granules containing loose shapeless material in the form of thick cords. The transformation of type two granules into larger structures, as well as the consolidation of type one and type two granules at later stages of oocyte development, are probably the processes that lead to the formation of the characteristic structure and contact plate, visible in paraffin and semithin sections. It remains unclear where exactly the contact plate is localized at the moment of fertilization: inside or outside the oocyte. The content of granules and components of the plate specifically bind the antibodies (RA47) against mesoglein, the ZP domain-containing protein of the mesoglea of A. aurita. The contact plate, covering only the anomalous pole of the oocyte but detected by the presence of ZP domain-containing proteins, may prove to be the simplest egg membrane of the zona pellucida type.

  6. Occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris in regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi de determinar a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. albiventris e D. aurita em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, utilizou-se noventa e oito Didelphis mortos, sendo 66 D. aurita e 32 D. albiventris, e também 28 D. aurita e cinco D. albiventris vivos. O método de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose foi empregado para isolamento dos oocistos/esporocistos de Sarcocystis spp. do intestino delgado e das fezes. Encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. no intestino delgado de 9,1% dos D. aurita (6/66, sendo que quatro destes também houve positividade nas fezes. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre machos e fêmeas positivos (P= 0,522, e entre os positivos de diferentes origens do Estado de São Paulo (P= 0,627, quanto a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. Entretanto, houve diferença estatística significativa entre animais de vida livre e de cativeiro (P = 0.009, sendo que somente os de vida livre foram positivos. Entre adultos e filhotes positivos também houve diferença (P= 0,004, sendo os adultos mais parasitados que os filhotes. Das amostras provenientes dos 28 D. aurita vivos, encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. em 7.1% (2/28 deles. Dos 32 D. albiventris, todos foram negativos para Sarcocystis spp. nas amostras de intestino delgado e fezes. Os cincos D. albiventris vivos também foram negativos. Sendo assim, pode-se observar que a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. aurita e D. albiventris nestas três regiões do Estado de São Paulo é baixa para estas condições analisadas.

  7. Fluctuations in the spawning stock biomass and recruitment of the brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis 1977-1997

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    Maria Cristina Cergole

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southeastern coast of Brazil, catches of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis have been decreasing from more than 200 thousand tons/year in the early '70s to about 32 thousand tons in 1990. From 1994 to 1997, catches recovered slightly (118 thousand tons, dropping then to about 20 thousand tons in 1999-2000. Extensive investigations on biology and stock assessment of Brazilian sardine have been developed in the '80s, providing stock biomass and recruitment estimates based on commercial fishing data obtained from 1977-1992. The present paper aims to update biological and stock assessment parameters from sardine data obtained during two acoustic surveys carried out in 1995 and commercial catches from the 1993-1997 period. Results from both cruises showed the weight-length relationship Wt=0.0000019. Lt3,26 (90-240 mm total length and four age classes (mostly class II+. In the commercial catches, sardines belonged to ages 0+ and 3+ years old (mostly older than 1-year old with 90-250 mm total length. Annual growth parameters were: Li=275 mm, K= 0.55 (1996, and Li=273 mm, K=0.50 (1997. Total mortality (Z and natural mortality (M coefficients were: Z= 3.8; M= 0.7 -1.2 (1996, and Z= 3.6; M= 0.6 - 1.1 (1997. The variation amplitude of M is due to the application of several different methods. Considering the historical series of 21 years of data (1977-1997, results showed that the stock went through two favorable periods (1980-84, 1989-94 and one unfavorable period (1985-89. 1997 seems to have been the beginning of a new unfavorable period, revealing recruitment cycles likewise other stocks from California and Japan.Na costa sudeste do Brasil, as capturas da sardinha-verdadeira {Sardinella brasliensis decresceram de mais de 200 mil t/ano no início dos anos 70 para cerca de 32 mil t em 1990. De 1994 a 1997, as capturas se recuperaram alcançando 118 mil t, caindo então para cerca de 20 mil t em 1999-2000. Estudos abrangentes sobre a

  8. Aurelin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from jellyfish Aurelia aurita with structural features of defensins and channel-blocking toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Balandin, Sergey V; Aleshina, Galina M; Tagaev, Andrey A; Leonova, Yulia F; Krasnodembsky, Eugeny D; Men'shenin, Alexander V; Kokryakov, Vladimir N

    2006-09-22

    A novel 40-residue antimicrobial peptide, aurelin, exhibiting activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, was purified from the mesoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita by preparative gel electrophoresis and RP-HPLC. Molecular mass (4296.95 Da) and complete amino acid sequence of aurelin (AACSDRAHGHICESFKSFCKDSGRNGVKLRANCKKTCGLC) were determined. Aurelin has six cysteines forming three disulfide bonds. The total RNA was isolated from the jellyfish mesoglea, RT-PCR and cloning were performed, and cDNA was sequenced. A 84-residue preproaurelin contains a putative signal peptide (22 amino acids) and a propiece of the same size (22 amino acids). Aurelin has no structural homology with any previously identified antimicrobial peptides but reveals partial similarity both with defensins and K+ channel-blocking toxins of sea anemones and belongs to ShKT domain family.

  9. Metabolism measurements of Aurelia aurita planulae larvae, and calculation of maximal survival period of the free swimming stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.; Weisse, T.

    1985-03-01

    Respiration, ammonia and phosphate excretion experiments were performed with planula larvae of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) from Kiel Fjord, Baltic Sea, in summer 1983. The mean respiration measured was 3.22 nl O2 ind-1 h-1 (at ˜ 20 °C). Excretion experiments revealed average values of 11.41 pM NH4-N ind-1, and 0.92 pM PO4-P ind-1h-1, respectively. The atomic C:N:P ratio of excretion products was 133:10:1. The O:N ratio of 25:1 and O:P ratio of 313:1 point to a lipid-carbohydrate-oriented catabolism of the Aurelia larvae. On the basis of experimental results and of biomass determinations, the maximal survival period of the non-feeding free swimming planula stage was calculated. Typically, the value lies in the range of some days to one week.

  10. Induction of stolon settlement in the scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae) by glycolipids of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G.

    1985-06-01

    The settlement of pedal stolons of scyphopolyps of Aurelia aurita Lamarck could be induced by addition of a species of bacteria from the family Micrococcaceae. After treatment of the bacteria with several organic solvents a crude lipid extract free of bacteria could be obtained which was shown to be effective in inducing stolon settlement. Crude lipids extracted from the late logarithmic growth phase had an optimal effect on stolon attachment, in contrast to previously published experiments showing that all logarithmic phases of bacteria had the same level of effectiveness. After separation of the crude lipid extracts by thin layer chromatography and subsequent bioassay of the reeluated substances, acylgalactosidyldiglyceride and monogalactosidyldiglyceride were identified as the effective substances. Monogalactosidyldiglyceride was only found in bacteria from the medium logarithmic growth phase, whereas the former was found at all stages. The effectiveness of acylgalactosidyldiglyceride was independent of the growth phase of the extracted bacteria.

  11. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO, TAURIN, MINERAL MAKRO-MIKRO, DAN VITAMIN B12 UBUR-UBUR (Aurelia aurita SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - - Nurjanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan komposisi gizi, asam amino, taurin, mineral makro dan mikro,dan vitamin B12 pada ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita segar dan kering. Asam amino esensial pada ubur-uburyaitu arginina, leusina, valina, treonina, lisina, isoleusina, fenilalanina, metionina, dan histidina, sedangkanasam amino non esensial yaitu asam glutamat, glisina, asam aspartat, serina, alanina, dan tirosina. Asamamino esensial tertinggi segar dan kering adalah arginina sebesar 1,72% (bk dan 1,44% (bk dan terendahhistidina yaitu sebesar 0,19% (bk dan 0,13% (bk. Asam amino non esensial segar dan kering tertinggiadalah asam glutamat dan glisina yaitu sebesar 3,26% (bk dan 2,62% (bk dan terkecil tirosina sebesar0,38% (bk dan 0,41% (bk. Taurin segar sebesar 2,68% (bk dan kering sebesar 0,67% (bk. Mineral makrotertinggi segar dan kering adalah natrium yaitu 180.092,1 ppm (bk dan 111.209,4 ppm (bk, terkecil adalahkalsium yaitu 5.750,2 ppm (bk dan 11,1 ppm (bk. Mineral mikro tertinggi segar dan kering adalah iodium yaitu8.291,5 ppm (bk dan 1.800 ppm (bk dan yang terkecil adalah tembaga yaitu 1,1 ppm (bk dan 0,6 ppm (bk.Vitamin B12 segar adalah 396,6 μm/100 g (bk dan kering 63,5 μm/100 g (bk.Kata kunci: asam amino, mineral, taurin, ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita, vitamin B12

  12. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  13. Calcium and phosphorus determination in bones of low value fishes, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes and Trichiurus savala (Cuvier, from Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India

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    Logesh AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate calcium and phosphorus levels in the bones of low value fishes Sardinella longiceps (oil sardine and Trichiurus savala (ribbon fish. Methods: Bones and skeletal remains were subjected to alkaline-alcohol treatment for specified period of time and were then dried and pulverized. Calcium and phosphorus levels were determined by both volumetric and instrumental methods using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: Volumetric analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 28.98% and 14.2% in oil sardine; 24.2% and 11.6% in ribbon fish respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 32.73% and 17.2% for oil sardine and 27.17% and 10.83% for ribbon fish respectively. Protein level was 4.82% in oil sardine and 3.97% in ribbon fishes. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that sardine bones are rich in calcium and will be utilized for the production of calcium powder to treat osteoporosis.

  14. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Gláucia M. Freitas-Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05, except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05. No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de células nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e

  15. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  16. Estimation of the minimum food requirement using the respiration rate of medusa of Aurelia aurita in Sihwa Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-hoon; Chae, Jinho; Jin, Jonghyeok; Yoon, Wonduk

    2012-06-01

    We examined the respiration rate of Aurelia aurita medusae at 20 °C and 28 °C to evaluate minimum metabolic demands of medusae population in Sihwa Lake, Korea during summer. While weight specific respiration rates of medusae were constant and irrespective to the wet weight (8-220 g), they significantly varied in respect to temperatures ( p<0.001, 0.11±0.03 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 20°C and 0.28±0.11 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 28 °C in average, where Q 10 value was 2.62). The respiration rate of medusae was defined as a function of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) according to the equation, R=0.13×2.62( T-20)/10 W 0.93. Population minimum food requirement ( PMFR) was estimated from the respiration rate as 15.06 and 4.86 mg C m-3 d-1 in June and July, respectively. During this period, increase in bell diameter and wet weight was not significant ( p=1 in the both), suggesting that the estimated PMFR closely represented the actual food consumption in the field. From July to August, medusae grew significantly at 0.052 d-1, thus the amount of food ingested by medusae population in situ was likely to exceed the PMFR (1.27 mg C m-3 d-1) during the period. In conclusion, the medusae population of higher density during June and July had limited amount of food, while those of lower in July and August ingested enough food for growth.

  17. Occurrence, inter-annual variability and zooplankton-predation impact of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the native jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Limfjorden (Denmark) in 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik; Jaspers, Cornelia; Serre, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was observed for the first time in Limfjorden (Denmark) where it exhibited mass occurrence in late summer while the indigenous and usually dominating common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, was nearly absent. Both species were further studied in 2008...

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2006-10-15

    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum.

  19. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  20. SÍNTESE E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE BIODIESEL COM MATERIAL LIPÍDICO EXTRAIDO DAS VÍSCERAS DA Sardinella Brasiliensis

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    Anderson Fernandes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a extração atraves dois métodos (a frio e a quente, com solventes orgânicos o material lipídico obtido das vísceras da Sardinella Brasiliensis. Os lipidios foram submetidos a uma hidroesterificação utilizando iodo sublimado como catalisador. O óleo e o biodiesel foram caracterizados por RMN H1, espectroscopia FTIR, tensão superficial, densidade e água e sedimentos. Os resultados de água e sedimentos e densidade foram comparados com os previstos na legislação. Os resultados evidenciaram que o método à frio forneceu melhor rendimento na extração do óleo, que ocorreu a hidroesterificação do material indicado na técnica de  RMN H1 pelos dois prótons com sinal de quarteto na região de 4,2 ppm referentes aos hidrogênios metilênicos (CH2 ɑ-O, característicos de mono ésteres etílicos (biodiesel e na técnica de FTIR pelo aparecimento de deformações axiais características de ésteres em 1.742 cm-1.  Assim concluiu-se que as vísceras da sardinha são uma matéria-prima promissora e barata para produção de biodiesel, no entanto há necessidade de melhor caracterização da sua qualidade físico-química e estabilidade.

  1. Perfil hematológico de gambás Didelphis aurita e D. albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil = Blood profile of opossums Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi fornecer dados sobre o perfil hematológico de gambás (Didelphis sp.. Realizou-se hemograma de 83 D. aurita e 35 D. albiventris. Os valores obtidos dos D. aurita foram: Hematócrito dos adultos(A 31,8 ± 8,0% e dos filhotes(F 30,2 ± 6,9%; Eritrócitos A: 4,3 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1, F: 3,4 ± 1,1 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,5 ± 1,0 g dL-1, F: 7,2 ± 0,9 g dL-1;Hemoglobina A: 10,9 ± 3,4 g dL-1, F: 8,7 ± 2,2 g dL-1; VCM A: 78,13 ± 18,13, F: 93,65 ± 23,62; HCM A: 26,41 ± 6,42, F: 27,09 ± 7,44; CHCM A: 64,59 ± 8,12, F: 30,40 ± 11,49; Leucócitos A: 8.205 ± 4.950 μL-1, F: 5.126 ± 3.945 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 2.761 ± 2.966 μL-1, F: 1.310± 2.283 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 3.653 ± 2.431 μ L-1, F: 3.239 ± 2.234 μL-1; Monócitos A: 363,2 ± 308,7 μL-1, F: 101,5 ± 107,9 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 1.362,0 ± 1.114,0 μL-1, F: 456,1 ± 464,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 65,9 ± 127,0 μL-1, F: 19,8 ± 48,7 μL-1. Os valores obtidos dos D. albiventris foram: Hematócrito A: 33,2 ± 14,0%, F: 25,7 ± 3,7%; Eritrócitos A: 4,8 ± 1,7 x 106 μL-1 , F: 3,9 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,2 ± 0,6 g dL-1, F: 7,9 ± 1,1 g dL-1; Hemoglobina A: 10,3 ± 2,8 g dL-1, F: 10,2 ± 2,7 g dL-1; VCM A: 71,34 ± 23,74, F: 74,88 ± 27,68; HCM A: 22,86 ± 9,09, F: 28,63 ± 9,27,CHCM A: 32,48 ± 2,43, F: 40,13 ± 0,42; Leucócitos A: 11.683 ± 7.245 μL-1, F: 4.667 ± 4.027 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 6.007 ± 6.250 μL-1, F: 1.274 ± 2.586 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 4.389 ± 1.928 μL-1, F: 3.151± 3.045 μL-1; Monócitos A: 455 ± 378 μL-1, F: 152,7 ± 180,4 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 803 ± 840 μL-1, F: 67,8 ± 91,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 30,8 ± 75,3 μL-1, F: 21,5 ± 56,6 μL-1.The objective of this study was to provide data on the blood profile of opossums (Didelphis sp.. Hemograms were performed of 83 D. aurita and 35 D. albiventris. The results of D. aurita were: Hematocrit for adults(A 31.8 ± 8.0%, and for offspring(F 30.2 ± 6

  2. [The plate in the zone of oocyte and germinal epithelium contact in scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita binds antibodies to ZP-domain-containing protein mesoglein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, L S; Podgornaia, O I; Matveev, I V; Shaposhnikova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Cnidaria are lower multicellular animals with the body consisting of two epithelial layers. An extracellular substance--mesoglea--is situated between epidermal and gastrodermal layers of these animals. Mesoglein is one of the major mesogleal proteins of adult medusa of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Search for the known domains in mesoglein amino acid sequence reveals prominent zona pellucida (ZP) domain (which was found at first in the mammal oocyte zona pellucida proteins), so the protein belongs to ZP family of extracellular matrix proteins and it is an early metazoan member of ZP-domain-containing protein family. However, nothing is known about oogenesis related ZP-domain proteins in the lower multicellular animals. Oogenesis in Scyphozoa is described poorly. In this work morphological features of the zone in contact area between the oocyte and the germinal epithelium were investigated in semi-fine sections: To make it more convenient we identified seven stages according to the oocyte size and the structure found in this area was named the plate. It was shown that the components of the plate bound specifically the antibodies against mesoglein. So it seems the plate material contains ZP-domain proteins. Electrophoresis and immunoblot results give evidence that the proteins immunologically related to mesoglein have a higher molecular mass. It might be due to either the posttranslational modifications of the precursors or that they represent other proteins of ZP-domain family in Cnidaria.

  3. The use of ephyrae of a scyphozoan jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in the aquatic toxicological assessment of Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Gardinali, P R; Rand, G M

    2016-02-01

    Ephyrae of the scyphozoan jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, were evaluated in 96-hr acute toxicity tests for lethal response to Macondo crude oils from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Corexit 9500, and oil-dispersant mixtures. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of weathered and unweathered Macondo crude oils were not acutely toxic to ephyrae (LC50s > 100% WAF). The total PAHs (TPAHs), measured as the sum of 46 PAHs, averaged 21.1and 152 µg TPAH/L for WAFs of weathered and unweathered oil, respectively. Mortality was significantly (p = <0.0001) higher in the three highest exposure concentrations (184-736 µg TPAH/L) of chemically dispersed WAFs (CEWAF) compared to controls. Dispersant only tests resulted in a mean LC50 of 32.3 µL/L, which is in the range of previously published LC50s for marine zooplankton. Changes in appearance and muscle contractions were observed in organisms exposed to CEWAF dilutions of 12.5 and 25%, as early as 24 h post-exposure. Based on the results of these tests, crude oil alone did not cause significant acute toxicity; however, the presence of chemical dispersant resulted in substantial mortality and physical and behavioral abnormalities either due to an increase in hydrocarbons or droplet exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Lodewijk; Driessen, Floor; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bol, Anneke; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Coolen, Joop W P; Bos, Oscar G; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Schrieken, Niels; Langenberg, Victor T; van der Veer, Henk W

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates (settling plates, marina floats and wrecks) at ten inshore locations in the Netherlands, seven offshore locations in the North Sea and in the Gullmar Fjord in Sweden. Polyps were identified to species level by sequencing both a fragment of 18S rDNA and a fragment of mitochondrial COI, and comparing these sequences to reference sequences available in GenBank and to newly obtained sequences from medusae collected in the area. All polyps sequenced did belong to Aurelia aurita. For this species, molecular diversity in mitochondrial COI was high, with 50 haplotypes among 183 polyps. Population differentiation was detected between the Dogger Bank and other-more coastal-locations, indicating extremely low connectivity. No significant differences were found between coastal samples. The location of polyps of Cyanea capillata, Cyanea lamarckii, Chrysaora hysoscella and Rhizostoma octopus in the study area remains unresolved.

  5. A newly discovered oxidant defence system and its involvement in the development of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria): reactive oxygen species and elemental iodine control medusa formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Stefan; Czech, Nicole; Gerharz, Melanie; Herrmann, Klaus; Hoffmann, Uwe; Raifer, Hartmann; Sekul, Guy; Siefker, Barbara; Sommerei, Andrea; Vedder, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    In Aurelia aurita, applied iodine induces medusa formation (strobilation). This process also occurs when the temperature is lowered. This was found to increase oxidative stress resulting in an increased production of iodine from iodide. One polyp produces several medusae (initially termed ephyrae) starting at the polyp's oral end. The spreading of strobilation down the body column is controlled by a feedback loop: ephyra anlagen decrease the tyrosine content in adjacent polyp tissue by producing melanin from tyrosine. Endogenous tyrosine is able to remove iodine by forming iodiferous tyrosine compounds. The reduced level of tyrosine causes the ephyra-polyp-border to move towards the basal end of the former polyp. We argue that an oxidant defence system may exist which makes use of iodide and tyrosine. Like other marine invertebrates, polyps of Aurelia contain iodide ions. Inevitably produced peroxides oxidise iodide into iodine. The danger to be harmed by iodine is strongly decreased by endogenous tyrosine which reacts with iodine to form iodiferous tyrosine compounds including thyroxin. Both substances together, iodide and tyrosine, form an efficient oxidant defence system which shields the tissue against damage by reactive oxygen species. In the course of evolution (from a species at the basis of the animal kingdom like Aurelia to a highly evolved species like man) the waste product thyroxin (indicating a high metabolic rate) has developed into a hormone which controls the metabolic rate.

  6. Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

    2015-09-01

    Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity

  7. Estudo da diversidade de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre Macaé (22º23'S e Ilha de Santa Catarina (27º35'S: 1. Crescimento de dimensões corporais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of body proportions of Sardinella brasiliensis was not homogeneous in the study area, between Macaé (RJ and Santa Catarina Island (SC; the growth rates (K of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were greater than growth rates for another áreas. In this area the biomass estimates for pelagic fish is poor, and near Cabo Frio occurs an upwelling zone. These facts permit the sardines to attain large lengths in this area. Between Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis the growth rates were lower than in the northern part and Paranaguá Bay. On the other hand the biomass estimates for pelagic fish in Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis region was very high, and in this zone the population density is high and the growth rates are small. Paranaguá Bay is a particular region because of its geographical and oceanographic conditons; this is a shelter region with different features and the sardines living there attain small length. In this area the growth rates are intermediary among growth rates for fishes from Macaé-Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis regions. Therefore, the growth rates for sardines in southeast Brazilian proves to be dependent of the population density, food and oceanographic conditions.

  8. Estudos sobre estrutura, ciclo de vida e comportamento de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre 22ºS e 28ºS, Brasil: 3. morfologia e histologia de ovários e escala de maturidade Studies on the structure, life cycle and behaviour of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, in the region between 22ºS and 28ºS, Brazil: 3. Morphology and histology of ovaries and maturity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Judith Isaac-Nahum

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma melhor compreensão da dinâmica do processo reprodutivo de Sardinella brasiliensis e obtida através da associação de aspectos micro e macroscópicos das gonadas durante o ciclo sexual. O presente trabalho apresenta uma descrição das fases de desenvolvimento ovocitarias e dos estadios de maturidade dos ovarios de 119 fêmeas de S. brasiliensis, coletados na costa brasileira entre 22ºS e 28ºS. São descritas seis fases ovocitarias e duas estruturas derivadas, analisando-se as características citologicas das células germinativas durante o processo de maturação. Foram estabelecidos sete estadios: A (virgem, Bi (em início de maturação, Bf (em maturação avançada, Cf (maduro inicial, Cf (maduro desovado, D (es vaziado e R (em repouso, sendo discutida sua correspondência com outras es calas aplicadas as espécies.A better understanding of the reproductive process is obtained when histologic analysis of gonades is associated with macroscopic observations during the sexual cycles. This paper describes the developmental stages of the oocytes of the ovaries in 119 females of S. brasiliensis sampled along the Brazilian coast, between 22ºS and 28ºS. The cytologic characteristics of the germinative cells during the maturation process are given and six oocyte phases are described. Seven maturity stages are established: A (virgin, Bi (incipient maturation, Bf (advanced maturation, Ci (mature, Cf (ripe, D (spent and R (repose. These stages are compared to those presently used with respect to S. brasiliensis.

  9. Analysis of the morphology and distribution of argentaffin, argyrophil and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the small intestine of the adult opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, D R S; Novaes, R D; Marques, D C S; Fialho, M C Q; Neves, C A; Fonseca, C C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the argyrophil, argentaffin and insulin-immunoreactive cells (IIC) in the small intestine of the opossum Didelphis aurita. Seven adult male specimens of opossums were investigated. The animals were captured, and their blood insulin levels were determined. After euthanasia, fragments of the small intestine were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and submitted to histochemistry and immunohistochemistry for identification of argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells, and IIC. Argyrophil and argentaffin cells were identified in the intestinal villi and Liberkühn crypts, whereas IIC were present exclusively in the crypts. Ultrastructure of the IIC revealed cytoplasmic granules of different sizes and electron densities. The numbers of IIC per mm(2) in the duodenum and jejunum were higher than in the ileum (psmall intestine. The IIC presented secretory granules, elongated and variable morphology. It is believed that insulin secretion by the IIC may influence the proliferation of cells in the Liberkühn crypts, and local glucose homeostasis, primarily in animals with low serum insulin levels, such as the opossum.

  10. Preliminary study on the competition in the larvae stage between Aurelia aurita and Rhopilema esculentum during a short term%海月水母与海蜇不同幼体阶段的种间短期竞争研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟旭朋; 游奎; 马彩华; 袁韵涵; 陈四淸; 杨叶蕃; 刘心田

    2013-01-01

    近年来海蜇池塘养殖业的兴起,补充了传统海蜇渔业捕捞生产的不足,推动了海蜇产业的迅猛发展。海月水母常常在海蜇养殖池塘中泛滥成灾,对海蜇养殖业常常造成很大损失,但关于海蜇与海月水母的种间竞争关系尚缺乏研究。本文对海月水母与海蜇的螅状体、碟状体及水母体幼体相互之间的短期生存竞争关系进行了初步观察研究。结果表明:除海月水母碟状体可以被海蜇螅状体所捕食外,各种类型的海蜇幼体基本不能对海月水母幼体造成危害。但海月水母螅状体及其水母体幼体对海蜇幼体均存在一定的危害性,尤其是对海蜇碟状体的危害性最为严重,在饵料缺乏的情况下海蜇碟状体可以100%地被捕食。随着海蜇幼体的生长,其对于海月水母危害的抵抗力逐渐增强。本研究显示海月水母相对于海蜇而言,在幼体种间竞争关系中处于绝对优势,这是海月水母时常暴发成灾的一个重要因素。在海蜇池塘养殖生产及苗种培育过程中,应当严禁混入海月水母幼体,以避免对海蜇养殖生产造成损害。%In recent years ,the rise of the jellyfish pond culture covers the decrease of the traditional jellyfish fisheries production in China .And jellyfish pond cultures develop rapidly with high profits . A urelia aurita is one of the most common jellyfish bloom species which usually occurs in the culture ponds of edible jellyfish Rhopilema escu-lentum and causes huge losses .However ,there is little research about the interspecific competition between A .au-rita and R .esculentum .In this paper ,a preliminary study was finished about the short-term survival and competi-tive relationship among the scyphistomae ,ephyrae and larvae of A .aurita and R .esculentum .The results are as follows:Only the ephyraes of A .aurita can be eaten by the scyphistomae of R .esculentum ,but the ephyrae and larvae of

  11. Isolation and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii from a red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), a jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and a black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, H F J; Marvulo, M F V; Horta, M C; Silva, M A; Silva, J C R; Siqueira, D B; Lima, P-A C P; Vitaliano, S N; Gennari, S M

    2011-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates are highly diverse in domestic animals from Brazil. However, little is known about the genetics of this parasite from wild mammals in the same region. Reveal genetic similarity or difference of T. gondii among different animal populations is necessary for us to understand transmission of this parasite. Here we reported isolation and genetic characterisation of three T. gondii isolates from wild animals in Brazil. The parasite was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of a young male red handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul), an adult male jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi), and an adult female black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita). The monkey and the jaguarundi had inhabited the Zoo of Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil, for 1 year and 8 years, respectively. The wild black-eared opossum was captured in São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, and euthanised for this study because it was seropositive for T. gondii (titre 1:100 by the modified agglutination test, MAT). Ten PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico, were used to genotype the isolates. T. gondii was isolated from the brain and heart homogenate of the monkey, the muscle homogenate of the jaguarundi, and the heart homogenate of the black-eared opossum. This was the first isolation of T. gondii from a neotropical felid from Brazil. The isolate from the monkey (TgRhHmBr1) was not virulent in mice, whereas the isolates from the jaguarundi (TgJagBr1) and the black-eared opossum (TgOpBr1) were virulent in mice. The genotype of the isolate from the monkey has been identified in isolates from a goat and ten chickens in the same region of Brazil, suggesting that it may be a common lineage circulating in this region. The genotypes of the isolates from the jaguarundi and the black-eared opossum have not been previously reported. Although there

  12. The influence of different diets on growth performance in moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita%不同饲料对海月水母生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文龙; 冷向军; 刘晃

    2009-01-01

    研究了5种饲料对海月水母Aurelia aurita(伞体直径为2.50 cm±0.10 cm)生长性能的影响.实验共分5组,每组设3个平行,分别投喂卤虫无节幼体、冰冻卤虫、冷冻干燥卤虫、国产微粒饲料和国外微粒饲料,依照投喂饲料的不同,各组分别记为G_(鲜活)、G_(冰冻)、G_(干燥)、G_(国产)、G_(国外)组,实验共进行30 d.结果表明:饲养30 d后,5组海月水母伞体的平均直径依次为(5.01±0.10)、(4.78±0.20)、(4.62±0.11)、(4.23±0.05)、(4.42±0.06)cm,卤虫无节幼体组生长性能最好,水母伞体直径显著高于其他各组(P0.05),收缩频率平均为0.5~0.66 次/s;冰冻卤虫组的三态氮含量均显著高于其他各组(P<0.05),国内微粒饲料组的三态氮含量次之,也显著高于其他3组(P<0.05).本实验结果表明,卤虫无节幼体是海月水母较理想的饵料,冰冻卤虫和冷冻干燥卤虫次之.国产微粒饲料因为在营养组成、水中稳定性和悬浮性方面较差,饲养海月水母的效果也较差.%Moon jellyfish Amelia aurita with initial umbrella diameter of (2.50 ± 0.10)cm were fed nauplii of Ar-temia, frozen Atemia, freeze dried Atemia, Chinese microdiet and microdiet abroad for one month to evaluate the influence of the diets above on growth performance in the moon jellyfish. The moon jellyfish fed the Chinese micro-diet had survival rate of 95% , whereas the moon jellyfish fed the other diets had survival rate of 100%. The moon jellyfish fed the nauplii of Anemia showed the best growth performance, the umbrella diameter (5.01 cm ±0. 10 cm) being significant higher than the animals fed other diets(P <0.05) .followed by the moon jellyfish fed the fro-zen Atemia (4.78 cm ±0.20 cm in umbrella diameter) or freeze dried Atemia (4.62 cm ±0.11 cm in umbrella diameter). The least growth was observed in the moon jellyfish fed the Chinese microdiet (4.42 cm ±0.06 cm in umbrella diameter). The highest constraction frequency (1/second) was

  13. Rhopalium development in Aurelia aurita ephyrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Rhopalia of developing ephyrae were examined using the SEM and TEM at 24 h intervals following strobilation induction. Kinocilia are shorter in the ephyra stage than in polyps. A few ephyra-type kinocilia are found in rhopalia as early as 24 h after induction, before a distinct rhopalium is seen. By 72 h, the shorter kinocilia predominate and are almost as numerous as in ephyrae (120 h). Many of the kinocilia are associated with mechanoreceptor cells (MR) found in the rhopalia. These MR cells are compared to those reported for medusae. Although newly released ephyrae lack a touch plate, the MR cells in their rhopalia along with the statocyst and neuromuscular system apparently enable these organisms to detect and respond to gravity.

  14. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine (Sardina pilchardus and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita. The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences were found with sex and season. Anchovy preyed mainly on Crustacea larvae, whereas sardine and round sardinella on Copepoda. In the majority of cases (>90%, the individual fractional trophic level of all species ranged between 3.0 and 3.5, classifying them as omnivores with preference to animals. The feeding-related morphological features differed between anchovy and the two other species, whereas only intestine length differed between sardine and round sardinella. The fact that round sardinella’s diet and morphology show a greater resemblance to those of sardine, further support the hypothesis that is a particulate feeder as sardine. Hence the three species tend to exploit the same food resources differently throughout the year. Thus, they make best use of the environment and its resources, in order to avoid competition and achieve optimum feeding conditions throughout their life cycles

  15. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    lift ban on export of fish and fishery products to developed countries ...... California Fish and Game 59: 281-. 292. Wade DL, Jones CM, Robson DS, Pollock KH (1991). Computer. Simulation techniques to assess bias in the roving creel survey.

  16. Assessment of Sardinella and other Small Pelagics in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 was the sixth year of the cooperation between RIVO and the Mauritanian fisheries research institute IMROP (Institut Mauritanien des Recherches Océanographiques et de Pêche). It was also the second year of the current contract between RIVO and the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature a

  17. Determinação dos compostos basicos totais de pescado e o seu potencial para avaliação do frescor

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Chaves Amanajas

    1985-01-01

    Resumo: A presente pesquisa relata as condições analíticas e as aplicações de um novo método químico para avaliação do estado de frescor de pescados. O método foi denominado de Bases Totais (BT) para diferenciá-lo do teste convencional das Bases Voláteis (BV). Nos testes para o desenvolvimento do método, foram usadas as seguintes espécies: sardinha (Sardinella aurita) cavalinha (Scomber scombrus), corvina (Micropogon fournieri) pescada-foguete (Macrodon ancylodon), corimbatã (Prochilodus ret...

  18. Diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae assemblage associated with Posidonia oceanica beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoana del Pilar Ruso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity is a strong determinant of fish assemblage structure. Enhanced food resources and protection from predators are generally considered the main benefits of vegetated areas. We investigated the diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae within and above the leaf canopy of Posidonia oceanica to determine if it acts as an important habitat for larval stage fish. Samples were taken with moored plankton nets during the night and day at two depths (13 and 15 m over five consecutive days in July 2000 in the Marine Protected Area off Tabarca Island (Spain, SW Mediterranean Sea. In total, 353 fish larvae were captured. The most abundant taxa were Sardinella aurita, Sparidae, Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. Sparidae were more abundant within the leaf canopy during the day but increased in waters 2 m above the canopy at night. In contrast, Sardinella aurita were present throughout the entire water column during both the day and night. We conclude that the P. oceanica leaf canopy is important as a transitional shelter for the early stage larvae of some demersal fish species.

  19. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

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    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  20. Interannual variation of larval fish assemblages in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula in relation to summer oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mafalda Júnior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Two ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted during July 1994 and July 1995 in the Gulf of Cádiz with the aim of describing composition, abundance, distribution patterns and interannual variations of larval fish assemblages. Interannual differences were found in this study. In 1994, higher salinities were observed at external sites, though in 1995, higher values were observed at intermediate sites. The upper water column was warmer in 1994 and had less fish larvae density. During 1994, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus were abundant but spatial location was opposite. In 1995, abundance of both species was very different, but with similar spatial pattern. Cluster analysis revealed well-defined groups of stations and assemblages of larvae, primarily related to bathymetry. The "inshore assemblage" occupied the shallow coast area; its characteristics species being closely related to the estuarine system, mainly comprising Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. The "shelf assemblage" occupied the continental shelf and its characteristics species consisted of larvae whose adults inhabited the shelf province and spawn in the same zone, like Sardinella aurita and Trachurus spp. Interannual variations in composition and extension of the subgroups could be attributed to the main circulation patterns, continental water discharge and spawning strategies of fishes.Duas amostragens de ictioplâncton foram realizadas durante Julho de 1994 e Julho de 1995, no Golfo de Cádiz, com o objetivo de descrever a composição, abundância, padrões de distribuição e variações interanuais das associações de larvas de peixes. Diferenças interanuais foram encontradas neste estudo. Em 1994 salinidades mais elevadas foram observadas nas estações da plataforma externa, enquanto que, em 1995 os valores mais elevados foram encontrados nas estações da plataforma interna. A coluna de água foi mais quente em 1994 e apresentou menor densidade de larvas de

  1. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Application of satellite imagery to analyse the distribution and recruitment of sardinella - Annual Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeberg, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing studies at the Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Research (RIVO) aim to stimulate the use of satellite images on board of Dutch freezer-trawlers in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ). During four research missions (5-12 July 2002, 23-30 August 2002, 13-20 October 2002, a

  3. Peningkatan Mutu Terasi Kaya Antioksidan dan Protein Berbahan Kedelai, Jagung, dan Ikan Sarden (Sardinella Lemuru) Terfermentasi

    OpenAIRE

    Cherlin

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays people tend to consume fermented shrimp or flavoring to improve the taste of the food without looking at nutritional side of the flavoring. To counter this problem, it needs to diversify foods by replacing raw materials shrimps with sardines fermented flour, tempeh flour, and corn flour. This research was aimed to produce the fermented shrimp which is high in nutrient content such as protein and antioxidants needed by the human body. This research had 5 steps starting from making ...

  4. Inventory and Characterization of Sardine (Sardinella Sp. Oil from Java Island-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Parameter of fish oil quality could be observed from an omega-3 fatty acid content, antioxidant activity, Peroxide Value (PV, Free Fatty Acid (FFA value, total oxidation (totox value, density and viscosity, level of toxicity and its heavy metals content. This study aimed to determine the quality of sardine oils which was obtained as by product of fish meal and fish canning industry. Sardine A and B had different fatty acid composition. Based on toxicity test, it was known that sardine oil B (572.02 ppm had higher toxicity than sardine oil A (726.03 ppm. Heavy metal analysis results showed that sardine oil A had Pb concentration at 0.118 ppm, it passed a standard limit (≤0.1 ppm and it might be harmful for consumption. Peroxides value of sardine oil A and B was 13.33 meq/kg and 5.00 meq/kg, respectively. The highest FFA value was sardine oil B (3.948% then followed by sardine oil A (0.423%. Value of p-anisidine of sardine oil A and B was 1.09 and 0.88 meq/kg. The highest totox value was sardine oil A (27.76 meq/kg then followed by sardine oil B (10.88 meq/kg. Viscosity of sample B (270 cPs was higher than A (69 cPs and sample B (1.02 g/cm3 was denser than sample A (0.92 g/cm3.

  5. Genetic relationships among three species of the genus @iSardinella@@ (Clupeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    no alleles. Nei's genetic distance values ranged from 0.31 + or - 0.15 to 1.68 + or - 0.51. Four loci were polymorphic in @iS. albella@@, and three in @iS. fimbriata@@ at P=0.95 level. No locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion in @iS. longiceps@@. Average...

  6. NMR study on a novel mucin from jellyfish in natural abundance, Qniumucin from Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Jun; Urai, Makoto; Baba, Takayuki; Seki, Hiroko; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Ushida, Kiminori

    2009-05-22

    A novel mucin (qniumucin), which we recently discovered in jellyfish, was investigated by several NMR techniques. Almost all the peaks in the (13)C and proton NMR spectra were satisfactorily assigned to the amino acids in the main chain and to the bridging GalNAc, the major sugar in the saccharide branches. The amino acid sequence in the tandem repeat part (-VVETTAAP-) was reconfirmed by the cross-peaks between alpha protons and carbonyl carbons in the HMBC spectrum. A connectivity analysis around the O-glycoside bond (GalNAc-Thr) was also performed, and detailed information on the local configuration was obtained by the DPFGSE-NOE-HSD technique. The strategy and the results described in this paper can be extended to the structural analysis of general O-glycan chains, which are more complex than the present mucin. NMR analyses reveal the simple structure of qniumucin extracted by the present protocol, and the homogeneity and purity of qniumucin are probably the result of it being extracted from jellyfish, a primitive animal.

  7. Environmental conditions influencing the larval fish assemblage during summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia: South central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. KOCHED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic survey was carried out during the summer of 2009, from June 25 to July 3 in the Gulf of Gabes. The study area is characterized by a wide continental shelf.A plankton sampling scheme was carried out to study the structure of the larval fish assemblages that characterizes the surface mixed layer, and to assess the influence of the environmental parameters on their spatial distribution.A total of 36 taxa were identified, 3 classified to the level of genus, 5 to family and 28 to species. The majority of identified fish larvae belonged to demersal species, mainly picarel Spicara smaris (23.76% of the total larval fish abundance, followed by red mullet Mullus barbatus (14.92% and several species of the Sparidae family (9.15%. Small pelagic species as Sardinella Sardinella aurita and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus were also abundant (27.75 % and dominated the fish larvae community in offshore stations. Five large pelagic species were found among the larvae, including bullet tuna Auxis rochei, Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, swordfish Xiphias gladius and the highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. All these apex predator species appear in 38.5% of the sampling stations and contribute about 7.9% of the total larval catches. The larval fish assemblage of the Gulf of Gabes is predominantly composed of neritic species in correspondence with the shallow depths of the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that larval distributions were mainly conditioned by depth. However, other factors, like hydrographic processes, play also a very important role in shaping the spatial pattern of larval fish distribution.

  8. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  9. Influence of smoking and packaging methods on lipid stability and microbial quality of Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and Sardine (Sardinella gibossa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprian, Odoli O; Van Nguyen, Minh; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Jonsson, Asbjorn; Tomasson, Tumi; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and microbial quality of smoked capelin (two groups differing in lipid content) and sardine was studied, with the aim of introducing capelin in the smoked sardine markets. Lipid hydrolysis (phospholipid and free fatty acids) and oxidation index (hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), fatty acid composition, and total viable count were measured in raw and packaged smoked fish during chilled storage (day 2, 10, 16, 22, 28). Lipid hydrolysis was more pronounced in low lipid capelin, whereas accelerated lipid oxidation occurred in high lipid capelin. Muscle lipid was less stable in sardine than capelin. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) constituted 12% of fatty acids in capelin and 19% in sardine. Vacuum packaging as well as hot smoking retarded bacterial growth, recording counts of ≤log 5 CFU/g compared to ≥log 7CFU/g in cold smoked air packaged. Smoked low lipid capelin was considered an alternative for introduction in smoked sardine markets. PMID:26405526

  10. Mercury and selenium in seston, marine plankton and fish (Sardinella brasiliensis) as a tool for understanding a tropical food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Moreira, Isabel; Kehrig, Helena Amaral

    2015-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were evaluated in a planktivorous fish and four size classes of organisms (FSCO), collected at an oligotrophic bay in the Southeastern Brazilian coast. No significant spatial differences between Hg and Se were found in the FSCO within the five sampling points in the bay. Hg and Se concentrations increased with successive increases in the size class of the analyzed plankton, i.e. approximately 3-and 2-fold, respectively, from microplankton to macroplankton. Hg and Se biomagnified throughout the planktonic food web. The smallest size class of organism, seston, composed of both biotic and abiotic portions, and fish showed the highest Hg concentrations. This indicates that Hg is not biomagnifying in the base of the bay food web. Selenium concentrations in fish were approximately 5.9 times higher than those in seston. Hg and Se concentrations in fish were approximately 3.5 and 14.6 times higher than those found in the plankton, respectively.

  11. [Design of a HACCP plan for the industrial process of frozen sardines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2009-09-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system to identify, assess and control the hazards related with production, processing, distribution and consumption in order to get safe food. The aim of this study was to design a HACCP plan for implementing in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The methodology was based in the evaluation of the accomplishment of the pre-requisite programs (GMP/SSOP in a previous study), the application of the principles of the HACCP and the sequence of stages settles down by the COVENIN Venezuelan standard No 3802. Time-temperature was recorded in each processing step. Histamine was determined by VERATOX NEOGEN. Results showed that some sardine batches arrived to the plant with high time-temperature records, finding up to 5 ppm of histamine due to the abuse of temperature during transportation. A HACCP plan is proposed with the scope, the selection of the team, the description of the product and the intended use, the flow diagram of the process, hazard analysis and identification of CCP, monitoring system, corrective actions and records. The potential hazards were identified as pathogen growth, presence of histamine and physical objects in the sardines. The control measures of PCC are referred as control of time-temperature during transportation and processing, monitoring of ice supplies and sanitary conditions in the process.

  12. [Evaluation of prerequisites programs for a HACCP plan for frozen sardine plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Patricia; Reyes, Genara

    2008-06-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) are prerequisites programs for the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a food safety approach during processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate GMP/SSOP prerequisites in processing line of frozen whole sardine (Sardinella aurita). The GMP compliance was verified according to a standard procedure of the Ministry for the Health of Venezuela, and the SSOP were assessed according to a checklist proposed by the FDA. GMP and SSOP were evaluated following a demerit-based approach. A percentage value was calculated and referred to as sanitary effectiveness. Results indicated that the plant had a good level of compliance with GMP from assessment of buildings and facilities, equipment and tools, hygienic requisites of the production, assurance of the hygiene quality, storage and transportation, and the percentage of sanitary effectiveness was 84%. The level of compliance for SSOP was 53,12% with demerits found in all assessed aspects consisting of inexistent guidelines, lack of control in the sanitary plan and lack of leadership in applying corrective actions. Thus, an improvement in the plant sanitation program was designed targeting SSOP.

  13. Metal contents in common edible ifsh species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman; Samir Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namelyOreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed asµg/g of wet tissue. Results:Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  14. Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan; Strömbom, Daniel; Couillaud, Pierre; Domenici, Paolo; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; Wilson, Alexander D M; Krause, Jens

    2016-11-16

    We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing the dynamics of the hunt. We show that group hunting provides major efficiency gains (prey caught per unit time) for individuals in groups of up to 70 members. We also demonstrate that a free riding strategy, where some individuals wait until the prey are sufficiently injured before attacking, is only beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre-cursor to more complex group-hunting strategies.

  15. Preliminary results of the in vivo and in vitro characterization of a tentacle venom fraction from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-12-06

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC(50) values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  16. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Akiko; Sasaki, Ryota; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC) plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  17. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  18. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Ponce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  19. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Tomaru

    Full Text Available It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  20. 北部湾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)的摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化%Feeding Habits and Ontogenetic Diet Shifts of Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿鑫; 李永东; 何雄波; 卢伙胜; 颜云榕

    2015-01-01

    To study the mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) feeding habits and its ontogenetic diet shifts, 435 mackerel tuna were collected for an annual research from September 2008 to September 2009 in the main fishing ports such as Beihai, Basuo, Sanya and Jianghong of the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Results showed that the mackerel tuna of the Beibu Gulf was omnivorous and it predated not only the small pelagic fish but also the benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. Pisces were dominant in the diets with the percentage of Index of Relative Importance (IRI%) of 98.57%. Among these, 21 species were identified. As indicated with IRI%, Bregmaceros rarisquamosus (45.50%), Stolephorus zollingeri (11.81%), Theyssa setirostris (5.89%), and Sardinella aurita (5.87%) were principal in the food cons-ituent. The main species changed monthly and it was Sardinella aurita in January; Bregmaceros rarisquamosus in February, March, November, December; Unidentified Pisces from April to July;Sardinella aurita in August; Leignathus riviulatus in September; Stolephorus zollingeri in October. The prey weight and numbers increased when body size of mackerel tuna was less than 340 mm (SL<340 mm), but there were decreased when body size of mackerel tuna was from 341 to 520 (341-520 mm). The spawning periods of the mackerel tuna were spring and summer, mainly from April to August. There were two spawn peaks, June and August, which were recognized by the female gonad somatic index (GSI) that maintained strong feeding intensity during the reproduction periods. Moreover, the peak periods were consistent with the water temperature of pelagic layers provided by France CATSAT fisheries remote sensing system.%基于2008年9月-2009年9月在北部湾逐月采集的435尾鲔(Euthynnus affinis)生物学数据,对鲔生长、摄食习性及其随生长发育的变化进行了分析。结果显示,北部湾鲔属于广食性鱼类,主要摄食中上层小型鱼类,另外还包括底栖鱼类、

  1. Variations of fish community structure in the waters adjacent to Fugong in Jiulongjiang Estuary%福建九龙江口浮宫附近水域鱼类的群落结构变动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会军; 黄良敏; 李军; 王家樵; 张雅芝; 吝涛; 常国芳

    2013-01-01

    2011年1 ~12月,于每月大潮时采用定置张网在九龙江口浮宫附近水域进行鱼类采样.结果如下:(1)共获得86种鱼类,隶属于12目41科70属,其中鲈形目种类最多,占总数的51.2%,其次是鲱形目11种,其余各目均不超过6种;(2)采用Pinkas相对重要性指数划分标准,九龙江口浮宫附近水域的鱼类群落的全年优势种有4种,常见种9种,偶见种73种,其中优势种分别为裸头双边鱼(Ambassis gymnocephalus)、前鳞骨鲻(Osteomugil ophuyseni)、斑鰶(Konosirus punctatus)和青鳞小沙丁鱼(Sardinella zunasi),4个优势种的重量占渔获总重量的65.4%,其个体数占渔获总个体数的64.2%;(3)对鱼类群落结构起主导作用的种类有13种;(4)洄游性鱼类主要有龙头鱼(Harp-odon nehereus)、鳓(llisha elongata)及金色小沙丁鱼(Sardinella aurita)等,洄游至该水域的时期一般为夏季;(5)全年各月的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数变动范围为1.08 ~ 1.91,均匀度指数波动于0.36 ~0.56,而丰富度指数变化幅度为1.38 ~ 3.48.聚类分析结果显示,除1、2月间的相似性(72.5%)和10、11月的(62.1%)较高外,其余各月间的相似性均较低.以上结果表明,该水域的鱼类生物群落变动较大,具有较高的不稳定性.

  2. Addition of Ca-soap of Sardinella longiceps oil into the ration: 2. Its effect on physical and chemical characteristics of lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sudarman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lamb contains high saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Consuming such meat tends to increase atherosclerosis incident. Fat content and composition of meat might be manipulated by giving lemuru fish oil which is rich in HDL and unsaturated fatty acids into sheep diet. Giving lemuru fish oil in the protected form, such as complex calcium-soap is believed to be more beneficial. Twelve sheep were distributed into four groups to receive four experimental diets in studying the influence of calcium soap on meat quality. The sheep were allocated based on Randomized Block Design and at the end of rearing period they were slaughtered. The experimental diets were: R0 = control diet, R1 = R0 + 1.5% calcium soap, R2 = R0 + 3% calcium soap and R3 = R0 + 4.5% calcium soap. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and any significant differences were further tested using contrast orthogonal. The results showed that the treatments significantly (P<0.01 reduced fat content, both of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL of sheep meat. There were no differences in tendernes, cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC and pH of meat. It is concluded that the best level of Ca-soap fish oil addition to yield healthy meat is 3%.

  3. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  4. Interaction between spawning habitat and coastally steered circulation regulate larval fish retention in a large shallow temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Itziar; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Jordi, Antoni; Alemany, Francisco; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2015-12-01

    Larval retention plays a fundamental role in the persistence of coastal fish assemblages. Here, we examine larval fish distribution and abundance patterns in Palma Bay, a large (˜20 km) wind-driven microtidal bay in the southern coast of Mallorca (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Larval fish assemblage structure in the bay were analyzed during July 2010 and interpreted in the context of the observed circulation patterns, adult habitat distribution and spawning traits. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observations showed the presence of retentive flow patterns in the middle of the bay enhancing local larval accumulation and self-recruitment. In consequence, larval abundances were higher in this central part of the bay (˜40 m depth, mean abundance 607.6 ± 383 ind. 10 m-2) than along the coastal fringe (RDA) revealed differences between the larval fish assemblages in areas inside the bay, constituted by small pelagic and benthopelagic taxa (gobids, Chromis chromis and Serranus hepatus) and offshore larvae, mostly from meso and large pelagic fish. These larval fish assemblages were structured according to depth variations and zooplankton abundance, and remained relatively unmixed because of the circulation patterns in the mouth of the bay that uncouple its dynamics from alongshelf circulation. Even larvae of typically pelagic species that spawn close to the coast (Sardinella aurita, Auxis rochei) were associated with the retentive effect of the bay. Our study highlights the important role of coastal bays in the regulation of coastal fish population dynamics and as hotspots for the maintenance of diversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation on Resources Enhancement of Artificial Reef in the East Corner of Zhelang Shanwei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lichen; FANG; Pimao; CHEN; Guobao; CHEN; Yong; TANG; Huarong; YUAN; Xue; FENG

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the improvement of fish resource,the trawl net and gill net were used in the background survey and investigation in the artificial reef area and control area of the east of corner was discussed in Zhelang Shanwei in January 2003 and April 2010 respectively.Margalef species richness index,Shannon-Winener diversity index and Pileou uniformity index were chosen to analyze the multiformity of biological population and community structure.Resource density index of trawl net investigation and catch rate of gill net were chosen to estimate the variance of biomass.The results of the trawl net showed that the resources density of the artificial area increased by 3.078 times,and numbers of species increased by 1.875 times,squilla being the dominant group instead of the fish,and the first dominant species being squilla oratoria(Oratosquilla oratoria),which increased by 4.372 times before the artificial reef dropped.The results of the gill net showed that the catch rate of the artificial area increased by 12.043 times,numbers of species increased by 1.333 times,the dominant group was fish,it increased greatly,the first dominant species was golden small fish(Sardinella aurita),which increased by 13.035 times before the artificial reef dropped.Both the results of trawl net and gill net indicated that the effect of fish assemblage were evident,and the community structure had improved greatly.It showed a wonderful effect on conservation and assemblage of fishes resource.The artificial reefs developed a new resource enhancement system in the east corner of Zhelang Shanwei accomplished basically.

  6. Molecular Detection of the Three Major Pathogenic Vibrio Species from Seafood Products and Sediments in Tunisia Using Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura, Morsi; Sellami, Hanen; Nasfi, Hanen; Trabelsi, Rahma; Mansour, Sabeur; Attia, Touraya; Nsaibia, Siwar; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Gdoura, Radhouane; Siala, Mariam

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio spp. have emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. V. parahaemolyticus , V. cholerae , and V. vulnificus pose a considerable public health risk in Tunisia because they cause sporadic and epidemic foodborne infections associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. More recently, toxR-positive V. alginolyticus was also reported to be a potential source of contaminated seafood. A total of 247 samples, including 113 fishes ( Labrus viridis , Penaeus kerathurus , Diplodus annularis , Diplodus sparaillon , Scorparna porcus , Sarpa salpa , Dentex dentex , Scorparna scrofa , Sardinella aurita , Trachurus trachurus , Synodus saurus , Pagellus erythrinus , and Metapenaeus monoceros ), 83 clams ( Ruditapes decussatus species), 30 seawater samples, and 21 sediment samples were analyzed using traditional culture methods (ISO/TS 21872-1; International Organization for Standardization 2007) and a conventional PCR method for Vibrio spp. A rapid, sensitive, and highly reproducible real-time PCR assay was developed to detect the three major Vibrio spp. pathogenic for humans in Tunisian seafood products and sediments. A conventional culture method found 102 (41.3%) of 247 analyzed samples positive for Vibrio spp.; a conventional PCR method found 126 (51%) of the 247 samples positive. Real-time PCR assay found 126 (51.1%) samples positive; V. alginolyticus toxR was the most common, found in 99 (78.57%) of samples, followed by V. parahaemolyticus in 26 (20.63%) and V. cholerae in 1 (0.7%). All culture-positive samples were PCR positive. However, 24 samples that were positive by conventional PCR and real-time PCR were culture negative. Our findings indicate that retail seafood is commonly contaminated with Vibrio spp. and presents a potential risk to human health in Tunisia. These data also indicate that real-time PCR can provide sensitive species-specific detection of Vibrio spp. in seafood without prior isolation and characterization

  7. Biological Characteristics of Moon Jellyfish(Aurelia aurita Linnaeus,1758) and Its Bloom%海月水母的生物学特征及其爆发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凤英; 陈四清; 倪佳

    2010-01-01

    介绍了海月水母的形态、生活习性、生活史、分布、生存条件、爆发及危害等基本情况,并分析了其爆发成因,最后提出了我国海月水母及其爆发研究的工作重点:确认在我国海域爆发的海月水母究竟是外来种还是本地种,了解其种群的生活史、食性及生活习性,掌握其种群数量动态变化规律并进行数量动态监测,分析其种群数量动态与海域环境的关系,开展其爆发的危害评价工作.

  8. Factors influencing the asexual reproduction of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita%海月水母无性生殖的影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付瑶; 董志军; 刘东艳

    2012-01-01

    海月水母是我国黄渤海近岸海域的常见水母种类,近年来海月水母的暴发性增殖已经成为一种近海生态灾害.论文综述了海月水母无性生殖过程的主要类型,其中出芽生殖和横裂生殖是海月水母无性生殖的主要方式.并对影响海月水母无性生殖的主要因子进行了分析和总结,指出现有研究中存在的问题,为进一步开展海月水母无性生殖机制研究提供参考.

  9. A method for in situ estimation of prey selectivity and predation rate in large plankton, exemplified with the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    among individual jellyfish and among the various oral arms and gastric pouches within individuals. Clearance rates varied strongly with prey type. The medusae selected large crustacean prey (cladocerans and copepods/copepodites) over echinoderm larvae and copepod nauplii. Prey distribution within...

  10. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haimeur, Adil; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Guéno, Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Meskini, Nadia; Tremblin, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism...

  11. Spatial distribution and dietary overlap between Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of ichthyoplankton and jellyfish, and dietary overlap between the ichthyoplankton and jellyfish in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS, Japan. Ichthyoplankton, copepods, and jellyfish were collected during two cruises in July 2005 in the Sea of Hiuchi and in July 2006 in Hiroshima Bay within the SIS. Sea surface temperature (˚C, salinity, bottom-layer dissolved oxygen (mg l-1 and the abundance (no. m-2 of fish eggs and larvae were significantly higher in the Sea of Hiuchi. Japanese anchovy was most dominant (69.3% in number of eggs and 52.3% in number of larvae among the ichthyoplankton. Mean jellyfish biomass (g m-2 in Hiroshima Bay was significantly higher (50-folds than that in the Sea of Hiuchi. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant among the jellyfish collected, accounting for 85.6% in wet weight. Surface temperature had a significant effect on fish egg and larval distribution: abundance of fish eggs and larvae increased with increasing temperature. Jellyfish abundance was negatively correlated with the bottom-layer oxygen concentration. Stable isotope analysis indicated dietary overlap between the Japanese anchovy and the moon jellyfish in Hiroshima Bay.

  12. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Driessen, F.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, Oscar; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; Veer, van der H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  13. 九种鲱科鱼类线粒体DNA细胞色素b基因相对速率测试及分歧时间估计%Phylogenetic analysis and relative-rate test of nine Clupeidae fishes ( Osteichthyes: Clupeiformes) inferred from cytochrome b gene sequence of mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程起群; 卢大儒

    2006-01-01

    对鲱科9种鱼类的线粒体细胞色素b(cytb)基因序列进行综合分析.结果表明:(1)用NeighbourJoining(NJ)法构建的分子系统树显示盖纹沙丁鱼属的3种鱼类形成一个单系类群,鲱属2种鱼类形成一个单系类群,它们的bootstrap支持率均为100%.金色小沙丁鱼和短体小沙丁鱼形成一个单系类群,在NJ树中的支持率达到或超过50%.欧洲黍鲱与太平洋鲱和大西洋鲱是单系起源,其bootstrap支持率高达100%.系统发育结果还支持沙丁鱼属鱼类与盖纹沙丁鱼属鱼类是单系类群,支持率分别为87%和95%.但单系类群Ⅰ(包括大西洋鲱、太平洋鲱、欧洲黍鲱)和单系类群Ⅱ(包括欧洲沙丁鱼、加州沙丁鱼、南美拟沙丁鱼、斑点盖纹沙丁鱼)之间的系统发育关系尚不明确,因为它们之间的支持率很低.(2)dN/dS的比值显著的小于1(Ztest),提示由于功能限制,cytb基因受到强烈的负选择作用.(3)基于Tajima的1D和2D相对速率测试表明,分子钟假说在鲱科鱼类中是成立的;鲱科鱼类的分歧时间是0.12至13.45百万年间.%Phylogenetic analysis and relative- rate test of 9 Clupeidae fishes were performed using the cytochrome b(cytb) gene sequence data. Based on Kimura-2-Parameter(K2P) distance, bootstrapped NJ tree ( 1000 replicates) was generated from these 9 cytb gene sequences of Clupeidae fishes. Three species of genus Sardinops are monophyletic group, 2 species of genus Clupea are monophyletic group, and their bootstrap values are both 100%. Sardinella aurita and Sardinella maderensis are monophyletic group, their bootstrap value reached or exceed 50%. Sprattus sprattus which is a species of genus Sprattus, has a monophyletic origin with genus Clupea, their bootstrap value was 100%. The number of synonymous nucleotide substitution per synonymous site (dS) and the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution per nonsynonymous site (dN) of cytb gene among Clupeidae fishes were calculated

  14. Composição em ácidos graxos de líquidos de cobertura de sardinhas brasileiras (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v26i1.1535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ricardo Tarley

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição em ácidos graxos nos líquidos de cobertura com óleo de soja ou molho de tomate de diferentes marcas de sardinhas comercializadas no Brasil. Os teores percentuais dos ácidos graxos EPA e DHA em óleo de soja como líquido de cobertura variaram de 0,95 a 3,96% e 0,63 a 1,09%, respectivamente. Para a cobertura molho de tomate os resultados indicaram que as migrações dos ácidos graxos EPA e DHA foram superiores em relação à cobertura em óleo de soja. Os percentuais encontrados para os ácidos graxos EPA e DHA na cobertura molho de tomate variaram de 2,95 a 13,29% e 1,25 a 4,67%, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças em relação à qualidade das sardinhas utilizadas bem como no processamento. Embora exista diferença entre as duas formulações, com relação à composição de ácidos graxos, ambas podem ser consideradas boas fontes de ácidos graxos, principalmente os ácidos ômega-3

  15. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  16. 汕尾遮浪角东人工鱼礁区渔业资源变动分析%Improvement analysis on fisheries resources in artificial reef area of the east of Zhelang corner, Shanwei city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房立晨; 陈丕茂; 陈国宝; 汤勇; 袁华荣; 冯雪

    2012-01-01

    为了解汕尾遮浪角东人工鱼礁区渔业资源变动情况,分别于2003年1月和2010年4月使用拖网和刺网对礁区和对比区进行了本底调查和跟踪调查,使用Margalef种类丰富度指数、Shannon-Winener多样性指数和Pileou均匀度指数分析游泳生物多样性和群落结构变动情况,使用拖网调查资源密度指数和刺网调查渔获率指数分析渔业资源生物量的变动情况.拖网调查结果显示,投礁后礁区游泳生物资源密度是投礁前的3.078倍,种类数是投礁前的1.875倍,第一优势种口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)的资源密度是投礁前第一优势种叫姑鱼(Johnius dussumieri)的4.372倍.刺网调查结果显示,投礁后礁区游泳生物渔获率是投礁前的12.043倍,渔获种数是投礁前的1.333倍,礁区海域优势类群鱼类的渔获率显著提高,第一优势种金色小沙丁鱼(Sardinella aurita)的渔获率是投礁前第一优势种黄斑蓝子鱼(Siganus oramin)的13.035倍.拖网调查和刺网调查均表明,建礁后游泳生物的诱集效果明显,生物群落结构得到改善,资源量显著增加,表现出良好的资源聚集效果,形成了新的人工鱼礁增殖系统.

  17. PATTERNS OF PREY BIOMASS CONSUMPTION BY SMALL ODONTOCETES IN THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin E. Oviedo Correa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships are conditioned by population dynamics of interacting species in the community (species present, food web connections among them, and the strength of interactions, and on the consequences of these species interactions depend various ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient flux. Odontocetes target a wide range of prey items and are adapted to feeding at different depths. The aim of this report is to describe the patterns of prey consumption by small odontocetes, incorporating natural predatory patterns into a potential management scheme of strategic food sources, for both human and marine predators. Using the geo-statistical analysis tool of ArcGIS 9.2, maps illustrating the intensity and location of prey consumption were made for species with a sighting index (SPUE > 0.15. The biomass consumption emphasized the differences in habitat use by species. The trends in distribution of prey biomass removal by odontocetes particularly suggest a stratification of prey consumption primarily in shelf waters, with a prey biomass that is comprised basically by demersal fish and small pelagics (including Sardinella aurita, and into transition-oceanic depths where most of the predatory pattern would potentially rely on pelagic - mesopelagic squid and myctophids. Overall the spatial tendencies in regionalization presented in this contribution will serve as a base-line to assess ecosystem health and evaluate management scenarios.   Las relaciones tróficas son reguladas por la dinámica poblacional de las especies que interactúan dentro de la comunidad (especies presentes, conexiones interespecíficas, y nivel de interacción y de las consecuencias de esas interacciones para procesos del ecosistema como la productividad y el flujo de nutrientes. El objetivo de este reporte es evaluar el patrón de consumo de biomasa por odontocetos de menor tamaño en la costa Nororiental de Venezuela, incorporando patrones de depredaci

  18. 中西医结合治疗急性海月水母蜇伤临床研究%Clinical study of treating 136 cases with aurelia aurita sting by combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵月竹; 权正涛; 殷淑兰; 王进荣; 肖雪霞; 侯彩霞; 马丽状

    2001-01-01

    [目的]探讨中西医结合治疗海月水母蜇伤的方法.[方法]分析1997~1999年6~10月份收治的沿海渔民及加工者和海水游泳时被海月水母蜇伤的136例,分别采用中西医结合治疗,观察其临床疗效.[结果]治愈134例,占98.53%,死亡2例,占1.47%,总有效率为98.53%,对于海月水母蜇伤的主要症状改善时间明显优于单纯西药治疗.[结论]中西医结合的综合性治疗方法可显著提高临床疗效,有研究价值.

  19. 饵料浮游动物种类和密度对海月水母摄食和生长的影响%Effect of zooplanktonter species and density on feeding and growth in jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为东; 赵文; 李多慧; 滕力平; 杨担光; 袁霞; 韩婷婷

    2010-01-01

    研究了5种浮游动物(卤虫Artemia无节幼体、大尾猛水蚤Harpacticus uniremis 、短角异剑水蚤Apocyclops royi、蒙古裸腹溞Moina mongolica 和褶皱臂尾轮虫Brachionus plicatilis)饵料对海月水母Aurelia aurita摄食和碟状体生长的影响.结果表明:海月水母摄食卤虫无节幼体没有明显的节律性,对蒙古裸腹溞、大尾猛水蚤、短角异剑水蚤和褶皱臂尾轮虫都是在上午8:00摄食量最大;海月水母对卤虫无节幼体和轮虫的个体摄食率最大,分别为42.8、42.0 个/(个·h).摄食卤虫无节幼体的海月水母碟状体的生长率最大,达到8.8%~11.2%;摄食蒙古裸腹溞和大尾猛水蚤的次之,生长率分别为4.4%~6.1%和3.1%~5.2%;摄食褶皱臂尾轮虫的碟状体生长率极低,仅为0.3%~0.4%.研究表明,卤虫无节幼体、蒙古裸腹溞和大尾猛水蚤均可作为海月水母碟状体的饵料,合适投喂密度分别为550~700、150~300个/L和250~450个/L.

  20. Immunochemical analyses of soluble lens proteins in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens proteins of 10 fishes, belonging to the families Clupeidae, Hemirhamphidae, Lactaridae, Scombridae, Stromatidae, Psettodidae, Bothidae and Soleidae were studied by immunoelectrophoresis using the lens antiserum of Sardinella...

  1. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  2. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Sardinella zunasi is a pelagic and subtropical fish species ... often influenced by the ocean currents and Pleistocene ice ages. ... influence population structure. ..... geographical isolation and sea environment such as water.

  3. Cytological observations on ferns from New Guinea with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.; Roy, S.K.

    1966-01-01

    Dicranopteris linearis var. montana Holtt. abnormal Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) Presl Pseudophegopteris aurita (Hk.) Ching cyclocarpa Holttum Pseudocyclosorus caudatus Holttum petrophila (Copel.) Holttum Mesoneuron wantotensis (Copel.) Holttum Cyclosorus dentatus (Forsk.) Ching confertus (Brause) C

  4. A matter of tolerance: Distribution potential of scyphozoan polyps in a changing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Augustin, Christina B.; Bleich, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are unpredictable, unsustainable events, frequently affecting aquatic ecosystems severely. Of particular interest are the consequences of environmental change for jellyfish populations, especially in semi-enclosed habitats. Regional and seasonal changes in water chemistry...... psu caused irreversible degeneration of A. aurita and C. capillata polyps, respectively. Observed physiological limits suggest distribution of polyp populations of A. aurita in central and of C. capillata western parts of the Baltic Sea, while future climate changes may particularly restrict...

  5. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  6. Breve revisión bibliográfica de los muestreos de ictioplancton realizados en los sectores norte y sur del mar de Alborán, con atención especial en los que aportan información sobre el boquerón (E. encrasicolus) y la alacha (S. aurita).

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-de-Rubín-y-Feigl, J. (Juan)

    1994-01-01

    A la breve exposición de los resultados obtenidos por los diferentes autores se añade un resumen gráfico de las coberturas espacial y temporal de los 20 muestreos ictioplanctonicos registrados hasta 1992, inclusive. A brief presentation is given of the results obtained by different authors, together with a graphic summary of the spatial and temporal coverage of the 20 icthyoplankton sampling registered up to and including the year 1992. Postprint

  7. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners commissi

  8. Catch, effort and sampling strategies in the highly variable sardine fisheries around East Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Sukkel, M.; Setyohady, D.; Tumuljadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the fishery for Sardinella spp. around East Java, Indonesia, were studied in an attempt to develop an efficient catch and effort sampling strategy for this highly variable fishery. The inter-annual and monthly variation in catch, effort and catch per unit of effort (

  9. Description of Karaganops n. gen. perratus (Daniltshenko 1970) with otoliths in situ, an endemic Karaganian (Middle Miocene) herring (Clupeidae) in the Eastern Paratethys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykina, Eugenia M.; Schwarzhans, Werner W.

    2017-01-01

    Karaganops is established as a new fossil genus of the family Clupeidae, subfamily Clupeinae, to encompass the nominal species Sardinella perrata Daniltshenko 1970 from the Karaganian of southern Russia. Karaganops belongs to the group of genera characterized by the presence of two elongated rays...

  10. Catch, effort and sampling strategies in the highly variable sardine fisheries around East Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Sukkel, M.; Setyohady, D.; Tumuljadi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the fishery for Sardinella spp. around East Java, Indonesia, were studied in an attempt to develop an efficient catch and effort sampling strategy for this highly variable fishery. The inter-annual and monthly variation in catch, effort and catch per unit of effort

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 333 ... Vol 9, No 1 (2010), Market supply response of imported sardinella in Cross River State, Nigeria, Abstract ... Vol 6, No 1 (2007), Multivariate evaluation of variation in ... peasant agriculture: An application of data envelopment analysis ... Vol 4, No 1 (2005), Planning sustainable soil management under ...

  12. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners

  13. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  14. Variación estacional de grandes medusas (Scyphozoa en un sistema de lagunas costeras del sur del Golfo de México (1977/1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gomez-Aguirre

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of large jelly-fish Aurelia aurita L. and Stomoiophus meleagris Ag, have been registered within a yearly cycle at the system of coastal lagoons "Carmen-Machoria-Redonda ", South of the Gulf of Mexico. A. aurita showed two well defined periods: autumn/winter with predominant young specimens (25 to 100 mm and spring/summer with a wide adult distribution (200 to 400 mm, beeing the juveniles restricted to the internal, regions of the system. S. meleagris gave evidence of adult populations all year round, the greatest population density occurred during the summer/autumn period with maximum sizes of 200 to 300 mm and during the winter/spring period, juveniles from 10 to 30 mm in December and 50 to 100 mm in April, giving a distribution pattern very similar to A. aurita.

  15. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, L A

    2001-08-01

    The hypothesis that the common eastern North Pacific Aurelia is A. aurita is falsified with morphological analysis. The name Aurelia labiata is resurrected, and the species is redescribed, to refer to medusae differing from A. aurita by a suite of characters related to a broad and elongated manubrium. Specifically, the oral arms are short, separated by and arising from the base of the fleshy manubrium, and the planulae are brooded upon the manubrium itself, rather than on the oral arms. Aurelia aurita possesses no corresponding enlarged structure. Furthermore, the number of radial canals is typically much greater in A. labiata, and thus the canals often appear more anastomosed than in A. aurita. Finally, most A. labiata medusae possess a 16-scalloped bell margin, whereas the margin is 8-scalloped in most A. aurita. Separation of the two forms has previously been noted on the basis of allozyme and isozyme analyses and on the histology of the neuromuscular system. Partial 18S rDNA sequencing corroborates these findings. Three distinct morphotypes of A. labiata, corresponding to separate marine bioprovinces, have been identified among 17 populations from San Diego, California, to Prince William Sound, Alaska. The long-undisputed species A. limbata may be simply a color morph of A. labiata, or a species within a yet-unelaborated A. labiata species complex. The first known introduction of Aurelia cf. aurita into southern California waters is documented. Although traditional jellyfish taxonomy tends to recognize many species as cosmopolitan or nearly so, these results indicate that coastal species, such as A. labiata, may experience rapid divergence among isolated populations, and that the taxonomy of such species should therefore be scrutinized with special care.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,971 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. nov. and characterized it by comparing with Aurelia aurita. They had 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with three tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met). Both have another two PCGs, orf969 and orf324 with telomeres at both ends. After comparison of Aurelia sp. nov. with Aurelia aurita, we found low-protein similarity of orf969 (59%) and orf324 (75%), respectively, while the other 13 PCGs showed 80% to 98% protein similarities.

  17. Revision of the Platystictidae of the Philippines (Odonata), excluding the Drepanosticta halterata group, with descriptions of twenty-one new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-one species of the family Platystictidae of the Philippines are revised, i.e. all species recognised, excluding the species of the Drepanosticta halterata-group. The following new taxa are described: 16 species in Drepanosticta Laidlaw: D. acuta spec. nov., D. aurita spec. nov., D. centrosaur

  18. Enkele waarnemingen betreffende de ongeslachtelijke voortplanting van de Scyphozoa:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, J.

    1958-01-01

    Polyp stages were reared from planulae by keeping adult jellyfish in aquaria. Polyps of the species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea capillata and Chrysaora hysoscella, were kept at different temperatures. Scyphistomae of Aurelia reproduce mainly by stolonization. An influence of temperat

  19. Enkele waarnemingen betreffende de ongeslachtelijke voortplanting van de Scyphozoa:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, J.

    1958-01-01

    Polyp stages were reared from planulae by keeping adult jellyfish in aquaria. Polyps of the species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea capillata and Chrysaora hysoscella, were kept at different temperatures. Scyphistomae of Aurelia reproduce mainly by stolonization. An influence of

  20. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1) after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1) after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1) after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1) after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  1. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  2. Novo transmissor silvestre do "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi" (Chagas, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery Guimarães

    1943-06-01

    Full Text Available In nests of opossum (Didelphis aurita, localized in palm-trees of the species Attalea indaya Dr., the authors found a new tritatoma, the description of which is being made by Dr. H. LENT. They verified that this triatoma had been naturally infected by Trypanosoma (Schizotrhypanum cruzy. Two guinea-pigs were subsequently infected by peritoneal inoculation of excrements of this new triatoma. The xenodiagnosis of these guinea-pigs, made with normal nymphas of. T. megistus and T. infestans resulted positive after 25 days. Evidence was obtained of being the opossum (Didelphis one of the sources infection of the new vector, because several specimens of them were found infected, and also a specimen of D. aurita, which contained trypanosomes with the morphology of T. (S. cruzy in the peripheral blood.

  3. Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows

    OpenAIRE

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Dabiri, John O.; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we apply dynamical systems analyses and computational tools to fluid transport in empirically measured vortex ring flows. Measurements of quasisteadily propagating vortex rings generated by a mechanical piston-cylinder apparatus reveal lobe dynamics during entrainment and detrainment that are consistent with previous theoretical and numerical studies. In addition, the vortex ring wake of a free-swimming Aurelia aurita jellyfish is measured and analyzed in the framework of dynami...

  4. Cross-species chromosome painting in bats from Madagascar: the contribution of Myzopodidae to revealing ancestral syntenies in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.

  5. Revision of the Platystictidae of the Philippines (Odonata), excluding the Drepanosticta halterata group, with descriptions of twenty-one new species

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, van, J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-one species of the family Platystictidae of the Philippines are revised, i.e. all species recognised, excluding the species of the Drepanosticta halterata-group. The following new taxa are described: 16 species in Drepanosticta Laidlaw: D. acuta spec. nov., D. aurita spec. nov., D. centrosaurus spec. nov., D. clados spec. nov., D. flavomaculata spec. nov., D. furcata spec. nov., D. hermes spec. nov., D. krios spec. nov., D. luzonica spec. nov., D. malleus spec. nov., D. myzouris spec. ...

  6. The neotropical species of Xanthopimpla Saussure (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isrrael C; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Broad, Gavin R; Puhakka, Liisa; Castillo, Carol; Peña, Carlos; Pádua, Diego G

    2014-03-04

    Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1892 is one of the largest and best studied genera of the family Ichneumonidae. It is most species rich in the Oriental and Afrotropical regions with only a few species occurring in Central and South America. The present study reviews the Neotropical species of the genus including descriptions of four new species from Amazonia and Northeast South America. We define a new species group: the amazonica species-group, to accommodate the following five species: X. amazonica Gómez, Sääksjärvi & Veijalainen, X. guianensis Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n., X. jussilai Veijalainen, Sääksjärvi & Broad, X. pucallpensis Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n. and X. vidali Gómez sp. n. The aurita species-group, which had hitherto been regarded as the only species-group in the Neotropical region, is currently represented by five species: X. allpahuaya Gómez & Sääksjärvi sp. n., X. aurita Krieger, X. craspedoptera Krieger, X. rhabdomera Townes and X. spiloptera Krieger. The Andean species X. peruana Krieger is established as an unplaced species outside of the amazonica and aurita species-groups. A key to Neotropical species-groups and species of Xanthopimpla is provided. Xanthopimpla aurita is recorded for the first time from Ecuador and Colombia and its extensive distribution is discussed. Xanthopimpla amazonica, X. craspedoptera and X. jussilai are recorded for the first time from Brazil; X. amazonica is recorded for the first time from French Guiana; X. spiloptera is recorded for the first time from French Guiana and Peru, and X. rhabdomera is recorded for the first time from Peru. 

  7. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Schyphozoan 1 1 Porifera 6 3 1 7 Anthozoan 1 3 1 3 Platyhelminth 2 2 Polychaete 13 16 2 21 Oligochaete 4 3 6 Bivalve 17...Gonothyraea clarki Hydrozoan OR Obelia sp. Hydrozoan WA OR Aurelia aurita Schyphozoan WA Clathria prolifera Porifera WA Clionoa thoosina... Porifera WA Cliona sp. Porifera WA OR AK Halichondria bowerbanki Porifera WA OR Haliclona loosanoffi Porifera OR Haliclona luciae Porifera WA

  8. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    4 3 5 Porifera 5 5 5 3 7 Polychaete 7 45 13 15 47 Oligochaete 1 4 4 5 Bivalve 16 25 12 6 26 Gastropod 16 23 14 6 26 Nudibranch 2 2 2 2...ballast water, they include species of 13 hydrozoans, 7 sponges ( porifera ), 5 anemones (anthozoans), 3 barnacles, 14 bryozoans, 2 entoprocts, 15...ST SF HU Obelia geniculata Hydrozoan ST Aurelia aurita Scyphozoan NB ST SF HU Phyllorhiza punctatus Scyphozoan NB ST Cliona sp. Porifera

  9. Optimal stroke patterns for a model jellyfish swimmer with thin, flexible body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2007-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model is built to simulate swimming of oblate jellyfish (e.g. Aurelia aurita). The model swimmer is a thin, axisymmetric circular plate which is flexible and is able to deform, mimicking contraction and relaxation of a jellyfish. Using body deformation, the swimmer is able to swim by shedding vortices into fluid wake. A prescribed body motion extracted from a free-swimming Aurelia aurita is applied to the swimmer. The induced vortex wake is solved by a vortex sheet method and is compared with the wake of the free-swimming Aurelia aurita measured by PIV. The stoke pattern of the swimmer is optimized for minimal cost of locomotion. The body kinematics are parameterized and cost of locomotion is calculated from simulation using the vortex sheet method. A surrogate management framework is used as the optimization scheme. The vortex wake induced by the optimal stroke pattern is investigated to identify the characteristics of the wake which enhance swimming performance.

  10. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

    2011-09-01

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s(-1) while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s(-1). A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  11. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank, E-mail: spriya@vt.edu [Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s{sup -1} while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s{sup -1}. A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  12. STUDY ON OCEANGRAFHIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN NATUNA SEA USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Prayogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have abundance of natural resources; the potential of small pelagic fish in Natuna Sea and SouthChina Sea have not been optimized yet explores. Unfortunately, it was caused by lacking in the data of environmentalconditions that have been changed and the information of appropriate fishing ground. Hence, dynamical oceanographicinformation and weather condition is necessary to optimize small pelagic fish exploitation.Research location in Natuna Sea and its surrounding with geographical position is 08°N–03°S; 103°–111°E. Theoceanographic condition representative by monthly SST, Chl-a, SSH that derived from satellite data and Dipole ModeIndex for 2002-2007 from FRCGC website. Monthly wind data is variable for weather condition. Small pelagic fishabundance representative by annual fish production (2002-2005 and monthly Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE ofGoldstripe sardinella, Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2006. It was data collected from Directorate General of CaptureFisheries (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and daily fishing operation (2007 used to calculate match-up ratiothat was collected from Pemangkat fishing port in West Kalimantan. Research process consists of image processing,descriptive correlation analysis and GIS analysis to predict fishing ground map and match-up ratio calculation.Result of this research is the annual fish catch production of Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2002-2005 is tend toincrease and the monthly CPUE of both species is high during SE Monsoon (May-Sep that is condition contrarily in NWMonsoon (Nov-Apr. Meanwhile, the annual fish catch production of Goldstripe sardinella production is tend to decreasefrom 2002-2005, it has CPUE is high in early SE Monsoon (May. During the SE Monsoon (May-Sep when DM Index ispositive (+ the Indian scad and Bigeye scad production is high, for Goldstripe sardinella the fish production is highwhen DM Index is positive (+ in May. The accuracy of prediction map of

  13. New potential host for Ryukyua globosa (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2016-12-01

    In the present study Ryukyua globosa parasitic isopod on the marine fishes of the Parangipettai coast are reported. R. globosa was found attached in the gill chamber of Sardinella gibbosa. The attachment position of Ryukyua species differs from that of other member of this genus. Until now, R. globosa was only reported on Amblygaster sirm and A.leiogaster. S.gibbosa is a new host record for R.globosa. R. globosa, branchial parasites, already known from Japan and is now recorded from the Southeast coast of India.

  14. The investigation of morphological characteristics of willow species in different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative or renewable energy is a modern strategy with a good per­spective in the nearest future. There are several directions of renewable energy development that depend on climatic, economic and technological opportunities of a region. The perspective choice for areas with moderate climate is bioenergy. One of the bioenergy directions is agro forestry based on short rotation coppice plantations (SRC of trees, like willow, poplar and others. The goal of experiments was the assessment of the potential of different willow species for the obtaining of energy in two climatic zones and on two types of soils of Belarus. For this purpose several morphological characteristics were metered: height of plants, biomass, diameter and number of sprouts. The field experiments were conducted on two types of soils: post-mining peaty soils in Grodno region and on degraded peaty soils in Brest region of Belarus. The same soils are very problematic for growing of traditional agricultural crops, thus willow production is a good alternative for biomass production of energy as well as for the reclamation of these soils. In our experiments the following species of willow were tested (Salix alba, Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, Salix aurita that may grow on peaty soils at the natural conditions. The most popular species for modern selection of SRC of willow is Salix viminalis. Nevertheless, the most suitable morphological characteristics on post-mining peaty soils were established for plants of Salix dasyclados and on degraded peaty soils for the plants of Salix alba. The unfavorable parameters at the both type of soils were identified for the plants of Salix aurita. However, it is necessary to take into account that the used species are more popular for natural wetlands and in our experiments plants have best results of survival of cutting and rates of growth at the beginning of vegetation. In accordance with these facts Salix aurita may not be used for energy

  15. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50 for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1 A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2 larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3 some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  16. KONTRIBUSI INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN HASIL PERIKANAN TRADISIONAL TERHADAP PENDAPATAN NELAYAN PENGOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernik Yuliana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke Jakarta have been involving many labor from the local fishermen or others. This study describes the contributions of many small industry to the labor incomes based on every small industry profit distribution. Survey method had been applied to collect the data. The population are all small traditional fish processing industries in Muara Angke. The samples are chosen based on their product, either salty fish or smoked fish. “Hayami method” was applied to calculate the added value of each small industry. The results of this study shows that salty squid has the highest value added (Rp2167,61/kg and highest profits (Rp2072,61/kg, Indian mackerel smoked fish gives the highest contributions to labor incomes (Rp663,36/kg. Sardinella salty fish gives the highest profit level, followed by salty squid and salty mackerel scad. Salty stingray and salty Indian mackerel gives high value for labor return. In addition, salty sardinella, salty squid, and salty “lesi” fish have high added value ratio. Salty stingray gives the highest other input contribution, followed by smoked Indian mackerel.

  17. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil

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    Débora M. S. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site.

  18. 胶州湾海月水母(Aurelia sp.1)丰度周年变化及对浮游动物群落的影响%ANNUAL OCCURRENCE OF MOON JELLYFISH A URELIA sp.1 IN THE JIAOZHOU BAY AND ITS IMPACTS ON ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万艾勇; 张光涛

    2012-01-01

    2009年2—12月间在胶州湾大沽河口邻近海域的逐月现场调查中,利用垂直拖网研究了海月水母碟状体和水母体的时空分布情况以及对其它浮游动物类群的影响,并探讨了海月水母的生态适应性。结果表明:海月水母的碟状体4月份开始在胶州湾出现,并且丰度逐渐增加,到6月份达到最高峰。海月水母的水母体集中在7月份大量出现。碟状体和水母体高峰期的月平均丰度分别为2.9和1.3ind/m2。碟状体开始出现时的水温平均为11.5℃,数量高峰期的水温为20.6℃,而水母体高峰期的水温为25.2℃。该海域的浮游动物总丰度(不含夜光虫)在5—7月份有个高峰期,其中5月份最高值为486.9ind/m2。7月份海月水母高峰期,浮游动物的丰度没有明显下降,两者丰度的地理变化之间也没有显著的相关性。但是通过对2006--2010年间的浮游动物各类群丰度对比,2009年海月水母暴发时夜光虫和桡足类春季丰度高值显著低于其它年份。%During February--December, 2009, monthly investigations were carried out in north-western part of the Jiaozhou Bay. Abundances of the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and other zooplankton groups were investigated with ver- tical net towing. Ecological adaption and impacts on other zooplankton groups of moon jellyfish were analysed, and com- pared with synchronous zooplankton and environmental data. Ephyra ofA. aurita was observed from April to June, when its abundance increased from 0.1 to 2.9ind/m3. Medusa ofA. aurita was captured only in July with an average abundance of 1.3ind/m3. The average water temperatures were 11.5 ~C at occurrence of ephyra and 20.6 and 25.2~C during abundance peak of ephyra and medusae, respectively. Total zooplankton abundance (without A. aurita and Noctiluca seintillans) was high from May to July, with the highest of 486.9ind/m3 being observed in May. In July, no

  19. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

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    Nicholas E.C. Fleming

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ13C and δ15N stable isotope values, we examined: (1 whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2 Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3 When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ15N (trophic position were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ15N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous

  20. Gelatinous macroplankton in the Black Sea in the autumn of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninsky, B. E.; Finenko, G. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Ignatyev, S. M.

    2013-11-01

    In October and November of 2010, the gelatinous macroplankton in the northwestern Black Sea and at the Crimean shelf was represented by the scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita, three species of ctenophores ( Beroe ovata, Mnemiopsis leidyi, and Pleurobrachia pileus), and three species of hydromedusae. A. aurita was more common at the shelf, M. leidyi and P. pileus prevailed at the deeper sea stations, and B. ovata was almost ubiquitous with a biomass from below 1 to 49 g/m2 A. aurita, which had an average biomass of 82-224 g/m2, was dominant at all the stations. M. leidyi, which had a biomass from below 1 to 115 g/m2, was recorded in October at only 14 of the 52 stations and in November at 20 of the 46 stations. The highest biomass of M. leidyi in October (105 to 116 g/m2) was recorded in the deep sea areas; in November, it was also the highest in these areas, but it reached at most 100 g/m2. The average daily ration of Aurelia ranged from 19.4 to 27.3 mg/m2 in October and from 7.0 to 17.2 mg/m2 in November; in both cases, it was insufficient to provide for the minimal physiological requirements. The average daily ration of the Mnemiopsis population (2.8-20.5 mg of zooplankton per m2) was invariably more than sufficient to provide for the minimal physiological requirements. Both predatory species together consumed less than 5% of the daily zooplankton production of the sea.

  1. Jellyfish and Ctenophores in Limfjorden (Denmark—Mini-Review, with Recent New Observations

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    Hans Ulrik Riisgård

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Limfjorden is a major Danish water system that connects the North Sea via Thyborøn Kanal in the west and to the Kattegat in the east. Limfjorden is heavily eutrophicated and certain areas suffer from oxygen depletion each summer. Bottom-dwelling fish have disappeared as the number of jellyfish and ctenophores has increased. The abundance and predation impact of jellyfish and ctenophores in Limfjorden have been described in a number of studies conducted during the last decade, and a mini-review of this literature is given here in Section 2. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may, in a few years, be very abundant and exert a considerable predatory impact on zooplankton and fish larvae. Abundance, species composition, and population dynamics of A. aurita may, at irregular time intervals, be strongly influenced not only by the water brought into Limfjorden from the North Sea, but also by competition with the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi that occurred for the first time in extremely high numbers in 2007, brought into the fjord system with North Sea water. It has been suggested that Limfjorden may function as an incubator for M. leidyi with the potential to further seed M. leidyi into the Kattegat and adjacent Danish waters, and recent observations seem to support this hypothesis. In Section 3, we report on two bloom events of ctenophores, Pleurobrachia pileus and M. leidyi, along with their predators (Beroe spp. in Limfjorden in the autumns of 2012 and 2013, when the usually dominating A. aurita was absent. However, the present observation of B. ovata being M. leidyi’s native predator and a new species in Limfjorden may in the future reduce the abundance of M. leidyi.

  2. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in shellfish and fish of Bonny River and creeks around Okrika in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, A C; Okoye, C O B; Ibeto, C N

    2013-06-01

    Lead, nickel, vanadium and cadmium were determined in fish and shellfish muscles, to assess contamination levels and identify bio-indicators. Vanadium was not detectable. Lead and cadmium were slightly above legal limits used in South East Asia, but lower than those of Australia and New Zealand. Higher contents of nickel, cadmium and lead in Pachymelania aurita and Crassostrea rhizophorae, lead in Mugil cephalus and cadmium in Periophthalmus koelreuteri, mark these species out as possible bio-indicators for the three metals in aquatic systems. Patterns of bioaccumulation seem to suggest that biophysiological and ecological characteristics influence bioaccumulation of trace metals in fish and shell fish.

  3. [Shape conservatism and shaping variability. The comparative analysis of Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa early development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Iu A

    2002-01-01

    The morphogenetic pathways based on the self-organization take an important part in the early development of White Sea Cnidarians--Dynamena pumila (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa). Comparative analysis of their early development revealed two patterns of embryonic spatial structure reproduced in the morphogenesis of both species in spite of the differences of morphogenetic paths. These are toroidal and bilaterally symmetrical shapes. It is possible that these shapes correspond to the equilibrium states of developing system and their stable reproduction is a result of epigenetic rather than genetic program.

  4. 水族箱中的活化石观赏品种新贵——海月水母

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灏; 邵蓬; 丁子元

    2011-01-01

    <正>海月水母(aurelia aurita),又称水水母,在中国台湾称为幽浮水母,隶属钵水母纲旗口水母目洋须水母科海月水母属,在我国大连,烟台,青岛等沿海均有分布。源于6.5亿年前,是当今世界上历史最悠久的生物。因其婀娜多姿的泳姿和缤纷绚丽的色彩,象征着优雅的

  5. Radioactivity in three species of eastern Mediterranean jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamish, S; Al-Masri, M S; Durgham, H

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were determined in umbrella and oral arms of three widely distributed jellyfish species; namely Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, Aurelia aurita Linne, 1758 and Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 collected from February 2011 to January 2012 in four sampling locations along the Syrian coast (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The results have shown significant variations in radionuclides activity concentrations amongst the species. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in the umbrella of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in the umbrella of A. aurita species by about 3.2, 1.4, 1.8, 3.2 and 3.2 folds, and A. forskalea species by about 45.5, 15.4, 19, 7.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in oral arms of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in oral arms of A. aurita species by about 3.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.9 folds, respectively. (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. In addition, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were also determined in 44 surface seawater samples and the activity concentrations ranged between 10.6 and 11.9 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, 1.1 and 1.4 mBq l(-1) for (210)Po, 0.5 and 0.7 mBq l(-1) for (210)Pb, 40.8 and 44.5 mBq l(-1) for (234)U, and 36.9 and 38.4 mBq l(-1) for (238)U, while (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. Moreover, the umbrella and oral arms readily accumulated (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U above ambient seawater levels in the sequence of (210)Po > (210)Pb > (4) K > (234)U and (238)U. Concentration ratio (CR) values were relatively high for (210)Po and (210)Pb and reached 10(3) and 10(2), respectively for the jellyfish R

  6. Kinematics and Fluid Dynamics of Jellyfish Maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura; Hoover, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish propel themselves through the water through periodic contractions of their elastic bells. Some jellyfish, such as the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, can perform turns via asymmetric contractions of the bell. The fluid dynamics of jellyfish forward propulsion and turning is explored here by analyzing the contraction kinematics of several species and using flow visualization to quantify the resulting flow fields. The asymmetric contraction and structure of the jellyfish generates asymmetries in the starting and stopping vortices. This creates a diagonal jet and a net torque acting on the jellyfish. Results are compared to immersed boundary simulations

  7. The Argentinean dung beetle genus Anomiopsoides (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini: description of a new species, and new synonymies for A. heteroclyta El género argentino de escarabajos estercoleros Anomiopsoides (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini: descripcción de una especie nueva y nuevas sinonimias para A. heteroclyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico C. Ocampo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Anomiopsoides Blackwelder is revised. The species A. catamarcae Martínez and A. aurita (Burmeister are placed in synonymy with A. heteroclyta (Blanchard. Anomiopsoides fedemariai sp. nov. is described from Argentina. The genus Anomiopsoides now consists of four species: A. biloba (Burmeister, A. cavifrons (Burmeister, A. fedemariai sp. nov. and A. heteroclyta (Blanchard. A key is presented for the identification of the species of Anomiopsoides.Se hace una revisión de la taxonomía del género Anomiopsoides Blackwelder. Las especies A. catamarcae Martínez y A. aurita (Burmeister son consideradas como sinónimos de A. heteroclyta (Blanchard. Se describe una especie nueva, A. fedemariai sp. nov., especie nueva de Argentina. El género Anomioposoides consiste ahora en cuatro especies, A. biloba (Burmeister, A. cavifrons (Burmeister, A. fedemariai sp. nov. y A. heteroclyta (Blanchard. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de las especies de Anomiopsoides.

  8. Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi Kıyısal Yüzey Sularında Scyphomedusae ve Ctenophora Üzerine Yerinde Gözlemler.

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    Süleyman Mavili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skifomedüz ve ktenoforların dağılımı ve bolluğu, 1998 ve 2005 arasında yaz ve sonbahar dönemlerinde yerinde gözlemlerle incelenmiştir. Skifomedüzler (A. aurita, R. pulmo Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi’nde geniş bir dağılım göstermiştir. Yazın baskın olan A. aurita sonbaharda azalmış, oysa R. pulmo bu dönemde belirgin olarak artmıştır. Ktenoforlar (M. leidyi, B. ovata Kuzey Ege’de bulunmamıştır. M. leidyi Marmara Denizi’nde 1999’da bol olarak bulunmuş, B. ovata’nın ortaya çıktığı 2000’de belirgin bir azalma göstermiştir. Her iki ktenofor da 2004 ve 2005’de çalışma bölgesinde bulunmamıştır. Bu da pek muhtemelen M. leidyi yoğunluğunda büyük bir azalmaya işaret etmektedir

  9. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-09-01

    The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity.

  10. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

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    Urai Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA-only group (H group; two qniumucin-only groups (M groups; and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups. One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA.

  11. Seasonal Investigations into the Level of Toxic Elements in Marine Organisms (Fish and Mollusk along the Coast of Ghana Using Neutron Activation Analysis

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    L.A. Sarsah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal investigation was conducted into the occurrence and extent of potentially toxic heavy metals along the coast of Ghana using marine organisms as bioindicators of pollution. The marine organisms sampled were analysed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis coupled with conventional counting system. All the four samples (Dentex macrophthalmus, Sardinella maderensis, Engraulis encrasicolus and Cymbium cymbium recorded detectable levels of potentially toxic elements which fluctuates between <0.07mg/kg Cd and 699 mg/kg Al. Cymbium cymbium recorded the highest level of (As, Co, Cu, Zn whiles Engraulis encrasicolus accumulated appreciable amount of V. Al was the most abundant of all the elements. The coast of Ghana was found to be mildly polluted with respect to the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, V and Zn.

  12. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  13. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  14. Disponibilité en poissons et pouvoir d'achat de la population dans la région du moyen Comoé (Côte-d'lvoire

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    Vanga, AF.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish Availability and Buying-power of the Local Population in the Central Comoe Region (Ivory Coast. The origin of commercial fish found on local markets in the "Moyen Comoe" area is diverse : imported frozen fish, fish coming from Abidjan and smoked in Akoupe (South Ivory Coast, locally caught fish and fish caught in neighbouring countries (Ghana and Mali. The atlantic horse mackerel and the round sardinella (frozen fish are the most important commercial fish species found on the markets. These fish, sold at 350 francs CFA, can be afforded by the majority of the households, 82 % of which spend less than 1000 francs CFA for buying fish and/or meat (beaf.

  15. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Navodon septentrionalis Predation of Four Species of Giant Jellyfish%绿鳍马面鲀(Navodon septentrionalis)对4种大型水母的捕食行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春胜; 庄志猛; 陈四清; 刘长琳; 赵鹏; 陈昭廷

    2014-01-01

    以绿鳍马面鲀为研究对象,通过室内受控实验,比较研究了其对我国沿海4种常见大型水母(海蜇、沙海蜇、海月水母和白色霞水母)的捕食差异。结果显示,体重为(215±20) g的绿鳍马面鲀对海月水母的捕食能力最强,日均最大摄食量为(150.7±18.6) g/fish,其次是海蜇和白色霞水母,日均摄食量分别为(129.7±11.6)和(120.0±19.3) g/fish,对沙海蜇的摄食量最少,为(92.5±11.3) g/fish;绿鳍马面鲀对海月水母与海蜇摄食量主要受投喂量影响,与规格无关,当投喂量小于其最大捕食量时,绿鳍马面鲀可捕食其周围所有水母,当投喂量超过其最大摄食量并继续增加时,绿鳍马面鲀摄食量保持不变,但残余水母的触手和伞部边缘均被啃食,继而导致水母摄食能力丧失,难以继续生存;在适口饵料冰鲜玉筋鱼充足的情况下,绿鳍马面鲀对水母具有明显的摄食偏向性,与仅投喂水母实验组相比,其对海月水母和海蜇的日均摄食量仅降低了20.2%和16.9%。研究结果表明,绿鳍马面鲀对上述4种水母皆能捕食。%The predatory behavior of filefish Navodon septentrionalis to Aurelia aurita was observed before. Here we hypothesized that there were also predator-prey relationships between filefish and other jellyfish species. We explored the predatory behaviors of filefish to four species of giant jellyfish, including Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, A. aurita and Cyanea nozakii, under laboratory conditions. We also studied the prey selection of filefish among jellyfish species of R. esculentum and A. aurita, and sand lance. Filefish weighted (215±20) g actively preyed on all four jellyfish species, and its daily medusae consumption of A. aurita, R. esculentum, C. nozakii, and N. nomurai was 150.7±18.6, 129.7±11.6, 120.0±19.3, and 92.5±11.3 g/fish respectively. It was the medusae biomass, not the bell diameter that

  17. PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM PERIWINKLES IN CREEKS SOUTH-SOUTH OF NIGERIA

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    P. NWIYI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty pieces of periwinkle were obtain each from Yenogoa and Oron Creek. The periwinkle were of two genera namely: Pachymelania aurita obtained from Oronk Creek located in Akwa-Ibom State, while the Tympanotonus fuscatus notably a brackish water habitat was obtained from Yenogoa in Bayelsa state both in south-south Nigeria. Evaluation of possible microbiological isolate was carried out according to Cowan and Steel’s Manuel for medical Bacterial identification. The Creek in Yenogoa presented high level of Coliform count 2.6×105cfug-1 while the Oron Creek had an unacceptable load of Salmonella count 6×106cfug-1. The total bacterial count was highest in Oron Creek 1.46×108cfug-1 from Tympanotonus fuscatus. The microorganisms isolated from both Creeks were Esherichia coli, proteus sp, salmonella sp, pseudomonas sp and Enterobacter sp. Proteus sp was the least isolated while Salmonella sp was the highest.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  19. Gramíneas (Poaceae da Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico (ARIE "Santuário de Vida Silvestre do Riacho Fundo", Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Rodrigues-da-Silva Robson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho relata-se o levantamento florístico das espécies de Poaceae da Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico (ARIE "Santuário de Vida Silvestre do Riacho Fundo", Distrito Federal, Brasil. Foram encontradas 107 espécies, distribuídas em 41 gêneros, sendo 82 nativas e 25 exóticas. São apresentadas chaves analíticas para gêneros e espécies, além de ilustrações para os táxons identificados. Coelorachis aurita (Steud. A. Camus é citada pela primeira vez para a flora do Distrito Federal.

  20. Description of Leishmania (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., a new parasite infecting opossums and rodents in Brazil

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    Elizaide L. A. Yoshida

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A new parasite species of Leishmania is described, L. (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., which was isolated from a pooled triturate of liver and spleen of a opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita and from skin samples from a rodent (Proechmys iheringi denigratus, captured in primary forest on the Atlantic Cost of Brazil. Our results on the basis of biological and molecular criteria indicate that this taxonomically distinct parasite ias a new species of the L. mexicana complex, but closely related to L. (L. aristidesi Laison & shaw, 1979, as revelated by phenetic and phylogenetic numerical analyses of the enzyme data. L. forattinii was clearly distinguishable from other Leishmania species of the genus usisng enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibodies, molecular karyotypes, analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, as well as the use of kDNA hybridization procedures.

  1. On the dynamics of jellyfish locomotion via 3D particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Matthew; Kim, Jin-Tae; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) locomotion is experimentally studied via 3D particle tracking velocimetry. 3D locations of the bell tip are tracked over 1.5 cycles to describe the jellyfish path. Multiple positions of the jellyfish bell margin are initially tracked in 2D from four independent planes and individually projected in 3D based on the jellyfish path and geometrical properties of the setup. A cubic spline interpolation and the exponentially weighted moving average are used to estimate derived quantities, including velocity and acceleration of the jellyfish locomotion. We will discuss distinctive features of the jellyfish 3D motion at various swimming phases, and will provide insight on the 3D contraction and relaxation in terms of the locomotion, the steadiness of the bell margin eccentricity, and local Reynolds number based on the instantaneous mean diameter of the bell.

  2. Notas sôbre a evolução do virus vacínico em animais silvestres da fauna brasileira

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    Cicero Alves Moreira

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available A note on the evolution of cow-pox virus in wild animals of Brazilian fauna. We have tried the sensibility of wild animals of Brazilian fauna to the cow-pox virus. The following specimens were submitted to experiences: Procyon cancrivorus, Hydrochoerus capybara, Cavea aperea, Coendu villosus, Didelphis aurita, Bradypus tridactylus, Euphractus sexcintus, Tamandua tetradactylus, Nasua narica, Dasyprocta aguti and Testudo tabulata. In all these animals, - excepting Bradypus tridactylus - we have obtained an infection with incubation (five days, aspect and duration similar to cow-pox of the laboratorial animals (calf and rabbit. In the Bradypus tridactylus howewer, the incubation was very long. Only after 30 days of inoculation we verified the infection with the formation of vesiculae and postulae.

  3. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpy, Floriane; Pagano, Marc; Blanchot, Jean; Carlotti, François; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 中西医结合治疗海月水母蜇伤的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秀丽; 邵月竹

    2001-01-01

    @@ 海月水母Aurelia aurita(Linne,1758)又称水母、海蜇,属腔肠动物门,生活在海水中,呈伞状,直径约几厘米至十厘米,有触须.每年6~10月是水母螫伤的发病季节.近年来,致严重危害或死亡者屡见不鲜,但未引起重视,至今国内外未见报道.我院1997~1999年中西医结合救治取得显著疗效,分析报告如下.

  5. 海月水母培育初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈介康

    1986-01-01

    海月水母(Aurelia aurita)是广泛分布于世界各海区的一种大型水母,成体伞径一般为100—200毫米。国内外生物学教科书中,几乎均以海月水母作为腔肠动物门(Coelenterata)、钵水母纲(Scyphozoa)的代表。它是生物学教学和科研的良好实验材料,也可作为水簇馆的观赏动物。国内尚未见有对海月水母培育的报道。有关大专院校和科研单位一般都无这种水母的无性世代标本。

  6. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

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    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals.

  7. Ephyra jellyfish as a new model for ecotoxicological bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, M; Garaventa, F; Piazza, V; Costa, E; Greco, G; Mazzola, V; Beltrandi, M; Bongiovanni, E; Lavorano, S; Gnone, G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary investigation on the possibility of using the ephyra of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758), the common moon jellyfish, as an innovative model organism in marine ecotoxicology. A series of sequential experiments have been carried out in laboratory in order to investigate the influence of different culturing and methodological parameters (temperature, photoperiod, ephyrae density and age) on behavioural end-points (% of Frequency of Pulsations) and standardize a testing protocol. After that, the organisms have been exposed to two well known reference toxic compounds (Cadmium Nitrate and SDS) in order to analyse the acute and behavioural responses during static exposure. Results of this work indicate that the proposed behavioural end-point, frequency of pulsations (Fp), is an easily measurable one and can be used coupled with an acute one (immobilization) and that ephyrae of jellyfish are very promising model organisms for ecotoxicological investigation.

  8. Predation of three juvenile scyphomedusa species toParalichthys olivaceus and Sebastes schlegelilarvae%三种大型钵水母幼体对牙鲆和许氏平鲉仔稚鱼的捕食选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春胜; 庄志猛; 陈四清; 燕敬平; 刘长琳; 陈昭廷

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish bloom has had numerous deleterious effects in the marine ecosystem worldwide in past decades. In particular, jellyfish bloom impedes the recovery of fish stocks by preying on fish eggs and larvae, and competing strongly for food with fish. Recently, studies have focused on the predatory relationship between fish and jellyfish. However, the species involved vary among different jellyfish-bloom areas.Aurelia aurita,Rhopilema esculentum and Nemopilema nomuraiare, the three common jellyfish species along Chinese coastal seas, of whichA. auritais a cos-mopolitan jellyfish species, and the other two species were indigenous. To the best of our knowledge, the predatory ability of different jellyfish species has not been estimated, as well as the predation of jellyfish on larger fish larvae (more than 10 mm). In this study, the predation of three common jellyfish species (A. aurita,R. esculentum andN. no-murai), as 4-cm medusae, in Chinese coastal seas on fish larvae ofParalichthys olivaceus and Sebastes schlegeli, was studied using the clearance method. All three jellyfish species could prey on fish larvae, and their predatory abilities decreased as the fish grew. The ranges ofA. auritato P. olivaceus and S. schlegeli were not bigger than 15 mm and 20 mm, respectively; the ranges ofR. esculentumto P. olivaceus and S. schlegeli were not bigger than 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively; and the ranges ofN. nomuraito S. schlegeli were not bigger 30 mm (the experiment ofN. nomurai toP. olivaceuswas not done). Clearance rates were similar between the different prey concentrations, and metamorphosis of P. olivaceushelped to avoid predation. The clearance rates of different jellyfish species mainly depended on their vital-ity, though body structure and toxicity of jellyfish were also important factors. Accordingly,R. esculentum had the highest vitality and predatory ability toward fish larvae, followed byN. nomurai andA. aurita. The results provide theoretical evidence of the

  9. A fluid mechanical model for mixing in a plankton predator-prey system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Dabiri, J. O.

    2009-04-01

    A Lagrangian method is developed to study mixing of small particles in open flows. Particle Lagrangian Coherent Structures (pLCS) are identified as transport barriers in the dynamical systems of particles. We apply this method to a planktonic predator-prey system in which moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita uses its body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. With the flow generated by the jellyfish experimentally measured and the dynamics of prey particles in the flow described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation, we use pLCS to identify the capture region in which prey can be captured. The properties of the capture region enable analysis of the effects of several physiological and mechanical parameters on the predator-prey interaction, such as prey size, escape force, predator perception, etc. The method provides a new methodology to study dynamics and mixing of small organisms in general.

  10. A geometric morphometric analysis of cranial and mandibular shape variation of didelphid marsupials

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    D. Astúa de Moraes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The New World marsupial family Didelphidae is one of the oldest among mammals and is usually regarded as a morphologically conservative group. We analyzed cranial shape variation among six species of the six largest living genera of the family using two-dimensional landmark data. We captured and digitized video images of the skull and mandible for the following species: Caluromys philander (n = 65, Chironectes minimus (n = 30, Didelphis aurita (n = 70, Lutreolina crassicaudata (n = 37, Metachirus nudicaudatus (n = 77 and Philander frenata (n = 62. Fourteen landmarks were defined for the lateral, 25 for the ventral, 23 for the dorsal views of the skull, and nine on the mandibular lateral view. Sex, species, and interaction effects were analyzed with a two-way MANOVA on the matrices of coordinates aligned by general least squares. All four views had significant interactions. Canonical Variates Analysis was performed on sexes and species, and shape was regressed on the canonical variate scores for each species. Caluromys philander was clearly the most distinct species, with paedomorphic features that can be related to its arboreal habits. A conspicuous shortening of the rostrum distinguishes the highly carnivorous Lutreolina crassicaudata. Didelphis aurita and Philander frenata overlapped somewhat, reflecting shape similarities associated with their phylogenetic affinities, while the few differences observed are probably allometric consequences of size differences. Philander frenata and Chironectes minimus showed similar cranial shapes, while Metachirus nudicaudatus was distinctive with a broad and elongated rostrum. In spite of an overall similar shape, the geometric morphometric approach revealed several marked differences among species that can be related to their phylogenetic origin and their adaptive

  11. Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

  12. [Reason to split the genus Aurelia. Mesoglein from two populations differ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, A V; Podgornaia, O I; Adonin, L S

    2015-01-01

    The medusa, Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria), is considered to be a cosmopolitan species with a worldwide distribution in most seas from the poles to the tropics. Cnidarian is thought to possess two tissue layers: endoderm (gastroderm) and ectoderm, which are separated by huge mesoglea in medusa. The basic morphology of medusa is similar in different populations. Previously we have determined a new protein "mesoglein" as one of the main components of mesoglea. Deduced amino acid sequence of mesoglein contains Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain. In this paper, we have comparied of mesoglein and its gene in medusa from three habitats (White Sea (WsA), Black Sea (BsA), Japonic Sea (JsA)). The set of the mesoglea protein bands after SDS-PAGE is similar in all samples. Nevertheless, JsA mesogleins' M(r) is 53-55 kDa, while WsA and BsA mesogleins have M(r) of 47 kDa. Antibodies raised against WsA mesoglein recognize only mesogleins with M(r) of 47 kDa, but not 53-55 kDa, both on immunoblot and immunocytochemistry. Mesogleal cells and elastic fibrils are stained intensively in the mesoglea both from WsA and BsA but not from JsA. The possibility of gene divergency was checked by PCR with primers specific for WsA mesoglein gene. PCR products of expected length obtained on polyA-cDNA template from mesogleal cells of WsA and BsA medusa but not on cDNA of JsA medusa. Our results evidence that there are two different species in genus Aurelia: Aurelia aurita inhabits White and Black Seas while Aurelia sp. inhabits Japonic Sea. This is consistent with findings of other recept molecular biological studies.

  13. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  14. Ocorrências de larvas e jovens de peixes na Ilha Anchieta (SP, com algumas anotações sobre a morfologia da castanha, Umbrina coroides Cuvier, 1830 The occurrence of fish larvae and juveniles in Anchieta Island (SP, with some notes on the morphology of the croaker, Umbrina coroides, 1830

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaciona-se neste trabalho a ocorrência de 11 famílias e 26 gêneros de diferentes espécies de larvas e jovens de peixes coletados na Ilha Anchieta, Ubatuba (Lat. 23º32'S - Long. 45º05'W, durante os anos de 1973 e 1974. Foram analisados todos os peixes coletados, procurando-se estabelecer o período das desovas através da ocorrência dos diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento em que se encontravam, relacionando-os com as condições ambientais. A espécie mais abundante foi Eucinostomus sp., que ocorreu principalmente no verão. Urribrina coroides apareceu quase que durante o ano todo, Menticirrhus littoralis durante o inverno, enquanto que M. americanas ocorreu durante o verão. No outono, houve a ocorrência de Coleotropis sp. e a espécie mais abundante durante o inverno foi Anchoa lyolepis. Outras espécies que ocorreram em abundância durante o verão foram Albula vulpes, Sardinella brasiliensis, Harengula jaguana, Trachinotus carolinus e T. falcatus. Apresenta-se também a descrição morfológica de larvas e jovens de castanha (Umbrina coroides.Occurrences of fish larvae and juveniles taken by beach seine at the Ilha Anchieta (Lat. 23º32'S; Long. 45º05'W during the period from August 1973 to July 1974, were studied. The predominant species was Eucinostomus sp. (Gerreidae which occurred more abundantly during summer season. Other species which occurred during hot summer season were: Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 (Albulidae, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, Harengula Jaguana Poey, 1865 (Clupeidae, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766, Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Carangidae, and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Sciaenidae. Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1856, occurred all the year-round. Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh, 1902 (Engraulidae occurred more abundantly during winter and Coleotropis sp. (Atherinidae during autumn. Morphological description of larvae and juveniles of Umbrina coroides

  15. Mercury speciation in fish of the Cabo Frio upwelling region, SE-Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in marine biota. The impact of upwelling processes in this metal behavior has been overlooked. Data from literature are insufficient to evaluate the risks associated with the presence of mercury in the fish collected in upwelling areas and its consumers. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a study of mercury speciation in four fish species belonging to different trophic levels from Cabo Frio-Brazil upwelling region. The total mercury content vary of 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardine to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -striped weakfish and, with exception of the planktivorous fish, methylmercury levels reaches circa 90% of total mercury concentration.A distribuição de Mercúrio nos oceanos é controlada por um complexo ciclo biogeoquímico, resultando na retenção de pequenas quantidades na biota marinha. O impacto dos processos de ressurgência costeira no comportamento desse metal tem sido negligenciado. Dados da literatura são insuficientes para elucidar o risco associado com a presença de mercúrio em peixes capturados em áreas de ressurgência e seus consumidores. Portanto o objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um estudo de especiação de mercúrio em quatro espécies de peixes pertencentes a diferentes níveis tróficos da região de ressurgência de Cabo Frio-Brasil. O conteúdo total de mercúrio variou de 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardinha to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -pescada e, com exceção da espécie planctivora, os níveis de metilmercúrio atingem cerca de 90% da concentração total de mercúrio.

  16. ANALISIS KERENTANAN JENIS IKAN PELAGIS KECIL DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI DAN SELAT MAKASSAR TERHADAP DINAMIKA SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT

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    Reny Puspasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kondisi oseanografi Indonesia dipengaruhi oleh dinamika proses oseanografi global. Salah satu proses tersebut adalah Arlindo yang menghantarkan massa air bersuhu hangat dari Samudera Pasifik ke Samudera Hindia melalui Selat Makassar. Dinamika suhu perairan akan mempengaruhi kondisi sumberdaya ikan di perairan tersebut. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak dinamika suhu permukaan laut terhadap empat jenis ikan pelagis yaitu ikan layang biru (Decapterus macarellus, kembung (Ratrelliger kanagurta, lemuru (Sardinella lemuru dan tongkol (Auxis thazard.  Penelitian dilakukan pada tahun 2015 dengan membuat profil biologis setiap jenis ikan, kemudian dilakukan penilaian oleh para ahli mengenai kerentanan setiap jenis ikan terhadap paparan dinamika SPL.  Hasil penilaian para ahli kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode kerentanan jenis yang digunakan oleh NOAA.  Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa empat jenis ikan pelagis yang dianalisis mempunyai tingkat kerentanan yang rendah terhadap paparan dinamika suhu permukaan laut.  Tingkat kerentanan ikan pelagis kecil di perairan Selat Bali lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan Selat Makassar.   Oceanographic condition of Indonesian waters is highly influenced by global oceanographic processes. Indonesian through flow is one of the global oceanographic processes that affect the oceanographic condition in Indonesia waters, it delivers warm water from Pacific Ocean to Indian Ocean through the strait of Makassar. Therefore, the dynamic of sea water temperature will affect the fish resources condition. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the dynamic of sea surface temperature to pelagic fishes such as mackerel scad (Decapterus macarellus, Indian mackerel (Ratrelliger. kanagurta, Bali sardine (Sardinella. lemuru and frigate tuna (Auxis. thazard. The study was conducted in 2015 consists of three phases of process, describing biological profile of the species, then scoring based on

  17. Comparison of the nutritional and toxicological reference values of trace elements in edible marine fish species consumed by the population in Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Renata Jurema Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the human daily and weekly intake of inorganic elements due to consumption of fish in Rio de Janeiro state and the associated potential health risks posed by some toxic elements. All samples analyzed had values of Cd and Pb below the Maximum Tolerable Limits of 3.0 mg kg−1 for Pb and 1.0 mg kg−1 for Cd; only Mugil cephalus, Cynoscion leiarchus and Caranx crysos had As concentrations below 1 mg kg−1, maximum limit established by Brazilian legislation. The higher values of Cd and Pb correspond to 0.22% of PTWI and the higher value of As corresponds to 8.6% of PTWI. None of the studied species showed values higher than PTWI. The higher values of Cu EDI found in Pomatomus numida correspond to 33.3% of RDA; Fe in Salmo salar and Genypterus brasiliensis corresponds to 4.3% of EDI; Mn in Sardinella brasiliensis corresponds to 7.4% of EDI; Zn in S. salar corresponds to 13.2% of EDI and Se in S. salar corresponds to 20.6% of EDI. Some species can be a good source of inorganic elements. For risk assessment, it is important to assess specific eating habits of each region to avoid underestimating the data.

  18. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  19. Ecosystem structure and trophic analysis of Angolan fishery landings

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    Ronaldo Angelini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on the mean trophic level of fishery landings in Angola and the output from a preliminary Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE model were used to examine the dynamics of the Angolan marine ecosystem. Results were compared with the nearby Namibian and South African ecosystems, which share some of the exploited fish populations. The results show that: (i The mean trophic level of Angola’s fish landings has not decreased over the years; (ii There are significant correlations between the landings of Angola, Namibia and South Africa; (iii The ecosystem attributes calculated by the EwE models for the three ecosystems were similar, and the main differences were related to the magnitude of flows and biomass; (iv The similarity among ecosystem trends for Namibia, South Africa and Angola re-emphasizes the need to continue collaborative regional studies on the fish stocks and their ecosystems. To improve the Angolan model it is necessary to gain a better understanding of plankton dynamics because plankton are essential for Sardinella spp. An expanded analysis of the gut contents of the fish species occupying Angola’s coastline is also necessary.

  20. Variation in Nutritive Composition of Two Commercially Important Marine Fin Fishes

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    R. Kanagalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of fishes vary and are closely related to feed intake, migratory swimming and sexual changes in connection with spawning. The nutritive composition of many marine, estuarine and fresh water fishes were determined and have been implemented in fish consumption. Nutritive composition of Dussumieria acuta and Sardinella brachysoma were not yet determined and the present study was dealt with these fishes. Fatty acids, Vitamins (fat soluble and water soluble and Minerals were quantified. Palmitic acid showed its higher level in both species (5.78 and 3.89% in D. acuta and S. brachysoma, respectively. Water-soluble vitamins were higher in D. acuta and fat-soluble vitamins showed higher percentage availability in S. brachysoma. Calcium was the predominant mineral in both fishes and can be consumed by humans for bone strength. The finding has proved with strong evidence that both the fishes undertaken for the present study are rich in most of the nutrients essential for proper health maintenance of humans.

  1. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

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    Bimal Prasanna Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  2. Collagen Extract from Marine Finfish Scales as a Potential Mosquito Larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumari, K; Anand, M; Maruthupandy, M

    2016-12-01

    Collagen is a peptide being utilized in medical, health care, nutrient and decorative industry. Marine fish scales are one of the good sources of collagen, which is extracted using the advanced enzymatic digestion method. Scales of Sardinella longiceps (Oil Sardine) have a high proportion of collagen. This product is well absorbed with broad adaptive values that encourage the inclusion of nutriments. In this paper, we have performed the isolation and characterization of collagen from S. longiceps fish scales. The unnecessary proteins on the surface of fish scales was removed by demineralization process. The fish scale collagen was extracted in two different methods: acid (acetic acid) and enzymatic (pepsin) technique. The molecular mass of the extracted collagen was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The absorption spectra of the extracted collagen was measured to estimate its amino acid (tyrosine) content. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed the existence of bands corresponding to the collagen extracted from S. longiceps fish scale and the crystallinity of extracted collagen was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The morphological micrograph was also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anti-larval effect of the collagen extract was determined using mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and the activity was statistically significant.

  3. Seasonal variations in diversity and abundance of surface ichthyoplankton in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kaizhi; YIN Jianqiang; HUANG Liangmin; LIN Zhaojin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal variations of ichthyoplankton diversity and abun-dance in the northern South China Sea based on the data collected during summer, winter and spring. In total, 95 taxa of larval fishes were identified. The greatest number of species was recorded in spring, followed by summer and winter. The number of species was distributed mainly in the coastal waters from the east of Leizhou Peninsula to the southeast of Hainan Island during the surveyed periods of summer and spring, but in the offshore waters during winter. The abundance of larval fish was lowest in winter, increased in spring, and reached the maximum in summer. High abundance of larval fish was generally restricted to coastal waters with the isobaths less than 50 m. Seasonal variations of larval fish richness, abundance and diversity index were significant (P<0.001). Carangidae was the most common and abundant taxon in summer and winter, whileSardinella sp.,Thrissa mystax andLeiognathus sp. were dominant in spring. High diversity and abundance of larval fish might be attributed to increased temperature and coastal upwelling in spring and summer.

  4. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  5. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  6. Possibilidades de transmissão e vias de inoculação da lepra murina em ratos e outros animais

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    Herminio Linhares

    1943-06-01

    Full Text Available 1 O A. revê as vias de infecção naturais e os processos de inoculações empregados em ratos, no estudo da lepra murina. 2 Na natureza, o contacto prolongado de animal sadio com doente e a infecção por via gástrica devem ser os modos comuns de contaminação. 3 Foram encontrados dentro do Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister capturados em ratos leprosos, bacilos ácido álcool resistentes. Tentativas de cultura com êste material, foram infrutíferas. 4 O A. infectou ratos colocando no estômago, por meio de sondas de vidro, material leproso. Em cinco animais, todos se infectaram. 5 Por via subcutânea e por via intraperitoneal, a infecção se processa em quase 100% dos casos. 6 Foi possível infectar gambás (Didelphis aurita com lepra murina. Êsses animais provavelmente são mais suscetíveis à lepra dos ratos que à humana. 7 Conseguiu-se infectar pinto por inoculação de emulsão de lepra murina no músculo do peito, por via intraperitoneal e por via gástrica. 8 Pombos também se infectaram após inoculação no músculo do peito e por via venosa.1 The A. reviews the routes of natural transmission of rat leprosy and the experimentally induced disease. 2 The infection in the natural disease must be made by contact with an infected rat or through the gastro-intestinal route by eating infected tissue. 3 They were found acid-fast bacilli in lice (Polyplax spinulosa caught on rats dying of leprosy; but it was impossible to obtain cultures in Löwenstein medium, from these lice. 4 Rat leprosy emulsion introduced into the stomach, may infect rats. Five rats fed with infected material became infected. 5 After subcutaneous or intraperitoneal inoculation there were obtained infection in almost 100% of cases. 6 It was possible to infect Didelphis aurita after inoculation of infected rat material. These animals most likely are more susceptible to rat leprosy than to human leprosy. 7 It was possible to infect chicks by inoculation in chest muscle

  7. Edge effects and geometric constraints: a landscape-level empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzy E; Prevedello, Jayme A; Delciellos, Ana Cláudia; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects are pervasive in landscapes yet their causal mechanisms are still poorly understood. Traditionally, edge effects have been attributed to differences in habitat quality along the edge-interior gradient of habitat patches, under the assumption that no edge effects would occur if habitat quality was uniform. This assumption was questioned recently after the recognition that geometric constraints tend to reduce population abundances near the edges of habitat patches, the so-called geometric edge effect (GEE). Here, we present the first empirical, landscape-level evaluation of the importance of the GEE in shaping abundance patterns in fragmented landscapes. Using a data set on the distribution of small mammals across 18 forest fragments, we assessed whether the incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changes the interpretation of edge effects and the degree to which predictions based on the GEE match observed responses. Quantitative predictions were generated for each fragment using simulations that took into account home range, density and matrix use for each species. The incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changed substantially the interpretation of overall observed edge responses at the landscape scale. Observed abundances alone would lead to the conclusion that the small mammals as a group have no consistent preference for forest edges or interiors and that the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita (a numerically dominant species in the community) has on average a preference for forest interiors. In contrast, incorporation of the GEE suggested that the small mammal community as a whole has a preference for forest edges, whereas D. aurita has no preference for forest edges or interiors. Unexplained variance in edge responses was reduced by the incorporation of GEE, but remained large, varying greatly on a fragment-by-fragment basis. This study demonstrates how to model and incorporate the GEE in analyses of edge effects and that this

  8. Composition of eggs and larvae of fish and macrogelatinious zooplankton in Sinop Region (The Central Black Sea during 2002.

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    Ahmet E. Kıdeyş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada 2002 yılında Orta Karadeniz’in Sinop Bölgesi’ndeki makrojelimsi organizma (Aurelia aurita, Pleurobranchia pileus, Mnemiopsis leidyi ve Beroe ovata türleri ile balık yumurta ve larvalarının bolluğu ve dağılımının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bunun için bölgede seçilen 3 istasyonda, dikey ve yatay olarak plankton çekimleri yapılmıştır. Araştırmada ktenoforlardan Mnemiopsis leidyi Ocak-Eylül, Beroe ovata Ağustos-Aralık periyotlarında görülebilmiştir. Aurelia aurita ve Pleurobranchia pileus türleri ise 2002 yılında geniş dağılım göstermişlerdir. İhtiyoplankton örneklerinden toplam 857 adet yumurta ve 150 adet larva toplanmış olup 8 familyaya ait 8 tür tayin edilmiştir. Toplam yumurtanın %77.7’sini Sprattus sprattus phalericus, %10’unu Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus ve %10’unu da Mullus barbatus türüne ait yumurtalar oluşturmuştur. Toplam larvanın %51’ini S. s. phalericus, %15’ini Blennidae familyası ve %13’ünü de E. e. ponticus türleri oluşturmuştur. İhtiyoplankton tür sayısı ve bolluğu 1999-2000 yılından daha düşük bulunmuştur. Sıcaklık değerlerinin yükseldiği dönemlerde jelimsi organizma ile balık yumurta ve larva miktarlarının arttığı belirlenmiştir. Kısa süreli örneklemelerde (bir yıl boyunca jelimsi organizmalarla balık yumurta ve larvaları arasındaki net bir ilişki bulunamamıştır (p>0.05

  9. A field comparison of two capture-mark-recapture estimators of small mammal populations

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    Rosana Gentile

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained by two estimators of population sizes, MNKA and Mh, were compared for four species of small mammmals - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, Philander frenata (Olfers, 1818, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 and Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887 - during a long-term population study. The MNKA estimator consistently underestimated the population sizes in relation to Mh. On the other, the probabilistic estimator Mh, which reduces bias through the jackknife technique, could not be used in all cases as its assumptions were not always met. Correction factors between the estimates obtained by the two methods were calculated for the last three species, for which catchability did not vary significantly in time and that presented positive correlation between the estimates by the two models. In order to combine the adavantages of both methods for small mammal population studies, is suggested the use of probabilistic closed population models and to calculate a correction factor based in another model which allow estimates in all cases, and which provides correlated estimates. This correction factors should be used in those cases where the probabilistic model cannot be used.

  10. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  11. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  12. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

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    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  13. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  14. Return to Glacier Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  15. Taxonomic review of Physconelloides (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (aves), including descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R D; Clayton, D H; Hellenthal, R A

    1999-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive taxonomic review of Physconelloides, a genus of ischnoceran chewing lice found on pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Thirteen previously known Physconelloides species are redescribed and 16 new synonymies are designated: P. rubripes Carriker, P. rubripes longulus Tendeiro, P. piotrowskii Tendeiro and P. auritae Tendeiro are synonyms of P. zenaidurae (McGregor); P. recurvatus Eichler, P. chocoensis Carriker and P. montana Carriker are synonyms of P. ceratoceps Ewing; P. silvestris Tendeiro is a synonym of P. perijae Carriker; P. keleri Kaddou and P. branderi Kaddou are synonyms of P. spenceri Emerson and Ward; P. wolfdietrichi Kaddou is a synonym of P. anolaimae Carriker; and Goniocotacanthus mattogrossensis Guimaraes, P. passerinae Emerson, P. eurysema pretiosa Carriker, P. talpacoti Carriker and P. picuii Tendeiro are synonyms of P. eurysema (Carriker). Three new species are also described: P. moyeri (type host Geotrygon linearis), P. johnsoni (type host Columbina passerina bahamensis), and P. robbinsi (type host Metriopelia ceciliae). A key is provided for identification of the 16 recognized species.

  16. Simultaneous measurements of jellyfish bell kinematics and flow fields using PTV and PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of jellyfish swimming can potentially improve the energy efficiency of aquatic vehicles or create biomimetic robots for ocean monitoring. Aurelia aurita is a simple oblate invertebrate composed of a flexible bell and coronal muscle, which contracts to eject water from the subumbrellar volume. Jellyfish locomotion can be studied by obtaining body kinematics or by examining the resulting fluid velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Typically, swim kinematics are obtained by semi-manually tracking points of interest (POI) along the bell in video post-processing; simultaneous measurements of kinematics and flows involve using this semi-manual tracking method on PIV videos. However, we show that both the kinematics and flow fields can be directly visualized in 3D space by embedding phosphorescent particles in animals free-swimming in seeded environments. Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) can then be used to calculate bell kinematics, such as pulse frequency, bell deformation, swim trajectories, and propulsive efficiency. By simultaneously tracking POI within the bell and collecting PIV data, we can further study the jellyfish's natural locomotive control mechanisms in conjunction with flow measurements. NSF GRFP.

  17. Postembryonic development of the parasitic amphipod Hyperia galba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Birgit

    1987-06-01

    Hyperia galba Montagu is associated with gelatinous zooplankton as are many species of the Hyperiidea. The hosts preferred in the European seas are the large scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita, Chrysaora hysoscella, Rhizostoma pulmo, Cyanea capillata and Cyanea lamarckii, which harbour the first developmental stages. The anamorphic development produces young that are incapable of swimming at the time of hatching. They are characterized by an embryonic abdomen without extremities and external segmentation; the eyes are not completely developed and the mouth is primitive lacking bristles, molar and incisor. The postembryonic development, described in detail, is subdivided into two phases: the pantochelis phase and the protopleon phase; the former comprises only one stage; the latter can be subdivided into four stages. In the course of postnatal development the larval organs are reduced and characters typical of the adult are gradually differentiated. H. galba plays an important role as obligatory endoparasite of scyphomedusae at least during the first stages of development; without a host this amphipod cannot survive, neither benthically nor in the plankton. The transition from life in the female's marsupium to endoparasitism in the jellyfish generally occurs during stage of the postembryonic development which is the first stage of the protopleon phase. The specific adaptations of its reproductive biology to a parasitic mode of life such as moult inhibition under starvation, development of larval organs and the behavioural patterns of the females as well as the young are described. Further, the influence of external factors such as temperature and food supply on the course of development is examined.

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.

  19. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  20. Indomethacin reproducibly induces metamorphosis in Cassiopea xamachana scyphistomae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales-Arellano, Patricia; Islas-Flores, Tania; Thomé, Patricia E.

    2017-01-01

    Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported. Such controlled metamorphosis induction is necessary for an ensured synchronicity and reproducibility of biological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. For this purpose, we tested if differentiation could be pharmacologically stimulated as in Aurelia aurita, by the metamorphic inducers thyroxine, KI, NaI, Lugol’s iodine, H2O2, indomethacin, or retinol. We found reproducibly induced strobilation by 50 μM indomethacin after six days of exposure, and 10–25 μM after 7 days. Strobilation under optimal conditions reached 80–100% with subsequent ephyrae release after exposure. Thyroxine yielded inconsistent results as it caused strobilation occasionally, while all other chemicals had no effect. Thus, indomethacin can be used as a convenient tool for assessment of biological phenomena through a controlled metamorphic process in C. xamachana scyphistomae. PMID:28265497

  1. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, P S; Gentile, R; Maroja, L S; Fernandes, F A; Coura, R; Cerqueira, R

    2007-02-01

    This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133), Akodon cursor (n = 74), Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25) and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58) and Philander frenatus (n = 50). Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry) months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  3. Induction of metamorphosis from the larval to the polyp stage is similar in Hydrozoa and a subgroup of Scyphozoa (Cnidaria, Semaeostomeae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, Barbara; Kroiher, Michael; Berking, Stefan

    2000-12-01

    Larvae of cnidarians need an external cue for metamorphosis to start. The larvae of various hydrozoa, in particular of Hydractinia echinata, respond to Cs+, Li+, NH4 + and seawater in which the concentration of Mg2+ ions is reduced. They further respond to the phorbolester, tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the diacylglycerol (DAG) diC8, which both are argued to stimulate a protein kinase C. The only well-studied scyphozoa, Cassiopea spp., respond differently, i.e. to TPA and diC8 only. We found that larvae of the scyphozoa Aurelia aurita, Chrysaora hysoscella and Cyanea lamarckii respond to all the compounds mentioned. Trigonelline ( N-methylnicotinic acid), a metamorphosis inhibitor found in Hydractinia larvae, is assumed to act by delivering a methyl group for transmethylation processes antagonising metamorphosis induction in Chrysaora hysoscella and Cyanea lamarckii. The three species tested are scyphozoa belonging to the subgroup of semaeostomeae, while Cassiopea spp. belong to the rhizostomeae. The results obtained may contribute to the discussion concerning the evolution of cnidarians and may help to clarify whether the way metamorphosis can be induced in rhizostomeae as a whole is different from that in hydrozoa and those scyphozoa belonging to the subgroup semaeostomeae.

  4. Revisión del género de mariposas Forsterinaria Gray, 1973 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica de las mariposas satírinas neotropicales incluidas en el género Forsterinaria Gray, 1973, comprendiendo una discusión de la clasificación y distribución geográfica de sus especies componentes, ilustraciones de los adultos de todos los taxones y de sus genitalias masculinas, así como descripciones de 12 especies y dos subespecies nuevas: Forsterinaria antje sp. n., F. coipa sp. n., F. enjuerma sp. n., F. falcata sp. n., F. guaniloi sp. n., F. itatiaia sp. n., F. pallida sp. n., F. pallida aurita ssp. n., F. pichita sp. n., F. pilosa sp. n., F. punctata sp. n., F. pyrczi sp. n., F. rotunda sp. n. y F. rustica glendita ssp. n. Euptychia stelligera Butler y E. fabiana Butler son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de Forsterinaria quantius (Godart. Euptychia magdalena Hayward y E. pseudonecys Strand son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de F. inornata (C. Felder & R. Felder y F. necys (Godart, respectivamente. Se designa lectotipos para 14 taxones nominales. Se reconoce un total de 23 especies. Se ofrece una clave para la identificación de todos los taxones.

  5. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  6. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  7. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea. The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  8. Pelage Variation and Distribution of the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbino, Guilherme Siniciato Terra; Rezende, Gabriela Cabral; Valladares-Padua, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of the interior of the state of São Paulo in Brazil. Since the discovery of the species, authors have described variations in the pelage of L. chrysopygus, but the nature of this variation has remained unknown. We examined museum specimens and living animals to see if the pelage of L. chrysopygus varies individually, geographically or ontogenetically. We reviewed all known locality records of the species, and concluded that the pelage of L. chrysopygus varies individually and ontogenetically, but not geographically. The extent of the golden chromogenetic fields is larger in younger individuals, and the pelage becomes darker after successive moults. We examined 2 juveniles that presented a pelage similar to adult L. caissara. Geographically, there is a clear break in the phenotypes attributed to L. caissara and L. chrysopygus, precluding clinal variation and corroborating the specific status of the former. The separation between these 2 species is coincident with a tectonic fault known as the 'Guapiara lineament', and may have been caused by a recent activation of this geological formation. We also suggest a historical contact zone between L. chrysopygus and the marmoset Callithrix aurita in the upper Rio Tietê region. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-07

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  10. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P; Stewart, Colin J; Dabiri, John O; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2013-10-29

    Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required.

  11. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1 Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

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    Yunwi Heo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris. The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai.

  12. Can Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa species be differentiated by comparing their scyphistomae and ephyrae?

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    Maria Gambill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate exists regarding the number of species of the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia, a common member of the planktonic community of the coastal shelf seas around the world. Three Aurelia congeners (A. aurita, A. labiata and A. limbata are currently considered to exist but recent genetic analyses suggested that this is an oversimplification. We analyzed the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae, morphological characteristics of ephyrae and differences in the time span of the strobilation process of Aurelia congeners from 17, 7 and 6 different source populations, respectively, of known species. Morphological characteristics of scyphistomae were similar among the 17 populations but those of ephyrae, such as the shape and form of lappets, were effective discriminators in the 6 cases examined. We recommend identifying species based on differences in 1 the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae and ephyrae (and not only medusae, 2 the genetics of individuals, and 3 the geographical occurrence of the population. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on scyphozoan scyphistomae and ephyrae, stages of the metagenic life cycle of scyphozoans that have received relatively little study compared to medusae.

  13. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

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    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  14. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  15. Indomethacin reproducibly induces metamorphosis in Cassiopea xamachana scyphistomae

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    Patricia Cabrales-Arellano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported. Such controlled metamorphosis induction is necessary for an ensured synchronicity and reproducibility of biological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. For this purpose, we tested if differentiation could be pharmacologically stimulated as in Aurelia aurita, by the metamorphic inducers thyroxine, KI, NaI, Lugol’s iodine, H2O2, indomethacin, or retinol. We found reproducibly induced strobilation by 50 μM indomethacin after six days of exposure, and 10–25 μM after 7 days. Strobilation under optimal conditions reached 80–100% with subsequent ephyrae release after exposure. Thyroxine yielded inconsistent results as it caused strobilation occasionally, while all other chemicals had no effect. Thus, indomethacin can be used as a convenient tool for assessment of biological phenomena through a controlled metamorphic process in C. xamachana scyphistomae.

  16. Concentração e retenção do selênio em peixes marinhos Concentration and retention of selenium in marine fish

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    Alfredo Tenuta Filho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O pescado contém substancialmente maiores concentrações de selênio (Se do que outras carnes e é, por isso, considerado a maior fonte dietária desse nutriente. Ao mesmo tempo, o pescado também é a maior fonte de ingestão de mercúrio (Hg na dieta humana, cuja toxidez pode ser reduzida pelo Se, por interação entre ambos. Em consequência, a biodisponibilidade do Se é reduzida. No presente estudo, a ocorrência do Se foi avaliada em espécies marinhas de peixes brasileiros, comercialmente disponíveis, e determinada sua retenção em cação-mangona. Os níveis médios de Se encontrados nos peixes ósseos, corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, peixe-porco (Balistes capricus, pescada-branca e sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis, 0,48 ± 0,18 μg.g-1, e nos peixes cartilaginosos, cação-anjo, cação-cambeva, cação-machote e cação-mangona, 0,36 ± 0,07 μg.g-1, não diferiram entre si (p > 0,05 e situaram-se na mesma faixa de ocorrência indicada na literatura para peixes marinhos em geral. Os níveis de Se detectados nos cações (espécies predadoras não permitem o estabelecimento de relação estequiométrica suficiente para a interação com o Hg, visando à proteção tóxica esperada. A retenção efetiva do Se medida em cação-mangona, após extração com água, foi considerada elevada (mínimo de 68,81% e importante sob os pontos de vista nutricional e toxicológico.Fish contains considerably higher selenium (Se concentrations than other kinds of meats, and thus it is considered a major dietary source of this nutrient. At the same time, fish is also the major source of mercury (Hg in the human diet, whose toxicity can be reduced by the Se through the interaction between both compounds. In consequence, the biological availability of Se is reduced. In the current study, the occurrence of Se was evaluated in commercially available Brazilian marine species, and the retention of Se in sharks (sand tiger shark was determined. The

  17. Diel variation of fish community in sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo Gaelzer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish living in coastal waters present behavior patterns ruled by environmental light levels. Diel variations in fish community structure were investigated at Arraial do Cabo surf zone (22º58'S, 42º01'W. From September/2001 to August/2002 monthly sampling consisted of 12 hauls of a beach seine during the day and at night at Praia dos Anjos, Praia Grande and Prainha beaches. Different temporal distribution patterns of the ichthyc community were recorded. At Praia dos Anjos, total richness was higher at night while the average number of species, CPUE, Margalef's richness and Shannon diversity were generally higher during the day. We believe that this pattern was caused by the displacement of some species such as Harengula clupeola,Trachinotus carolinus and Umbrina coroides at night to deeper areas searching for food or for predator avoidance. At Praia Grande and Prainha the average number of species, CPUE, richness and diversity indexes were generally higher at night with the dominant species H. clupeola, Pomatomus saltatrix and Sardinella brasiliensis. It is suggested that the main factor to diel variation is the protection against predators due to darkness, making visualization of the prey difficult, besides the presence of seasonal macroalgae beds at Prainha, which might function as a food area for piscivorous fishes due to the proximity of larger individuals in shallower water especially at night.Peixes que vivem em águas costeiras marinhas exibem modelos de comportamento que são regulados pelos níveis de luz do ambiente. A variação nictemeral na estrutura da comunidade de peixes de zona de arrebentação foi investigada na região de Arraial do Cabo (22º58'S, 42º01'W. Desetembro/2001 a agosto/2002 foram realizadas coletas mensais, sendo efetuadas 12 arrastos utilizando cerco de praia nos períodos diurnos e noturnos na Praia dos Anjos, Praia Grande e Prainha. Diferentes padrões de distribuição da comunidade ictíca foram

  18. Diel and tidal variation in surf zone fish assemblages of a sheltered beach in southern Brazil Variación diaria y mareal de ensambles de peces en la zona de surf de una playa protegida en el sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana C Félix-Hackradt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diel and tidal variations of fish assemblages were assessed at Pontal beach, southern Brazil, using a seine net. Species richness was greater at night, whereas fish number, weight, and richness (cornmunity indicators were all influenced by the tidal state. Samples from rising tides were more representative, probably due to onshore fish movements for feeding purposes. However, lower catches were associated with high tides, mainly through net avoidance, indicating that sampling in these conditions is not highly informative. Clupeoids exhibited greater variation in a 24 h period, and the night occurrence of A. tricolor and daylight shoaling of Harengula clupeola, Anchoa parva and Sardinella brasiliensis suggested distinct strategies for avoiding daylight predators. In some species, this behaviour may have been induced by the bottom morphology and tidal state, facilitating nearshore grouping. In addition to being caught at night, the occurrences of Menticirrhus littoralis, Pomadasys corvinaefórmis, Umbrina coroides and Hyporhamphus unifasciatus indicated a spatial niche partition according to tidal state. Although not evaluated properly, temporal fluctuations could reflect species recruitment patterns. Seasonal fluctuations have to be considered when analysing short-term changes in the cornmunity as such fluctuations are synchronized with the natural history of the species, making it difficult to interpret short-term variations in isolation.Se utilizó una red de arrastre para evaluar la variación diaria y mareal del ensamble de peces en la playa de Pontal, sur de Brasil. Se encontró la mayor riqueza de especies durante la noche mientras que la abundancia, peso y riqueza (indicadores de la comunidad fueron influenciados por la marea. Las muestras de marea creciente fueron las más representativas debido probablemente a los movimientos costeros con fines alimentarios; sin embargo, las menores capturas estuvieron asociadas a pleamares debido a la

  19. ANALISIS NILAI TAMBAH PRODUK PERIKANAN LEMURU PELABUHAN MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Purwaningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lemuru fisheries in Bali strait, Muncar, Banyuwangi has strategic role for fish canning industries. Sardinella lemuru has low economic value as fresh fish but high as fish canning. Fisheres production system must be viewed as a whole value added system, starting from landing site at fisheries port to fish processing industries and distributed to the consumers. Lemuru from Muncar fishery port are distributed to canning industries, cold storage, flour and fish oil industries. This research aims to (1 describe fish distribution pattern from landing site to industries, (2 determine fish processing cost in industries, (3 determine the economic added value of lemuru as various products. Data collection method are interview with fisher and industries, direct observation and secondary data from research report and scientific publication. Cost in fish processing industries is classified as investment cost, operating cost and overhead cost. The totalcost will becompared to the product price, from which the differenceis theadded value.  Value-added creation also considers the conversion rate between fresh fish products into finished products. Research  shows that, among the fish processing industries under consideration, canning industry has highest added value in the amount of USD 3.5 million/ton of finished product. For the canning industry, every 1 ton of fish can equal be converted to 1,5 ton of canned fish products. Flour and fish oil industry, in the meantime, generates added value of Rp 2.3million/ton. Finally, cold storage industry has lowest added value of 1.8 million/ton of product. Cold storage industry produces frozen fish and has a function for storing fish production in the harvest season.

  20. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) assessment and fatty acids profile in fish most consumed by Cubatao community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: mrcurcho@ipen.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kuniyoshi, Leonardo S.; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT); Baggio, Sueli R., E-mail: sueli@ital.sp.gov.b [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Qualidade de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, providing omega-3 (n-3) the fatty acids that reduce cholesterol levels, and reduce the incidence of heart disease and stroke. The purpose of the present study was to assess the concentration of some micronutrients and also fatty acids profile in muscles of the most consumed fish species from Cubatao coastal region. Cubatao carnivorous fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada) and Menticirrhus americanus (Perna-de-Moca), and planktivorous species Sardinella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) in fish muscle were determined by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fatty acids profiles in these muscle fish samples were performed by gas chromatography. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 23.0% in M. ancylodon to 50.0% in M. liza. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents varied from 10.9% in M. liza 38.4% in S. braziliensis. These fish species presented different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family and of the n-6 family. Regarding the n-6 family, M. furnieri showed the highest values (13.3%) and M. ancylodon, the lowest ones (4.1%). On the other hand, for the n-3 family, S. braziliensis presented the highest value (31.8%) and M. liza the lowest one (5.7%). Regarding micronutrients content, great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. From the nutritional point of view S. braziliensis is the best choice showing highest content of fatty acid n-3 family and micronutrient concentrations. (author)

  1. Species composition and community diversity of nekton in Laizhou Bay, China

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    Fan Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on trawls conducted in Laizhou Bay, China (119°05′–120°00′ E, 37°12′–37°40′ N, in 2010 and 2011, an analysis was made of changes in species composition, dominant species and community diversity of nekton. A total of 85 species were identified, which included 55 fish, 25 crustaceans and 5 cephalopod species. The most species-rich orders were Perciformes (28 species and Decapoda (24 species. There was obvious seasonal variation in nekton number, mostly influenced by the number of fishes. Sardinella zunasi, Konosirus punctatus and Thryssa kammalensis were the main pelagic fishes in Laizhou Bay, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Acanthogobius ommaturus and Cynoglossus joyneri were the main bottom fishes, Orgtosaquilla oratoria, Charybdis japonica and Crangon hakodatei were the main crustaceans, while squid (Loliolus sp. represented the main cephalopods. Loliolus sp., Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Konosirus punctatus were the dominant species in both 2010 and 2011 and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest in summer and lowest in winter. The Shannon-Wiener index was also higher in the north-east area and lower in the south-west. Since the late 1950s, nekton number, especially of fish, has significantly declined due to human activities and climate change impacts. This is particularly true for cartilaginous fish, estuarine species, river-migratory species, large-scale economic fish, flatfish and takifugu. In parallel, dominant species, such as Trichiurus lepturus, Setipinna taty, Engraulis japonicus, Thryssa kammalensis have been replaced by smaller nekton.

  2. Physiological and ecological effects of increasing temperature on fish production in lakes of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    Lake ecosystems in the Arctic are changing rapidly due to climate warming. Lakes are sensitive integrators of climate-induced changes and prominent features across the Arctic landscape, especially in lowland permafrost regions such as the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Despite many studies on the implications of climate warming, how fish populations will respond to lake changes is uncertain for Arctic ecosystems. Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella) is a bellwether for Arctic lakes as an important consumer and prey resource. To explore the consequences of climate warming, we used a bioenergetics model to simulate changes in Least Cisco production under future climate scenarios for lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. First, we used current temperatures to fit Least Cisco consumption to observed annual growth. We then estimated growth, holding food availability, and then feeding rate constant, for future projections of temperature. Projected warmer water temperatures resulted in reduced Least Cisco production, especially for larger size classes, when food availability was held constant. While holding feeding rate constant, production of Least Cisco increased under all future scenarios with progressively more growth in warmer temperatures. Higher variability occurred with longer projections of time mirroring the expanding uncertainty in climate predictions further into the future. In addition to direct temperature effects on Least Cisco growth, we also considered changes in lake ice phenology and prey resources for Least Cisco. A shorter period of ice cover resulted in increased production, similar to warming temperatures. Altering prey quality had a larger effect on fish production in summer than winter and increased relative growth of younger rather than older age classes of Least Cisco. Overall, we predicted increased production of Least Cisco due to climate warming in lakes of Arctic Alaska. Understanding the implications of increased production of Least Cisco to

  3. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  4. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  5. ANALISIS NILAI TAMBAH PRODUK PERIKANAN LEMURU PELABUHAN MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Purwaningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lemuru fisheries in Bali strait, Muncar, Banyuwangi has strategic role for fish canning industries. Sardinella lemuru has low economic value as fresh fish but high as fish canning. Fisheres production system must be viewed as a whole value added system, starting from landing site at fisheries port to fish processing industries and distributed to the consumers. Lemuru from Muncar fishery port are distributed to canning industries, cold storage, flour and fish oil industries. This research aims to (1 describe fish distribution pattern from landing site to industries, (2 determine fish processing cost in industries, (3 determine the economic added value of lemuru as various products. Data collection method are interview with fisher and industries, direct observation and secondary data from research report and scientific publication. Cost in fish processing industries is classified as investment cost, operating cost and overhead cost. The totalcost will becompared to the product price, from which the differenceis theadded value. Value-added creation also considers the conversion rate between fresh fish products into finished products. Research shows that, among the fish processing industries under consideration, canning industry has highest added value in the amount of USD 3.5 million/ton of finished product. For the canning industry, every 1 ton of fish can equal be converted to 1,5 ton of canned fish products. Flour and fish oil industry, in the meantime, generates added value of Rp 2.3million/ton. Finally, cold storage industry has lowest added value of 1.8 million/ton of product. Cold storage industry produces frozen fish and has a function for storing fish production in the harvest season.

  6. Levels of polonium-210 in highly consumed sea foods from a fish market of the city of Niteroi, RJ-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsico, Eliane T.; Sao Clemente, Sergio C. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos - LARARA

    2007-07-01

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), a short-lived member from the uranium series, is broadly distributed in Nature being among all alpha-emitters the major contributor to the internal dose in man. Studies of diets have shown that marine foods are important sources of this radionuclide. The levels of {sup 210}Po have been determined in three highly consumed marine species, the fishes Sardinella brasiliensis (sardine) and Thunnus atlanticus (tuna), and the shrimp Litopenaeus brasiliensis, purchased from the Niteroi (RJ, Brazil) fish market, and caught along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Doses of {sup 210}Po were determined for the entire organisms and for some tissues and organs, such as eyes, heart, gills, muscle, stomach liver, intestine and pyloric caecal (fishes) or eyes, head content, exoskeleton, muscle, hepatopancreas and pleopods. {sup 210}Po is not uniformly distributed within these species, the highest levels being observed for sardine in the intestine (1634.6 mBq g-1), tuna in pyloric caecal (4656.1 mBq g-1) and shrimp in the hepatopancreas (1460.5 mBq g-1). The {sup 210}Po activities in sardine, tuna and shrimp, calculated on a mean whole-organism basis, were 64.6, 34.5 and 39.5 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) respectively, with corresponding concentration factors of 7.2 x104, 3.8 x104 and 4.4 x104. Considering body distribution, almost 60% of the total activity is concentrated in the pyloric caecal of both fishes and in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp. In turn, the edible parts concentrate much less activity. (author)

  7. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω − 3/ω − 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future. PMID:23509703

  8. Species composition and quantity distribution of fish eggs, larvae and juveniles in south of Xiamen in spring%厦门南部海域春季鱼卵、仔稚鱼种类组成与数量分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春燕; 沈长春; 刘勇; 马超

    2013-01-01

    根据2013年4月在厦门南部海域的调查资料,对其鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成与数量分布特点进行初步研究和探讨.结果表明,本调查海域春季共出现鱼卵和仔稚鱼21种,其中鱼卵14种,仔稚鱼9种.21个种类隶属于16科.鱼卵、仔稚鱼数量主要以黄姑鱼(Nibea albifora)、青鳞小沙丁鱼(Sardinella zunasi)和鰕虎鱼科(Gobiidae sp.)为主;春季水平拖网鱼卵和仔稚鱼平均密度分别为107.7 ind/网和1.0ind/网,垂直拖网鱼卵和仔稚鱼平均密度分别为0.69 ind/m3和0.47 ind/m3;春季鱼卵数量分布以浯屿岛东侧的11站位和小金门岛北侧的9站位较为集中,仔稚鱼以下鸡屿北侧的4站位和大担岛东南侧的12站位较为集中.比较以往的研究成果,随着厦门南部海域的高度开发利用,海域生态环境已发生很大变化,导致鱼卵、仔稚鱼种类数明显减少,主要优势种也发生较大变化.

  9. Evaluating mercury biomagnification in fish from a tropical marine environment using stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Ababneh, Fuad A; Lean, David R

    2007-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in zooplankton and 13 fish species from a coastal food web of the Gulf of Oman, an arm of the Arabian Sea between Oman and Iran. Stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) also were determined to track mercury biomagnification. The average concentration of T-Hg in zooplankton was 21 +/- 8.0 ng g(-1) with MeHg accounting 10% of T-Hg. Total mercury levels in fish species ranged from 3.0 ng g(-1) (Sardinella longiceps) to 760 ng g(-1) (Rhizoprionodon acutus) with relatively lower fraction of MeHg (72%) than that found in other studies. The average trophic difference (Deltadelta13C) between zooplankton and planktivorous fish (Selar crumenopthalmus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, and S. longiceps) was higher (3.4 per thousandth) than expected, suggesting that zooplankton may not be the main diet or direct carbon source for these fish species. However, further sampling would be required to compensate for temporal changes in zooplankton and the influence of their lipid content. Trophic position inferred by delta15N and and slopes of the regression equations (log10[T-Hg] = 0.13[delta15N] - 3.57 and log10[MeHg] = 0.14[delta15N] - 3.90) as estimates of biomagnification indicate that biomagnification of T-Hg and MeHg was lower in this tropical ocean compared to what has been observed in arctic and temperate ecosystems and tropical African lakes. The calculated daily intake of methylmercury in the diet of local people through fish consumption was well below the established World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake threshold for most of the fish species except Euthynnus affinis, Epinephelus epistictus, R. acutus, and Thunnus tonggol, illustrating safe consumption of the commonly consumed fish species.

  10. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THREE SCYPHOZOAN JELLYFISH SPECIES DURING SUMMER OF 2011 IN JIAOZHOU BAY%2011年夏季胶州湾三种大型水母的种群动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世伟; 张光涛; 孙松; 王彦涛; 赵增霞

    2012-01-01

    2011年8月1日-9月30日,对胶州湾三种大型水母沙海蛰(Nemopilemanomurai)、白色霞水母fCyaneanozakii)、海月水母似ureliaaurita)的种群数量变动及空间分布情况开展了目测调查,同步获得了气象、水温、盐度、叶绿素a、浮游动物丰度、种类组成等数据,调查频率为每周2次。调查期间,海月水母表现出逐渐降低的趋势,沙海蛰与白色霞水母种群均于8月11日达到数量高峰,8月底及9月中旬之后依次衰落,至9月底,三种水母基本消失。三种水母的种群平均丰度变化范围分别为:沙海蛰0—230.8ind/km0;霞水母0—150.2ind/km2;海月水母0—123.4ind/km2。从分布区域来看,海月水母主要位于近岸区,沙海蜇主要分布于湾口和中部深水区,而白色霞水母则在高峰期和次高峰期分别集中于深水区和近岸区。结合往年资料,作者认为,海月水母种群能够在胶州湾内进行自我补充并完成其生活史,而胶州湾沙海蛰与霞水母的种群补充则可能主要依赖于湾外种群。另外,目测方法的准确性可能受到气象条件的影响。%During August 1 to September 30, 2011, the population abundances and distributions of three scyphozoa jellyfish species Nemopelima nomurai, Cyanea nozakii and Aurelia aurita were examined by visual observation twice per week, along with the investigation of the metrological conditions, water temperatures, salinities, chlorophyll a concentra- tions and the zooplankton abundances. All the three jellyfish species showed great variations on both population abundance and distribution. The mean abundances of N. nomurai, C. nozakii, and A. aurita were 0--230.8ind/km2, 0--150.2ind/km2 and 0--123.4ind/km2, respectively. We also discussed the possible reasons of the three jellyfish species population dy- namics and the limitations of visual observation method in estimation of the scyphozoan jellyfish

  11. Estudo eletrorretinográfico de visão cromática Electroretinographic study of chromatic vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara de Almeida Cunha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o traçado eletrorretinográfico no gambá sul-americano (Didelphis aurita obtido com estímulo cromático de comprimento de onda seletivo. O eletrorretinograma é o registro das variações de voltagem nas células retinianas, desencadeadas por estímulo luminoso. O eletrorretinograma representa a atividade elétrica combinada de diferentes células, e sofre variações dependendo da fisiologia retiniana e do método de exame. MÉTODOS: Foram registrados os eletrorretinogramas de seis animais em adaptação ao escuro utilizando filtros cromáticos Kodak Wratten®, e registrada a sensibilidade espectral para comprimentos de onda específicos nas faixas de cores do azul, verde, amarelo, laranja e vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os resultados eletrorretinográficos mais consistentes foram obtidos quando o animal foi estimulado por faixas espectrais seletivas, ao invés de luz branca; e são consistentes com a curva de absorbância das opsinas descritas em fotorreceptores de marsupiais. Estudos prévios sugeriram a tricromacia dos marsupiais por microespectrofotometria de opsinas e imuno-histoquímica de retina. Esse fundamento morfológico não tinha demonstração fisiológica eletrorretinográfica, até este estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O gambá sul-americano tem se mostrado interessante como animal experimental no estudo comparativo da fisiologia visual em mamíferos, especialmente no estudo filogenético da visão cromática. Os marsupiais apresentam um modelo retiniano que superpõe os sistemas fotópico e escotópico; e o gênero Didelphis conserva características encontradas em fósseis do período pleoceno. Portanto, o sistema visual de um marsupial resgata características dos primórdios da evolução dos mamíferos, até o desenvolvimento dos padrões retinianos modernos.PURPOSE: To describe the electroretinogram of the South-American opossum (Didelphis aurita obtained by chromatic stimulus of specific

  12. Molecular evidence indicates that subarctic willow communities in Scotland support a diversity of host-associated Melampsora rust taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jeremy M; Helfer, Stephan; Kirk, Calum; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Ennos, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Rare and threatened subarctic willow scrub communities in the UK are the subject of ongoing conservation programmes, yet little is known about the diversity of fungal taxa that they support. Isolates of the rust genus Melampsora were sampled from 112 leaves of eight subarctic willow (Salix) taxa and their hybrids from twelve sites in the UK. In order to determine the number of Melampsora taxa present in the samples, isolates were sequenced for the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and data were subject to phylogenetic analysis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis indicated that the isolates fell into three strongly supported host-associated clades. Clade I contained only isolates from Salix herbacea and was distinguished morphologically by dense urediniospore echinulation and thin cell walls. Clade II contained isolates from Salix arbuscula and Salix reticulata only. These could not be distinguished morphologically from isolates in Clade III which were found on Salix lapponum, Salix myrsinites, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix aurita, Salix lanata, and their hybrids. Clade II was most distinct in ITS sequence, differing by 50 bases from Clades I and III, while the latter clades differed in sequence by only 24 bases on average. Clades I and III are likely to represent the previously recognised taxa Melampsora alpina Juel 1894 and Melampsora epitea Thüm. 1879 respectively, but Clade II has not apparently been described before. Significant differences in the intensity of infection by isolates of Clade III were found among different Salix species at a single site, suggesting either differences in resistance among Salix taxa, or the presence of further cryptic taxa within Clade III. The study illustrates the power of molecular phylogenetic analysis to reveal cryptic biodiversity within Melampsora, and suggests that conserving Salix host diversity within subarctic willow communities will ensure that a diversity of associated Melampsora taxa is maintained.

  13. Energy, ageing, fidelity and sex: oocyte mitochondrial DNA as a protected genetic template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Wilson B M; Lucas, Cathy H; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Allen, John F

    2013-07-19

    Oxidative phosphorylation couples ATP synthesis to respiratory electron transport. In eukaryotes, this coupling occurs in mitochondria, which carry DNA. Respiratory electron transport in the presence of molecular oxygen generates free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mutagenic. In animals, mutational damage to mitochondrial DNA therefore accumulates within the lifespan of the individual. Fertilization generally requires motility of one gamete, and motility requires ATP. It has been proposed that oxidative phosphorylation is nevertheless absent in the special case of quiescent, template mitochondria, that these remain sequestered in oocytes and female germ lines and that oocyte mitochondrial DNA is thus protected from damage, but evidence to support that view has hitherto been lacking. Here we show that female gametes of Aurelia aurita, the common jellyfish, do not transcribe mitochondrial DNA, lack electron transport, and produce no free radicals. In contrast, male gametes actively transcribe mitochondrial genes for respiratory chain components and produce ROS. Electron microscopy shows that this functional division of labour between sperm and egg is accompanied by contrasting mitochondrial morphology. We suggest that mitochondrial anisogamy underlies division of any animal species into two sexes with complementary roles in sexual reproduction. We predict that quiescent oocyte mitochondria contain DNA as an unexpressed template that avoids mutational accumulation by being transmitted through the female germ line. The active descendants of oocyte mitochondria perform oxidative phosphorylation in somatic cells and in male gametes of each new generation, and the mutations that they accumulated are not inherited. We propose that the avoidance of ROS-dependent mutation is the evolutionary pressure underlying maternal mitochondrial inheritance and the developmental origin of the female germ line.

  14. MURCIÉLAGOS (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA ASOCIADOS CON UNA CUEVA EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL YURUBÍ, SIERRA DE AROA, ESTADO YARACUY, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANGER J. GARCÍA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cuevas constituyen un recurso importante para murciélagos en los bosques, ya que ofrecen protección y condiciones climáticas que favorecen la reproducción, especialmente para aquellas especies con hábitos cavernícolas. Durante 12 meses (2013-2014, se llevó a cabo un estudio sobre el uso de una cueva por parte de murciélagos en el Parque Nacional Yurubí-Sierra de Aroa, Estado Yaracuy, Venezuela. Se colocó una trampa de arpa una vez por mes y estuvo activa antes de que los murciélagos emergieran del refugio. Después de tomar datos sobre abundancia, los individuos se marcaron y se liberaron en el sitio. Se registraron seis especies pertenecientes a las familias Mormoopidae y Phyllostomidae. Pteronotus parnellii, Anoura geoffroyi y Carollia perspicillata fueron capturados todos los meses y en los tres se observó indicios reproductivos. Pteronotus parnellii y Anoura geoffroyi fueron los más abundantes con una mayor presencia para el primero. Por otro lado, Phyllostomus hastatus, Lonchorhina aurita y Desmodus rotundus usaron el refugio temporalmente, sin evidenciar alguna condición reproductiva. Se observaron cambios en el tamaño de las colonias y la composición de especies, evidencia de que el refugio es usado permanentemente por algunas especies durante la reproducción y de forma temporal por otras, que aparentemente se estarían favoreciendo sólo del resguardo que ofrece.

  15. Modeling the response of top-down control exerted by gelatinous carnivores on the Black Sea pelagic food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2001-03-01

    Recent changes in structure and functioning of the interior Black Sea ecosystem are studied by a series of simulations using a one-dimensional, vertically resolved, coupled physical-biochemical model. The simulations are intended to provide a better understanding of how the pelagic food web structure responds to increasing grazing pressure by gelatinous carnivores (medusae Aurelia aurita and ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi) during the past 2 decades. The model is first shown to represent typical eutrophic ecosystem conditions of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This simulation reproduces reasonably well the observed planktonic food web structure at a particular location of the Black Sea for which a year-long data set is available from 1978. Additional simulations are performed to explore the role of the Mnemiopsis-dominated ecosystem in the late 1980s. They are also validated by extended observations from specific years. The results indicate that the population outbreaks of the gelatinous species, either Aurelia or Mnemiopsis, reduce mesozooplankton grazing and lead to increased phytoplankton blooms as observed throughout the 1980s and 1990s in the Black Sea. The peaks of phytoplankton, mesozooplankton, Noctiluca, and gelatinous predator biomass distributions march sequentially as a result of prey-predator interactions. The late winter diatom bloom and a subsequent increase in mesozooplankton stocks are robust features common to all simulations. The autotrophs and heterotrophs, however, have different responses during the rest of the year, depending on the nature of grazing pressure exerted by the gelatinous predators. In the presence of Mnemiopsis, phytoplankton have additional distinct and pronounced bloom episodes during the spring and summer seasons. These events appear with a 2 month time shift in the ecosystem prior to introduction of Mnemiopsis.

  16. A comparison of the toxinological characteristics of two Cassiopea and Aurelia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, F F; Burnett, J W; Bloom, D A; Coliano, T; Eldefrawi, M E; Erderly, H; Aurelian, L; Torres, M; Heimer-de la Cotera, E P

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of the toxinological properties of nematocyst venoms from Old and New World Cassiopea and Aurelia species was undertaken. The cnidom of venomous Cassiopea andromeda (Ca) and Aurelia (Aa(RS)) from the Red Sea was identical to that of nonvenomous Bahamian Cassiopea xamancha (Cx) and Chesapeake Bay Aurelia aurita (Aa(CB)), respectively. A clean nematocyst preparation of Ca and both Aurelias could be obtained but algal particles could not be separated completely from the Cx nematocysts. Further purification of all four nematocyst preparations showed significant differences in the action of their protein. Only the Cassiopea had coexisting dermonecrotic and vasopermeability producing properties and Ca's hemolytic activity was associated with mouse lethality. The protein, hemolysin and phospholipase gel filtration eluant curves of Ca venom were similar. Venomous Aa(RS) actively stung lips and contained more potent mouse lethal, demonecrotic, vasopermeability plus hemolytic factors than Aa(CB). Cross reactivity of convalescent human serum obtained from patients stung by Ca and venomous Cx collected in Central America occurred. This was also observed between sera of bathers stung by Aa(RS) and stinging Aurelia which appeared in Florida during the recent El Niño year. IgG was stimulated by several nematocyst proteins since many venom subfractions tested positive at high titers against convalescent sera. T-cell proliferation of mice primed with either Aurelia venom was positive against the homologous preparation with cross reactivity to the heterologous venom. Crude venoms of both Red Sea jellyfish metabolically stimulated cultured human hepatocytes more than their New World counterparts. This data shows that considerable similarities and differences exist in the venoms of these Old and New World Cassiopea and Aurelia medusae with the Eastern species being more potent.

  17. A Research into Triassic Biostratigraphy of the Qomolongma Area in Southern Xizang (Tibet)%西藏南部珠穆朗玛峰地区三叠纪生物地层研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹光富; 毛琼; 陈永明; 饶荣标

    2006-01-01

    本文对珠穆朗玛峰地区三叠系地层中的生物地层层序、古生物化石的产出状态、组合面貌和发育特征等进行了详细的研究,自下而上将区内三叠系划分出19个生物化石组合(带).这些生物化石组合(带)分别是:① Oceras latilobatum-Anchignathodotus parvus组合;② Ophiceras sakuntala-Isarcicella isarcica组合;③ Gyronites psilogyrus-Claraia aurita-Neospathodus cristagalli组合;④ Owenites-Neospathodus waageni 组合;⑤ Procarnites xizangensis-Neogondolella milleri组合;⑥ Neospathodus timorensis带;⑦ Japonites mangus-Neogondolella regale组合;⑧ Anacrochordiceras nodosus-Tulongospirifer stracheyi组合;⑨ Paracertites trinodosus-Neogondolella constricata组合;(10)Protrachyceras ladinum-Daonella indica-Neogondolella excelsa组合;(11)Indonesites dieneri-Lilangina nobilis组合;(12)Haplotropites -Epigondolella diebeli组合;(13) Parahauerites acutus-Halobia-Neogondolella polygnathiformis组合;(14)Nodotibetites nodosus-Epigondolella abneptis组合;(15)Griesbachites-Guembilites组合;(16)Indojuwavites angulatus-Epigondolella multidentata- Himalayasaurs tibetensis组合(17)Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus带;(18)Pinacoceras metternichi-Himavatites columbianus组合;(19)Tulongocardium pluriraditum-Palaeocardita mansuyi组合. 据此厘定了该区三叠系下统、中统和上统的界线.珠穆朗玛峰地区三叠系生物化石组合带的重新建立,提高了该区三叠系生物地层的研究程度,为开展青藏高原地区及其与全球的三叠系地层划分对比研究提供了科学依据.

  18. 海蜇池塘养殖生长规律的研究%Growth Laws of Pond Cultured Rhopilema esculenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顶海; 张继红; 陈四清; 方建光; 燕敬平; 刘春胜; 高亚平; 张树森

    2011-01-01

    2010年6月上旬-8月上旬,对山东荣成靖海湾池塘养殖的海蜇生长规律进行了研究.试验结果表明:海蜇幼体放入池塘后生长迅速,从6月1 H放苗到8月1日收获海蜇,伞径从2 cm左右生长至30-40 cm,甚至可以长至50 cm.不同大小海蜇的体重(湿重)与伞径呈指数增长,方程为=0.176 x28914( R2=0.990 7).海蜇池塘养殖后期,常出现饵料不足.夜光虫大量繁殖、海月水母爆发等问题,均对池塘养殖海蜇生长造成严重影响.%From early June to early August in 2010, the growth laws of pond cultured Rhopikma escuknta in Rongcheng, Shandong province were studied. The results showed that the juveniles of Rhopikma escuknta grew fast from June 1st to August 1at and its diameter could grow from 2 cm to 30-40 cm, even up to 50 cm. The weight (wet weight) of Rhopikma escuknta with different size increased exponentially with the shed diameter by the equation of y=0.176 x2.891.4 (R2=0.990 7). Some problems such as shortage of baits, large propagation of Noctiluca scintillans and the breakout of Aurelia aurita arisen in the later period of pond culture had always occurred in late culture period, which seriously influenced the growth of Rhopikma escuknta in the pond.

  19. Flow structure and transport characteristics of feeding and exchange currents generated by upside-down Cassiopea jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Dollinger, Makani; Hamlet, Christina L; Colin, Sean P; Miller, Laura A

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography, digital particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation. During the rapid contraction phase of the bell, fluid is pulled into a starting vortex ring that translates through the oral arms with peak velocities that can be of the order of 10 cm s(-1). Strong shear flows are also generated across the top of the oral arms throughout the entire pulse cycle. A coherent train of vortex rings is not observed, unlike in the case of swimming oblate medusae such as Aurelia aurita. The phase-averaged flow generated by bell pulsations is similar to a vertical jet, with induced flow velocities averaged over the cycle of the order of 1-10 mm s(-1). This introduces a strong near-horizontal entrainment of the fluid along the substrate and towards the oral arms. Continual flow along the substrate towards the jellyfish is reproduced by numerical simulations that model the oral arms as a porous Brinkman layer of finite thickness. This two-dimensional numerical model does not, however, capture the far-field flow above the medusa, suggesting that either the three-dimensionality or the complex structure of the oral arms helps to direct flow towards the central axis and up and away from the animal.

  20. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Cathy H; Graham, William M; Widmer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Large population fluctuations of jellyfish occur over a variety of temporal scales, from weekly to seasonal, inter-annual and even decadal, with some regions of the world reported to be experiencing persistent seasonal bloom events. Recent jellyfish research has focussed on understanding the causes and consequences of these population changes, with the vast majority of studies considering the effect of changing environmental variables only on the pelagic medusa. But many of the bloom-forming species are members of the Scyphozoa with complex metagenic life cycles consisting of a sexually reproducing pelagic medusa and asexually reproducing benthic polyp. Recruitment success during the juvenile (planula, polyp and ephyrae) stages of the life cycle can have a major effect on the abundance of the adult (medusa) population, but until very recently, little was known about the ecology of the polyp or scyphistoma phase of the scyphozoan life cycle. The aim of this review is to synthesise the current state of knowledge of polyp ecology by examining (1) the recruitment and metamorphosis of planulae larvae into polyps, (2) survival and longevity of polyps, (3) expansion of polyp populations via asexual propagation and (4) strobilation and recruitment of ephyrae (juvenile medusae). Where possible, comparisons are made with the life histories of other bentho-pelagic marine invertebrates so that further inferences can be made. Differences between tropical and temperate species are highlighted and related to climate change, and populations of the same species (in particular Aurelia aurita) inhabiting different habitats within its geographic range are compared. The roles that polyps play in ensuring the long-term survival of jellyfish populations as well as in the formation of bloom populations are considered, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  1. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

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    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in

  2. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.

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    Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura

    2011-09-21

    The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Rejellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as the rigidity of the time varying geometry imposed by the idealized model.

  3. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

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    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  4. Marine microalgae used as food supplements and their implication in preventing cardiovascular diseases

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    Mimouni Virginie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms producing numerous bioactive molecules of interest for health and disease care such as lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids -as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3- and carotenoids (e.g., β-carotene, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin. It has already been shown that these molecules, individually used, are benefic in the prevention of diseases such as those associated with the cardiovascular risks, but also in some carcinomas. When these molecules are combined, synergistic effects may be observed. Microalgae, as a dietary supplement, can be used to study these synergistic effects in animal models in which dyslipidemia can be induced by a nutrition treatment. Different marine microalgae of interest are studied in this context to determine their potential effect as an alternative source to marine omega-3 rich fish oils, actually widely used for human health. Actually, the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries are developing health research programs involving microalgae, trying to limit the dramatic reduction of fish stocks and the associated pollution in the marine environment. The aim of this review is threefold: (1 to present research on lipids, particularly long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as components of marine microalgae used as food supplements; (2 to present the health benefits of some microalgae or their extracts, in particular in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and (3 to highlight the role of Odontella aurita, a marine microalga rich in EPA used as food supplement with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Feeding behaviour of the hydromedusa Aequorea vitrina

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    Hans Ulrik RiisgÅrd

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prey-capture mechanism of the hydromedusa Aequorea vitrina was studied by means of laboratory video-microscope observations. In stagnant water A. vitrina remains stationary with its very long (about 4x bell diameter marginal tentacles motionless hanging down in the water, ready for ambush capture of prey organisms that collide with the tentacles. A. vitrina was found to be efficient at capturing brine shrimps (Artemia salina, less efficient at capturing rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, and very inefficient at capturing copepods (Acartia tonsa. The initial hauling up of an extended marginal tentacle with an adhering prey is fast (>10 mm s-1. Both the bell margin and the mouth move towards each other so that the captured prey can be transferred from the tentacle to the elongated mouth-lips to be further transported into the mouth and stomach. It takes about 20 s from when an Artemia prey organism encounters a tentacle until it is transferred to the mouth-lips. The subsequent digestion in the stomach takes about 30 min. When A. vitrina encounters a jellyfish-prey (a small medusa of Aurelia aurita, it starts to swim in order to adhere the relatively big prey to its mouth-lips. Then A. vitrina opens its mouth wide to swallow the captured medusa, a process which takes about 15 to 20 min. The subsequent digestion takes 2 to 3 h. Field observations of undisturbed A. vitrina made by snorkelling in the Limfjord (Denmark revealed that the feeding behaviour was similar to that observed in the laboratory in stagnant water. It is concluded that A. vitrina is an ambush-predator, and not a cruising-predatory medusa as previously suggested.

  7. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

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    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  8. 珠江口鱼类浮游生物种类组成与数量分布%Species composition and abundance distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑜璋; 王蓉; 郑琰晶; 何薇

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results from four cruises of oceanographic survey carried out in 2006 to 2007 in the Pearl River Estuary, the species composition, dominant species and abundance distribution of ichthyoplankton were studied. The abundance distributions with hydrological characteristic and environmental factors were also analyzed. A total of 113 ichthyoplankton taxa were identified, and the species of ichthyoplankton in spring were more than those in the other seasons. There were four dominant species of fish eggs:Stolephorus commersonii, Thryssa sp., Leiognathus sp. and Johnius sp. There were six dominant species of fish larvae:Sardinella sp., Stolephorus commersonii, Leiognathus sp., Johnius sp., Gobiidae gen. sp., and Callionymus sp. The variation in the abundance of four seasons was conspicuous. The largest abundance of fish eggs occurred in spring, and the largest abundance of fish larvae occurred in both spring and summer. The variation of the Pearl River runoff and tide was important influential to the distribution of ichthyoplankton.%根据2006-2007年对珠江口水域20个站位进行的鱼类浮游生物调查资料,着重研究鱼类浮游生物的种类组成、优势种和数量分布状况,就其数量分布变化与水文、环境因子的关系进行分析和探讨。结果表明:珠江口鱼类浮游生物共113种(类),其中,春季种类最多。各季节间的鱼类浮游生物群落相似性差异不明显。鱼卵优势种共有4种,仔稚鱼有6鳀鲾种。其中鱼卵优势种类主要有康氏小公鱼、棱、和叫姑鱼,仔稚鱼优势种类主要为小鲾鰕沙丁鱼、康氏小公鱼、、叫姑鱼、虎鱼和。鱼类浮游动物丰度的季节变化较为明显,鱼卵丰度春季最高,仔稚鱼丰度夏季和春季较高。鱼类浮游生物的主要分布区域受制于珠江径流和潮流的消长。

  9. Diversity and distribution of fishes in tropical estuary Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, K C A; Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Arshad, A; Ara, R; Rahman, M F

    2012-06-15

    A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the

  10. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  11. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

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    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  12. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

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    Wörheide Gert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial (mt genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2. Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp. Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp, whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2 with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp. Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis. In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of

  13. The Diplommatinidae of Fiji – a hotspot of Pacific land snail biodiversity (Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea

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    Eike Neubert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The minute (adult size 1.3–4.8 mm land snail species of the family Diplommatinidae in the Fiji archipelago are revised based on historical material and modern (1998–99 collections targeting limestone outcrops on the largest island, Viti Levu, and several smaller islands in the Lau group. The forty-two species (including 30 new species belong to the genera Moussonia Semper, 1865, Palaina Semper, 1865 and Diancta Martens, 1867, which are briefly characterized and keyed. The diagnostic structure of the inner lamellar system of each species is illustrated. All species except one are endemic to Fiji. In Viti Levu, the 12 localities surveyed each had 1–13 (average 5 species of Diplommatinidae; ten species were each found at a single site only. In the Lau islands, five islands were visited, with 1–4 species per island; four species are known from single islands. The number of historically known species not recollected in 1998–99 (7 species, the number of single-site occurrences (14 species, and the numerous islands — including limestone islands — that have not been surveyed at all, indicate that the 42 species of Diplommatinidae currently known from Fiji represent perhaps only half of the Fiji diplommatinid fauna. Such numbers approach the diplommatinid diversity of Palau (39 described and more than 60 undescribed species, and surpasses by far the diversity of other South Pacific archipelagos of comparable land area (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa. Nomenclatural acts: Lectotypes designated: Diplommatina fuscula, D. fuscula var. vitiana, D. godeffroyana, D. godeffroyana var. latecostata, D. tuberosa, D. martensi var. macrostoma, all Mousson, 1870. Neotypes designated: Diplommatina subregularis, D. ascendens, D. quadrata, all Mousson, 1870. New species: Diancta aurea sp. n., Diancta aurita sp. n., Diancta basiplana sp. n., Diancta controversa sp. n., Diancta densecostulata sp. n., Diancta dextra sp. n., Diancta dilatata sp. n., Diancta

  14. Uma Revisão dos Processos de Interação Oceano-Atmosfera em Regiões de Intenso Gradiente Termal do Oceano Atlântico Sul Baseada em Dados Observacionais

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    Luciano Ponzi Pezzi

    variabilidade climática atmosférica e marinha na costa sul do Brasil impactam na desova e captura da sardinha (Sardinella Brasiliensis, que é um dos mais importantes recursos marinhos renováveis do Brasil. O artigo termina apresentando alguns dos esforços observacionais atuais do Brasil, visando a coleta de dados meteorológicos e marinhos no Oceano Atlântico Equatorial e Sul. Estes esforços visam aumentar a nossa compreensão do acoplamento oceano-atmosfera nas escalas sinóticas e climáticas, bem como o papel do Oceano Atlântico em controlar o calor, momentum e fluxos de dióxido de carbono para a atmosfera.

  15. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

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    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  16. RESPON PENAWARAN IKAN LAUT SEGAR

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    Abd Rahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Supply Response of Fresh Sea Fish This study aimed to analyze the influence of the real price and production time ago and the differences in the response area offers fresh sea fish (indian mackerel, sardinella longiceps, and scads mackerel in South Sulawesi period 1996 - 2013. The objective is to use multiple regression analysis and classical assumption test ( multi-collinearity and autocorrelation approach to panel data method with fixed effect. Based on the time dimension using time series data for 1996 to 2013 are derived from secondary data. The study found that in general the price of sea fish such as mackerel itself, lemuru, and overpasses affect positively to the offer of fresh sea fish in the consumer market in South Sulawesi. This means that any increase in the price of sea fish will increase the quantity offers fresh seafood. Furthermore, the production of fresh fish last time either in the form of commodities bloating, lemuru, and no effect on the overpass offers fresh seafood. This is because the current supply decisions are not influenced by the production time ago (last year in the marine waters Sulwesi Selatan.Lain well as regional difference positive or negative influence on the demand for fresh seafood. The positive effects occurred in the district of Barru and Jeneponto, meaning that at Barru district offers fresh sea fish on the kind of bloated and Lemuru larger than other districts (Jeneponto, as well as Jeneponto also larger than other districts (Sinjai. While the negative effects happen to occur at Layang fish either in Barru and Sinjai defined Layang good deals in Barru and Jeneponto smaller than other districts as a comparison region.Abstrak. Respon Penawaran Ikan Laut Segar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh harga rill dan produksi waktu  lalu serta perbedaan wilayah terhadap respon penawaran ikan laut segar (kembung, lemuru, dan layang di Sulawesi Selatan periode tahun  1996 - 2013. Tujuan

  17. Modelling physical-biological interactions in the Southeast Brazil Bight: transport patterns of Brazilian Sardine larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Gherardi, D. F.; Pezzi, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    The advection of Brazilian Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) eggs and larvae in the SBB was modeled using an individual-based model (Ichthyop) and a hydrodynamic model (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to test for differences in larval retention for five spawning areas with high probability of egg occurrence: i) two areas north of the domain - Cape Frio and Rio de Janeiro, ii) one in the middle in Sao Sebastiao, and iii) two in the South in Paranagua. According to previous studies, this encompasses the known spawning habitat. Advective processes and physical characteristics, such as water temperature and salinity, were considered to determine larvae transport and survival. The hydrodynamic model grid has a horizontal resolution of 1/12o. Results of monthly mean Sea Surface Temperature (MSST) and Sea Surface Height (MSSH) indicate there isn't warming or cooling trend over the years, and the seasonal cycle well represented. These results were compared with satellite-derived data from the AVHRR sensor and AVISO project. Model results accurately represent the position and shape of the main surface structures observed in the satellite data. Monthly MSST maps for the experiment period indicate that the model tends to underestimate temperatures in upwelling areas and overestimate in the Brazil Current region, with differences mostly around ±1oC. For MSSH, although the model represents well the main surface ocean structures, it tends to underestimate along the domain. Temperature-salinity diagrams plotted in a coastal area for December of four years (1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988), near Ubatuba region, are consistent with field collected data, suggesting that the main water masses in SBB are reliably represented. The IBM experiments were carried out during the summer of six years (1980, 1981, 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993). For each year, 20000 eggs were released, distributed in the five areas, and tracked for 45 days. At the end of simulation, the mortality due to

  18. Community structure of fish resources in spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off Shandong%黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振波; 李凡; 王波; 徐炳庆; 魏振华; 张焕君; 张培超

    2011-01-01

    Fishery science and management are progressively switching their attention from single species to ecosystems,and increasing the need for research of fish community.Based on the data collected by trawl surveys in May and October of 2006 in the Yellow Sea off Shandong, fish community patterns such as species compositions and spatial pattern were analyzed.In the investigated area,35°00’ -38°00’N,120°30’- 124°00’E,45 sample stations were set up.The survey data were standardized by sweep area and capture coefficient.The capture coefficient was set to 0.55 for pelagic fish and 0.35 for near demersal fish and 0.25 for demersal fish.The index of relative importance ( IRI ) was calculated to determine the importance of the species.Species were defined as dominant species when IRI value is more than 1 000.Important species were defined for those IRI value being grealer than 100 but no more than 1000.The multivariate statistical analyses include cluster analysis, NMDS,SIMPER and BIOENV to analyze the pattern of community compositions.The species,whose cumulative biomass less than 0.01% or frequency less than 5% ,were excluded from multivariate statistical analyses.The abundance biomass comparison( ABC)curves and W-statistic,generated by PRIMER,were used to analyze the communities'disturbed states.The results showed that a total number of 61 species belonging to 57 genera,37 families and 13 orders were collected,50 in springs and 50 in autumns.The dominant species were Pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus) ,Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicas ) and fang' s blenny ( Enedrias fangi ) in spring, and were Japanese anchovy and Japanese sardinella ( Sardinella zunasi)in autumn.The important species were Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus ) in spring, and were yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ), silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) ,Pacific sandeel and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis)in autumn.The fish communities were predominant by little

  19. Ecologia de populações de morcegos cavernícolas em uma região cárstica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Trajano

    1984-01-01

    the same caves as D. rotundus, whereas Puripterus horrens and A. caudifer avoid them. Common species showed a «sunset-related» timing of flight activity. The emergence of the majority of the populations begins at dusk, but the activity peak at cave entrance varies in timing and duration. The strictly insectivorous species (Peropterix macrotis, Myotis nigricans and P. horrens and also A. caudifer leave the roost earlier, showing an emergence peak during the crepuscle; for the others, the peak occurs after darkening. A few species, such as D. rotundus and Lonchorhina aurita, emerge only after total darkness. The use of temporary, nocturnal roosts seems to be frequent in the Upper Ribeira, occurring during or after foraging activities; individuals of A. lituratus can use caves as ingesting places. C. perspicillata finishes its feeding activities earlier than the other common species, which indicates a high foraging efficiency. With few exceptions, bats of the Upper Ribeira do not carry their young during foraging. The supply of food for the hematophagous species is represented by small and medium sized domestic animals (poultry and pigs; wild animals may also be significant as prey.

  20. ORIGIN OF THE GIANT JELLYFISH IN QINGDAO OFFSHORE IN SUMMER%青岛外海夏季水母路径溯源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海彦; 赵亮; 魏皓

    2012-01-01

    2011年夏季,青岛外海发现大量大型水母,如沙海蜇、海月水母和白色霞水母等,而在冬、春季未在当地海区发现其幼体。本文采用拉格朗日方法,以粒子代表水母,不考虑水母自身运动,进行反向追踪,追溯其运动路径及可能源地。不同追踪实验结果显示,在不同时间不同深度处释放的粒子路径不同。在海面处释放的粒子分别可以追溯到海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近的海域,其中8月1日和8月15日在海面释放的粒子最远可以追溯至长江口外海域:2m层上释放的粒子最远也可到达长江口附近,而10m层以深释放的粒子基本分布在35°N以北。由于反向追踪只考虑海流的影响,追踪过程可逆,因此,从运动路径来看,青岛外海的部分水母可能来源于海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近海域。从水母种类分布特征来看,海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近海域在有粒子分布时期的水母种类与7、8月份青岛外海部分水母种类一致,为寻找青岛外海夏季水母的潜在的来源地提供了依据。%In the summer of 2011, massive giant jellyfish was observed in Qingdao offshore. These jellyfish, including Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii and Aurelia aurita, were remote origin because their larvae were not found in Qingdao offshore in the past winter and spring. We conducted a series of backward Lagrangian particle-tracking experi- ments driven by the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) hydrodynamical results to identify possible source regions of the ob- served giant jellyfish. Passive particles representing the jellyfish were released in surface layer and at some other depths at different times in summer. The trajectories of the particles depended on both the depth and the date of release. Backward tracking from the summer to spring, the released particles in surface layer were mainly found in Haizhou Bay, Jiangsu coast area, and

  1. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO ANALYZE FEEDING HABITS AND TROPHIC POSITION OF HAIRTAIL (TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS) FROM THE BEIBU GULF, SOUTH CHINA SEA%应用碳、氮稳定同位素研究北部湾带鱼(Trichiurus lepturus)食性及营养级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云榕; 张武科; 卢伙胜; 王学锋; 赖金养

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained from monthly sampling in the main fishing ports of the Beibu Gulf from October 2008 to September 2009 and the data obtained from the fishery-dependent trawl survey in February 2010, in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea were using stable isotope analysis and stomach contents analysis to study the prey category, trophic position and ontogenetic feeding habit shifts of Trichiurus lepturus. The results showed that small pelagic fish, Decapterus maruadsi, Sardinella jussieu, Stolephorus heteroloba, benthic Bregmaceros rarisquamosus, and cephalopoda, Loligo chinensis, were relatively important in the diet of T. lepturus, with the weight percentages of 26.19%, 10.21%, 9.94%, 7.20% and 6.07%, respectively, whereas the other prey species were presence in lower percentages. The δ13C signatures went from relatively low (depleted) values for pelagic species to high values for benthic species. As expected, D. maruadsi displayed the lowest value (-17.830‰) while benthic Leiognathus lineolatus displayed the highest value (-14.925‰). The absence of a significant linear correlation between the preanal length and δ13C leads to the conclusion that T. lepturus are feeding from all the water layers during the majority part of their biological life cycle. Both the average trophic level and its annual mean value were calculated by prey weight percentages and δ15N were 3.7. The trophic level of T. lepturus varied not significantly with the preanal length, despite the fact that T. margarites and T. minor increased notably in the same sea area. Two samples of dehydration were undertaken prior to the analytical determination of stable isotope ratios were tested and the results showed that vacuum freeze-drying and drying with oven at constant temperature had significant variance in δ15N but not in δ13C. Undoubtedly, SIA will play an import role in evaluating the fish feeding habits and trophic positions. At the same time, the following three key points

  2. 水母伞径和饵料密度对海月水母(Aureliasp.1)捕食率的影响%EFFECTS OF BELL DIAMETERS AND PREY CONCENTRATIONS ON INDIVIDUAL FEEDING RATES OF JELLYFISH AURELIA sp.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 李超伦

    2012-01-01

    海月水母在全球范围内大量暴发,严重危害海洋生态系统的健康以及鱼类资源的可持续利用。本文以卤虫无节幼体为饵料,初步研究了水母伞径和饵料密度对海月水母个体捕食率的影响以及海月水母的昼夜捕食节律。研究结果表明,海月水母的伞径对其捕食率的影响极显著(P〈0.01),在1—8cm范围内,随着伞径的增加个体捕食率线性增加,两者之间的关系式为Y=O.044x+0.125(R2=0.9036)。饵料密度对海月水母捕食率的影响显著(P〈0.05),在0.25—26.11mgC/L范围内,随饵料密度的增加个体捕食率呈线性增加趋势,关系式为Y=0.508x(R2=0.958)。在饵料充足时,海月水母没有昼夜捕食节律。在高饵料密度下海月水母出现过剩捕食,但是捕食行为依然活跃。上述结果既为量化评估海月水母对浮游动物群体的捕食压力提供了基础参数,同时水母过剩捕食行为说明依据生物量和代谢率的推算结果可能低估自然海域水母队浮游动物的捕食压力。%The blooms ofAurelia aurita population greatly damage the health of marine ecosystem and the sustainabil- ity of fish resources utilization. To determine the effects of bell diameters and prey concentrations on the individual feeding rates of Aurelia sp.1, feeding rates of Aurelia sp. 1 on Artemia nauplius were studied in laboratory. Bell diameters signifi- cantly affected the individual feeding rates ofAurelia sp.1 (P〈0.01). When medusa bell diameters were in the range of 1 to 8cm, the relationship between bell diameters and individual feeding rates was y = 0.044x + 0.125 (R2 = 0.9036). A signifi- cantly linear relationship was also found between the prey concentrations and individual feeding rates of the medusae (P〈0.05). In the range of prey concentration, 0.25--26.1 l mgC/L, individual ingestion rates of Aurelia sp. 1 increased with the