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Sample records for sardine mince flesh

  1. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  2. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  3. Biological characteristics of sardine caught by the beach-seine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catches of sardine Sardinops sagax made by the beach-seine fishery off the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coast during the annual winter sardine run have been sampled intermittently since 1951, and a substantial amount of data on various biological characteristics of sardine caught off KZN now exists. Information on length ...

  4. Effect of Oxidative Sardin Fish Oil for Food Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Pitria Andriyani; Tati Nurhayati; Sugeng Heri Suseno

    2017-01-01

    Sardine is an economic fish industry product in Indonesia. Sardin fish oil of fish meal by-product can be processed into ethyl ester as a food grade product. The purpose of this study were to determine the chemical and physical the best ethyl ester of Semirefined and refined oil from sardine fish meal by-products. Results showed that heavy metals detected was cadmium (Cd) value, i.e. 0.02 ppm. SFA content of crude oil sardines was 29.39% with palmitic acid (16.24%) as the predominant fatty ac...

  5. Anchovy Engraulis capensis and sardine Sardinops sagax currently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    crossing the jet current off the Cape Peninsula was conducted from August 1995 to July 1996 as part of the third phase of the South African Sardine and Anchovy Recruitment Programme, designed to investigate within-season variability in factors affecting sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis.

  6. Responses of African penguins to regime changes of sardine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional trends in numbers of African penguins Spheniscus demersus conform with an altered distribution of sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis prey. In the 1950s, sardine dominated the pelagic fish component of the Benguela system. Abundance of this fish decreased in the 1960s and early 1970s ...

  7. Indicators of sustainable fishing for South African sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six indicators were investigated for South African sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus: mean length of catch, length-at-50% maturity, total mortality, exploitation rate, ratio of bycatch, and centre of gravity of commercial catches. Sardine length-at-50% maturity is the most promising as a descriptive ...

  8. Ecosystem considerations of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual winter sardine run along the South African east coast impacts the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coastal system in a variety of ways. These include ecological impacts, such as enrichment of a largely oligotrophic environment, competition between migrant sardine Sardinops sagax, other migrant and resident small ...

  9. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle...

  10. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  11. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  12. Sensory and histamine assessment of the freshness of Sardine (Sardine sindensis during different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Storage of fish under refrigerated conditions from the time it is caught until when it is consumed has been found to be very important in reducing outbreaks of histamine poisoning. Methods: Low temperatures control bacterial histamine formation during fish processing. The shelf life of sardine (sardine sindensis during storage at ambient temperature (33°C, ice box temperature (0°C and freezing temperature (-7°C were studied in terms of sensory and histamine production. The sensory acceptability limit was up to one day at ambient temperature and 11 days at ice storage condition. However, freezing storage had a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability at the end of experiment. The formation of histamine was determined at day 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16 and 18 of experiment using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fluorometeric method. Results: Histamine development had not exceeded the permissible level (200 mg/kg recommended by the FAO (2012 during storage condition at -7°C throughout the experiment. At 0°C, histamine concentration was lower than safe level for up to 16 days (135 mg/kg. At ambient temperature, the sardine was spoiled on 3rd day and histamine concentration was found 500.48 mg/kg which was above the FAO recommended level for histamine. Conclusion: Freezing storage condition has a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability and histamine production and seems the best means of storage.

  13. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D.; Munch, Stephan B.; Perretti, Charles T.; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-01-01

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine. PMID:23536299

  14. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  15. Broad-scale distribution patterns of sardine and their predators in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual movement of South African sardine Sardinops sagax up the east coast of South Africa, known as the 'sardine run', was investigated using data from aerial surveys for the period 1988–2005 and compared with remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a data. Sardine sighting rates were ...

  16. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, A.; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...... promises a radically simpler solution. The novelty of the SaRDIn concept is a fine-grained distribution of the logic over all processors deployed at the sensors and actuators along the track layout, i.e. within the track circuits, point machines, signals, etc. The advantages and drawbacks...

  17. Revised estimates of abundance of South African sardine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-acoustic surveys have been used to provide annual estimates of May recruitment and November spawner biomass of the South African sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus resources since 1984. These time-series of abundance estimates form the backbone of the assessment of these ...

  18. Although South African sardine (or pilchard, Sardinops sagax) were ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The South African sardine Sardinops sagax resource is subjected to both directed fishing that targets adult fish, and bycatch of both juvenile and adult ... South African Journal of Marine Science 19. 1998. Fig. 1: Map of Southern Africa with ...... numbers-at-age matrix can be reconstructed back- wards in time by applying the ...

  19. Effect of Oxidative Sardin Fish Oil for Food Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitria Andriyani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sardine is an economic fish industry product in Indonesia. Sardin fish oil of fish meal by-product can be processed into ethyl ester as a food grade product. The purpose of this study were to determine the chemical and physical the best ethyl ester of Semirefined and refined oil from sardine fish meal by-products. Results showed that heavy metals detected was cadmium (Cd value, i.e. 0.02 ppm. SFA content of crude oil sardines was 29.39% with palmitic acid (16.24% as the predominant fatty acids. The MUFA content amounted to 14.87% with palmitic acid as the predominant fatty acid (5.76%. The PUFA content were 35.47% with DHA (17.07% as the predominant fatty acid, while EPA amounted to 13.82%. Semirefined oil  transformed into Semirefined ethyl ester oil was the best on oxidative and physical parameters. Oxidation process produced Semirefined ethyl ester with 1.50±0.00 mEq/kg peroxide value (PV, 0.90±0.15% fattyacids (% FFA, 5.46±0.32 mEq/kg Anisidin p-value (p-AV, 8.46±0.32 mEq/kg oxidation (TOTOKS, 62.15±0.27%T viscosity and and 5.65±0,26 cP clarity.

  20. Teknologi pengambilan lemak dari sisa fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to recover the fat from fleshing in order it could be useful for many kinds of industries such as soap, oil/grease for tanning manufactures, etc. There are some systems to recover the fat from fleshings, those are heat systems (cooking, steaming, smoking and extrac system using solvent (hexan, CCl4, alcohol, etc. Over all of the systems cooking and steaming are the most simply system to recover the fat. By cooking, smoking, and steaming from 5 kg fleshing with the time variation of 15,30, 45 and 60 minutes could produce fat with the quantity of which varied from 0,220 – 0,425 kg. The highest quantity of fat, produced by heating system in 60 minutes could be gained by steaming, but the quality of it was low. The quantity of fat produced by extract system using hexan, CCl4, and alcohol as solvents with the time variation of 3,4 and 5 hours were varied from 5,21 % to 10,20 % of dried weight. The highest quantity of fat gained by extract system was found by using hexan solvent. Fat from fleshing should be sulphated prior for substantial application. The economical evaluation shows that the basic price of 1 kg of fat was Rp. 1.250,- whereas the basic price of 1 kg of sulphated fat was Rp. 3.200,-

  1. ‘Liberty’ Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivar, ‘Liberty’ was jointly developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Clemson University, South Carolina Agriculture and Forestry Research System. This cultivar is a dry-fleshed type with attracti...

  2. Worldwide, where anchovies Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1987). The spawner biomass of sardine was then 0.03 million tons, but it increased steadily to 0.62 million. Benguela Dynamics. Pillar, S. C., Moloney, C. L., Payne, A. I. L. and F. A. Shillington (Eds). S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 19: 355–364. 1998. 355 ..... tate their ability to cope is the facility of first-time breeders to emigrate from natal ...

  3. Effect of cooking and drying on carbonyls of oil sardine

    OpenAIRE

    Ammu, K.; Devadasan, K.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the total as well as major individual carbonyls of oil sardine during steam cooking, oven drying, sun drying and freeze drying are presented. Carbonyls extracted with hexane were converted to their 2:4 dinitro phenyl hydrazone (DNPH) derivatives and were separated into major classes by column chromatography on celite/magnesia. Individual carbonyls were then identified by capillary gas chromatography of the DNPH derivatives. Dehydration and heating increase the carbonyl production f...

  4. Traditionally, sardine Sardinops sagax has been the backbone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    0.2 year-1. Changes in fish stock abundance have resulted in alterations in biological parameters of several fish ..... Age determination of fish showed fish up to 10 years of age during the 1950s and 1960s (Le Clus et al. .... mented a change in the sex ratio of sardine catches from 1:1.8 in the 1950s to 1:1.2 during the 1970s.

  5. Microplastic and mesoplastic contamination in canned sardines and sprats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Golieskardi, Abolfazl; Choo, Cheng Keong; Larat, Vincent; Karbalaei, Samaneh; Salamatinia, Babak

    2018-01-15

    No report was found on the occurrence of microplastics in processed seafood products that are manufactured for direct human consumption. This study investigates the potential presence of micro- and mesoplastics in 20 brands of canned sardines and sprats originating from 13 countries over 4 continents followed by their chemical composition determination using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The particles were further inspected for their inorganic composition through energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Plastic particles were absent in 16 brands while between 1 and 3 plastic particles per brand were found in the other 4 brands. The most abundant plastic polymers were polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The presence of micro- and mesoplastics in the canned sardines and sprats might be due to the translocation of these particles into the edible tissues, improper gutting, or the result of contamination from the canneries. The low prevalence of micro- and mesoplastics sized >149μm, and the absence of potentially hazardous inorganic elements on them, might indicate the limited health risks associated with their presence in canned sardines and sprats. Due to the possible increase in micro- and mesoplastic loads in seafood products over time, the findings of this study suggest their quantification to be included as one of the components of food safety management systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification of Sardine Fish Oil Through Degumming and Neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sardine fish oil can be improved by purification method through the step of degumming and neutralization. The aimed of this this study was analysis characteristic of crude sardin fish oil and determined the best method of purification. Degumming was carried out using 30% water and salt at concentration 5%, 8%, 10% b/v. Neutralization process using  NaOH with 16°Be and bleaching using 5% Magnesol XL. All step of refining was done at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. The result of analysis showed that sardine crude fish oil had 24.86% of palmitic acid as the highest fatty acid, heavy metal was not detected,dencity was 0.92 g/cm3 and viscocity was 51 cPs. The best treatment of purification method was degumming using 5% NaCl at 50°C with rendement 65.37±0.72%; free fatty acid (FFA 0.38±0.03%; peroxide (PV 1.07±0.12 mEq/kg; anisidine (p-AnV 15.18±0.16 mEq/kg; total oxidation value (TOTOX 17.31±0.39 mEq/kg; and clarity was 75.09± 1.20%.

  7. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  8. The 2005 KwaZulu-Natal sardine run survey sheds new light on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also collected data on the distribution of sardine and other small pelagic fish species and their eggs, the biological characteristics of sardine during the run, and data on the hydrography (temperature and currents) and lower trophic levels (phytoplankton and zooplankton) of the region. Results suggest that the biomass of ...

  9. Socio-economic implications of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic implications of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run for local indigenous communities. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The economic and social effects of the annual sardine run on the indigenous community on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed using data gathered from ...

  10. Optimization of a chemical method for skinning of sardines (Sardina pilchardus during canning processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches is used for canning purposes. The most common product presentation is a beheaded sardine with skin and bones packed in a tin can. Canned sardines can also be presented skinless and boneless. For this last type of product, after beheading and evisceration, sardines are placed in trays, cooked and then skinned by hand, one by one, and placed in the tins, a process involving high labour costs. The aim of this work was to develop a chemical process for peeling raw sardines and its subsequent application in a canning industry processing line just after the beheading and evisceration step and before cooking. Potassium hydroxide treatments (pellets a.r. 85% KOH were applied at concentrations of 2, 3 and 4% (v/v, distilled water. Frozen sardines were beheaded and eviscerated after thawing and immersed in the different potassium hydroxide solutions at 93ºC (pH respectively 13, 13 and 13.02 for 3 min and further washed with distilled water at 100°C. In this first set of experiments, fat sardines were used (average of 9.86% of fat, w/w. The best performance, with respect to skin removal, was achieved with the 2% potassium hydroxide immersion (pH 13. With this treatment the skin was totally removed after immersion. With the other tested concentrations portions of skin were always visible and in some cases changes in texture with breakdown of muscle structure and changes of colour occurred. It was decided to perform a second set of experiments using the 2% KOH treatment, but this time applied to low fat sardines (average of 4.77% of fat, w/w, following the same subsequent procedures. The results showed that the lower fat sardines are more prone to surface changes of colour and major muscle breaks than fat sardines after the potassium hydroxide treatment. In the canning industry for this type of product (skinless and boneless only fat sardines are used to assure the total removal of skin. This treatment of 2% KOH

  11. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  12. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhnaya I.E.; Gribova O.M.; Korchunov V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction) have been developed

  13. Technology of production of fish-vegetable minced products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazhnaya I.E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of production of fish minced products with amaranth flour has been presented; losses during heat treatment have been determined; biological value of culinary production and cost of raw materials have been calculated. Normative documents (technical conditions and technological instruction have been developed

  14. Reconstruction of trophic pathways between plankton and the North Iberian sardine (Sardina pilchardus using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bode

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on phyto- and zooplankton by juvenile (< 1 year old and adult sardines (Sardina pilchardus was inferred from analyses of natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in samples from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain collected at the beginning of the upwelling season and peak spawning period of sardine. Plankton samples were fractionated through nets of 20, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ?m mesh-size and the muscle protein of individual sardines was isolated before isotopic determinations. Up to six planktonic components and two sardine feeding types were identified from the modes in the frequency distributions of isotope abundance values. Also, the most probable pathways for carbon and nitrogen flows between compartments were analysed. The resulting food web revealed a relatively large degree of omnivory, both in plankton and sardine components, which confirms that complex trophic interactions could also occur in pelagic upwelling ecosystems. Young sardines had isotope abundance values clustered around a single mode in the frequency distribution, while adult sardines displayed two main modes. These modes are interpreted as representative of two extreme feeding types: one related to the individual capture of zooplankton prey and the other to unselective filter-feeding. Although both types of feeding could include micro- (20-200 ?m and mesozooplankton (200-2000 ?m prey, phytoplankton appears to be ingested mainly by filter-feeding. However, even adult sardines must be mainly zoophagous to achieve the observed isotopic abundance values, taking into account current assumptions on stable isotope enrichment through trophic levels. From the differences in the resulting pathways using either carbon or nitrogen isotopes, we interpreted that sardines acquire most of the protein nitrogen from zooplankton while a substantial fraction of their carbon would derive from phytoplankton. These interpretations agree with the information

  15. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  16. Potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of orange and yellow fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as a dietary source of Vitamin A in Mpigi and Luwero Districts of central Uganda was evaluated. On-farm agronomic performance, acceptability and b-carotene content of two orange (SPK004 and 316) and two yellow fleshed (Tanzania and 52) sweetpotato ...

  17. Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' willingness to pay for quality orange fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) vines in North Central Nigeria: A case of Benue and Nasarawa States. ... Research should be carried out and more awareness should be made to improve on OFSP production especially among women and youth. Keywords: Orange Fleshed Sweet ...

  18. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  19. Oil sardine and Indian mackerel: Their fishery, problems and coastal oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Nair, K.N.V.; Nair, S.R.S.

    The sardine and mackerel fishery is commercially exploited successfully along the west coast of India. The fish itself times its appearance to exploit the productive southwest monsoon period. The chain of events-physical, chemical and biological...

  20. The Omani Coastal Traditional Sardine Fishery 1994-2007: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Al-Jufaili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Omani coastal fishery is categorized into small pelagics, large pelagics, demersals, shellfishes, and sharks and rays. During the period 1994-2007 the small pelagics contributed 39 and 21% to the total Omani fisheries landings and values respectively. During 1994-2007 sardines alone contributed 76 and 51% to the total small pelagics landings and values, respectively. Al-Batina and Muscat regions contributed the highest to the total landings; among other Omani regions, Musandam, Muscat, and Sharqiya and Al-Wusta regions. Total sardines prices ranges from 114 to 225 Omani Rials per ton depending on where the sardines are coming from. On the other hand, Al-Batina and Muscat regions contributed the most in the total sardine values. Few gonadosomatic index studies indicated two major spawning peaks: a major one occurred during March-April and a minor one in September-October.

  1. Remotely sensed chlorophyll: A putative trophic link for explaining variability in Indian oil sardine stocks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Meenakumari, B.; Raman, M.; Kumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.

    and explain the phenomena of interannual variability. Earlier research has indicated that the probable appearance and disappearance of sardines is an active movement in search of food and favourable conditions. But no specific study has been carried out...

  2. A New Strategy to Refine Crude Indian Sardine Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charanyaa, S; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, I

    2017-05-01

    Current work aims to develop a refining process for removing phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFA), and metal ions without affecting n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) esters present in the crude Indian sardine oil. Sardine oil was subjected to degumming with various acids (orthophosphoric acid, acetic acid, and lactic acid), conventional and membrane assisted deacidification using various solvents (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) and bleaching with bleaching agents (GAC, activated earth and bentonite) and all the process parameters were further optimized. Degumming with 5%(w/w) ortho phosphoric acid, two stage solvent extraction with methanol at 1:1 (w/w) in each stage and bleaching with 3% (w/w) activated charcoal loading, at 80ºC for 10 minutes resulted in the reduction of phospholipid content to 5.66 ppm from 612.66 ppm, FFA to 0.56% from 5.64% with the complete removal of iron and mercury. Under these conditions, the obtained bleached oil showed an enhancement of n-3 PUFA from 16.39 % (11.19 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 5.20 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) to 17.91 % (11.81 EPA + 6.1 DHA). Replacing conventional solvent extraction with membrane deacidification using microporous, hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene membrane (PTFE), resulted in a lesser solvent residue (0.25% (w/w)) in the deacidified oil. In view of lack of reports on refining of n-3 PUFA rich marine oils without concomitant loss of n-3 PUFA, this report is significant.

  3. Incorporating parasite data in population structure studies of South African sardine Sardinops sagax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Lingen, Carl David; Weston, Laura Frances; Ssempa, Nurudean Norman; Reed, Cecile Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been applied to examine the population structure of sardine Sardinops sagax off South Africa, where this species supports significant fisheries and is also of ecological and eco-tourism importance. Observations of discontinuous sardine distribution patterns, discrete spawning grounds and significant spatial differences in a variety of phenotypic characteristics have suggested the existence of discrete western, southern and eastern sardine sub-populations or stocks. The use of parasites as biological tags to elucidate sardine population structure has recently been investigated, and strong spatial gradients around South Africa in the prevalence, mean infection intensity and mean abundance of a digenean 'tetracotyle' type metacercarial endoparasite considered to be of the genus Cardiocephaloides and found in the humours of fish eyes support and have proved particularly convincing evidence for the sardine multiple stock hypothesis. A discontinuous distribution in the occurrence of another parasite, the coccidean Eimeria sardinae found in fish testes, has provided additional but weaker evidence of discrete stocks. These results have contributed to a changed understanding of the population structure of South African sardine and have significant implications for management of the fisheries for this species.

  4. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  5. Pemanfaatan limbah fleshing kulit kambing untuk pembuatan kompos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create method for managing the environmental pollution caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Compos production was carried out by using the cooked fleshing and uncooked fleshing with variation of fleshing 85,60,45, and 30 % respectively mixed with 13.8% of chaff, 0.2% of brand, and 1% of lime and the rest was soil to gain 100% of compound. Protein bio-city as much as 50 ml/kg was used as a starter and it was added after having diluted and fermented for 48 hours. The compound was filled in the 10 I of plastic bucket and cured by lid on it. Every two days they were agitated and sprayed with water regarding to keep the humidity to be constant. The C/N ratio of the compos was analyzed chemically. The compos had been nature for about one month, and they were characterized by the change of the natural color into dark brown with soil smell, and the volume decreased would be 30% of the initial volume. The mean C/N ratio of compos from cooked fleshing was 14 which varied between 12.46-15.50. That value has a smaller range compared with the compos from uncooked fleshing, the mean value of which was 11, with the variation of C/N ratio of that was bigger 7.07-16.24.

  6. Godzilla's Body: Reviving Memories through Collective Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy of the body, this paper explores the one of the most recognizable characters of Japanese pop culture – Godzilla. Born in specific historical conditions of the postwar Japan, Godzilla stands as a cinematic behemoth which has been countlessly (regenerated ever since, both domestically and internationally. In Godzilla narrative, Merleau-Ponty’s statement that „I am my Body“ can be extended to „we are other’s Body“ by transcending Japanese collective entity into its monstrous embodiment. Positioning Godzilla’s body as a site of remembrance, a walking monument, the memories of nuclear attack and fallen soldiers in South Seas battle become alive. Variety of those memories in flesh is followed by abundant Godzilla filmography which can be understood by Deleuze’s argument „that each multiplicity is already composed of heterogeneous terms in symbiosis, and that a multiplicity is continually transforming itself into a string of other multiplicities“. Godzilla’s identity shifts, from terrifying invading force meant to reflect on a national trauma, morphing to benevolent protector of Japan from foreign intruders, into a global phenomenon preying the western audience.

  7. Freshness assessments of Moroccan sardine (Sardina pilchardus): comparison of overall sensory changes to instrumentally determined volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triqui, Réda; Bouchriti, Nourredine

    2003-12-17

    Freshness of ice-stored sardine was assessed by two sensory methods, the quality index method (QIM) and the European Union freshness grading system, and by instrumental means using the method of aroma extract dilution analysis. Screening of sardine potent volatiles was carried out at three freshness stages. In the very fresh state, the plant-like fresh volatiles dominated the odor pattern, with the exception of methional. Overall odor changes in sardine throughout storage correlated with changes in the concentration of some potent volatiles: after 2 days of ice storage, (Z)-4-heptenal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, and methional imparted an overall "fishy" odor character to sardine, whereas at a lower sensory grade (B), the compounds (E)-2-nonenal and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal could be, in part, associated with the slightly rancid aroma top notes. Trimethylamine was detected as a highly volatile odorant using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace analysis of refrigerator-stored sardine. Intensity and sensory characteristics of some SPME determined volatiles, for example, 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione, were closely related to overall odor changes. SPME headspace analysis may be useful in the characterization of off-flavors in fish.

  8. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  9. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  10. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed of...

  11. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  12. Obtaining a fish minced feed by the method of cryoextrusion from frozen fish raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed the technology of obtaining a fish minced feed (cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion using by the utility model extrusion of a piston-type cold working bodies for grinding the fish raw material in a frozen state. Justified the possibility of replacement in the standard technology of production the feed from the minced fish such technological operations as the defrosting and subsequent grinding of raw materials to the operation like a cold extrusion or cryoextrusion. Used the shape of the holes of the die for forcing the raw material in the form of “hourglass” with a diameter of 7 mm, the length of the process of pushing – 40 seconds. Determine the actual losses of raw material in the milling process meth of cryoextrusion ranging from 1% to 2.5%, including the losses when cutting block for the preparation of raw materials to piercing. It is established that the finished product – cryo minced fish feed, has a homogeneous grinding, juicy, crumbly texture, the temperature in the thickness of the product is not changed and equal to the temperature of raw materials before processing, that is minus 18 °C. Developed the principal technological scheme of obtaining the cryo minced fish feed by the method of cryoextrusion. The calculation of material balance in the production of beef has shown that the use of the new method will allow to increase the product yield up to 99%. Based on the studies of the chemical composition of fish and feed of mince obtained by traditional and developed methods established that the protein content in the cryo minced fish feed remains unchanged. Developed draft technical specifications for the production of cryo minced fish feed and technological instructions for the production of cryo minced fish feed for fodder purposes, and also prepared the application for the patent named “Obtaining cryo minced fish feed from the frozen fish by the method of cryoextrusion”.

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  14. Pembuatan vermikompos menggunakan limbah fleshing di industri penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A research on utilization of fleshing waste at the tannery industry by vermicomposting have been conducted. The growth media consist of dung, fleshing waste, and stubbles. Ratio of dung and fleshing waste were varied at 100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50 respectively. All the media were fermented for three weeks and then proceeded by incubation process of earthworm for another six weeks. The changes of the volume per weight of media, the earthworm weight, C, N, and C/N ratio were observed and measured every week. The result showed that media volume per weight value were decreased in direct proportional to weight of the fleshing waste added in the media, those were 1.66; 1.64; 1.53; 1.50; 1.39; and 1.31 cm3/g, respectively. C/N ratio were below 15 for all combination of media ratio after two weeks incubation. The optimum result was achieved for compost with dung and fleshing waste ratio of 60:40.

  15. Pemanfaatan lemak fleshing tersulfonasi untuk peminyakan pada proses penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to produce sulfonated oil of fleshing grease and to use for fat liquoring process in leather tanning industries. Fleshing wastes were collected from Yogyakarta. The extract was obtained from fleshing waste by boiling at 100o C for 15 minute 400 – 450 g of extract contained 99.96% of fat were obtained from 5 kg of fleshing. The extract then was sulfonated to increase solubility in water and more reactive with the fiber of processed skin. The sulfonated extract was then analyzed to determine content, iodine value, acid value and saponification value. The result of analysis showed that fat/grease content 158.48. While fat content of goat skin fleshing was 30.27%, iodine value 92.30, acid value 23.74and saponification value 157.03. The quantity parameters are able to meet requirement for leather tanning. Sulfonated extract was then used for fat liquoring process of goat skin with the variation of concentration 4,5 and 6% respectively. Control was made by using 5% synthetic oil. The result of crust testing in this research showed that all of quality parameters meet the document of SNI 06-3536-1994 about goat/sheep crust leather.

  16. Penggunaan lemak fleshing industri penyamakan kulit untuk pembuatan sabun mandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ign. Sunaryo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimentation the Use of Fat from Fleshing of Leather Tanning Industry to Produce Bath Soap was aimed to use the fat from fleshing to gain the alternative source of basic material for bath soap, to assist the industry to solve the environmental pollution and increasing the population income. The point to be gained after finishing this experiment was to find out the problem solving of environmental pollution problem caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Goat/sheep fleshing from one of leather tannings in Yogyakarta was collected and had been used as a source of fat. Fat from fleshing was produced by 3 kinds of heating those were coocked, “kukus”, and steam. The results of fat analysis showed that the average of saphonification value was 201.01; free faty acid value was 0.86%; acid value was 1.72 and the unsaphonification fat value was 1.44%. The variations of fat used for bath soap manufacture were 55%, 60%, 65%, 70% and 75%; whereas the variations of sodium hydrokside were 11, 14, 17. 20 and 23, each of which was in parts. The result of this experiment showed that the fat from fleshing could be a source of fat and could be used for bath soap manufacture. In such way, it could be as a pollultion problem solving to the industry. The result of bath soap analysis showed that almost all of the variations of fat and sodium hydrokside could meet the SNI 06-3532-1994 about bath soap. Economically point of view showed that the value of producing fat in various regions such as Jabotabek, West Java, Center Java, DIY and East would vary from Rp6,000,000,- to Rp.200,000,000,-; whereas the value of producing bath soap would vary from Rp 21,000,000,- - Rp 700,000,000,-

  17. Transport of anchovy and sardine eggs and larvae from The western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the frontal jet plays an important role in the transport of the early life history stages of anchovy and sardine, but that the position of such transport can vary between the 200 and 500-m isobaths. During October 1994, November 1994 and February 1995, the greatest concentrations of eggs corresponded with areas of strong ...

  18. The 2004 re-assessment of the South African sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydroacoustic surveys off the coast of South Africa over the early years of the 21st century indicated that both the sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus populations had simultaneously reached record abundances. The South African pelagic fishery is regulated using an Operational Management ...

  19. Little genetic variation in the oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps Val., from the western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Enzyme gene variability in the oil sardine, @iSardinella longiceps@@, from three localities along the western coast of India was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Out of 19 loci scored, no locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion. Seven loci...

  20. The KwaZulu-Natal sardine run: shoal distribution in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predator variables were highly significant (r2 = 0.48) with Cape gannets Morus capensis, followed by the sharks/gamefish and common dolphins Delphinus capensis, being most closely associated with sardine presence. Environmental variables were not as influential in the GLM models (r2 = 0.23), but some variables ...

  1. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  2. Effect of Neat Sardine Oil with Varies Blends on the Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with neat sardine oil and diesel. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various load and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the ...

  3. Overview of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run | van der Lingen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an introduction to, and overview of, the natural phenomenon known as the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run. Previous literature on this topic and hypotheses about the reasons why, and the mechanisms how, the run occurs are briefly synthesised and described. Papers contributing to this suite that detail more ...

  4. Farmers' perceptions of orange-fleshed sweetpotato: Do common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JJ Okello, KM Shikuku, K Sindi, J Low. Abstract. Efforts to combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries have focused on the promotion of growing and consuming orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP), among other crops. Past studies have found increased intake and even incomes among households that have been ...

  5. opportunities for promoting orange-fleshed sweetpotato as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Potato Centre (CIP), Box 22274, Kampala, Uganda. 'CIP, Apartado, Pox 1558, ... Activities include: breeding and selecting varieties for high dry matter content and high beta- carotene, participatory ..... Performance of local orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties at RRC-Kakamega Kenya. Variety Total root y ...

  6. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  7. CORROSION AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED FOR MINCED MEAT PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    The risk of material degradation is present in minced-meat processing equipment. Corrosion, wear and tribocorrosion properties of commonly used steel materials for such processing equipment are therefore studied in detail. Corrosiveness of minced meat has been evaluated by potentiodynamic...... measurements. Combined sliding wear and corrosion conditions have been simulated in laboratory using a block-on-ring setup allowing for electrochemical measurements. Detailed information concerning the mechanism of possible material degradation is provided by these results, together with microstructural...

  8. Oxidation of lipid and protein in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) mince and washed minces during processing and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    : M1, M2 and M3, with one, two and three washing steps, respectively. The different products were characterised (i.e. lipid content, protein, water, iron, fatty acid profile and tocopherol content) and analysed for protein and lipid oxidation in order to investigate the impact of the washing steps...... was followed by determination of protein solubility, protein thiol groups and protein carbonyl groups using colorimetric methods as well as western blotting for protein carbonyl groups. Lipid and protein oxidation markers indicated that both lipid and protein oxidation took place during processing...... and the ranking for oxidation was as follows M0 = M3. Lipid and protein oxidation developed simultaneously in different minces during storage, but it was not possible to determine at which level these two reactions were coupled....

  9. Evaluating fishermen's conservation attitudes and local ecological knowledge of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus), Peniche, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Heitor O; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Oliveira, Henrique M F; Pardal, Miguel A

    2017-05-05

    European sardines are an important fishing resource in the North Atlantic. Recognized for its great commercial and economic value in southern Europe, this resource currently has low stock indices. From this perspective, fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) is appreciated as an auxiliary tool in the management of sardines in this region. Our goal is to evaluate the LEK and attitudes towards the conservation of Sardina pilchardus in the typical fishing village of Peniche, Portugal. From June to September 2016, we carried out 87 semi-structured interviews. The four main points of the interviews were interviewee profile, fishing structure, fishermen's LEK and attitudes towards sardine conservation. The interviews were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using a 3-point Likert scale. An LEK index and an attitude index were generated. Comparison analyses and correlations were made between the indices and variables of the interviewee profile and the fishing structure. The mean LEK index was 0.55 and was classified as moderate. The attitudes index in relation to conservation was 0.76 and was classified as positive. This index had a positive and significant correlation with the LEK index and a significant negative correlation with the fishermen's age. When the LEK index was compared with the educational level, significant differences were observed only between class A and class C. The result showed that the differences in the attitudes index were statistically significant when the three educational classes were compared. The fishermen of Peniche in Portugal present moderate informal knowledge about the biology and ecology of sardines. Attitudes towards conservation were predominantly positive. Fishermen with greater LEK, with a higher educational level and at a younger age presented more positive attitudes in relation to environmental conservation issues in the present case of the sardine population. The LEK is not necessarily related to the educational level of

  10. A cold oceanographic regime with high exploitation rates in the Northeast Pacific forecasts a collapse of the sardine stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Juan P; Demer, David A

    2012-03-13

    The oceanographic conditions in the north Pacific have shifted to a colder period, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) biomass has declined precipitously in the California Current, the international sardine fishery is collapsing, and mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus and Scomber japonicus) are thriving. This situation occurred in the mid-1900s, but indices of current oceanographic conditions and the results of our acoustic-trawl surveys indicate it likely is recurring now, perhaps with similar socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Also alarming is the repetition of the fishery's response to a declining sardine stock-progressively higher exploitation rates targeting the oldest, largest, and most fecund fish. Furthermore, our data indicate the recent reproductive condition of sardine is poor, and their productivity is below modeled estimates used to derive the current fishery-exploitation rates. Consequently, the sardine population has been reduced to two cohorts that are unlikely to produce an appreciable new cohort. Thus, a near-term recovery of this important stock is unlikely, depending on the return of warmer oceanographic conditions, reduced pressure from mackerel species, and perhaps the adoption of a more precautionary strategy for managing the residual sardine population.

  11. Exploring fidelity of Sardines (Sardina pilchardus to feeding grounds in the Atlantic Moroccan waters using stable isotope analyses (C, N and otolith microchemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Masski

    2015-11-01

    Sardine individuals from the different sites showed significantly different trophic position for both C and N isotopes. The northern individuals were depleted in d15N (1‰ difference, suggesting that phytoplankton is more important in their diet. The d13C values showed greater differences (~3‰ for both Sardines and zooplankton between the two sites, pointing high fidelity for sardine individuals towards the feeding grounds. While Anchovy and Horse Mackerel showed a similar pattern with sardine for δ13C, chub mackerel showed no significant differences between the two areas suggesting a higher seasonal migratory behavior for this species. Sardine Microelements profiles reinforced the sedentary behavior hypothesis for sardine. The Barium (Ba profiles were the most discriminant: the concentration range was 7× higher for the southern area where upwelling intensity is higher [4].

  12. Control of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat: Comparative analysis of different interventions using a risk assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Damme, I.; De Zutter, L.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different processing scenarios along the farm-to-fork chain on the contamination of minced pork with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. A modular process risk model (MPRM) was used to perform the assessment of the concentrations of pathogenic Y....... enterocolitica in minced meat produced in industrial meat processing plants. The model described the production of minced pork starting from the contamination of pig carcasses with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica just before chilling. The endpoints of the assessment were (i) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages...

  13. Effects of Storage Temperatures on the Quality of Frozen Sardine, Mackerel, and Saury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozima, Tsuneo; Ohataka, Tateo

    The three Japanese coastal fish species, sardine (Sardinops melanosticta), mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and saury (Cololabis saira) was frozen under commercial condition and stored at -18, -23, -30 and -40°C for 12 months. During frozen storage the quality was measured by determining the K value (freshness index), peroxide value (POV) of fat, a mount of free drip, water-holding capacity of muscle, weight ratio of cooking loss, histological feature of frozen and thawed muscle, and organoleptic test at regular intervals (each 2 months). Storage life of frozen sardine was 6 months at -18°C and 12 months at below -23°C. On frozen mackerel it was 6 months at -18°C. 8 months at -23°C and 12 months at below -30°C. On saury it was 6 months at 18°C and 12 months at below -23°C.

  14. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA content (32 mg KOH/g of oil. Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  15. Comparative trophodynamics of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardinops sagax in the southern Benguela: are species alternations between small pelagic fish trophodynamically mediated?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Lingen, CD; Hutchings, L; Field, JG

    2006-01-01

    The results of detailed morphological, experimental, field and modelling studies on various aspects of the trophic ecology of sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Benguela...

  16. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  17. Improved dry-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes resistant to insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Bohac, J R

    2006-10-01

    Thirty-five mostly dry-fleshed sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), genotypes from the USDA-ARS/Clemson University sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated in nine field experiments at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, from 1998 to 2004. There were highly significant entry effects for percentage of uninjured roots; wireworm, Diabrotica, and Systena (WDS) index; percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers); percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch); and percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (primarily Plectris aliena Chapin). The susceptible control, 'SC1149-19', had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS rating, and higher percentage infestations of flea beetle, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than all other sweetpotato entries in this study. Twenty-seven genotypes had significantly less insect damage than 'Beauregard', the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivar in the United States. In addition, 11 genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito', a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Overall, no genotypes were more resistant to soil insect pests than the resistant checks 'Sumor' and 'Regal'. Many of the advanced dry-flesh sweetpotato genotypes had high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they represent a useful source of advanced germplasm for use in sweetpotato breeding programs.

  18. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachir Bouchikhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify thefreshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ±1°C, in air. The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine sampleswere introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors wererecorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxidesemiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensorconductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis wasperformed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neuralnetworks (PNN, fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN and support vector machines(SVM. The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognitionmethods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergoneby sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness ofsardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtainedwith SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classificationperformances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  19. Hydrographic conditions driving sardine and anchovy populations in a land-locked sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VILIBIĆ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between long-term variability in sardine and anchovy populations in the Adriatic Sea and ocean dynamics and processes that occur over interannual and decadal timescales in the Adriatic-Ionian basin. Basis for such analysis are annual time series of sardine and anchovy landings and recruits at age 0 and annual time series of environmental parameters observed at a representative Adriatic station between 1975 and 2010. Pearson correlations and robust Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA were applied to quantify the connections between fisheries and environmental parameters. Variations and trends in fisheries series were best explained by changes in near-bottom temperature and salinity, being an appropriate proxy for tracking changes in water masses' dynamics and hydrographic conditions in the basin. It seems that a prolonged period of decreasing sardine population was characterized by low oxygen availability and environmental conditions in the deep Adriatic waters, triggered by an extraordinary basin-wide event called the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. A collapse in anchovy population has been observed after an exceptional cooling event followed by dense water formation.

  20. The influence of sardine consumption on the omega-3 fatty acid content of mature human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Rose V; Vítolo, Márcia R; Valverde, Mara A; Carvalho, Patrícia O; Pastore, Gláucia M; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the ingestion of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Alvaro. Each was given 2 kg of fresh sardines twice with a 15-day interval. Milk was sampled and a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was applied on days 0, 15 and 30. Milk was assayed for fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using nonparametric tests with significance set at p milk collection resulted in higher concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at 15 and 30 days into the study. Fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 series exhibited a significant correlation, r2 was 0.58 and 0.59 at 15 and 30 days, respectively. These results suggest that incorporating fish into the diets of nursing mother during lactation, in the form of 100 g of sardines two or three times a week, contributes to an increase in omega-3 series fatty acids.

  1. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-04

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal chitosan and Lycium barbarum extract as anti-Listeria and quality preservatives in minced catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed S; Moussa, Shaaban H; Elguindy, Nihal M; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that causes serious health risks. Chitosan (Ch) is a bioactive polymer that could be effectively applied for foodstuffs biopreservation. Lycium barbarum (Goji berry) is ethnopharmaceutical fruit that have diverse health protecting benefits. Chitosan was produced from A. niger and employed with L. barbarum extract (LBE) as blends for Listeria control and quality biopreservation of African catfish mince (Clarias gariepinus). Chitosan could utterly control L. monocytogenes survival in fish mince and its efficacy was strengthened with added LBE at 0.2 and 0.4%. Blending of fish mince with Ch could effectively reduce the progress of chemical spoilage parameters and this protective effect was greatly enhanced with increased addition of LBE. The sensorial assessment of treated minces indicated panelists preferences for the entire attributes of blended samples with Ch and LBE, particularly with storage prolongation. Scanning micrographs elucidated the antibacterial action of Ch against L. monocytogenes. Results recommended the application of fungal Ch/LBE composites as biopreservatives and anti-listerial agents, through their blending with catfish mince, to eliminate bacterial growth, enhance sensory and storage attributes of preserved fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  4. EURL-Salmonella 8th interlaboratory comparison study Food 2016 : Detection of Salmonella in minced chicken me

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Mooijman KA; VDL; Z&O

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, it was shown that all 34 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs), 30 of which are located in the European Union, were able to detect high and low levels of Salmonella in minced chicken meat. Three NRLs reported Salmonella in one 'blank' minced meat sample. This was probably caused by the

  5. Colour and oxidative stability of mince produced from fresh and frozen/thawed fallow deer (Dama dama) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakanya, Chido; Arnaud, Elodie; Muchenje, Voster; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-04-01

    Colour and oxidative stability of minced meat from fresh and frozen/thawed fallow deer was investigated. For the seven fallow deer harvested, half of the meat was minced fresh and half was frozen (-20°C) for 2months under vacuum prior to grinding. Surface colour attributes, myoglobin content and surface redox forms, pH and lipid oxidation of the mince were measured during eight days of display storage. Proximate composition was determined in mince on day 0, fatty acid composition on day 0 and 8. Freezing had no effect on the proximate composition or fatty acid composition of the mince. Frozen meat mince had lower (P≤0.05) total myoglobin content but higher (P≤0.05) decrease in redness (a*) during display storage, higher (P≤0.05) accumulation of metmyoglobin at the surface from day 2 and higher (P≤0.05) TBARS values. Results showed shorter colour and oxidative stability for frozen meat mince as compared to mince from fresh meat. Display storage however did not affect fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the dietary supplementation with vitamin E on colour stability and lipid oxidation in packaged, minced pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Eikelenboom, G.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of vitamin E (200 IU kg-1 feed) in the diet of pigs on colour stability and lipid oxidation in minced pork was studied. Control and enriched diets were provided for the last 12 weeks before slaughter. Half of the samples of minced shoulder meat from control and

  7. Effect of Amidated Low Methoxyl Pectin on the Mechanical Properties and Colour Attributes of Fish Mince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio M. Uresti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectins have been unsuccessfully applied to improve functionality of meat and fish products. Effect of amidated low methoxyl pectin (ALM pectin levels on functionality of Mexican flounder (Cyclopsetta chittendenii mince was studied. Changes in the firmness and work of extrusion of pastes, texture profile analysis (TPA of gels, and colour parameters were determined. ALM pectin at 1 % decreased firmness and work of extrusion of fish pastes but increased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness of the gels (P<0.05. The addition of ALM pectin increased slightly the whiteness and yellowness of mince gels. Chrome parameter indicated that gels remained in the grayish achromatic region. Therefore ALM pectin at 1 % could be employed to modify the textural properties of fish mince.

  8. Control of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat: Comparative analysis of different interventions using a risk assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Damme, I.; De Zutter, L.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different processing scenarios along the farm-to-fork chain on the contamination of minced pork with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. A modular process risk model (MPRM) was used to perform the assessment of the concentrations of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica...... in minced meat produced in industrial meat processing plants. The model described the production of minced pork starting from the contamination of pig carcasses with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica just before chilling. The endpoints of the assessment were (i) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages...... that contained pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and (ii) the proportion of 0.5 kg minced meat packages that contained more than 10³ pathogenic Y. enterocolitica at the end of storage, just before consumption of raw pork or preparation. Comparing alternative scenarios to the baseline model showed that the initial...

  9. Couches minces diélectriques de phosphate d'aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Daviéro, S.; Avinens, C.; Ibanez, A.; Giuntini, J.; Philippot, E.

    1993-01-01

    Réalisation de couches minces de phosphate d'aluminium sur substrat de silicium à partir des précurseurs tributylphosphate et acétylacétonate d'aluminium en solution par la méthode “pyrosol". La composition chimique des dépôts varie rapidement en fonction des conditions expérimentales. Ces couches minces sont caractérisées par spectrométrie infrarouge et diffraction des RX. Leurs caractéristiques électriques, déterminées par conductivité électrique en courant continu et alternatif, sont nette...

  10. Effet de l'entreposage à l'état congelé sur la qualité de la sardine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stored whole. On the other hand, the correlation of changes in TVB-N with impaired sensory concluded that TVB can be used as reliable and objective index to evaluate the quality of frozen sardine. Keywords: conservability, sardine, freezing, chemical weathering, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA, DHA, TVB-N and organoleptic.

  11. Diphyllobothrium latum infection after eating domestic salmon flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Suhk, Hyo-Chung; Shin, Ho-Jun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Han, Eun-Taek; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2001-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in human is not common in Korea and only thirty seven cases have been reported since 1921. We report two cases of fish tapeworm infection after Ingestion of raw cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) caught in the domestic river. Among four family members who ate together raw salmon flesh six months ago, just two, mother and daughter, were infected. It is our expectation that the salmon associated tapeworm infections would be enlisted as one of the major parasitic problems with the growing consumption of salmon in Korea. PMID:11775333

  12. Fishing area and fish size as risk factors of Anisakis infection in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from Iberian waters, southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Fernández, Dolores; Malagón, David; Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Benítez, Rocío; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-16

    The sardine (Sardina pilchardus) is a fish commonly consumed and appreciated in many countries, although they are more likely to be eaten fresh in western Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Portugal, France or Italy. A molecular epidemiological survey of sardines from 5 fishing areas of the Spanish Mediterranean (Málaga, southern Spain) and Atlantic coasts (southern: Cádiz and Isla Cristina; northern: A Coruña and Ondarroa) was carried out to determine the presence of Anisakis spp. larvae. The highest prevalence of these larvae was observed in fish from A Coruña (28.3%), followed by Ondarroa (5%) and Cádiz (2.5%). No Anisakis larvae were found in fish from Málaga and Isla Cristina. Three Anisakis genotypes were identified: Anisakis simplex sensu stricto, Anisakis pegreffii and a hybrid genotype between these two species. A. pegreffii was the most prevalent species in A Coruña (71% of larvae). Only three Anisakis larvae (9% collected larvae) were located in the musculature of sardines: two were identified as A. pegreffii while the other was a hybrid genotype. Sardine infection was associated with fishing area and fish length/weight (length and weight were strongly correlated; Pearson's correlation 0.82; pAnisakis through consumption of sardines is generally low due to the low epidemiological parameter values (prevalence 10%, mean intensity 1.7 (range 1-5) and mean abundance 0.17), as larger fish are more heavily parasitized, there is an increased risk of infection by Anisakis through consumption of large sardines which are raw or have undergone insufficient treatment (undercooked, smoked, marinated, salted, pickled, freezing,…). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative role of life-history traits and historical factors in shaping genetic population structure of sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardoya Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine pelagic fishes exhibit rather complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are the result of both historical processes and present day gene flow. Comparative multi-locus analyses based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers are probably the most efficient and informative approach to discerning the relative role of historical events and life-history traits in shaping genetic heterogeneity. The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a small pelagic fish with a relatively high migratory capability that is expected to show low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. Previous genetic studies based on meristic and mitochondrial control region haplotype frequency data supported the existence of two sardine subspecies (S. p. pilchardus and S. p. sardina. Results We investigated genetic structure of sardine among nine locations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using allelic size variation of eight specific microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering and assignment tests, maximum likelihood estimates of migration rates, as well as classical genetic-variance-based methods (hierarchical AMOVA test and RST pairwise comparisons supported a single evolutionary unit for sardines. These analyses only detected weak but significant genetic differentiation, which followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to Mantel test. Conclusion We suggest that the discordant genetic structuring patterns inferred based on mitochondrial and microsatellite data might indicate that the two different classes of molecular markers may be reflecting different and complementary aspects of the evolutionary history of sardine. Mitochondrial data might be reflecting past isolation of sardine populations into two distinct groupings during Pleistocene whereas microsatellite data reveal the existence of present day gene flow among populations, and a pattern of isolation by distance.

  14. Improving the Quality of Sardine Fish Oil by Degumming Using Sodium Cholride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Prima Christiani Hulu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish oil is determined by some parameters such as primary and secondary grade oxidation, fatty acid profile and physical qualities which include viscosity, density, color and clarity. Sardine fish oil by-products of fish meal processing can be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, particularlyeicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Degumming is one of steps that can be carried out to improve the quality of sardine fish oil. The processing will help to reduce oxidation and eliminate the impurity of the oil that influence the quality of fish oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium chloride solution degumming on the quality of sardine fish oil to fulfill International Fish Oil Standard (IFOS. Fish oil purification was done by degumming of 5% H2O,  followedby sodium chloride solution with ratio of fish oil and sodium chloride solution were 1:1; 1:3, and 1:5. The sodium chloride solution concentrations of 5% and 8% for 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The next steps after degumming process were followed by alkali neutralization and bleached by absorbent. The best treatmentwas at  concentration of 5%  sodium chloride solution, ratio fish oil with sodium chloride solution 1:1 on a long time degumming processed 20 minutes. The best quality of fish oil, according to IFOS, was resulted from the treatments combination of free fatty acid 0.21±0.00%, peroxide value 0.43±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidin value 2.22±0.04 mEq/kg and total oxidation 3.11±0.14  mEq/kg.

  15. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  16. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  17. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction of microbiological risk in minced meat by a combination of natural antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, Anja; Piskernik, Saša; Bucar, Franz; Vučković, Darinka; Možina, Sonja Smole; Jeršek, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Responsibility for food safety must be taken through the entire food-production chain, to avoid consumer cross-contamination. The antimicrobial activities of an Alpinia katsumadai seed extract and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and their combination, were evaluated against individual food-borne pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, individually and as a cocktail, in chicken-meat juice and sterile minced meat as food models, and in minced meat with the naturally present microflora, as an actual food sample. The antimicrobial combination of the A. katsumadai extract and EGCG was the most efficient for C. jejuni growth inhibition, followed by inhibition of L. monocytogenes, which was reduced more efficiently in the bacterial cocktail than as an individual strain. The antimicrobial combination added to minced meat at refrigeration temperatures used in the food chain (8 °C) revealed inhibition of these pathogens and inhibition of the naturally present bacteria after 5 days. The antibacterial efficiencies of the tested combinations are influenced by storage temperature. Food safety can be improved by using the appropriate combination of natural antimicrobials to reduce the microbiological risk of minced meat. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Artificial neural network as the tool in prediction rheological features of raw minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balejko, Jerzy A; Nowak, Zbigniew; Balejko, Edyta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate a method of modelling and forecasting rheological features which could be applied to raw minced meat at the stage of mixture preparation with a given ingredient composition. The investigated material contained pork and beef meat, pork fat, fat substitutes, ice and curing mixture in various proportions. Seven texture parameters were measured for each sample of raw minced meat. The data obtained were processed using the artificial neural network module in Statistica 9.0 software. The model that reached the lowest training error was a multi-layer perceptron MLP with three neural layers and architecture 7:7-11-7:7. Correlation coefficients between the experimental and calculated values in training, verification and testing subsets were similar and rather high (around 0.65) which indicated good network performance. High percentage of the total variance explained in PCA analysis (73.5%) indicated that the percentage composition of raw minced meat can be successfully used in the prediction of its rheological features. Statistical analysis of the results revealed, that artificial neural network model is able to predict rheological parameters and thus a complete texture profile of raw minced meat.

  20. Lipid oxidation in minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, G; Grabež, V; Bjelanovic, M; Slinde, E; Olsen, K; Langsrud, O; Phung, V T; Haug, A; Oostindjer, M; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-11-15

    Krebs cycle substrates (KCS) can stabilise the colour of packaged meat by oxygen reduction. This study tested whether this reduction releases reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid oxidation in minced meat under two different storage conditions. KCS combinations of succinate and glutamate increased peroxide forming potential (PFP, 1.18-1.32 mmol peroxides/kg mince) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.30-0.38 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/kg mince) under low oxygen storage conditions. Both succinate and glutamate were metabolised. Moreover, under high oxygen (75%) storage conditions, KCS combinations of glutamate, citrate and malate increased PFP (from 1.22 to 1.29 mmol peroxides/kg) and TBARS (from 0.37 to 0.40 mg MDA equivalents/kg mince). Only glutamate was metabolised. The KCS combinations that were added to stabilise colour were metabolised during storage, and acted as pro-oxidants that promoted lipid oxidation in both high and low oxygen conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The effect of Pediococcus damnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus on the growth of pathogens in minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T; Haikara, A; Skyttä, E

    1991-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of one strain of Pediococcus damnosus and two strains of Pediococcus pentosacaeus against Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella infantis and Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated. Growth inhibition studies were conducted in juice from minced meat incubated at +6 degrees C and +15 degrees C for various periods after the inoculation with pediococci. Inhibitory effects were seen for all bacteria tested.

  2. Micro structural characteristics of minced meat products from use of protein-mineral additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golovko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infringement of balance mineral substances is widely manifested in the meat products which is much wealthier in phosphorus than calcium. List of additives that containing calcium and technology meat products with their using are limited. Purpose of the work is studying and scientific substantiation of influence proteinmineral additive (PMA on the technological microstructural properties of minced meat products. Matherials and methods. Studies water-and fat-holding ability (WHA, FHA of samples carried out by gravimetric and refract metric methods. Histological sections were produced at microtome, followed by coloring with hematoxylin and eosin and by the method of Mallory. Results and discussion. Created a technology of the minced meat products for health improvement using the PMA which is a carrier of Bioorganic calcium. Rational is the addition of PMA in powder form in amount of 7,5 % of the meat systems. Technological parameters of minced meat increase when making additions in particular WHA and FHA approx about 5 and 10 % respectively. Histological studies have shown that PMA promotes the preservation of meat juice and sarcoplasmic proteins in the meat systems during thermal processing. Conclusions. PMA has a positive impact on the properties of water-holding properties of minced meat and output the finished product.

  3. Enterococci as indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in fresh minced meat at retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Beck; Nielsen, Niels L.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2016-01-01

    and concentration of Salmonella was examined. A total of 2187 and 2747 samples of minced pork and beef, respectively, were collected from butcher shops and supermarkets throughout the country. In pork, 2.1% of all samples were positive for Salmonella whereas 1.5% of beef samples were positive. Among samples...

  4. Propriétés structurales, optiques et électriques des couches minces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des couches minces de TiO2 dope au cuivre ont ete preparees par la methode Sol-Gel et deposees selon le procede dip-coating sur des substrats en verre. Les proprietes structurales, optiques et electriques des echantillons monocouches dopes 0, 3 et 7 % at. cuivre ont ete analysees par diffraction des ...

  5. Use of artificial intelligence in the production of high quality minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapovsky, B. R.; Pchelkina, V. A.; Plyasheshnik, P. I.; Dydykin, A. S.; Lazarev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A design for an automatic line for minced meat production according to new production technology based on an innovative meat milling method is proposed. This method allows the necessary degree of raw material comminution at the stage of raw material preparation to be obtained, which leads to production intensification due to the traditional meat mass comminution equipment being unnecessary. To ensure consistent quality of the product obtained, the use of on-line automatic control of the technological process for minced meat production is envisaged. This system has been developed using artificial intelligence methods and technologies. The system is trainable during the operation process, adapts to changes in processed raw material characteristics and to external impacts that affect the system operation, and manufactures meat shavings with minimal dispersion of the typical particle size. The control system includes equipment for express analysis of the chemical composition of the minced meat and its temperature after comminution. In this case, the minced meat production process can be controlled strictly as a function of time, which excludes subjective factors for assessing the degree of finished product readiness. This will allow finished meat products with consistent, targeted high quality to be produced.

  6. Fat Content and Composition in Retail Samples of Australian Beef Mince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient composition data, representative of the retail supply, is required to support labelling and dietetic practice. Because beef mince represents approximately 30% of all beef dishes prepared in Australian households, a national survey of the different types of mince available for purchase in representative retail outlets was conducted. Sixty-one samples of beef mince from 24 retail outlets in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia were collected in 2010 and analysed for moisture, protein, total fat and fatty acid profile. A variety of 18 different descriptors were used at point of sale with “Premium” (n = 15 and “Regular” (n = 8 the most commonly used terms. The analysed fat content of “Premium” samples varied from 2.2 g/100 g to 8.0 g/100 g. Forty-eight percent (n = 29 of the samples were categorised as low fat (<5 g/100 g; mean 4.1 g/100 g, 21% as medium fat (5–10 g/100 g; mean 8.9 g/100 g and 31% as high fat (>10 g/100 g; mean 10.4 g/100 g. There was no significant difference between the types of mince available for purchase in low versus high socio-economic suburbs (Chi-square, p > 0.05. In conclusion, the fat content of the majority of retail beef mince in Australia is <10 g/100 g and a variety of descriptors are used at point of sale, all of which do not necessarily reflect analysed fat content.

  7. Screening of polymeric membranes for membrane assisted deacidification of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Charanyaa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversification in fish oil use and the need for softer processing demand new oil refining processes. In considering the advantages of membrane technology, three different membranes (polyamide (PA, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyethersulfone (PES were used in this particular study. Preliminary results in the separation of free fatty acids (FFA from glycerides of sardine oil/ethanol mixtures using a single dead end microfiltration mode have been reported here. The influence of experimental factors like pressure and oil/ethanol ratios (w/v on the permeate flux and the reduction of FFA (% in the permeate was studied. PTFE membrane showed promising results in terms of residual FFA in permeate (%, % oil loss (15.12%, 5.45% as compared to PA (20.50%, 6.66% and PES membranes (20.60%, 8.92%. PA membrane showed a higher flux of 4.4 L/m2/h, followed by PTFE 3.34 L/m2/h and PES, 1.19 L/m2/h at 3.5 bar trans-membrane pressure. These results showed that using PTFE membrane could be an ideal strategy for the membrane assisted deacidification of sardine oil using solvents.

  8. Levels of heavy metals in canned bonito, sardines, and mackerel produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Suhendan

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of selected metals were determined using ICP-MS in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel commercialized in Turkey. Thirty samples and two different brands were sampled for each fish species. The minimum and maximum concentrations of trace metals in canned bonito, sardines and mackerel were found as 0.000-34.742, 0.000-89.015, 0.000-28.725 mg/kg for iron, 2.388-26.620, 10.930-41.340, 4.778-29.270 mg/kg for zinc, 0.331-1.548, 0.599-2.242, 0.336-2.884 mg/kg for copper, 0.000-0.065, 0.000-0.113, 0.000-0.115 mg/kg for cadmium, 0.000-0.190, 0.000-0.158, 0.000-0.385 mg/kg for tin, 0.000-0.111, 0.000-0.223, 0.000-0.208 mg/kg for mercury and 0.000-3.046, 0.000-2.875, 0.000-3.529 mg/kg for lead, respectively. These levels are similar those found in other studies. Although the samples have concentrations within permissible limits for Zn, Cu, Sn and Hg, some of them contained Fe, Cd and Pb above these limits. Periodical controls of metals in canned fish are essential both to protect human health and to provide data on this subject.

  9. Multidecadal, centennial, and millennial variability in sardine and anchovy abundances in the western North Pacific and climate-fish linkages during the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Michinobu; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Sagawa, Takuya; Ikehara, Ken; Irino, Tomohisa; Takemura, Keiji; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Sugimoto, Takashige

    2017-12-01

    Paleorecords of pelagic fish abundance could better define the nature of fishery productivity dynamics and help understand responses of pelagic fish stocks to long-term climate changes. We report a high-resolution record of sardine and anchovy scale deposition rates (SDRs) from Beppu Bay, Southwest Japan, showing multidecadal and centennial variability in the abundance of Japanese sardine and Japanese anchovy during the last 2850 years. Variations in the sardine SDR showed periodicities at ∼50, ∼100, and ∼300 yr, while variations in the anchovy SDR showed periodicities at ∼30 and ∼260 yr. Comparisons between and correlation analyses of the time series of the sardine and anchovy SDRs demonstrate that there is not a consistent out-of-phase relationship during the last 2850 years. This indicates that the multidecadal alternations in the sardine and anchovy populations commonly seen in the 20th century did not necessarily occur during earlier periods. The Japanese sardine SDR record shows a long-term decreasing trend in the amplitudes of the multidecadal to centennial fluctuations. This decreasing trend may have resulted from an increasing trend in the winter sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific. The multicentennial variability in sardine abundance during the last millennium is consistent with the variabilities in the abnormal snow index in East Asia and the American tree ring-based Pacific Decadal Oscillation index, suggesting a basin-wide or regional climate-marine ecosystem linkage.

  10. The hysteria in The Flesh, of Julio Ribeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Masiero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the novel The flesh of Julio Ribeiro, from the perspective of freudian psychoanalysis. The book, a naturalistic novel published in 1888, criticizes the formation of gender roles in nineteenth-century culture and anticipates psychoanalytic ideas about sexuality and hysteria, which allows an interesting approach between literature and psychoanalysis. The analysis is focused on the development of the two central characters, Lenita and Manduca. We observed in Lenita a transformation of hysteria, first it appears like a illness, after to transgression and thence like a critique of sexuality and gender roles. The male anxieties and conflicts are marked by silence, a discursive failure which does not allow psychopathological ratings. At the end the hysteric Lenita interrupts a long cycle of compulsive repetition and Manduca linearly stay mute and succumbs. Returning to the beginning of psychoanalysis observe the same phenomenon: the difficulty, admitted by Freud, in exposing male hysteria.

  11. Flesh-Eating Disease: A Note on Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dele Davies

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much media attention in the past few years to the condition dubbed 'flesh-eating disease', which refers, primarily, to a form of invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection that leads to fascia and muscle necrosis. In 1999, the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement on the state of knowledge and management of children, and close contacts of persons with all-invasive GABHS disease (1. The present note is intended to deal specifically with necrotizing fasciitis (NF by providing an update on the limited current state of knowledge, diagnosis and management. Surveillance to establish actual national rates and epidemiology of NF through the Canadian Paediatric Society is proposed.

  12. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Vegetable oils and tomato sauce are usually adopted as coatings (liquid medium. In fact, oil has a preserving effect and contributes to make the product more palatable. Its protective action lies in the ability to insulate products from air, rather than having an active bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. Among the different types of coatings the most commonly used in canning are: olive oil, seed oils and different sauces, such as tomato sauce. Tomato sauce has also vegetable oil on its formulation. The amount of coating substance can affect the nutritional composition as well as texture properties of the sardines. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of whole, skinless and boneless canned Portuguese Sardines (Sardina pilchardus. An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ash content, texture and colour profile of canned sardine with different kinds of coatings: olive oil, sunflower oil and tomato sauce. The obtained results showed that protein and carbohydrates content were not significantly influenced by the coating used, varying between 5%-8% and13%-18%, respectively. For the moisture content it was found that the samples with tomato sauce were 2.2-fold higher than the samples with sunflower oil, and 1.3-fold higher than the samples with olive oil, independently of being whole, skinless or boneless sardine. As

  13. Assessment of Washing with Antioxidant on the Oxidative Stability of Fatty Fish Mince during Processing and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    performed. Results indicated that the antioxidants were accumulated differently, but all antioxidants tested were able to prevent lipid oxidation in fatty fish mince during washing and subsequent storage. The ranking in terms of oxidative stability of the washed minces was CA = PG > SP > W. The antioxidants......) mince was washed three times with 3 volumes of cold water (W) or the antioxidant solutions caffeic acid (CA) or propyl gallate (PG), at concentrations of 100 mg/kg, or spermine (SP), at a concentration of 400 mg/kg. Accumulation of antioxidant in the mince at each washing step was evaluated...... tested also showed some protection of the protein during processing and storage,; however, the results were more difficult to explain and indicated complex interactions between protein and antioxidant. The chemical structures of the antioxidant and its functional groups, its properties, and its...

  14. Interannual Changes in Biomass Affect the Spatial Aggregations of Anchovy and Sardine as Evidenced by Geostatistical and Spatial Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barra

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were applied and a series of spatial indicators were calculated (occupation, aggregation, location, dispersion, spatial autocorrelation and overlap to characterize the spatial distributions of European anchovy and sardine during summer. Two ecosystems were compared for this purpose, both located in the Mediterranean Sea: the Strait of Sicily (upwelling area and the North Aegean Sea (continental shelf area, influenced by freshwater. Although the biomass of anchovy and sardine presented high interannual variability in both areas, the location of the centres of gravity and the main spatial patches of their populations were very similar between years. The size of the patches representing the dominant part of the abundance (80% was mostly ecosystem- and species-specific. Occupation (area of presence appears to be shaped by the extent of suitable habitats in each ecosystem whereas aggregation patterns (how the populations are distributed within the area of presence were species-specific and related to levels of population biomass. In the upwelling area, both species showed consistently higher occupation values compared to the continental shelf area. Certain characteristics of the spatial distribution of sardine (e.g. spreading area, overlapping with anchovy differed substantially between the two ecosystems. Principal component analysis of geostatistical and spatial indicators revealed that biomass was significantly related to a suite of, rather than single, spatial indicators. At the spatial scale of our study, strong correlations emerged between biomass and the first principal component axis with highly positive loadings for occupation, aggregation and patchiness, independently of species and ecosystem. Overlapping between anchovy and sardine increased with the increase of sardine biomass but decreased with the increase of anchovy. This contrasting pattern was attributed to the location of the respective major patches

  15. Temperature and food-mediated variability of European Atlantic sardine recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Susana; Silva, Alexandra; Marques, Vitor; Figueiredo, Ivone; Bryère, Philippe; Mangin, Antoine; Santos, A. Miguel P.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the environmental conditions during larval development on the resulting recruitment strength was investigated for European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at Atlanto-Iberian waters. Satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) data from the previous spawning seasons (January to March/April and October to December of the previous year) were related to recruitment success data in the main recruitment hotspots. Recruitment data was taken from yearly acoustic scientific cruises and from the ICES recruitment index estimated by an age-structured model for the entire stock. A linear discriminant analysis model using SST, Chla, and the abundance of spawners during the spawning season identified years of high and low recruitment for all the recruitment hotspots with an accuracy of ≥79%. In general, high recruitment years were associated with high Chla and low SST, although the most important variables to discriminate between the groups were area-specific. High recruitment years were mostly related to high food availability (Chla), particularly during the last quarter of the previous year. In Western Iberia and in the Gulf of Cadiz, high recruitment years were also associated to lower SST, whereas in the Bay of Biscay, where SST during the winter was generally below the optimal range ≈11-12 °C for sardine larval development, higher recruitment was associated with high SST. For ICES data of the southern European sardine stock, lower SST and higher Chla during the last quarter of the previous year were associated with high recruitment years and SST alone was able to discriminate between the two recruitment groups with 73% accuracy. Although the time-series of available data are still small, these significant relationships are consistent with field and laboratory studies relating larval growth and mortality with main environmental drivers. These relationships should be further investigated in the following years to

  16. Radiosensitization of Bacillus cereus spores in minced meat treated with cinnamaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, S.; Dussault, D.; Jerbi, T.; Hamdi, M.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    Minced meat beef inoculated with Bacillus cereus spores was treated with four essential oil constituents. The active compounds were sprayed separately onto the meat in order to determine the concentration needed to reduce by 1 log the population of B. cereus spores. Cinnamaldehyde was the best antimicrobial compound selected. It was mixed with ascorbic acid and/or sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate and tested for its efficiency to increase the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of B. cereus spores in minced meat packed under air. Results demonstrated that the radiation treatment in presence of the cinnamaldehyde and sodium phosphate decahydrate increased the RRS of B. cereus spores by two fold. The study revealed also that the irradiation of raw beef meat pre-treated with cinnamaldehyde produced an inhibition of the growth of B. cereus count during refrigerated storage. This technology seems to be compatible with industrial meat processing.

  17. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Temporal genetic variation as revealed by a microsatellite analysis of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) archived samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ) that explain the genetic diversity variation, while the same parameters turned out to be more stable in the southern samples. In addition, we detected the presence of a genetic bottleneck and low effective population size ( Ne) values in several northern samples. Even if the northern and southern Adriatic...... of otoliths and scales from sampling locations of northern (Chioggia) and southern (Vieste) Adriatic Sea, with the aim to investigate the genetic effects of these stock biomass fluctuations. The northern samples showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity ( HO) and mean number of alleles ( Na...... sardine samples belong to the same genetic stock, the more pronounced decrease in genetic variability recorded in the northern sample led us to speculate that a more intensive fishing pressure and a more pronounced oceanographic isolation of this area could have accentuated the effects of the genetic...

  19. Effect of transglutaminase on quality and gel properties of pork and fish mince mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingzheng; Gui, Ping; Huang, Zhan; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-06-05

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is widely applied in the meat industry, and mixing of meat from various sources is an efficient way to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, sensory scores, color, gel properties, water holding capacity and microstructure of mince mixtures, treated with 0.4% TGase, were determined to investigate the effect of TGase and mixing ratios (pork/fish, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) on quality and gel properties of mince mixtures composed of pork and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Results indicated that the mixture improved the sensory quality and gel properties of meat products compared to control group. The addition of TGase significantly (p gel strength, especially at 7:3 ratio of pork and silver carp, in which gel strength reached its maximum and was 10.26%, 64.15% greater than pork with TGase and without TGase respectively, and water holding capacity were greater, and microstructure became more compact. The results suggest the synergetic interaction between proteins of pork and silver carp. TGase increased the interaction, especially for mixing proportion of 7:3 (pork/fish). Those results could be useful for the development of mixed and new meat products in the food industry. Pork and silver carp are two main meat in diet, and mince mixtures can improve the nutrition of meat product. TGase is usually used to enhance the texture and gel properties of meat in industry. The addition of TGase in pork/fish mince mixtures can not only improve the texture, but catalyze the synergetic interaction between proteins from different meat and further enhance gel properties of mice mixtures in a certain ratio. All of that will provide reference for meat processing and development of new meat product. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus leaf extract in minced pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen Thi Kim; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Teerarak, Montinee; Pilasombut, Komkhae

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus) leaf extract in minced pork. The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v) ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined. In addition, antioxidant activities of the addition of crude extract from P. aciuds leaves at 2.5 and 5 g/kg in minced pork on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation decolorization, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) were determined. Moreover, sensory evaluation of the samples was undertaken by using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results showed that the highest crude yield (2.8 g/100 g dry weight) was obtained from water which also had the highest recovery yield for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the strongest antioxidant activity. The addition of crude water extract from P. acidus leaves was more effective in retarding lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant activity than control and butylated hydroxytoluene in minced pork. In particular, the samples containing P. acidus extract had no significant effect on the sensory scores of overall appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability compared to the control. Water solvent was an optimally appropriate solvent for P. acidus leaf extraction because of its ability to yield the highest amount of bio-active compounds and in vitro antioxidant property. Particularly, P. acidus crude water extract also strongly expressed the capacity to retard lipid oxidation, radical scavenging, radical cation decolorization and reducing power in

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated into Surimi and Minced Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Listeria monocytogenes has already established as an important food born pathogen which induce listeriosis in human. Use of bacteriocins to provide food safety has been increased dramatically. Nisin has a wide spectrum inhibitory effect than the other bacteriocins and inhibits food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive spoilage microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Nisin on population of Listeria monocytogenes and the role of changes in food components on the antilisterial properties of Nisin. Materials & Methods: The minced meat and surimi samples were inoculated by 1×104 cfu/g of L. monocytogenes. Then samples exposed to Nisin at the levels of 500 or 1000 IU/g were prepared. All treatments after packaging in plastic bags were kept for 12 days at refrigerator temperature. Samples were cultured on CHROMagarTM Listeria every 2 days and the number of listeria monocytogenes was counted. Results: two different concentrations of Nisin (500 or 1000 IU/g was not able to inhibit L. monocytogenes below the acceptable level for raw food (100 cells per g in minced meat and surimi of silver carp. But the number of bacteria reduces more in fish surimi as compared to the mince meal. Also, antilisterial activity of Nisin was reduced during the storage period. Conclusion: Inhibitory property of Nisin against L. monocytogenes in surimi significantly was higher than the minced (P<0.05. So it is possible the antilisterial properties of Nisin will increase by elimination of some enzymes during processing.

  2. Effet magnéto-optique et optique des couches minces à base de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a pour but la mesure des effets magnéto-optiques (rotation Faraday) en fonction du champ magnétique appliqué et en fonction de la longueur d'onde, ainsi que la mesure de la transmittance (effet optique) des couches minces à base de ferrite de cobalt. Les résultats montrent une forte rotation Faraday ...

  3. 21 Effet magnéto-optique et optique des couches minces à base de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    albatha

    Résumé. Cette étude a pour but la mesure des effets magnéto-optiques (rotation Faraday) en fonction du champ magnétique appliqué et en fonction de la longueur d'onde, ainsi que la mesure de la transmittance. (effet optique) des couches minces à base de ferrite de cobalt. Les résultats montrent une forte rotation.

  4. The use of pelagic fish as proxies of environmental contamination: a case study with sardine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioindicators to analyze marine ecosystems contamination is often made difficult due to the absence of appropriate species. Pelagic fish species, captured by commercial fishing fleets around the world, can be successfully used to assess contaminant levels, by determining their body burden in specific compounds. However the study of biological responses elicited by such compounds, through the analysis of biomarkers, is highly dependent on the physiological and reproductive status of the organisms. Such confounding factors elicit seasonal fluctuations that difficult the extrapolation of data. Sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, being easily available through commercial fisheries. The present work intended to explore the potential of this species in biomonitoring studies, by simultaneously using enzymatic biomarkers and condition indices determined in fish landed in three commercial harbors along the west coast of Portugal. This strategy allowed devising spatial and temporal patterns in the sardine metapopulation. Results evidenced significant variability in both biochemical and physiological profiles of the fish, which were coherent among all sampling sites. Throughout the year, large seasonal differences for most markers were reported, which were strongly linked to the reproductive cycle and its physiological consequences (acquisition of energy, mobilization of energy reserves, etc.. It was possible to conclude that seasonality acts as a strong factor underlying chronological physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are usually employed as indicators of contamination. These effects can limit the usefulness of such a biomarker approach unless seasonality is not accounted for, and if no background values are known from previous studies. In this sense, studies such as this are pivotal to establish a baseline for biomonitoring studies. Also, despite the difficulty in

  5. Inhibitory Activity of Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil Against Fungal Species Isolated From Minced Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Meat is an important source of several nutrients. The capability top of fresh meat to rot, causing the group of studies food science, biological and chemical stability meat consideration. Objectives This study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil against fungal species isolated from minced meat. Materials and Methods Two types of media dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18 agar and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC agar were selected for the mycological analysis of the minced meat samples. To evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils, the microdilution broth method based on the CLSI (M27A guideline was used. Results Artemisias spicigera essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi found in samples of minced meat. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most common genera on both medium types. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 50 = 1.88 µL/mL and MIC90 = 2 µL/mL were reported. The genus of Mucor with MIC = 1.0 µL/mL was the most sensitive and Aspergilus versicolor was the most resistant species to the essential oil with MIC = 4 µL/mL. Conclusions The results of the present study show a favorable inhibitory effect of Artemisias spicigera essential oil on fungal growth, especially Aspergillus species. According to the results, antifungal components of Artemisias spicigera in different forms are used to prevent fungal pollution.

  6. The microbiological condition of minced pork prepared at retail stores in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Mavrou, Elpida; Stamatiou, Anastasios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2012-08-01

    Minced pork samples (n = 150) obtained from butchers' shops and supermarkets in Greece, during summer (n = 75) and winter (n = 75), were subjected to microbiological analysis. Microbial counts (log CFU/g) for the parameters tested were: total viable count (TVC), 6.8 ± 1.0; Pseudomonas spp., 6.4 ± 1.2; Brochothrix thermosphacta, 5.9 ± 1.1; lactic acid bacteria, 5.3 ± 1.0; yeasts and moulds, 4.6 ± 0.7; hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)-producing bacteria, 4.3 ± 1.3; Enterobacteriaceae, 3.6 ± 1.2; total coliforms, 2.9 ± 1.1; Escherichia coli, 1.4 ± 0.7; Staphylococcus spp., 4.3 ± 1.0; S. aureus, 2.4 ± 0.9, and Listeria spp., 1.4 ± 0.6. The highest correlations were between TVC and pseudomonads, B. thermosphacta and H(2)S-producing bacteria, while the lowest were between total coliforms and all other groups of microorganisms except Enterobacteriaceae. The type of retail outlet and the seasonality of sampling did not have any significant effects (p>0.05) on minced pork meat quality. Interrelationships between (i) meat quality and shelf life, (ii) hygienic conditions during mince preparation and (iii) personnel hygiene were revealed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of ftsZ mutations that render Bacillus subtilis resistant to MinC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Filipa Fernandes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins prevents formation of the FtsZ ring at cell poles or recently completed division sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a genetic screen to identify mutations in ftsZ that confer resistance to the lethal overexpression of the MinC/MinD division inhibitor. The FtsZ mutants were purified and found to polymerize to a similar or lesser extent as wild type FtsZ, and all mutants displayed reduced GTP hydrolysis activity indicative of a reduced polymerization turnover. We found that even though the mutations conferred in vivo resistance to MinC/D, the purified FtsZ mutants did not display strong resistance to MinC in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that in B. subtilis, overproduction of MinC can be countered by mutations that alter FtsZ polymerization dynamics. Even though it would be very likely that the FtsZ mutants found depend on other Z-ring stabilizing proteins such as ZapA, FtsA or SepF, we found this not to be the case. This indicates that the cell division process in B. subtilis is extremely robust.

  8. Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Matthew R; Park, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salmon plasma (SP) from Chinook salmon on proteolytic inhibition was investigated. SP was found to inhibit both cysteine and serine proteases as well as protease extracted from Pacific whiting muscle. SP was found to contain a 55kDa cysteine protease inhibitor through SDS-PAGE inhibitor staining. Freeze dried salmon plasma (FSP) and salmon plasma concentrated by ultrafiltration (CSP) were tested for their ability to inhibit autolysis in Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Pacific whiting surimi autolysis was inhibited by an average of 89% regardless of concentration while inhibition of salmon mince autolysis increased with concentration (psalmon mince autolysis (p<0.05). Serine protease inhibition decreased when SP heated above 40°C but was stable across a broad NaCl and pH range. Cysteine protease inhibitors exhibited good temperature, NaCl, and pH stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Unauthorized Tissues in Trade Frozen Minced Meat Marketed in Yazd with Histological Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Izadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays the consumption of meat and animal carcasses in most countries is increasing. Regarding to economic values ​​of meat, usage of unauthorized tissues in minced meat by jobbers is probable. Therefore; the present study was performed in order to detect unauthorized tissues in minced meat. Methods: In this study, a total of 20 samples of trade frozen minced meat was purchased from various stores in Yazd city.Then each sample was divided into three parts and then one piece was taken from each part. The tissues were fixed in 10 % neutral-buffered formalin and were routinely processed for light microscopy and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin-embedded blocks were cut into 6 µm sections and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E for histological study. Results: The skeletal muscle tissues were visible clearly in all samples. Although, connective tissue, adipose tissue and smooth muscle were seen but unauthorized tissues were not detected in any sample. Just in one sample, the residuals of the skin tissue was showed and in another sample , possessed bone tissue and in half of the samples the residuals of visceral organs were seen. In addition, some sections of the ligament were found. Conclusion: The present study showed that the meat which has been used in preparation of this product had not premium quality. Due to importance of health and quality of meat, detection of unauthorized tissues in this product with histological technique is suggested

  10. Minimising protein oxidation in retail-packed minced beef using three-gas MA-packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Baussa Cano, Laura; Baron, Caroline P.

    Minced beef is usually packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with a gas mixture consisting of 70-80% oxygen (O2) and 20-30% carbon dioxide (CO2). Unfortunately, this results in rubbery and less juicy beef patties with a more rancid flavour compared with fresh or nonoxygen pack....... However, this was not sensorially detectable in the first five days of storage. To maintain shelf life, packaging in 50% O2 + 40% CO2 + 10% N2 or 80% O2 + 20% CO2 is preferable, although this gas mixture will not prevent lipid or protein oxidation in the meat.......Minced beef is usually packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with a gas mixture consisting of 70-80% oxygen (O2) and 20-30% carbon dioxide (CO2). Unfortunately, this results in rubbery and less juicy beef patties with a more rancid flavour compared with fresh or nonoxygen packed...... beef. To establish whether three-gas MAP (O2, CO2 and N2), instead of two-gas MAP (O2 and CO2), would affect sensory attributes, shelf life, protein and lipid oxidation, minced beef was packed in MAP with either 40%, 50% or 80% O2 and 20% or 40% CO2 with N2 as filler gas. When comparing traditional MA...

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Abed, Nariman; Kaabi, Belhassen; Smaali, Mohamed Issam; Chabbouh, Meriem; Habibi, Kamel; Mejri, Mondher; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Ben Hadj Ahmed, Sami

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated...

  12. Study of Bioavailability of Ca and Zn in the Flesh of Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linn) Fruits. MI Barde, LG Hassan, UZ Faruq, SA Maigandi, KJ Umar. Abstract. The analyses of antinutritional and mineral composition of the flesh of yellow fruits variety of Terminal catappa using standard methods were conducted. The results ...

  13. Study of Bioavailability of Ca and Zn in the Flesh of Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, ... ABSTRACT: The analyses of antinutritional and mineral composition of the flesh of yellow fruits variety of .... and Fiber Content in Thai Fruits commonly.

  14. Linkages between coastal and open-ocean habitats and dynamics of Japanese stocks of chum salmon and Japanese sardine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, Akihiko; Kaeriyama, Masahide

    2005-03-01

    Coastal-ocean-open-ocean migrations, prey-predator relations and long-term population dynamics of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) and Japanese sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), associated with large-scale climate and oceanographic conditions, are reviewed. After early marine life in coastal waters in northern Japan, chum salmon of Japanese origin spend their first summer in the Okhotsk Sea, then move to the Western Subarctic Gyre for the first winter at sea. Thereafter, they migrate between summer feeding grounds in the Bering Sea and wintering grounds in the Alaskan Gyre for a period of usually up to four years, and finally return to their natal rivers to spawn. Carrying capacity ( K) for chum salmon at an unfished equilibrium level was estimated from a Ricker spawner-recruitment curve, and the residual carrying capacity ( RCC=(K-abundance)K-1). was positively correlated with body size at age 4, and negatively correlated with age at maturity. Marine survival of Hokkaido chum populations was affected by body size at release, but neither by Aleutian low pressure activity nor sea-surface temperature (SST) around coastal Hokkaido in spring, although there is some correlation between survival rate and coastal SST. Juveniles of the Pacific stock of Japanese sardine become broadly distributed in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) as far east as 180° longitude during spring. Adults disperse as far as the central Pacific and the southern areas of the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic Gyre in years of high abundance. Somatic growth and age at maturation of sardine are density-dependent. We used catch, biomass and residuals of observed recruitment numbers from a Ricker curve (LNRR) as a measure of sardine population dynamics. LNRR was highly correlated with SST of KE in winter, which shifted in 1970 and 1988. Recent biomass and catch remain at extremely low levels due to a combination of adverse environmental conditions and intensive fishing. We suggest that Japanese

  15. Population structure of three species of Anisakis nematodes recovered from Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) distributed throughout the California Current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Rebecca E; Rew, Mary Beth; Johansson, Mattias L; Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-08-01

    Members of the Anisakidae are known to infect over 200 pelagic fish species and have been frequently used as biological tags to identify fish populations. Despite information on the global distribution of Anisakis species, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this genus, which could be useful in assessing the stock structure of their fish hosts. From 2005 through 2008, 148 larval anisakids were recovered from Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current upwelling zone and were genetically sequenced. Sardines were captured off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the north to San Diego, California in the south. Three species, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex 'C', and Anisakis simplex s.s., were identified with the use of sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8s subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The degree of nematode population structure was assessed with the use of the cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2) mitochondrial DNA gene. All 3 Anisakis species were distributed throughout the study region from 32°N to 50°N latitude. There was no association between sardine length and either nematode infection intensity or Anisakis species recovered. Larval Anisakis species and mitochondrial haplotype distributions from both parsimony networks and analyses of molecular variance revealed a panmictic distribution of these parasites, which infect sardines throughout the California Current ecosystem. Panmictic distribution of the larval Anisakis spp. populations may be a result of the presumed migratory pathways of the intermediate host (the Pacific sardine), moving into the northern portion of the California Current in summer and returning to the southern portion to overwinter and spawn in spring. However, the wider geographic range of paratenic (large piscine predators), and final hosts (cetaceans) can also explain the observed distribution pattern. As a result, the recovery of 3

  16. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  17. Apple SEPALLATA1/2-like genes control fruit flesh development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Sutherland, Paul W; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Winz, Robert A; David, Karine M; Schaffer, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    Flowering plants utilize different floral structures to develop flesh tissue in fruits. Here we show that suppression of the homeologous SEPALLATA1/2-like genes MADS8 and MADS9 in the fleshy fruit apple (Malus x domestica) leads to sepaloid petals and greatly reduced fruit flesh. Immunolabelling of cell-wall epitopes and differential staining showed that the developing hypanthium (from which the apple flesh develops) of MADS8/9-suppressed apple flowers lacks a tissue layer, and the remaining flesh tissue of fully developed apples has considerably smaller cells. From these observations, it is proposed that MADS8 and MADS9 control the development of discrete zones within the hypanthium tissue, and therefore fruit flesh, and also act as foundations for development of different floral organs. At fruit maturity, the MADS8/9-suppressed apples do not ripen in terms of both developmentally controlled ripening characters, such as starch degradation, and ethylene-modulated ripening traits. Transient assays suggest that, like the RIN gene in tomato, the MADS9 gene acts as a transcriptional activator of the ethylene biosynthesis enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase 1. The existence of a single class of genes that regulate both flesh formation and ripening provides an evolutionary tool for controlling two critical aspects of fleshy fruit development. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  19. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  20. Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda S; Sampaio, Geni R; Keller, Laura M; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; Chávez, Davy W H; Torres, Elizabeth A F S; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2017-12-01

    The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P herbs as natural antioxidants proved to be effective reducing such levels of COPs in most samples. The addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation. Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Separation of sardine oil without heating from surimi waste and its effect on lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kotoe; Noguchi, Ryoko; Hosokawa, Masashi; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Takahashi, Riki; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2004-04-21

    Sardine oil was obtained by centrifugation of surimi wastewater without heating or chemical refining. This oil (CE) showed light yellow color and the peroxide value was less than 1.0 meq/kg. The main lipid class of CE was triacylglycerol (TG) (>99%). These features indicate that CE can be directly used as food materials without further purification. Commercial sardine oil (CO) is usually prepared via some kind of refining process with high temperature (250 degrees C) and chemical treatment. The comparative study on the physiological effects of these sardine oils (CE and CO) revealed that the dietary sardine oils were more effective in reducing abdominal fat pads, plasma total cholesterol, and TG levels of rats than was a soybean oil diet (control). Furthermore, these effects were greater in CE than CO, although there was little difference in the fatty acid composition of both oils. Although the main lipid class of CE was TG (>99%), CE was prepared by centrifugation from surimi waste and directly used as dietary fat without further purification. Therefore, CE may contain some kinds of minor components, which could be attributed to the higher physiological activity of CE. To reveal the involvement of the minor compounds in CE, we prepared TG from CE by column chromatography and measured its effect on lipid metabolism of rats. TG from CE also showed the reducing effects on abdominal fad pads and plasma lipid levels. The effect of TG from CE was almost the same as that of original CE, suggesting that the higher nutritional activity of CE than CO may not be due to the minor compounds in CE.

  2. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  3. Pacific Sardine Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    tunas, billfish, and sharks. Groundfish include flatfish, rockfish and midwater fishes such as Pacific hake, Pacific cod , sablefish, grenadiers and...a comeback. In 1986, California lifted a moratorium it had placed on sardines earlier. In 1990 California’s catch quota was less than 1000 mt; in...1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 YEAR Figure 2 - US catches of Highly Migratory Species 28 160 140 —Pacific Cod

  4. Multifarious anchovy and sardine regimes in the Humboldt Current System during the last 150 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatteci, Renato; Field, David; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Baumgartner, Tim; Ferreira, Vicente; Ortlieb, Luc; Sifeddine, Abdel; Grados, Daniel; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2017-11-20

    The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, although it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20th century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean climate variability. Our records reveal two main anchovy and sardine phases with a timescale that is not consistent with previously proposed periodicities. Rather, the regime shifts in the HCS are related to 3D habitat changes driven by changes in upwelling intensity from both regional and large-scale forcing. Moreover, we show that a long-term increase in coastal upwelling translates via a bottom-up mechanism to top predators suggesting that the warming climate, at least up to the start of the 21st century, was favorable for fishery productivity in the HCS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  6. Spatial variability of Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) abundance as related to the upwelling cycle off the southeastern Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan José; Achury, Alina; Astor, Yrene

    2017-01-01

    The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995–1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons. Relationships between these observations were analyzed using Generalized Additive Models. Results show that during the primary upwelling season (January-May) sardines were widely distributed in upwelling plumes that extended up to 70 km offshore. In the other hand, during the weak upwelling season (September-October) higher sardine densities were found within 10 Km off the coastal upwelling foci. The number of small pelagic schools was directly correlated with small pelagic densities; however, regardless of the season, higher numbers of small pelagic schools were always closer to the shoreline, especially during warm conditions. These two behaviors increase the availability and catchability of sardines for the artisanal fishery during the warm season, regardless of the total stock size. Using this evidence, we pose the hypothesis that the collapse of the regional S. aurita fishery in 2005 was due to a combination of stressful habitat conditions sustained since 2004. These included bottom-up factors due to food scarcity caused by weak upwelling, combined with top-down stress due to overfishing, as sardines accumulated in narrow diminished upwelling plumes located close to the coast. The increased catchability within easily accessible upwelling foci led to the demise of this biological resource, which as of 2014 had not yet recovered. Environmental conditions affecting the sardine habitat needs to be taken into account for the

  7. Carotenoid content and flesh color of selected banana cultivars growing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Wills, Ron B H; Blades, Barbara; Dufficy, Lisa; Daniells, Jeff W; Coyne, Terry

    2006-12-01

    The problems of vitamin A deficiency and chronic diseases have emerged in recent years in some countries in the Micronesian region. These problems are associated with the dietary shift towards imported processed foods and lifestyle changes. Research in the Federated States of Micronesia indicates that yellow- and orange-fleshed banana cultivars contain significant levels of provitamin A carotenoids. To identify further banana cultivars that may be promoted to alleviate vitamin A deficiency among children and women and chronic disease problems among adults. Ripe fruit of banana cultivars growing in Australia (sourced mostly from a field research collection) were assessed for carotenoid content and flesh color. Ten cultivars with yellow or yellow/orange flesh color (including common cultivars of Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands) were selected and compared with two cream-fleshed cultivars, including Williams, of the Cavendish group, the most commonly marketed banana worldwide. Carotenoid content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Flesh color was analyzed by HunterLab colorimetry. The yellow/orange-fleshed Asupina (a Fe'i banana) contained the highest level (1,412 microg/100 g) of trans beta-carotene, the most important provitamin A carotenoid, a level more than 20 times higher than that of Williams. All 10 yellow or yellow/orange-fleshed cultivars (Asupina, Kirkirnan, Pisang Raja, Horn Plantain, Pacific Plantain, Kluai Khai Bonng, Wain, Red Dacca, Lakatan, and Sucrier) had significant carotenoid levels, potentially meeting half or all of the estimated vitamin A requirements for a nonpregnant, nonlactating adult woman within normal consumption patterns. All were acceptable for taste and other attributes. The cream-fleshed cultivars had minimal carotenoid levels. There was a positive significant correlation between carotenoid content and deeper yellow/orange coloration indicators. These yellow- or yellow/orange-fleshed carotenoid

  8. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  9. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  10. Propriétés structurales, optiques et électriques des couches minces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    Des couches minces de TiO2 dopé au cuivre ont été préparées par la méthode Sol-Gel et déposées selon le procédé dip-coating sur des substrats en verre. Les propriétés structurales, optiques et électriques des échantillons monocouches dopés 0, 3 et 7 % at. cuivre ont été analysées par diffraction des rayons X (DRX),.

  11. Volatiles produced by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus during growth in sausage minces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1999-01-01

    Aseptic model minces inoculated with commercial samples of either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus were prepared in accordance with an experimental design investigating the effect of seven parameters: fermentation temperature, pH, salt, nitrate, glucose, ascorbate, and the access...... of air. Volatiles produced by the cultures were collected during growth, identified and quantified. The data were analysed by partial least squares regression. The results showed that oxygen in general had more influence on the aroma producing capacity of Staphylococcus xylosus than of Staphylococcus...

  12. Potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of leaf extract in minced pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Thi Kim Nguyen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus leaf extract in minced pork. Methods The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined. In addition, antioxidant activities of the addition of crude extract from P. aciuds leaves at 2.5 and 5 g/kg in minced pork on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS radical cation decolorization, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS were determined. Moreover, sensory evaluation of the samples was undertaken by using a 7-point hedonic scale. Results The results showed that the highest crude yield (2.8 g/100 g dry weight was obtained from water which also had the highest recovery yield for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the strongest antioxidant activity. The addition of crude water extract from P. acidus leaves was more effective in retarding lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant activity than control and butylated hydroxytoluene in minced pork. In particular, the samples containing P. acidus extract had no significant effect on the sensory scores of overall appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability compared to the control. Conclusion Water solvent was an optimally appropriate solvent for P. acidus leaf extraction because of its ability to yield the highest amount of bio-active compounds and in vitro antioxidant property. Particularly, P. acidus crude water extract also strongly expressed the capacity to retard lipid oxidation, radical scavenging

  13. The Switch I and II Regions of MinD Are Required for Binding and Activating MinC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huaijin; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2004-01-01

    MinD and MinC cooperate to form an efficient inhibitor of Z-ring formation that is spatially regulated by MinE. MinD activates MinC by recruiting it to the membrane and targeting it to a septal component. To better understand this activation, we have isolated loss-of-function mutations in minD and carried out site-directed mutagenesis. Many of these mutations block MinC-MinD interaction; however, they also prevent MinD self-interaction and membrane binding, suggesting that they affect nucleot...

  14. Proteolysis of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus and Anchovy (Stolephorus commersonii by Commercial Enzymes in Saline Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Minh Le

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish sauce production is a very long process and there is a great interest in shortening it. Among the different strategies to speed up this process, the addition of external proteases could be a solution. This study focuses on the eff ect of two commercial enzymes (Protamex and Protex 51FP on the proteolysis of two fish species traditionally converted into fish sauce: sardine and anchovy, by comparison with classical autolysis. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted with fresh fish at a temperature of 30 °C and under different saline conditions (from 0 to 30 % NaCl. Hydrolysis degree and liquefaction of the raw material were used to follow the process. As expected, the proteolysis decreased with increasing amount of salt. Regarding the fi sh species, higher rate of liquefaction and higher hydrolysis degree were obtained with anchovy. Between the two proteases, Protex 51FP gave better results with both fi sh types. This study demonstrates that the addition of commercial proteases could be helpful for the liquefaction of fi sh and cleavage of peptide bonds that occur during fi sh sauce production and thus speed up the production process.

  15. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, John G

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd<0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb<0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND <0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

    2004-06-01

    Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (Pbeans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the rojo beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (Pbeans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (Pbeans.

  17. Low accumulation of chlorogenic acids represses reddening during flesh browning in Japanese peach "Okayama PEH7".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Naoki; Uraji, Misugi; Hara, Miyuki; Hihara, Seisuke; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Oda, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In peaches, fruit flesh browns unattractively after peeling or cutting. A recently developed cultivar, Okayama PEH7, was distinct from other Japanese cultivars, including Okayama PEH8, with respect to its reduced browning potential. Homogenate prepared from Okayama PEH7 flesh had significantly less reddening during the browning reaction. Okayama PEH7 had less soluble phenolic compounds and higher polyphenol oxidase activity than Okayama PEH8. Reduced browning was observed even when phenols prepared from Okayama PEH7 were incubated with crude extract from Okayama PEH8, suggesting that phenols lower the browning potential of Okayama PEH7. In Okayama PEH7, contents of chlorogenic acid and its isomers were about one-tenth compared to Okayama PEH8. Exogenous addition of chlorogenic acid to Okayama PEH7 homogenate increased the browning potential and visibly enhanced reddening. These results indicate that the reduced browning of Okayama PEH7 flesh is due to a defect in chlorogenic acid accumulation.

  18. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  19. Largely different contents of terpenoids in beef red-flesh tangerine and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyun; Liu, Cuihua; He, Min; Li, Jinqiang; Cai, Yongqiang; Ma, Yuhua; Xu, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1.27-fold that in ZHJ. The components of volatiles were found to be common between the two tangerines. This result indicates that the distinctive flavor of NRH might not be derived from the presence/absence of specific volatiles; instead, it was derived from the altered concentrations or balance of α-citral, β-citral, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (S)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl) and n-hexadecanoic acid. Analyses of the contents of total and specific carotenoids indicated that the beef-red color of NRH flesh might be largely attributed to the over accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. However, lower ABA level was found in NRH than in ZHJ, reflecting a possible feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis on carotenogenesis and the balance in the metabolism among terpenoids. Collectively, our study suggested that the MEP pathway was enhanced in NRH tangerine. However, a certain unknown co-regulatory mechanism might be present in the metabolism pathway of secondary metabolites (especially terpenoids) in beef-red flesh mutant. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of terpenoid metabolism and mutation mechanism of red-fleshed citrus.

  20. Application of nanocompostie chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose films containing natural preservative compounds in minced camel's meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezrian, Ali; Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, novel films based on nanomontmorillonite-chitosan (MMT-Ch) and nanomontmorillonite-carboxymethyl cellulose (MMT-CMC) incorporated with different concentrations of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0.5, 1 and 2%) alone and in combination with Ficus carica extract (FCH; 1%) were investigated as active packaging materials for minced camel's meat to increase the shelf life (microbial, chemical and sensory properties) and inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage at refrigerated condition. Final microbial populations of meat samples packed in CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% were decreased approximately 1-4 log CFU/g compared to control (P<0.05). Packed meats with nanocomposite films tended to retard the increases in total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, peroxide value (PV), protein carbonyl content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Sensory attributes (odor, color and overall acceptability) were significantly enhanced in treated meat samples (P<0.05). The results indicated that CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% films could be considered as promising packaging materials for minced camel's meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  2. Food safety considerations in relation to Anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) fished off the Ligurian Coast (Cinque Terre National Park, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Prearo, Marino; Tomei, Laura; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo

    2014-11-03

    Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and abundance of Anisakis larvae in Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus from the Monterosso fishing grounds (Cinque Terre National Park, Ligurian Sea, Italy) were assessed, and the larvae were identified by morphological and PCR-RFLP methods. Anisakis larvae, all belonging to Anisakis pegreffii spp. were found in the visceral mass of 1050 anchovies (0.8% overall prevalence), whereas no Anisakis larvae were found in the 750 sardines examined. According to these data, the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from the consumption of raw or undercooked anchovies and sardines caught in the fishing area we investigated is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Iconography of the Flesh: How Corpses Mean As Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Shwartz

    2013-09-01

    the processes of decomposition, with the interventions of photography and embalming, with the cultural practices of disposal that ritually encounter and resolve this “remaining.” The corpse diversely and dynamically organizes the cultural, the representational, the biological, the subjective and the objective, the ritual and the metaphysical. I argue that lingering with the corpse as a dynamic assemblage allows for the development of a nuanced and materialistic notion of agency. I further suggest that this kind of reading provocatively develops Bill Brown’s question, “What might scholars accomplish through a materialist analysis of media?” Corpses are unique objects in that they already suggest themselves as figures of the material, thus literally embodying the question of what a materialist media studies might look like. Corpses communicate something to us about the flesh; they are the not-so-passive objects of technological, ritual and representational practices; they are the perfect starting point for a materialist communication and media studies.

  4. Development of a low-cost NIR instrument for minced meat analysis: Part 1 - Spectrophotometer and sample presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using a compact, low-cost NIR spectrophotometer to predict moisture (MC) and total fat content of minced pork was demonstrated. Results were compared with those obtained using two research type instruments with high signal to noise ratio (S/N). The NIR measuring head of the compac...

  5. Effect of hydrocolloids and pretreatments on the keeping quality of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponte, da D.J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of additions of hydrocolloids and pretreatments (precooking and irradiation) on the stability of minced fillets of whiting and cod during frozen storage (-18°C).

    Some hydrocolloids (Xanthan gum, alginates, carboxymethyl celluloses and Iota and Lambda

  6. Forecasts of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) off Chile under the A2 IPCC climate change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Barbieri, María Angela; Bernal, Claudio; Aranis, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effects of climate change on both oceanographic conditions and the relative abundance and distribution of fisheries resources. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) fisheries using predictions of changes from global models (according to the NCAR model and IPCC emissions scenario A2), bioclimate envelope models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. The results show an SST trend of 0.0196 °C per year in the study area, equivalent to 0.98 °C for the simulation horizon and for a high CO2 emission scenario (A2). The bioclimate envelope models were developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly environmental and fisheries data. These data included the local relative abundance index of fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), corresponding to the total catch (kg) by 1000 hooks in a 1° latitude × 1° longitude fishing grid for swordfish and to the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (100 m3) in a 10‧ latitude × 10‧ longitude grid for common sardine. The environmental data included temporal (month), spatial (latitude) and thermal conditions (SST). In the first step of the bioclimate modelling performed in this study, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used as an exploratory tool to identify the functional relationships between the environmental variables and CPUE. These relationships were then parameterised using general linear models (GLMs) to provide a robust forecasting tool. With this modelling approach, environmental variables explained 58.7% of the variation in the CPUE of swordfish and 60.6% of the variation in the CPUE of common sardine in the final GLMs. Using IDRISI GIS, these GLMs simulated monthly changes in the

  7. Pascale Sardin. Samuel Beckett et la passion maternelle ou l’hystérie à l’œuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe MURAT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La parution d’un ouvrage critique sur Samuel Beckett tombe évidemment à point nommé, puisque certaines des grandes pièces de ce dramaturge figurent au programme de deux concours de recrutement (session 2010 : Endgame pour l’agrégation externe d’Anglais, En attendant Godot et Oh les beaux jours pour l’agrégation externe de Lettres modernes. Il serait pourtant erroné de voir dans le livre de Pascale Sardin une publication « opportuniste » à destination des seuls candidats des concours. La pers...

  8. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    (Sardinus pilchardus) to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. Sardine early life history stages (ELHS) were collected during two cruises to provide observational estimates of age-size relationship and of their passive pelagic larval duration (PPLD). We combine these PPLDs...... with observations of surface ocean currents to test two hypotheses: 1) ELHS are transported from remote spawning areas (SAs) by ocean cur- rents to the Gulf of Manfredonia; 2) sardines spawn locally and ELHS are retained by eddies. A historical surface drifter database is used to test hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2...

  9. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  10. Effect of added purple-fleshed sweet potato and cassava flour on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to find alternatives to wheat flour for bakery applications has become pressing, especially in countries where wheat is not grown. This study was undertaken to assess the quality of biscuits produced from a composite flour of purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP), high quality cassava flour (HQCF) and wheat flour ...

  11. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  12. The potential of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Fekadu; Hussein, Shimelis; Laing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is among major health problems worldwide that leads to blindness, retarded growth and death, particularly in developing countries. In these countries, vitamin A deficiency largely affects pre-school children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the rural poor. For instance, the predicted prevalence of vitamin A deficiency for 36 sub-Saharan African countries is 19.1%. Different strategies, including vitamin A supplementation, food fortification and dietary diversification, have been used to combat this problem. However, these strategies are not sustainable due to their high costs. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) is a low priced crop, which is part of staple foods in most of sub-Saharan Africa that can be a year-round source of vitamin A. Most of the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties contain 3000-16000 μg 100 g(-1) of β-carotene and this contributes to 250 to 1300 μg 100 g(-1) Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). Therefore, by using orange-fleshed sweet potato, it is possible to improve vitamin A status, increase the bio-availability of different micro-nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg, reduce vitamin A deficiency and hence reduce child mortality rates by 23 to 30%. The article highlights the significance of vitamin A for human nutrition, the effect of vitamin A deficiency, the different prevention methods and the potential of orange- fleshed sweet potato as a food crop to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

  13. Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of flesh and serum concentrations of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in African cat fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) reared in plastic ponds in Benin City, Nigeria. ... of aluminum, antimony, manganese and zinc in the body and serum of Clarias gariepinus were above the WHO recommended limit for fish and fish products. Hence, it is ...

  14. The influence of anaerobic muscle activity, maturation and season on the flesh quality of farmed turbot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Imsland, A.; Stien, L.H.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Gunnarsson, S.; Foss, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to test seasonal, rearing, maturing and anaerobic muscle activity effect on the flesh quality of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) a total of 80 farmed turbot from three different strains from reared under natural or continuous light were killed by a percussive blow to the head in November

  15. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of…

  16. Continuous flow microwave-assisted processing and aseptic packaging of purple-fleshed sweetpotato purees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpable purees from purple-flesh sweetpotatoes (PFSP) were subjected to microwave heating using a 915 MHz continuous flow system, followed by aseptic packaging in flexible containers to obtain a shelf-stable product. Initial test runs were conducted using a 5 kW microwave unit to measure dielectr...

  17. Microbial profiles of carcasses and minced meat from kangaroos processed in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holds, Geoff; Pointon, Andrew; Lorimer, Michelle; Kiermeier, Andreas; Raven, Geoff; Sumner, John

    2008-03-31

    The microbiological profiles of kangaroo carcasses and minced meat at game meat processing plants in South Australia were determined in surveys undertaken in 2002 and 2004. In 2002 mean values for log(10) total viable counts (TVC) on carcasses at individual plants ranged from 0.9 to 3.9 log(10) cfu/cm(2), with the mean for all plants being 2.3 log(10) cfu/cm(2). In 2004 the between plant range was narrower, by about 1 log unit, and the mean value for carcasses at all plants was 1.2 log(10) cfu/cm(2). Minced kangaroo meat, was sampled in 2002 only. The overall mean log(10) TVC was 3.9 log(10) cfu/g, with mean counts at individual plants ranging from 3.1 to 4.6 log(10) cfu/g. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 70%, with mean numbers of 2.1 log(10) cfu/g on positive samples. Salmonella was not detected in any of 60 samples from carcasses in 2002. However, in 2004 Salmonella was detected in 4/385 samples (1.04%, 95% CI: 0.28%-2.64%). In minced kangaroo meat, Salmonella was detected in 9/50 (18%, 95% CI: 9%-31%) samples. The abdominal cavity, sampled in 2004, was found to be highly contaminated, with E. coli isolated from 46% of samples and the mean number for positive samples being 2.7 log(10) cfu/cm(2); Salmonella was isolated from 14/120 (12%; 95% CI: 6.52%-18.80%) of abdominal cavities. The practice of collecting carcasses together and pushing grouped carcasses into the chiller likely leads to cross contamination of carcasses from the abdominal cavities of others. To align results of sampling by swabbing for domestic purposes with excision sampling, required for export purposes, both methods were used to sample opposite sides of each of the 50 carcasses sampled in 2004. The results obtained with the two methods of sampling were similar.

  18. Carotenoids, Phenolic Profile, Mineral Content and Antioxidant Properties in Flesh and Peel of Prunus persica Fruits during Two Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Maatallah, Samira; Castagna, Antonella; Guizani, Monia; Sghaeir, Wala; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids and phenolic profile, antioxidant activity as well as concentrations of selected macronutrients (K, N, Mg, Ca and Na) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu and Mn) in flesh and peel of peach fruit were recorded at two harvest dates. Predominant mineral was potassium, followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The concentration of most micronutrients was greater in the peel than in the flesh especially in early season. The concentration of most elements in flesh and peel decreased during fruit maturation. Total carotenoids content varied with respect to the cultivar. β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were the major carotenoids in both tissues and flesh contain the lowest amounts. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, were detected in both peel and flesh, with chlorogenic acid and catechin being the predominant components. Peel extracts showed markedly higher antioxidant activities, when estimated by ABTS or DPPH assays, than the flesh counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. Overall, total phenolics levels increased at full ripening stage in both peel and flesh. The results found herein provide important data on carotenoids, phenolic and macro- and micronutrient changes during fruit growth, and emphases peach fruit as a potential functional food.

  19. Rapid Purification of Salmonella DNA in Minced Meat and Detection by Real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenikova, G.; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Demnerova, K.

    2001-01-01

    of DNeasy was found to be 6-8 CFU in just 19 end-point fluorescence (C-t) values, while this was 22 C-t for a combination of DNeasy and BactXtractor. Extraction by DNeasy resulted in C-t cells per 25 g, when the samples were inoculated with Salmonella......Four rapid and simple DNA purification and sample treatment protocols were evaluated for detection of Salmonella enterica in spiked minced meat, using a fluorogenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR assay in an ABI-Prism 7700 Sequence Detector. The detection limit with the single separation treatment...... before the overnight preenrichment. The method is currently being adapted to a BioRobot 3000 platform. However, the use of paramagnetic beads (DNA Direct) resulted in poor and variable detection limit....

  20. Volatiles produced by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus during growth in sausage minces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1999-01-01

    Aseptic model minces were inoculated with commercial samples of either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus. Volatiles produced by the cultures were collected during growth by diffusive sampling onto adsorbent traps, identified by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...... degradation, suggesting that the effect of Staphylococcus starter cultures on flavour quality is much related to their ability of catabolizing amino acids. With the exception of diacetyl, acetoin and 2-methyl-1-butanol, both cultures formed the same volatiles. Diacetyl and acetoin were not produced...... by Staphylococcus carnosus and 2-methyl-1-butanol was not produced by Staphylococ cus xylosus. The ketones, acetone, 3- and 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and the two sulphides, dimethyldisulphide and dimethyltrisulphide, were produced in higher amounts by Staphylococcus xylosus, whereas methyl-branched, short...

  1. Combined antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil and caprylic acid in minced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulankova, Radka; Borilova, Gabriela; Steinhauserova, Iva

    2013-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) and caprylic acid (CA) are highly aromatic natural antimicrobials with limited individual application in food. We proved their combined additive effect when used in meat. Application of 0.5% CA and 0.2% OEO (v/w) with 0.1% of citric acid in vacuum packed minced beef inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes at a concentration of 5 log cells/g reduced counts of lactic acid bacteria by 1.5 log CFU/g and counts of psychrotrophic bacteria and L. monocytogenes by more than 2.5 log CFU/g at the end of storage at 3°C for 10 days. In sensory evaluation the samples with OEO showed during the whole experiment statistically better scores than control, whereas the samples treated with CA showed worse colour attributes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dans l’atelier de l’écrivain (autofictif. L’enterrement de la sardine de Patrice Lessard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Randall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available L’enterrement de la sardine, dernier roman de la trilogie lisboète de Patrice Lessard, nous introduit à la fois dans le labyrinthe de la vieille ville de Lisbonne et dans celui de la narration de deux romans en train de se faire. La distinction entre fiction et autobiographie proposée dans l’avant-propos s’effondre vite devant les multiples intrusions du « réel » dans la fiction et de la fiction dans le « réel ». De plus, la facture fragmentaire de l’ensemble pose un défi au lecteur qui se trouve en plein atelier de l’écrivain, devant un portrait de l’artiste inachevé, inachevable. L’enterrement de la sardine, the final volume of Patrick Lessard’s Lisbonne trilogy, plunges the reader into the labyrinth of Lisbonne’s old city as well as into the meanders of two novels in the making. The distinction between fiction and autobiography presented in the preface quickly dissolves in the face of the multiple intrusions of the “real” world into the fictional one and vice versa. The fragmentary nature of the entire text poses a challenge to the reader, who seems to have wandered into the writer’s workshop to confront an unfinished — perhaps unfinishable — self-portrait.

  3. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability.

  4. [Effects of an obesogenic diet enriched in sardine by-products on pro-atherogenic markers in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affane, F; Boukhari Benahmed Daidj, N; Louala, S; Munezero, A N; Lamri-Senhadji, M Y

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an obesogenic diet enriched in sardine by-products (Sardina pilchardus) on blood pressure, glycemic control and some cardiovascular risk factors, in particular pro-atherogenic were studied on an experimental model. Male rats (n=12) weighing 200±10g were subjected to an adjustment phase of 10 days in an obesogenic diet containing 30% sheep fat. After this period, the rats were divided into two homogeneous groups. The first group (HF-SBp) consumes the obesogenic diet supplemented with 30% of by-products flour (F-SBp), and the second (HF) continuous to consume the obesogenic diet and serve as control. At day 30, in HF-SBp versus HF group: a reduction was noted in diastolic (-11%) and systolic (-10%) pressure, glycemia (-19%), glycated hemoglobin percent (-43%), serum total lipids concentration (-22%), triacylglycerols (-37%), total cholesterol (-29%) and unesterified cholesterol (-30%), cholesteryl esters (-30%), cholesterol of very low density lipoprotein (-37%) and low density (-37%) was noted. Inversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LCAT activity were enhanced by 19% and 77%, respectively. However, the atherogenicity index and membrane fluidity were reduced (P<0.05). Sardine by-products probably by their bioactive compounds properties seem to have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic properties that could prevent and/or attenuate some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  6. Etude des couches minces de CuInSe2 pour une application photovoltaïque.

    OpenAIRE

    DEHMOUS, Idir

    2014-01-01

    Le CIS (CuInSe2) est l’un des matériaux semi-conducteur les plus prometteurs pour la production des piles solaires en couches minces, efficaces et moins coûteuse, des instituts de recherches ont annoncé leurs plans pour les chaines de production de celles-ci. Mais la technologie CIS requière encore davantage d’attention concernant l’industrialisation et la stabilité à long terme. Dans ce travail nous nous intéressons à l’étude des couches minces du composé ternaire CuInSe2, qui ont révélé ...

  7. Etude des propriétés magnéto-optiques des couches minces à base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des propriétés magnéto-optiques des couches minces à base de ferrite de cobalt obtenues par voie sol-gel. ... This requires only the use of magnetic fluids or ferro fluids, silica precursors (cheap) and a glass substrate. The goal is to obtain thin layers and study their magneto-optical properties. The curves obtained for ...

  8. Tacrolimus as an adjunct to autologous minced muscle grafts for the repair of a volumetric muscle loss injury

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin T Corona; Rivera, Jessica C.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Greising, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Volumetric muscle loss (VML) following extremity orthopaedic trauma or surgery results in chronic functional deficits and disability. A current translational approach to address the devastating functional limitations due to VML injury is the use of an autologous minced muscle graft (~1 mm3 pieces of muscle tissue) replacement into the injured defect area, although limitations related to donor site morbidity are still unaddressed. This study was designed to explore adjunct pharmacol...

  9. 96 Etude des propriétés magnéto-optiques des couches minces à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LT2C

    Keywords : agnetic nanoparticles, cobalt ferrite, sol-gel, thin films, Faradayrotation. ... Dans notre cas, c'est la méthode de « dip-coating » ou trempage-retrait qui est particulièrement bien adaptée à la réalisation de ... Figure 1 : Principe de la méthode « Dip-coating » : Figure 2 : Photographie d'une couche mince trempage- ...

  10. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples

    OpenAIRE

    CAN,Hayriye Yeşim; Elmal?, Mehmet; Karag?z, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located ...

  11. The effects of fatty acid composition on lipid oxidation, protein oxidation and color stability in minced pork

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Miao

    2017-01-01

    The literature review covers different aspects of lipid oxidation and protein oxidation in meat.The mechanism of lipid and protein oxidation, factors influencing lipid oxidation, the consequences of protein oxidation, measurement methods, and the interactions between lipid oxidation, protein oxidation and meat color are introduced. The present thesis was aiming to study the effects of different fatty acid composition on lipid oxidation, protein oxidation and meat color in minced pork st...

  12. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality

    OpenAIRE

    Videler, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance rel...

  13. Quality changes in refrigerated stored minced pork wrapped with plastic cling film and the effect of glucose supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Blanco, Alba; Caro, Irma; Quinto, Emiliano J; Mateo, Javier

    2017-04-01

    Meat spoilage greatly depends on meat composition and storage conditions. Microbial and biochemical changes in minced pork (100-g portions) wrapped with a polyvinyl chloride film during a 4-day refrigerated storage were studied. As glucose is the first substrate used by spoilage bacteria and when it is depleted bacteria could generate undesirable volatiles, the effect of the addition of glucose to minced meat was also studied. Three treatments were used: control (C), without added glucose, and low and high glucose concentration (L and H), 150mg and 750mg of glucose in 100g of meat, respectively. Spoilage bacteria, pH, redox potential, colour, basic volatile nitrogen, glucose, organic acids, and volatiles were analyzed in both recently prepared and stored pork samples. Storage resulted in increased levels of lactic acid bacteria and glucose-derived short chain alkyl volatiles, and a decrease in redox potential and volatile aldehyde levels. The addition of glucose to meat did not affect the biochemical characteristics of stored minced pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and identification of Salmonella species in minced beef and chicken meats by using Multiplex PCR in Assiut city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Hassanein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and distribution of Salmonella species in selected meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut, Egypt. A total of 75 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and examined for the presence of Salmonella species. In addition, 28 children stool cultures were collected from hospitalized children resident in Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 75 meat samples examined, Salmonella was detected in 5 (20% of minced frozen beef, 9 (36% of frozen chicken leg and 13 (52% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed. Regarding the examined 28 children stool cultures, 3 (10.71 % were found Salmonella positive. Of the total 30 Salmonella positive samples from all examined samples, five selected Salmonella isolates were further identified using multiplex PCR (m-PCR. Two serovars were the dominant serovar identified was Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Enteritidis (2 chicken leg isolates and 2 chicken breast fillets followed by Salmonella entrica subsp. entrica serovar Kentucky (one minced beef isolate. The public health hazards of Salmonella were discussed and the suggestive measures to protect the consumers and improve the quality of meat and chicken products were given. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 5-11

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya; Altan, Can Okan; Keskin, Irfan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of CO2/N2 gases on chemical/sensorial stability, color properties (L*, a*, and b* values), and microbiological properties of trout mince stored at 3 ± 1℃. The gas mixtures were used as follows; 60%CO2 + 40%N2 (B), 75%CO2 + 25%N2 (C), 40%CO2 + 60%N2 (D). Control samples (A) were packed under atmospheric air. Analyses were carried out on the 1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th and 28th days of storage. Among three modified atmosphere gas compositions, the best preservation method and most suitable gas concentration for trout mince were found in group C including 75% CO2 The inconsumable day of trout mince packed with air (control) and MAPs (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) (group B, C, and D) were 12th, 16th, 24th, and 16th days, respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  17. Development of Robots with Soft Sensor Flesh for Achieving Close Interaction Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Yoshikai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve robots' working around humans, safe contacts against objects, humans, and environments with broad area of their body should be allowed. Furthermore, it is desirable to actively use those contacts for achieving tasks. Considering that, many practical applications will be realized by whole-body close interaction of many contacts with others. Therefore, robots are strongly expected to achieve whole-body interaction behavior with objects around them. Recently, it becomes possible to construct whole-body tactile sensor network by the advancement of research for tactile sensing system. Using such tactile sensors, some research groups have developed robots with whole-body tactile sensing exterior. However, their basic strategy is making a distributed 1-axis tactile sensor network covered with soft thin material. Those are not sufficient for achieving close interaction and detecting complicated contact changes. Therefore, we propose “Soft Sensor Flesh.” Basic idea of “Soft Sensor Flesh” is constructing robots' exterior with soft and thick foam with many sensor elements including multiaxis tactile sensors. In this paper, a constructing method for the robot systems with such soft sensor flesh is argued. Also, we develop some prototypes of soft sensor flesh and verify the feasibility of the proposed idea by actual behavior experiments.

  18. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-12-28

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants.

  19. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from delta C-13 and delta N-15 values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, Paco; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Mornet, Francoise; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish...

  20. Investigating the mincing method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from pregnant women fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Sheng; Chen, Pao-Jen; Wu, Li-Wei; Chou, Pei-Wen; Sun, Li-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2017-12-12

    The success of stem cell application in regenerative medicine, usually require a stable source of stem or progenitor cells. Fat tissue represents a good source of stem cells because it is rich in stem cells and there are fewer ethical issues related to the use of such stem cells, unlike embryonic stem cells. Therefore, there has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, we aim to provide an easy processing method for isolating adult stem cells from human adipose tissue harvested from the subcutaneous fat of the abdominal wall during gynecologic surgery. We used a homogenizer to mince fat and compared the results with those obtained from the traditional cut method involving a sterile scalpel and forceps. Our results showed that our method provides another stable and quality source of stem cells that could be used in cases with a large quantity of fat. Furthermore, we found that pregnancy adipose-derived stem cells (P-ADSCs) could be maintained in vitro for extended periods with a stable population doubling and low senescence levels. P-ADSCs could also differentiate in vitro into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and insulin-producing cells in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. In conclusion, like human lipoaspirates, adipose tissues obtained from pregnant women contain multipotent cells with better proliferation and showed great promise for use in both stem cell banking studies as well as in stem cell therapy.

  1. Fish crackers development from minced fish and starch: an innovative approach to a traditional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues Pinheiro Neiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop sensory acceptable, high nutritional value fish crackers that could be kept at room temperature for 180 days. Minced fish of different low-value species was the raw material employed to produce two types of fish crackers: a the traditional keropok cracker, which was expanded by deep frying; and b a low-fat fish cracker, expanded by microwave cooking. The protein content of the fried fish crackers (FFCs and that of the microwaved fish crackers (MFCs were high (10.86 and 14.70%, respectively. The essential amino acid contents of the two types of fish cracker were above the FAO requirements for adults, and the lysine content was above the requirements for children. Sensory analysis, performed by adult panelists, resulted in a general level of acceptability of 90% for the MFCs and of 97% for the FFCs. Vacuum packaging maintained microbiological and physicochemical properties for a storage period of 180 days at room temperature.

  2. Production of fungal chitosan from date wastes and its application as a biopreservative for minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Sami I A; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Moussa, Shaaban H

    2014-08-01

    Raw and processed meat contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms is a continuing worldwide problem facing health and industry overseers. Fungal chitosan was extracted, purified and characterized from Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404 grown in date syrup (dips) and applied as a potential meat biopreservative. The main features of produced chitosan were a deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 31,000Da, 96% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution and a harmonized IR-spectrum to standard commercial chitosan. The application of fungal chitosan, as a natural and safe biopreservative for minced meat, was conducted in comparison with potassium sorbate, as a commercial meat preservative. Treated meat samples with 0.02% chitosan was the least trials in microbial contents, i.e. total count, coliforms, β-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase positive staphylococci. The antimicrobial activity of fungal chitosan was considerably greater than that of potassium sorbate or their combination at 0.01% from each. Sensory characteristics, e.g. color, odor and texture, of treated meat with chitosan, were higher than those of control and potassium sorbate treated samples. Fungal chitosan, however, could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative for meat preservation and overall quality maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during minced beef storage under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Kagkli, Dafni Maria; Nychas, George-John E

    2010-12-01

    A total of 266 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been isolated from minced beef stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 °C aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging consisting of 40% CO(2)-30% O(2)-30% N(2) in the presence MAP (+) and absence MAP (-) of oregano essential oil. Sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene along with presence of the katA gene demonstrated dominance of the LAB microbiota by Leuconostoc spp. during aerobic storage at 5, 10 and 15 °C, as well as during MAP (-) and MAP (+) storage at 10 and 15 °C; Lactobacillus sakei prevailed during aerobic storage at 0 °C, as well as at MAP (-) and MAP (+) storage at 0 and 5 °C. The sporadic presence of other species such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weisella viridescens, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus curvatus has also been determined. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of high molecular weight genomic DNA revealed the dynamics of the isolated LAB strains. Prevalence of Leuconostoc spp. was attributed to one strain only. On the other hand, packaging conditions affected Lb. sakei strain spoilage dynamics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality and shelf life evaluation of pork nuggets incorporated with fermented bamboo shoot (Bambusa polymorpha) mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Barman, K; Das, Anubrata

    2014-03-01

    Pork nuggets were processed by incorporating fermented bamboo shoot mince and their physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated during 35 day storage at refrigeration temperature (4±1 °C). Addition of fermented bamboo shoot significantly affects the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets, especially at 6% and 8% addition levels. Nuggets with 6% and 8% FBSM had significantly lower TBARS values at the end of the storage period (i.e. 0.39 and 0.33 mg malonaldehyde/kg respectively) compared to the control (0.84 mg malonaldehyde/kg). Bamboo shoot addition significantly improved the microbial and sensory qualities of the pork nuggets. Incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot at 8% level increased the shelf life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4±1 °C compared to the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Constant harvest rate for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California based on catchability-at-length estimations

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Aguilar, Susana; de Anda Montañez, Juan Antonio; Arreguín Sánchez, Francisco; Cisneros Mara, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    Constant harvest rate as a management strategy for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California is supported by an analysis of variations in the catchability coefficient (q), stock abundance and commercial catch. Catchability was analyzed based on population length-structured data standard length (SL), expressed as CPUE, for 26 fishing seasons (1972-1973 to 1997-1998). We used a deterministic model of catchability to estimate the catchability-at-length assuming ...

  6. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of the Extracts from Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) Flesh and Peel and the Effective Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanxue; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the water and ethanol extracts isolated from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposite Thunb.) flesh (CYF) and peel (CYP) and the effective compounds. It was found that all peel portions have a better effect on reactive oxygen (ROS) scavenging assay than meat portions, especially for the water extract of Chinese yam peel (CYP-W). Its IC50 values for hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging assay (744.25 ± 3.46 μg/mL) and for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (374.85 ± 6.78 μg/mL) were both lower than that of yam flesh (CYF-W). Furthermore, the antitumor property of yam peel was more effective than that of yam flesh (CYF-W) on mouse models, with tumor inhibition rates were 47.92% and 27.41% for Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAC) model and 40.44% and 24.22% for H22 hepatocarcinoma tumor (H22) model. Meanwhile, extracts of peel showed higher allantoin, total flavonoids, and total phenolics contents than extracts of flesh. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CYP-W exerted better antitumor activity than flesh extracts and the scavenging ROS effects were also significantly higher in the CYP-W in vitro. Moreover, the data indicated that allantoin may play an important role on antioxidative and antitumor capacity in yam peel. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. A comparison study on flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larimichthys croceus) cultured with three different modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Li, Baian; Chen, Naisong; Huang, Xuxiong; Hua, Xuemin; Leng, Xiangjun

    2017-12-01

    To compare the flesh quality of large yellow croaker cultured with three different modes, enclosure culture (EC), cage culture with feeding trash fish (CCF) and cage culture with feeding formula diet (CCD), thirty six fish individuals of EC (484.6 ± 79.8 g), CCF (432.7 ± 87.9 g) and CCD (416.9 ± 49.5 g) were sampled to measure body color, flesh water holding capacity, flesh proximate composition, amino acids and fatty acids composition, and collagen and inosinic acid contents. The analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the yellowness of skin and the contents of crude protein and inosinic acid between CCD and EC (P >0.05), and the two modes showed higher values than CCF ( P amino acids (AA) in flesh were higher in EC than in CCF ( P 0.05). EC and CCD had higher contents of collagen, free AA and lower drip loss than CC ( P acids, EC showed significantly higher levels of C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 than CCF and CCD ( P fish is similar to EC fish, and these two modes have better flesh quality than CCF.

  8. Modeling the Disintegration Process in Anaerobic Digestion of Tannery Sludge and Fleshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Polizzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anaerobic digestion (AD is widely acknowledged as a powerful tool to v of the process and to support full-scale plant design, operation and optimization. In this work, a modified version of the IWA-ADM1 model is proposed to simulate the AD of tannery primary sludge (TPS and fleshing, with special emphasis on the disintegration formulation. Multiple batch tests were performed at different inoculum/substrate VS-mass ratio, in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the two substrates and to provide experimental data for modeling purposes. Beside the necessary adjustments of substrates' COD fractionation, the structure modifications of the model focused on the disintegration and hydrolysis. The Contois Monod-based model was adopted to describe disintegration kinetics and the results were compared to the traditionally adopted first-order kinetic. The fate of particulate matter generated from biomass lysis was also questioned and a new model variable was introduced to account for cellular lysis products. Finally, a further modification differentiated substrate particulate matter into a readily and a slowly hydrolysable fraction. Batch tests confirmed that TPS and fleshing are suitable substrates for AD, exhibiting specific methane productions of: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 0.47 ± 0.05 Nm3 Kg−1 VS, respectively. Modeling results showed that the proposed modifications were crucial for successful simulation of experimental data referring to fleshing, whereas did not have a significant effect on the results related to primary sludge degradation. This work is the first application of an IWA-ADM1-based model to AD of tannery waste.

  9. Effects of environmental variability on recruitment and bioeconomic modelling in the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea fishery from Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio de Anda-Montañez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricker's stock-recruitment equation, including the multivariate ENSO index (MEI as an environmental variable, was fitted to data of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea fishery from Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The equation was then incorporated into an age-structured, bioeconomic model. Uncertainty was incorporated by using environmental fluctuations; seven-year projections, equivalent to one sardine generation, were computed. Five management options were considered in the projections: open access, effort at maximum sustainable economic yield (fMSE, catch at maximum sustainable yield (CMSY, equivalent effort level applied in the year 2004 (f2004, and an arbitrary catch quota of 40000 tons (CQ40000. Projection results were summarised by the indicator Net Present Value (NPV of the fishery for the modelled period. The strategies that involved some regulation in the effort level (fMSE and f2004 yielded the largest NPV. On the other hand, the strategies that involved regulation of the catch predicted—in addition to a lower NPV—a substantial increase in the effort to achieve the desired catch level. This study is the first bioeconomic approach for a sardine fishery management plan in this region.

  10. Abundance patterns of early stages of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax during a cooling period in a coastal lagoon south of the California Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Funes-Rodríguez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abundance patterns of eggs and larvae of the Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842, in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, were analysed during a cooling period south of the California Current from 2005 to 2009. The thermohaline characteristics and zooplankton abundance were good descriptors of the potential spawning habitat. Individual quotient analyses showed a predominance of eggs and larvae within a SST range of 16 to 18°C, at low salinities (33.9-34.1 and at low density gradient variability (0.009-0.029, associated with deeper waters (25-40 m near the main entrance, where the transparency was intermediate (6-8 m and zooplankton abundance was relatively high ( > 316 ml/1000 m3. Increments within different class intervals meant that neither dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, phosphates nor chlorophyll a predominated. The large interannual fluctuations in sardine spawning activity and preferential temperatures observed in historical and recent data suggest that two sardine stocks spawn in Bahia Magdalena: one stock spawned in the period 1981-1989 and one stock spawned in the period 1997-2009. The influence of cooling and warming periods as additional components of the regional environmental framework is analysed and discussed.

  11. Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis by Lactobacillus sakei 2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6% and glucose (2, 4%. After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentation, even when 6% NaCl was used. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6.0 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4.0 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl respectively. This could have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the spoilage microorganisms. After 21 days of the fermentation, the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1.Lactobacillus sakei 2a é uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste estudo, procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador na fermentação de filés de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4, 6% e glicose (2, 4%. Com 21 dias (fermentação, os microrganismos deterioradores atingiram 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% NaCl e 4% de glicose. Sem a adição do starter e da glicose, a deterioração (filés iniciou a partir de 72 horas, mesmo quando foi utilizado 6% NaCl. Pouca diferença foi observada na produção de ácido lático quando se adicionou 2 e 4% de glicose, já que a acidez atingiu 1,32 e 1,34%, respectivamente (6% NaCl, os quais apresentaram os melhores resultados. O pH inicial dos filés foi 6 e, ao término de 21 dias, atingiu 3,8, 3,9 e 4, equivalente aos experimentos com 2, 4 e 6% NaCl. Este comportamento pode ser atribuído ao

  12. Restructured fish product from white croacker (Micropogonias furnieri mince using microbial transglutaminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the influence of three concentrations of commercial transglutaminase enzyme in restructured fillet of minced fish from white croacker (Micropogonias furnieri, one of the four marine species with notability in Brazil. The restructured fillet developed had advantages when compared to traditional fillet, such as absence of spine and less flavour intensity (washes cycles. Washing process for white croacker mince was compared with five clarification agents: water (control, phosphoric acid (H3PO4, sodium chloride (NaCl, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The higher quality product (whiteness was obtained with calcium carbonate washes. Three concentrations (1.5, 1.0 and 0.5% of microbial transglutaminase MGTase (Active TG-B %v/v and Active TG-BP %w/w were compared, in order to produce fish restructured product (boneless fillet. The concentration of 1.5% (both enzymes, produced better results. The restructured products were compared by sensory analysis and showed better sensory parameters (appearance, odour, flavour and texture samples treated with Active TG-B (solution form.Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a influência de três concentrações de enzima transglutaminase comercial em filés reestruturado a partir de polpa de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, uma das quatro espécies marinhas notáveis no Brasil. O filé reestruturado desenvolvido tem vantagens quando comparado aos filés tradicionais, tais como, a ausência da espinhas e sabor menos intenso (ciclos de lavagens. O processo de lavagem da polpa de corvina foi comparado com cinco agentes clarificantes: água (controle, ácido fosfórico (H3PO4, cloreto de sódio (NaCl, carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3 e bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3. O produto de qualidade superior (mais branco foi obtido com a lavagem com carbonato de cálcio. Três concentrações (1,5%, 1,0% e 0,5% de transglutaminase microbiana (Activa TG-B % v/v e Activa TG

  13. Autoinducer-2-like activity in lactic acid bacteria isolated from minced beef packaged under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E

    2011-04-01

    Fifteen fingerprints (assigned to Leuconostoc spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella viridescens, Leuconostoc citreum, and Lactobacillus sakei) of 89 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from minced beef stored under modified atmospheres at various temperatures were screened for their ability to exhibit autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-like activity under certain growth conditions. Cellfree meat extracts (CFME) were collected at the same time as the LAB isolates and tested for the presence of AI-2-like molecules. All bioassays were conducted using the Vibrio harveyi BAA-1117 (sensor 1(-), sensor 2(+)) biosensor strain. The possible inhibitory effect of meat extracts on the activity of the biosensor strain was also evaluated. AI-2-like activity was observed for Leuconostoc spp. isolates, but none of the L. sakei strains produced detectable AI-2-like activity. The AI-2-like activity was evident mainly associated with the Leuconostoc sp. B 233 strain, which was the dominant isolate recovered from storage at 10 and 15°C and at the initial and middle stages of storage at chill temperatures (0 and 5°C). The tested CFME samples displayed low AI-2-like activity and inhibited AI-2 activity regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations. The LAB isolated during meat spoilage exhibited AI-2-like activity, whereas the LAB strains retrieved depended on storage time and temperature. The production of AI-2-like molecules may affect the dominance of different bacterial strains during storage. The results provide a basis for further research concerning the effect of storage temperature on the expression of genes encoding AI-2 activity and on the diversity of the ephemeral bacterial population.

  14. Pixel Grafting: An Evolution of Mincing for Transplantation of Full-Thickness Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansher; Nuutila, Kristo; Kruse, Carla; Dermietzel, Alexander; Caterson, E J; Eriksson, Elof

    2016-01-01

    Split-thickness skin grafting is the gold standard for treatment of major skin loss. This technique is limited by donor-site availability in large burn injuries. With micrografting, a technique where split-thickness skin graft is minced into 0.8 × 0.8-mm pieces, the authors have demonstrated an expansion ratio of 1:100 and healing comparable to that achieved with split-thickness skin grafting. In this study, the authors explore the regenerative potential of a skin graft by cutting split-thickness skin grafts to pixel size (0.3 × 0.3 mm) grafts. Wound healing was studied in full-thickness wounds in a porcine model by creating an incubator-like microenvironment using polyurethane wound chambers. Multiple wound healing parameters were used to study the outcome of pixel grafting and compare it to micrografting and nontransplanted wounds. The authors' results show that 0.3 × 0.3-mm pixel grafts remain viable and contribute to skin regeneration. The pixel graft-transplanted wounds demonstrated a faster reepithelialization rate, decreased wound contraction, and increased mechanical stability compared with nontransplanted wounds. The reepithelialization rates of the wounds were significantly increased with pixel grafting at day 6 after wounding compared with micrografting. Among the other wound healing parameters, there were no significant differences between wounds transplanted with pixel grafts and micrografts. Pixel grafting technique would address the most commonly encountered limitations of the split-thickness skin graft with the possibility of an even larger expansion ratio than micrografting. This technique is simple and fast and can be conducted in the operating room or in the clinic.

  15. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, as an alternative for generating omega-3 enriched products, the activity of MTGase was impaired, as the gels took longer to reach maximum hardness. Furthermore, in all samples containing MTGase, protein oxidation was high. (C)2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  17. [Feasibility of the use of different binding agents for the development of products based on deboned fish flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, O; Bello, R A

    1984-03-01

    Blocks of deboned fish flesh capable of developing binding, stable and adequate properties were prepared. Procedures with fish flesh and binding agents were investigated, with emphasis on the rheologic and hydration properties. Starches and precooked maize and cassava flours were used as binding agents. Flours presented a high binding capacity, even at low concentrations (10%-15%); however, at higher concentrations this property tended to be counterbalanced by the water absorption capacity. On the other hand, it was observed that application of thermal gelatinizing treatments was required when crude starch was used. As far as color is concerned, the observed changes depended both on the type of binder used and on its concentration. Findings revealed that the flesh-binding texture procedure depends on the viscosity developed by the starchy product.

  18. Flesh & Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roduit, Johann A R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This poem reflects on the possibility of human enhancement. It shows that if enhancements are embraced step-by-step, without any long-term vision, one might get lost along the way.

  19. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  20. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...

  1. Analysis of MinD Mutations Reveals Residues Required for MinE Stimulation of the MinD ATPase and Residues Required for MinC Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huaijin; Schulze, Ryan; Cox, Sandra; Saez, Cristian; Hu, Zonglin; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2005-01-01

    The MinD ATPase is critical to the oscillation of the Min proteins, which limits formation of the Z ring to midcell. In the presence of ATP, MinD binds to the membrane and recruits MinC, forming a complex that can destabilize the cytokinetic Z ring. MinE, which is also recruited to the membrane by MinD, displaces MinC and stimulates the MinD ATPase, resulting in the oscillation of the Min proteins. In this study we have investigated the role of lysine 11, present in the deviant Walker A motif...

  2. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  3. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-03-01

    Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  4. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanandan, A; Rani, S Hilda Vimala; Shanmugavel, M; Gnanamani, A; Rajakumar, G Suseela

    2013-12-01

    The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g) after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6) spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w), glucose (0.5% w/w) and peptone (0.5% w/w) gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3%) applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  5. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  6. Enhanced production of Aspergillus tamarii lipase for recovery of fat from tannery fleshings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dayanandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various oil cakes has been investigated for high level production of lipase using Aspergillus tamarii MTCC 5152. By solid state fermentation in wheat bran containing 2.5% w/w gingili oil cake at 70% v/w moisture content the fungus produced a maximal yield of lipase (758 ± 3.61 u/g after 5 days of incubation using 2% v/w inoculum containing 10(6 spores/mL. Wheat bran and gingili oil cake with supplementation of gingili oil (1.0% w/w, glucose (0.5% w/w and peptone (0.5% w/w gives an increased enzyme production of 793 ± 6.56 u/g. The enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 7.0, temperature 50 °C and was stable between the pH 5.0-8.0 and temperature up to 60 °C. Crude lipase (3% applied to tannery fleshing shows 92% fat solubility. The results demonstrate that fat obtained from tannery fleshing, a by-product of the leather industry has a high potential for biodiesel production and the proteinaceous residue obtained can be used as animal feed.

  7. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  8. Enhancement of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid glycerides in Sardine oil by a bioimprinted cross-linked Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Charanyaa; Belur, Prasanna D; Iyyasami, Regupathi

    2018-03-01

    Considering the advantages of bioimprinting and carrier free immobilization, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) were prepared by using bioimprinted Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) with Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde. Effect of various factors such as CRL-Oleic acid ratio, CRL-BSA ratio, CRL- Polyethyleneimine ratio, glutaraldehyde loading, cross-linking time etc., on lipase activity recovery and aggregate yield were studied and optimized. This immobilized lipase (CRL-CLEA) was used for the selective hydrolysis of ester linkages of non-PUFA glycerides, with an aim to concentrate EPA and DHA glycerides in the Sardine oil. Imprinting with oleic acid in the presence of ethanol and Tween 60, and further immobilization with co-aggregates and cross-linking agent showed 10.4 times higher degree of hydrolysis compared to free enzyme. As result, 2.83-fold increase of n-3 PUFA content in deacidified oil was obtained by using CRL-CLEA. The resultant oil had negligible di- and triglycerides content, proving higher efficiency in hydrolysing ester bonds of fatty acids, other than n-3 PUFA. Reusability studies showed CRL-CLEA could be reused up to 5 runs without a substantial reduction in its performance. Improvement in degree of hydrolysis, thermostability, efficiency of hydrolysis and reusability were achieved due to bioimprinting and subsequent immobilization of CRL in the form of CLEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  10. Transplantation of Autologous Minced Bladder Mucosa for a One-Step Reconstruction of a Tissue Engineered Bladder Conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Reinfeldt Engberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical intervention is sometimes needed to create a conduit from the abdominal wall to the bladder for self-catheterization. We developed a method for tissue engineering a conduit for bladder emptying without in vitro cell culturing as a one-step procedure. In a porcine animal model bladder, wall tissue was excised and the mucosa was minced to small particles. The particles were attached to a tube in a 1 : 3 expansion rate with fibrin glue and transplanted back by attaching the tube to the bladder and through the abdominal wall. Sham served as controls. After 4-5 weeks, conduits were assessed in respect to macroscopic and microscopic appearance in 6 pigs. Two pigs underwent radiology before termination. Gross examination revealed a patent conduit with an opening to the bladder. Histology and immunostaining showed a multilayered transitional uroepithelium in all cases. Up to 89% of the luminal surface area was neoepithelialized but with a loose attachment to the submucosa. No epithelium was found in control animals. CT imaging revealed a patent channel that could be used for filling and emptying the bladder. Animals that experienced surgical complications did not form conduits. Minced autologous bladder mucosa can be transplanted around a tubular mold to create a conduit to the urinary bladder without in vitro culturing.

  11. ESTABILIDADE QUÍMICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE "MINCED FISH" DE PEIXES AMAZÔNICOS DURANTE O CONGELAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESUS Rogério Souza de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a estabilidade química e microbiológica de "minced fish" produzidos, em condições industriais, com espécies de peixes da Amazônia: aracú-comum (Schizodon fasciatus, branquinha-comum (Potamorhina latior, branquinha-de-cabeça-lisa (P. altamazonica, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraqui-de-escama-fina (Semaprochilodus taeniurus, jaraqui-de-escama-grossa (S. insignis, mapará (Hypophthalmus edentatus, pacú-comum (Metynnis hypsauchen, pacú-manteiga (Mylossoma duriventre e pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomum, durante 150 dias sob congelamento a -18±1°C e -36±1°C. Com base no pH, nitrogênio das bases voláteis totais (N-BVT, substâncias reagentes ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS e contagens de aeróbios mesófilos a 35°C e psicrotróficos a 7°C, e de coliformes totais e fecais (NMP, os "minced fish" obtidos a partir das espécies de peixes estudadas e de misturas de espécies (aracú+curimatã+pirapitinga; jaraqui+branquinha mantiveram-se em condições de consumo, durante o período experimental. Os resultados obtidos são altamente promissores sob o ponto de vista tecnológico.

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of condiments paste used as nitrite replacer in chicken mince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Goswami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of 4% Ginger + 4% Garlic + Turmeric 1000ppm (GGT, nitrite 200ppm (N and the control (C on minced chicken stored at 4±10C. Materials and Methods: Physico-chemical properties (pH, Thio Barbituric acid value (TBA, Peroxide value (PV and Free Fatty acid (FFA were evaluated on 0, 3, 6 and 9th day of the storage. The antimicrobial studies viz. Total viable count (TVC, Escherichia coli count, Clostridium sporogenes count and Clostridium perfringens count were carried out on 1, 4, 7 and 10th day of storage. Results: Highly significant difference (P<0.01 was noticed between the treatments and between the storage periods in pH (5.951±0.02-GGT as compared to C-5.898±0.05and N-5.899±0.02, TBA(0.566±0.09-GGT as compared to C-1.569±0.04m and N-0.614±0.11, PV(1.679±0.18-GGT as compared to C-2.595±0.41and N-2.03±0.21, FFA(1.199±0.21-GGT as compared to C-2.284±0.40 and N-1.446±0.24 and N-7.194±0.68, TVC (log CFU/g (7.528±0.70-GGT as compared to C-8.583±0.49 and N-6.446±0.53, Escherichia coli (log CFU/g (6.476±0.54-GGT as compared to C-7.658±0.71 and N-6.609±0.61, Clostridium sporogenes count (log CFU/g (7.746±0.69-GGT as compared to C-8.681±0.74 and N- and Clostridium perfringens count (log CFU/g (6.864±0.76-GGT as compared to C-8.790±0.53 and N-6.864±0.58. Conclusion: The Ginger garlic turmeric paste has an excellent potential to replace the nitrite as a natural antioxidant with other advantages. It is highly effective against Escherichia coli. It is also significantly effective against Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium sporogenes and TVC as compared to C but lesser than N. We recommend further research by replacing the nitrite with various combinations of the spices and the condiments.

  13. Comparative study of the influence of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) berry ethanolic extract and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) on lipid peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, consistency and firmness of minced pork during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuc, Camelia; Predescu, Corina Nicoleta; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Nicorescu, Valentin; Gâjâilă, Iuliana

    2017-08-07

    Following public concern on the use of synthetic food antioxidants, there is an increasing demand for the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to maintain quality of meat products quality during storage. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of hawthorn berry, compared to butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), on lipid peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, protein electrophoresis pattern, consistency and firmness of minced pork during refrigeration at 4 °C, and to identify the relationship between chemical modifications and consistency variation. After 6 days of refrigeration it was found that the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of minced pork containing 200 mg GAE kg-1 total phenolics in minced meat (200 HP) was significantly lower (0.1543 ± 0.006 mg) compared to BHA-treated meat. The ratio of oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin in treated minced pork was respectively 0.845 for 200 HP and 0.473 for BHA-treated minced meat. Concentrations of 100 HP or 300 HP will generate statistically higher firmness than BHA in minced pork. Hawthorn berry ethanolic extract was more effective than BHA in reducing lipid oxidation and protein degradation, for maintaining firmness and consistency of minced pork during 6 days of refrigeration at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of extraction methods for the identification of proteins from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed and flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hooi Xian; Ahmad, Fisal; Saad, Bahruddin; Ismail, Mohd Nazri

    2017-11-26

    Date fruits are well known to be very nutritious. Nevertheless, the protein contents of the fruit, particularly the seed and flesh, are still understudied, largely due to their difficult physical characteristics. This study was conducted to compare three different protein extraction methods which were the trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone (TCA-A), phenol (Phe), and TCA-acetone-phenol (TCA-A-Phe), and to perform proteomic analysis on date palm seed and flesh. Phe extraction method showed the highest protein yields for both seed (8.26 mg/g) and flesh (1.57 mg/g). Through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Phe, and TCA-A-Phe extraction methods were shown to be efficient in removing interfering compounds and gave well-resolved bands over a wide range of molecular weights. Following liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, about 50-64% of extracted proteins were identified with known functions including those involved in glycolysis, Krebs cycle, defense, and storage. Phe protein extraction method was proven to be the optimal method for date flesh and seed.

  15. A Multidisciplinary Approach Providing New Insight into Fruit Flesh Browning Physiology in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies (‘Fuji x Pink Lady’ and ‘Golden Delicious x Braeburn’). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple. PMID:24205065

  16. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Mario; Tadiello, Alice; Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  17. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Di Guardo

    Full Text Available In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO. In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10. Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'. Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  18. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  19. Three distinct mutational mechanisms acting on a single gene underpin the origin of yellow flesh in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Rachele; Vendramin, Elisa; Zanon, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Cipriani, Guido; Verde, Ignazio; Vizzotto, Giannina; Morgante, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Peach flesh color (white or yellow) is among the most popular commercial criteria for peach classification, and has implications for consumer acceptance and fruit nutritional quality. Despite the increasing interest in improving cultivars of both flesh types, little is known about the genetic basis for the carotenoid content diversity in peach. Here we describe the association between genotypes at a locus encoding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (PpCCD4), localized in pseudomolecule 1 of the Prunus persica reference genome sequence, and the flesh color for 37 peach varieties, including two somatic revertants, and three ancestral relatives of peach, providing definitive evidence that this locus is responsible for flesh color phenotype. We show that yellow peach alleles have arisen from various ancestral haplotypes by at least three independent mutational events involving nucleotide substitutions, small insertions and transposable element insertions, and that these mutations, despite being located within the transcribed portion of the gene, also result in marked differences in transcript levels, presumably as a consequence of differential transcript stability involving nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The PpCCD4 gene provides a unique example of a gene for which humans, in their quest to diversify phenotypic appearance and qualitative characteristics of a fruit, have been able to select and exploit multiple mutations resulting from a variety of mechanisms. PMID:23855972

  20. Quality of fresh-cut purple fleshed sweet potatoes after x-ray irradiation treatment and refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of x-ray irradiation on the quality of fresh-cut, refrigerated purple-fleshed sweetpotato (PFSP) cubes was investigated. Packaged sweetpotato cubes were treated with 0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000 Gy x-ray irradiation and stored at 4 ± 1 ºC for 14 days. After 14 days, total aerobic bacteria cou...

  1. [Effects of bagging on pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone contents of Cara Cara orange flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiyuan; Xia, Renxue; Zeng, Xiangguo; Hu, Liming

    2006-02-01

    This paper studied the effects of bagging during the period from young fruit formation to fruit coloration on the contents of pigment, sugar and endogenous hormone in Cara Cara orange flesh. The results showed that bagging could significantly increase the lycopene and beta-carotene contents of matured fruit, but didn't have any effects on its GA and ABA contents. The GA content decreased rapidly during fruit-expanding period, and maintained at a lower level in the period from fruit coloration to maturing. The ABA content reached the maximum when the bag was removed, decreased rapidly then, and there was a small peak before fruit maturation. Glucose and fructose contents were decreased, while sucrose content was increased significantly. No significant change was observed in total sugar content.

  2. [Representation in life sciences (6). Cultural images of the body: Organism and flesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, David

    2011-03-01

    In the social and historical plan, the « body » is not still a datum of evidence. This formulation with a dualist connotation does not appear in all the human societies, certain do not distinguish the man from his flesh. The body is rather a question than an answer, a misleading evidence which reveals a multitude of different representations which assign to it a position determined within the general symbolism of the society, dependent on a social status, on a vision of the world, and inside this last one on a definition of the person. The body is a changeable reality from a society to an other one : the images which define it, the systems of knowledge which clarify its nature, the accomplished performances are strickingly diverse, contradictory. The body is a symbolic construction. It seems to be obvious, but nothing is more imperceptible. © 2011 médecine/sciences - Inserm / SRMS.

  3. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, J J

    2011-06-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance related to the use of white muscle during growth from larva to adult. Ecological data narrate early swimming performance with white muscle development and growth, unveiling some of the important natural selection factors eliminating weak swimmers and poor growers from the breeding stock. A comparison between fish culture practise and natural conditions reveals fundamental differences. New approaches following wild breeding processes promise several important advantages regarding the quality of white muscle.

  4. Endogenous cytokinin in developing kiwifruit is implicated in maintaining fruit flesh chlorophyll levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Montefiori, Mirco; Galer, Amy L; Neil Emery, R J; Allan, Andrew C; Jameson, Paula E

    2013-07-01

    Green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) retain high concentrations of chlorophyll in the fruit flesh, whereas in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis) chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites during fruit development, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. The plant hormone group the cytokinins has been implicated in the delay of senescence, and so the aim of this work was to investigate the link between cytokinin levels in ripening fruit and chlorophyll de-greening. The expression of genes related to cytokinin metabolism and signal transduction and the concentration of cytokinin metabolites were measured. The regulation of gene expression was assayed using transient activation of the promoter of STAY-GREEN2 (SGR2) by cytokinin response regulators. While the total amount of cytokinin increased in fruit of both species during maturation and ripening, a high level of expression of two cytokinin biosynthetic gene family members, adenylate isopentenyltransferases, was only detected in green kiwifruit fruit during ripening. Additionally, high levels of O-glucosylated cytokinins were detected only in green kiwifruit, as was the expression of the gene for zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for glucosylating cytokinin into a storage form. Season to season variation in gene expression was seen, and some de-greening of the green kiwifruit fruit occurred in the second season, suggesting environmental effects on the chlorophyll degradation pathway. Two cytokinin-related response regulators, RRA17 and RRB120, showed activity against the promoter of kiwifruit SGR2. The results show that in kiwifruit, levels of cytokinin increase markedly during fruit ripening, and that cytokinin metabolism is differentially regulated in the fruit of the green and gold species. However, the causal factor(s) associated with the maintenance or loss of chlorophyll in kiwifruit during ripening remains obscure.

  5. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Co-delivery of a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel with minced muscle graft in the treatment of volumetric muscle loss injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Stephen M; Henderson, Beth E P; Walters, Thomas J; Corona, Benjamin T

    2018-01-01

    Minced muscle autografting mediates de novo myofiber regeneration and promotes partial recovery of neuromuscular strength after volumetric muscle loss injury (VML). A major limitation of this approach is the availability of sufficient donor tissue for the treatment of relatively large VMLs without inducing donor site morbidity. This study evaluated a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HA+LMN) as a putative myoconductive scaffolding to be co-delivered with minced muscle grafts. In a rat tibialis anterior muscle VML model, delivery of a reduced dose of minced muscle graft (50% of VML defect) within HA+LMN resulted in a 42% improvement of peak tetanic torque production over unrepaired VML affected limbs. However, the improvement in strength was not improved compared to a 50% minced graft-only control group. Moreover, histological analysis revealed that the improvement in in vivo functional capacity mediated by minced grafts in HA+LMN was not accompanied by a particularly robust graft mediated regenerative response as determined through donor cell tracking of the GFP+ grafting material. Characterization of the spatial distribution and density of macrophage and satellite cell populations indicated that the combination therapy damps the heightened macrophage response while re-establishing satellite content 14 days after VML to a level consistent with an endogenously healing ischemia-reperfusion induced muscle injury. Moreover, regional analysis revealed that the combination therapy increased satellite cell density mostly in the remaining musculature, as opposed to the defect area. Based on the results, the following salient conclusions were drawn: 1) functional recovery mediated by the combination therapy is likely due to a superposition of de novo muscle fiber regeneration and augmented repair of muscle fibers within the remaining musculature, and 2) The capacity for VML therapies to augment regeneration and repair within the remaining musculature

  7. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  8. Immobilization of Moniliella spathulata R25L270 Lipase on Ionic, Hydrophobic and Covalent Supports: Functional Properties and Hydrolysis of Sardine Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. de A. Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The oleaginous yeast Moniliella spathulata R25L270 was the first yeast able to grow and produce extracellular lipase using Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeate cake as substrate. The novel lipase was recently identified, and presented promising features for biotechnological applications. The M. spathulata R25L270 lipase efficiently hydrolyzed vegetable and animal oils, and showed selectivity for generating cis-5,8,11,15,17-eicosapentaenoic acid from sardine oil. The enzyme can act in a wide range of temperatures (25–48 °C and pH (6.5–8.4. The present study deals with the immobilization of M. spathulata R25L270 lipase on hydrophobic, covalent and ionic supports to select the most active biocatalyst capable to obtain omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA from sardine oil. Nine immobilized agarose derivatives were prepared and biochemically characterized for thermostability, pH stability and catalytic properties (KM and Vmax. Ionic supports improved the enzyme–substrate affinity; however, it was not an effective strategy to increase the M. spathulata R25L270 lipase stability against pH and temperature. Covalent support resulted in a biocatalyst with decreased activity, but high thermostability. The enzyme was most stabilized when immobilized on hydrophobic supports, especially Octyl-Sepharose. Compared with the free enzyme, the half-life of the Octyl-Sepharose derivative at 60 °C increased 10-fold, and lipase stability under acidic conditions was achieved. The Octyl-Sepharose derivative was selected to obtain omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil, and the maximal enzyme selectivity was achieved at pH 5.0.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  10. Effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor content of orange-fleshed sweet potato for production of amala in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Abbas Bazata; Fuchs, Richard; Nicolaides, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the effect of traditional processing methods on the β-carotene, ascorbic acid and trypsin inhibitor contents of orange-fleshed sweet potato amala. The most common sweet potato in Nigeria is white or yellow fleshed, which is very low in provitamin A. However, efforts are underway to promote orange-fleshed sweet potato to improve provitamin A intake. This paper describes how orange-fleshed sweet potato slices were traditionally processed into amala, which is increasingly consumed in Nigeria. The study revealed that both the cold and hot fermentation methods resulted in increased vitamin A levels and lower vitamin C levels in orange-fleshed sweet potato. Further processing to make amala resulted in a fall in both vitamin A and C content. The study found an increase in trypsin inhibitor activity following the cold-water fermentation and a decrease following the hot-water fermentation compared to raw orange-fleshed sweet potato. Trypsin inhibitor activity in amala produced using both the cold and hot methods was below detectable levels. The results indicate that amala produced from traditionally fermented orange-fleshed sweet potato could be a good source of vitamins A and C for the rural poor and that the processing removes any potential negative effects of trypsin inhibitors. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Protein hydrolysate from canned sardine and brewing by-products improves TNF-α-induced inflammation in an intestinal-endothelial co-culture cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elsa F; Van Camp, John; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Grootaert, Charlotte

    2017-07-17

    The anti-inflammatory activity of sardine protein hydrolysates (SPH) obtained by hydrolysis with proteases from brewing yeast surplus was ascertained. For this purpose, a digested and desalted SPH fraction with molecular weight lower than 10 kDa was investigated using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) as such and in a co-culture model with an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Effects of SPH SPH SPH SPH SPH to be used as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Assessing the Utility of Seasonal SST Forecasts to the Fisheries Management Process: a Pacific Sardine Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, D.; Stock, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that environmental fluctuations affect the productivity of numerous fish stocks. Recent advances in prediction capability of dynamical global forecast systems, such as the state of the art NOAA Geophysical Fluid dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) 2.5-FLOR model, allow for climate predictions of fisheries-relevant variables at temporal scales relevant to the fishery management decision making process. We demonstrate that the GFDL FLOR model produces skillful seasonal SST anomaly predictions over the continental shelf , where most of the global fish yield is generated. The availability of skillful SST projections at this "fishery relevant" scale raises the potential for better constrained estimates of future fish biomass and improved harvest decisions. We assessed the utility of seasonal SST coastal shelf predictions for fisheries management using the case study of Pacific sardine. This fishery was selected because it is one of the few to already incorporate SST into its harvest guideline, and show a robust recruitment-SST relationship. We quantified the effectiveness of management under the status quo harvest guideline (HG) and under alternative HGs including future information at different levels of uncertainty. Usefulness of forecast SST to management was dependent on forecast uncertainty. If the standard deviation of the SST anomaly forecast residuals was less than 0.65, the alternative HG produced higher long-term yield and stock biomass, and reduced the probability of either catch or stock biomass falling below management-set threshold values as compared to the status quo. By contrast, probability of biomass falling to extremely low values increased as compared to the status quo for all alternative HGs except for a perfectly known future SST case. To safeguard against occurrence of such low probability but costly events, a harvest cutoff biomass also has to be implemented into the HG.

  13. Stomach Chitinase from Japanese Sardine Sardinops melanostictus: Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of Chitinase Isozymes with a Long Linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Satoshi; Ikehata, Hiroki; Tada, Chihiro; Ogino, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Mana; Fukushima, Hideto; Matsumiya, Masahiro

    2016-01-20

    Fish express two different chitinases, acidic fish chitinase-1 (AFCase-1) and acidic fish chitinase-2 (AFCase-2), in the stomach. AFCase-1 and AFCase-2 have different degradation patterns, as fish efficiently degrade chitin ingested as food. For a comparison with the enzymatic properties and the primary structures of chitinase isozymes obtained previously from the stomach of demersal fish, in this study, we purified chitinase isozymes from the stomach of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus, a surface fish that feeds on plankton, characterized the properties of these isozymes, and cloned the cDNAs encoding chitinases. We also predicted 3D structure models using the primary structures of S. melanostictus stomach chitinases. Two chitinase isozymes, SmeChiA (45 kDa) and SmeChiB (56 kDa), were purified from the stomach of S. melanostictus. Moreover, two cDNAs, SmeChi-1 encoding SmeChiA, and SmeChi-2 encoding SmeChiB were cloned. The linker regions of the deduced amino acid sequences of SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 (SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2) are the longest among the fish stomach chitinases. In the cleavage pattern groups toward short substrates and the phylogenetic tree analysis, SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 were classified into AFCase-1 and AFCase-2, respectively. SmeChi-1 and SmeChi-2 had catalytic domains that consisted of a TIM-barrel (β/α)₈-fold structure and a deep substrate-binding cleft. This is the first study showing the 3D structure models of fish stomach chitinases.

  14. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Qualidade da polpa da carpa Húngara transportada viva ou no gelo Hungarian carp minced quality transported live or on ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martinez Echevenguá

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado o efeito do método de transporte (peixe vivo ou no gelo na qualidade da polpa da carpa húngara Cyprinus carpio proveniente de cultivos em que eram alimentadas com ração, dejetos de suínos ou dejetos de frangos. A polpa foi moída, embalada a vácuo em embalagem de polietileno e conservada sob refrigeração 2±1°C. Foram realizadas análises de rendimento de carcaça e composição proximal do músculo. As análises de BVT (bases voláteis totais, pH, IP (índice de peróxidos e TBA (ácido tiobarbitúrico da polpa foram realizadas no 1°, 4°, 7°, 15° e 30° dias de conservação. O rendimento da polpa das carpas cultivadas com dejetos de suínos e transportadas no gelo foi estatisticamente superior às transportadas vivas, atingindo 41,5%. As alimentadas com ração e com dejetos de frango não revelaram efeitos dos métodos de transporte (P>0,05. As principais frações nutritivas (proteínas e lipídios não mostraram efeitos (P>0,05 do método de transporte avaliado. As BVT, pH, IP e TBA evidenciaram interações (PThe objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of rearing method (fed on dry diet, pig manure, or chicken manure and the method of transport (live fish or on ice on the quality of minced meat of Hungarian carp Cyprinus carpio. In order to obtain the minced meat, the muscle was triturated, vacuum wrapped in polyethylene packing and conserved under refrigeration 2±1°C. Analyses of carcass yield and muscle proximal composition were carried out. The effect of storage time (1, 4, 7, 15, and 30 days was analyzed in terms of TVB (total volatile bases, pH, PI (peroxides value and TBA (thiobarbituric acid. Carcass yield of the carps cultivated on pig manure and transported on ice was statistically higher than those transported alive, reaching 41.5%. However, there was no significant difference of carcass yield of carps fed on dry diet or chicken manure independent of the transport

  16. A case of epilepsy induced by eating or by visual stimuli of food made of minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Naoya; Inoue, Takeshi; Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2017-08-31

    We report a 34-year-old woman with eating epilepsy induced not only by eating but also seeing foods made of minced meat. In her early 20s of age, she started having simple partial seizures (SPS) as flashback and epigastric discomfort induced by particular foods. When she was 33 years old, she developed SPS, followed by secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS) provoked by eating a hot dog, and 6 months later, only seeing the video of dumpling. We performed video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring while she was seeing the video of soup dumpling, which most likely caused sGTCS. Ictal EEG showed rhythmic theta activity in the left frontal to mid-temporal area, followed by generalized seizure pattern. In this patient, seizures were provoked not only by eating particular foods but also by seeing these. This suggests a form of epilepsy involving visual stimuli.

  17. A mobile killing- and mincing unit represents a possible alternative in mass destruction of AIV infected poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Handberg, Kurt

    In Denmark the veterinary authorities have approved a mobile mechanical unit for humane culling and processing of end-of lay hens. The elimination of transportation of live table egg layers is from a welfare point of view valuable, and in this respect, this multifunctional unit performs the initial...... steps in the disposal process. At first, the hens are transported into a chamber where they are killed by CO2. The dead hens are subsequently transported on a conveyor belt to the disintegrating mincing device, and the produced pulp is accumulated in a container under constant mechanical stirring....... In order to prevent bacterial growth and putrefaction, the pulp is acidified to pH below 2.0. Finally, the pulp is transferred via closed pipes to a container on a lorry before transportation to its final destination as mink feed. Importantly, all steps in this process are strictly supervised and adjusted...

  18. Valorization of functional properties of extract and powder of olive leaves in raw and cooked minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouidi, Fathia; Okba, Aicha; Hamdi, Moktar

    2017-08-01

    Olive leaves (OL), available in huge amounts from pruning, are known to be a useful source of biologically active compounds. This study investigated the potential application of OL as a supplement to minced beef meat in order to develop a functional product. The effect of OL extract or powder (100 and 150 µg phenols g -1 meat) on the quality and stability of raw and cooked meat during refrigerated storage was examined. Microwave drying at 600 W gave OL with the highest antioxidant quality (evaluated by TEAC/[phenols] (mg mg -1 ) and DPPH/[phenols] (mg mg -1 )) compared with other methods. OL showed an ability to inhibit (P meat, decreasing (P meat products of good technological quality that remain stable during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antibacterial efficiency of Spanish Satureja montana essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes among natural flora in minced pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carramiñana, J J; Rota, C; Burillo, J; Herrera, A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of winter savory (Satureja montana) essential oil (EO) for control of growth and survival of experimentally inoculated Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b (10(4) CFU/g) among natural flora in minced pork. EOs of French thyme (Thymus vulgaris F) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) cultivated in the same region of Aragon (northeastern Spain) were used as reference ingredients. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were added at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2.5 microl/g (vol/wt), and the samples were kept at 4 degrees C in air for up to 7 days. The populations of L. monocytogenes and total viable bacteria were determined in the control and treated samples at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Moderate activity of S. montana EO against L. monocytogenes was observed (at 2.5 microl/g, reductions of 0.27 log CFU/g by day 3 and 0.61 log CFU/g by day 7), with higher activity against aerobic flora. The greatest reduction in aerobic flora was on day 3 (at 2.5 microl/g) from 1.10 to 1.45 log CFU/g. S. montana EO was comparable to T. vulgaris F EO in listericidal activity, but R. officinalis EO was ineffective against the L. monocytogenes and aerobic flora in the minced meat model. The approximately 3-log reduction in aerobic flora with T. vulgaris F EO at 0.25 to 2.5 microl/g after 5 days of storage was the most significant reduction. Depending on sensory considerations, the addition of active EOs in combination with other preservation techniques for synergistic effects may provide alternatives to synthetic chemical preservatives. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities of EOs are outlined.

  20. On the intraspecific variation in morphometry and shape of sagittal otoliths of common sardine, Strangomera bentincki, off central-southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Curin-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Size and shape of fish otoliths are species-specific, but some species also display intraspecific variations. The common sardine, Strangomera bentincki, is a small pelagic fish inhabiting a seasonal upwelling ecosystem off central-southern Chile, having two discrete spawning sites along its latitudinal distribution. Otoliths of specimens were collected from commercial catches in Talcahuano and Corral, representing the central and south spawning zones. On the basis of otolith images, size-based shape descriptors were used to detect ontogenetic variation, and morphometric variables (length, breadth, area, perimeter and weight were used to detect geographical differences in size and shape of otoliths. Outline analysis was studied on the basis of elliptic Fourier descriptors through multivariate statistical procedures. Size-based shape descriptors showed that otolith shape starts to be stable for fish larger than 12 cm total length, which keep an elliptical form. Morphometric variables for fish larger than 12 cm revealed intraspecific variation between central and south zones, which were associated with otolith weight and breadth. Outline analysis did not reveal significant spatial differences, but extreme intraspecific variation was due to the antirostrum, excisure, and posterior part of otoliths. Intraspecific variation in otolith size could be linked to differences in each spawning habitat and related to geographical origin, whose differences are not clearly identified. It is concluded that intraspecific variability in morphometric variables of sardine otoliths revealed geographic differences in size that are not attributable to allometric effects, and that otolith shape was similar between specimens from different geographic origin.

  1. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on (210)Po, (210)Pb activity concentrations and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that (210)Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while (210)Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and (210)Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence (210)Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A wild origin of the loss‐of‐function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC‐b) allele in cultivated, red‐fleshed papaya (Carica papaya)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Meng; Lewis, Jamicia; Moore, Richard C

    2017-01-01

      PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b...

  3. Salemea sororia sp. n. and Heteronychia obvia sp. n., two new species of flesh-flies from Sicily (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Povolný

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Salemea sororia sp. n. and Heteronychia obvia sp. n. are next two new discoveries of flesh-flies from Erico arboreae-Quercetum Ilicis formation above Trabia (Palermo. These two obviously very rare taxa were collected near the hilltop of Pizzo Onofrio-Casina (Trabia near Palermo at 773 m a.s.l., where the flesh-flies were systematically captured in a hilltopping situation at the turn of May/June of the years 1997 –2003. In connection with the description of Salemea sororia sp. n. the complicated taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of Salemea ferox (Villeneuve, 1908 are discussed. As for Heteronychia obvia sp. n., its description is completed by the comparison with three related species of the genus Heteronychia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889. Male genitalia and last abdominal segments are figured (partly in colour.

  4. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Zhao, Jinmei; You, Yilin; Lei, Yushan; Gao, Guitian; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of China domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. Results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. Additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to the product region. What's more, there was no correlation among the nutrient compositions, antioxidant capacity and retail price of kiwifruit. At the same time, the flesh color was associated with greater commercial value but was not higher nutritional quality or antioxidant capacity. Thus indicates to consumers that imported kiwifruit were not all superior to local versions, and the priciest kiwifruit did not equal to the most nutritious kiwifruit, also the color kiwifruit. There still need more research to help consumers to choose kiwifruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CAROTENOID EXTRACTION OF ORANGE-FLESHED SWEET POTATO AND ITS APPLICATION AS NATURAL FOOD COLORANT [Ekstraksi Karotenoid Ubi Jalar Jingga dan Aplikasinya sebagai Pewarna Makanan Alami

    OpenAIRE

    Erliana Ginting

    2013-01-01

    The orange-fleshed sweet potato is rich in carotenoids, which can potentially be used as a natural food colorant. However, effective and safe extraction techniques are needed. The carotenoid extraction of deep orange-fleshed cultivar (Beta 1) at different moisture contents of fresh tubers using combined solvents was studied. The research design was a factorial randomized complete design with two factors and three replicates. The first factor was moisture content of the grated tubers. The seco...

  7. A constitutive model for mechanical response characterization of pumpkin peel and flesh tissues under tensile and compressive loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Maryam; Yarlagadda, Prasad K D V; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-08-01

    Enhancing quality of food products and reducing volume of waste during mechanical operations of food industry requires a comprehensive knowledge of material response under loadings. While research has focused on mechanical response of food material, the volume of waste after harvesting and during processing stages is still considerably high in both developing and developed countries. This research aims to develop and evaluate a constitutive model of mechanical response of tough skinned vegetables under postharvest and processing operations. The model focuses on both tensile and compressive properties of pumpkin flesh and peel tissues where the behaviours of these tissues vary depending on various factors such as rheological response and cellular structure. Both elastic and plastic response of tissue were considered in the modelling process and finite elasticity combined with pseudo elasticity theory was applied to generate the model. The outcomes were then validated using the published results of experimental work on pumpkin flesh and peel under uniaxial tensile and compression. The constitutive coefficients for peel under tensile test was α = 25.66 and β = -18.48 Mpa and for flesh α = -5.29 and β = 5.27 Mpa. under compression the constitutive coefficients were α = 4.74 and β = -1.71 Mpa for peel and α = 0.76 and β = -1.86 Mpa for flesh samples. Constitutive curves predicted the values of force precisely and close to the experimental values. The curves were fit for whole stress versus strain curve as well as a section of curve up to bio yield point. The modelling outputs had presented good agreement with the empirical values and the constructive curves exhibited a very similar pattern to the experimental curves. The presented constitutive model can be applied next to other agricultural materials under loading in future.

  8. MYBs affect the variation in the ratio of anthocyanin and flavanol in fruit peel and flesh in response to shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfen; Bu, Yufen; Hao, Suxiao; Wang, Yaru; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-03-01

    Fruit pigment accumulation, which represents an important indicator of nutrient quality and appearance value, is often affected by low light under rain, cloud, fog and haze conditions during the veraison period. It is not known whether continuous low light interferes with the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in veraison fruit. In this paper, we measured pigments and the transcriptional level of genes related to secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoid biosynthesis in the peel and flesh of Malus crabapple 'Radiant' fruit in response to normal light and shade from 10th July to 30th August. The results showed crosstalk between the flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the involvement of key transcription factors such as McMYB4, McMYB7, McMYB10, and McMYB16 in the regulation of the ratio of anthocyanins and flavanols, which accounted for the different colouration of the fruit peel and flesh under shade conditions. A model is proposed for the regulation of the flavonoid pathway in the peel and flesh of 'Radiant' fruit based on our study results. Moreover, the molecular mechanism for 'Radiant' fruit colouration provides reference information for understanding the light regulatory mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and for designing the next generation of apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An ancient duplication of apple MYB transcription factors is responsible for novel red fruit-flesh phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagné, David; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V; Volz, Richard K; How, Natalie M; Rouse, Simon; Brendolise, Cyril; Carlisle, Charmaine M; Kumar, Satish; De Silva, Nihal; Micheletti, Diego; McGhie, Tony; Crowhurst, Ross N; Storey, Roy D; Velasco, Riccardo; Hellens, Roger P; Gardiner, Susan E; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is coordinated in plants by a number of conserved transcription factors. In apple (Malus × domestica), an R2R3 MYB transcription factor has been shown to control fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin pigmentation (MYB10) and fruit skin color (MYB1). However, the pattern of expression and allelic variation at these loci does not explain all anthocyanin-related apple phenotypes. One such example is an open-pollinated seedling of cv Sangrado that has green foliage and develops red flesh in the fruit cortex late in maturity. We used methods that combine plant breeding, molecular biology, and genomics to identify duplicated MYB transcription factors that could control this phenotype. We then demonstrated that the red-flesh cortex phenotype is associated with enhanced expression of MYB110a, a paralog of MYB10. Functional characterization of MYB110a showed that it was able to up-regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The chromosomal location of MYB110a is consistent with a whole-genome duplication event that occurred during the evolution of apple within the Maloideae family. Both MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved function in some cultivars, but they differ in their expression pattern and response to fruit maturity.

  10. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined.

  11. Etude Des Caractéristiques Structurelles Des Couches Minces De ZnO. Application à une Cellule Photovoltaïque.

    OpenAIRE

    MERABET, Yassamina

    2014-01-01

    De nos jours les cellules solaires à couches minces sont de plus en plus utilisées essentiellement à raison de leur faible coût. Durant ces dernières décennies les performances de ces cellules ont été nettement améliorées. Dans le présent travail, nous avons fait une étude analytique sur les paramètres (caractéristiques) structurels des couches minces d’Oxyde de Zinc (ZnO) réalisées par la pulvérisation cathodique. Nous avons simulé une cellule solaire à l’aide d’un logiciel (SCAPS1-D) afin d...

  12. Quality Changes of Light Flesh Tuna at Water of Tomini Bay, Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wila Rumina Nento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is one of the mainstay fisheries commodities that involve many of the ordinary fishermen. The handling usually still not follows the principles of good handling that causing the poor quality as the result.The aims of this research were to analyze and to determine the quality of tuna meat (the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. Raw material yellowfin tuna meat prepared for the light, the meat section of the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. The result of organoleptic analysis showed that the tuna meat was above the minimum value for the criteria of fresh fish. The result of TVB analysis showed that the meat on the caudal fin had the highest value and significantly different with the other, but still exist on the safe limits and on the fresh category. For the result of analysis in histamine, it shown that at the fourth hour the meat at the dorsal fin had the histamine content which were above the minimum that have been recommended. For the result of analysis in peroxide number, it shown that the tuna meat did not sustain the fat damage until the fourth hour after the catching process. And for the result of analysis in TPC, it showed that at the fourth hour the tuna meat on the pectoral fin had the highest number of total colony and significantly different with the other.Keywords: handling, histamine, light flesh, microbiology, yellowfin

  13. In vitro characterisation of the fermentation profile and prebiotic capacity of gold-fleshed kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, P; Bentley-Hewitt, K L; Stoklosinski, H; McGhie, T; Gearry, R; Gibson, G; Ansell, J

    2015-01-01

    A new Actinidia chinensis gold-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar 'Zesy002' was tested to investigate whether it could positively modulate the composition of the human colonic microbiota. Digested Zesy002 kiwifruit was added to in vitro pH-controlled anaerobic batch fermenters that were inoculated with representative human faecal microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbial ecology were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic end products were measured using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. Results indicated a substantial shift in the composition of bacteria within the gut models caused by kiwifruit supplementation. Zesy002 supplemented microbiota had a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides spp., Parabacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. after 48 h of fermentation compared with the start of the fermentation. Organic acids from kiwifruit were able to endure simulated gastrointestinal digestion and were detectable in the first 10 h of fermentation. The fermentable carbohydrates were converted to beneficial organic acids with a particular predilection for propionate production, corresponding with the rise in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. These results support the claim that Zesy002 kiwifruit non-digestible fractions can effect favourable changes to the human colonic microbial community and primary metabolites, and demonstrate a hitherto unknown effect of Zesy002 on colonic microbiota under in vitro conditions.

  14. Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purple-fleshed sweet potato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; Sadeghi Ekbatan, Shima; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Das, Dharani Dhar; Prakash, Satya; Burgos, Gabriela; Zum Felde, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit maturation in the red-fleshed orange mutant Cara Cara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquezar, Berta; Rodrigo, Maria J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2008-07-01

    Cara Cara is a spontaneous bud mutation of Navel orange (Citrus. sinensis L. Osbeck) characterized by developing fruits with a pulp of bright red coloration due to the presence of lycopene. Peel of mutant fruits is however orange and indistinguishable from its parental. To elucidate the basis of lycopene accumulation in Cara Cara, we analyzed carotenoid profile and expression of three isoprenoid and nine carotenoid genes in flavedo and pulp of Cara Cara and Navel fruits throughout development and maturation. The pulp of the mutant accumulated high amounts of lycopene, but also phytoene and phytofluene, from early developmental stages. The peel of Cara Cara also accumulated phytoene and phytofluene. The expression of isoprenoid genes and of carotenoid biosynthetic genes downstream PDS (phytoene desaturase) was higher in the pulp of Cara Cara than in Navel. Not important differences in the expression of these genes were observed between the peel of both oranges. Moreover, the content of the plant hormone ABA (abscisic acid) was lower in the pulp of Cara Cara, but the expression of two genes involved in its biosynthesis was higher. The results suggest that an altered carotenoid composition may conduct to a positive feedback regulatory mechanism of carotenoid biosynthesis in citrus fruits. Increased levels of isoprenoid precursors in the mutant that could be channeled to carotenoid biosynthesis may be related to the red-fleshed phenotype of Cara Cara.

  16. Domestic cooking methods affect the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of purple-fleshed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianle; Lv, Feiyan; Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-04-15

    The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, baking, steaming, microwaving, frying, and stir-frying) and a new cooking method (air-frying) on the composition of phytochemicals (phenolics, anthocyanins, and carotenoids) and the antioxidant activity in purple-fleshed potatoes were investigated. Compared with raw potatoes, reductions of 23.59-90.42%, 7.09-72.44%, 7.45-83.15%, and 20.15-76.16% in the vitamin C, total phenolic, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, respectively, was observed after cooking. Decreases of 7.88%, 21.55%, 22.48, 6.31%, and 61.38% in DPPH radical-scavenging activity was also observed after boiling, steaming, baking, microwaving and stir-frying, respectively, whereas an increase of 30.52% was noted after air-frying. A correlation analysis revealed that the antioxidant activity was in accordance with the total phenolic content and that this activity showed the lowest correlation with the vitamin C content. Among all of the cooking methods investigated in this study, stir-frying retained only slight levels of the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity observed in raw potatoes, whereas steaming and microwaving were able to retain most of the health-promoting compounds found in raw potatoes and may thus be suitable methods for cooking potatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Confessions of the flesh and biopedagogies: discursive constructions of obesity on Nip/Tuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rail, G; Lafrance, M

    2009-12-01

    Informed by the work of Michel Foucault, the authors discuss the Nip/Tuck episode entitled "Momma Boone" and how it discursively constructs "obesity". They show how this popular media text can be understood as a crystallisation of the dominant discourse surrounding fat bodies. In the process, how the episode can be seen as a "biopedagogy" that instructs its viewers in how to think and feel about the fat body is examined. Foucault's formulation of the confessional is seen to be useful to theorise the ways in which biopedagogy leads subjects to believe and ultimately take part in processes leading to salvation. It is argued that in this Nip/Tuck episode, biopedagogy functions in and through Momma Boone's "confessions of the flesh", that is, confessions aimed at revealing her obese body so that it can be rescued, rehabilitated and saved. Momma Boone's salvation is shown to require three stages: first, the "confession" of obesity; second, the conversion to the "truth" of the "dominant obesity discourse"; and third, the codification of a "new life" for the obese subject. In the end, it is argued that since it is represented as abject, monstrous and out of control, Momma Boone's body is made to inspire fear and panic in so far as it provides constructed "evidence" regarding the consequences of the obese subject's failure to convert to the truth of obesity discourse.

  18. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  19. Theology in the flesh – a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Meiring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing that is based on an interdisciplinary exploration of the corporeal turn from a southern African perspective. The work of James B. Nelson is acknowledged, stating that body theology starts with the concrete, the bodily expressions of life and not with doctrines about God and humanity. The theological anthropology of David H. Kelsey is evaluated as a theological anthropology with a sentiment of the flesh. Based on clearings in the work of David Kelsey and an interdisciplinary research, the author proposes a model for theological anthropology as embodied sensing which functions within the intricate and complex connection of the living body, language and experiencing in a concrete lifeworld with an openness to the ‘more than’. The author considers the use of bodymapping within narrative therapy as a way in which to uncover the intimate and intricate connection between the living body, experience and language, and implementing insights from theological anthropology as embodied sensing.

  20. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  1. The satiating properties of pork are not affected by cooking methods, sousvide holding time or mincing in healthy men - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad...

  2. Application of mid-infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) for the detection of adulterants in minced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Márquez, Ofelia G; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo

    2010-10-01

    Chemometric MID-FTIR methods were developed to detect and quantify the adulteration of mince meat with horse meat, fat beef trimmings, and textured soy protein. Also, a SIMCA (Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) method was developed to discriminate between adulterated and unadulterated samples. Pure mince meat and adulterants (horse meat, fat beef trimmings and textured soy protein) were characterized based upon their protein, fat, water and ash content. In order to build the calibration models for each adulterant, mixtures of mince meat and adulterant were prepared in the range 2-90% (w/w). Chemometric analyses were obtained for each adulterant using multivariate analysis. A Partial Least Square (PLS) algorithm was tested to model each system (mince meat+adulterant) and the chemical composition of the mixture. The results showed that the infrared spectra of the samples were sensitive to their chemical composition. Good correlations between absorbance in the MID-FTIR and the percentage of adulteration were obtained in the region 1800-900 cm(-1). Values of R(2) greater than 0.99, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range to 0.0001-1.278 and standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.001 and 1.391 for the adulterant and chemical parameters were obtained. The SIMCA model showed 100% classification of adulterated meat samples from unadulterated ones. Chemometric MID-FTIR models represent an attractive option for meat quality screening without sample pretreatments which can identify the adulterant and quantify the percentage of adulteration and the chemical composition of the sample. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing interventions by quantitative risk assessment tools to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis from fresh minced pork meat in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Messens, W; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Van der Stede, Y; Daube, G

    2009-11-01

    The risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat in Belgium was assessed via a modular risk model covering pork meat production from lairage to human consumption. The main goal of the model was to give concrete options to reduce effectively the risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat. These options (scenarios) were elaborated with reference to the international situation and the literature to give concrete and realistic possibilities for improving the microbiological quality of pork meat and to reduce the number of human salmonellosis cases per year in Belgium. The model estimates 15,376 cases of human salmonellosis per year in Belgium due to the consumption of minced pork meat. The results of the scenarios showed that the risk of human salmonellosis could be significantly reduced by efforts all along the pork meat production chain but also by efforts made by consumers. The responsibility of food business operators for the pork meat production chain is high in relation to the microbiological quality of meat delivery, especially at the slaughterhouse. Consumers also need to be aware of good hygiene practices during preparation of the meat at home. Cross-contamination with raw food can be avoided by changing the habits and the behavior of the household cook. The results of these scenarios would be useful for the food business operators involved in the pork meat chain and for public health authorities.

  4. The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil, nisin and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis in minced sheep meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaris, A; Solomakos, N; Pexara, A; Chatzopoulou, P S

    2010-02-28

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano essential oil (EO) at 0.6 or 0.9%, nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, and their combination against Salmonella Enteritidis was studied in minced sheep meat during storage at 4 degrees or 10 degrees C for 12 days. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of oregano EO at 0.6 or 0.9% in minced sheep meat was organoleptically acceptable, and attribute scores were higher for the EO at 0.6 than 0.9%. According to compositional analysis of the oregano EO, the phenols carvacrol (80.15%) and thymol (4.82%) were the predominant components. Treatment of minced sheep meat with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, proved insufficient to act against S. Enteritidis. The combination of the oregano EO at 0.6% with nisin at 500 IU/g showed stronger antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis than the oregano EO at 0.6% but lower than the combination with nisin at 1000 IU/g, which in turn was lower than that of the oregano EO at 0.9%. In its turn, oregano EO at 0.9% showed lower antimicrobial activity than its combinations with nisin at 500 or 1000 IU/g, which showed a bactericidal effect against the pathogen. The inhibition percentages of all treatments against S. Enteritidis at 10 degrees C were higher than those at 4 degrees C. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extensive reorganization of behavior accompanies ontogeny of aggression in male flesh flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darrell; Paquette, Caleb; Shropshire, J Dylan; Seier, Edith; Joplin, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Aggression, costly in both time and energy, is often expressed by male animals in defense of valuable resources such as food or potential mates. Here we present a new insect model system for the study of aggression, the male flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis, and ask whether there is an ontogeny of aggression that coincides with reproductive maturity. After establishing that reproductive maturity occurs by day 3 of age (post-eclosion), we examined the behavior of socially isolated males from different age cohorts (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) upon introduction, in a test arena, with another male of the same age. The results show a pronounced development of aggression with age. The change from relative indifference to heightened aggression involves a profound increase in the frequency of high-intensity aggressive behaviors between days 1 and 3. Also noteworthy is an abrupt increase in the number of statistically significant transitions involving these full-contact agonistic behaviors on day 2. This elevated activity is trimmed back somewhat by day 3 and appears to maintain a stable plateau thereafter. No convincing evidence was found for escalation of aggression nor the establishment of a dominance relationship over the duration of the encounters. Despite the fact that aggressive interactions are brief, lasting only a few seconds, a major reorganization in the relative proportions of four major non-aggressive behaviors (accounting for at least 96% of the total observation time for each age cohort) accompanies the switch from low to high aggression. A series of control experiments, with single flies in the test arenas, indicates that these changes occur in the absence of the performance of aggressive behaviors. This parallel ontogeny of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors has implications for understanding how the entire behavioral repertoire may be organized and reorganized to accommodate the needs of the organism.

  6. Changes in microRNA abundance may regulate diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A; Peyton, Justin T; Denlinger, David L

    2017-05-01

    Diapause, an alternative developmental pathway characterized by changes in developmental timing and metabolism, is coordinated by molecular mechanisms that are not completely understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) mediated gene silencing is emerging as a key component of animal development and may have a significant role in initiating, maintaining, and terminating insect diapause. In the present study, we test this possibility by using high-throughput sequencing and qRT-PCR to discover diapause-related shifts in miRNA abundance in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. We identified ten evolutionarily conserved miRNAs that were differentially expressed in diapausing pupae compared to their nondiapausing counterparts. miR-289-5p and miR-1-3p were overexpressed in diapausing pupae and may be responsible for silencing expression of candidate genes during diapause. miR-9c-5p, miR-13b-3p, miR-31a-5p, miR-92b-3p, miR-275-3p, miR-276a-3p, miR-277-3p, and miR-305-5p were underexpressed in diapausing pupae and may contribute to increased expression of heat shock proteins and other factors necessary for the enhanced environmental stress-response that is a feature of diapause. In S. bullata, a maternal effect blocks the programming of diapause in progeny of females that have experienced pupal diapause, and in this study we report that several miRNAs, including miR-263a-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-125-5p, and let-7-5p were significantly overexpressed in such nondiapausing flies and may prevent entry into diapause. Together these miRNAs appear to be integral to the molecular processes that mediate entry into diapause. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Changes in histone acetylation as potential mediators of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J A; Bautista-Jimenez, Robin; Denlinger, D L

    2016-09-01

    The growing appreciation that epigenetic processes are integral to the responses of many organisms to changes in the environment suggests a possible role for epigenetics in coordination of insect diapause. The results we present suggest that histone modification may be one type of epigenetic process that contributes to regulation of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. Reduction in total histone H3 acetylation in diapausing pupae, shifts in mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) in pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause flies compared to their nondiapause counterparts, and alterations in HDAC enzyme activity during and post-diapause lend support to the hypothesis that this specific type of histone modification is involved in regulating diapause programming, maintenance, and termination. Transcription of genes encoding HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC6, and Sirtuin2 were all upregulated in photosensitive first instar larvae programmed to enter pupal diapause, suggesting that histone deacetylation may be linked to the early decision to enter diapause. A 50% reduction in transcription of hdac3 and a corresponding 30% reduction in HDAC activity during diapause suggest that removal of acetyl groups from histones primarily occurs prior to diapause entry and that further histone deacetylation is not necessary to maintain diapause. Transcription of the HDAC genes was quickly elevated when diapause was terminated, followed by an increase in enzyme activity after a short delay. A maternal effect operating in these flies prevents pupal diapause in progeny whose mothers experienced pupal diapause, even if the progeny are reared in strong diapause-inducing short-day conditions. Such nondiapausing pupae had HDAC transcription profiles nearly identical to the profiles seen in nondiapausing pupae generated under a long-day photoperiod. Together, these results provide consistent evidence for histone acetylation

  8. Transcriptional evidence for small RNA regulation of pupal diapause in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Julie A; Clark, Jennifer; Diakoff, Stephen J; Denlinger, David L

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of diapause, a phenotypically plastic, alternative developmental pathway, is key to predicting the seasonal distribution of economically and medically important insect species. Small regulatory RNAs, including piwi-related RNAs, small-interfering RNAs, and miRNAs, represent one type of epigenetic process that can alter the phenotype of organisms independent of changes in genome sequence. We hypothesize that small RNAs regulate pupal diapause and a maternal block of diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga bullata. We assessed the relative abundance of eight genes related to small RNA biogenesis and function using qRT-PCR in pre-diapause and diapause stages compared to their non-diapause counterparts. Elevated mRNA expression of piwi and spindle-E, as well as argonaute2 and r2d2, in photosensitive 1st instar larvae reared in diapause-inducing conditions indicate involvement of the piwi-associated RNA and small-interfering RNA pathways, respectively, in programming the switch from direct development to a developmental pathway that includes diapause. Two genes, related to the microRNA pathway, argonaute1 and loquacious, are upregulated during pupal diapause, suggesting a role for this pathway in maintaining diapause. Substantial reduction in transcript abundance of small RNA-related genes in photosensitive 1st instar larvae from mothers with a diapause history compared to those from mothers with no diapause history also suggest a role for small RNA pathways in regulating a diapause maternal effect in S. bullata. Together, the results point to a role for small RNAs in regulating the developmental trajectory in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does it Pay to Delay? Flesh Flies Show Adaptive Plasticity in Reproductive Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Ross; Netter, Fleta; Hatle, John D.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Life-history plasticity is widespread among organisms. However, an important question is whether this plasticity is adaptive, enhancing the organism’s fitness. Most models for plasticity in life-history timing predict that once they have reached the minimal nutritional threshold animals under poor conditions will accelerate timing to development or reproduction. Adaptive delays in reproductive timing are not common, especially in short-lived species. Examples of adaptive reproductive delays exist in mammalian populations experiencing strong interspecific (e.g. predation) and intraspecific (e.g. infanticide) competition. But are there other environmental factors that may trigger an adaptive delay in reproductive timing? We show that the short-lived flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis will delay reproductive timing under nutrient poor conditions, even though it has already met the minimal nutritional threshold for reproduction. We test if this delay strategy is consistent with an adaptive response allowing the scavenger time to locate more resources by providing additional protein pulses (early, mid and late) throughout the reproductive delay period. Flies receiving additional protein produced more eggs and larger eggs, demonstrating a benefit of the delay. In addition, by tracking the allocation of carbon from the pulses using stable isotopes, we show that flies receiving earlier pulses incorporated more carbon into eggs and somatic tissue than those provided a later pulse. These results indicate that the reproductive delay in S. crassipalpis is consistent with adaptive post-threshold plasticity, a nutritionally-linked reproductive strategy that has not been previously reported in an invertebrate species. PMID:20953961

  10. Profiling of anthocyanins in transgenic purple-fleshed sweet potatoes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingqiu; Hu, Yijie; Wang, Hongxia; Huang, Yuanshe; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured. The results showed that the total anthocyanin contents increased 1.5-1.9 times in three transgenic lines compared with that in wild-type PSP. Seventeen anthocyanins were found in wild-type PSP, while 19 in Lc-transgenic lines including cyanidin-based, peonidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Three pelargonidin-based anthocyanins were detected in three Lc-transgenic lines. Among them, the relative contents of cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins increased 1.9-2.0 and 3.4-4.5 times respectively, while peonidin-based anthocyanins decreased 1.8-1.9 times in Lc-transgenic lines, compared with wild-type PSP. PSP from wild-type Ayamurasaki and three Lc-transgenic lines exhibited potent antioxidant activities, whereas there was no distinct difference among them. The transgene Lc significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins and remarkably changed the anthocyanin profiles in Ayamurasaki. Such novel and high content of anthocyanins obtained in the Lc-transgenic lines with potent antioxidant activities may provide unique functional products with potential helpful for human health. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Different Expression Analysis in Fruit Softening and Ethylene Biosynthetic Pathways in Peaches of Different Flesh Textures

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    Yong Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess differences in the expression of genes involved in fruit softening and ethylene biosynthetic pathways under different temperature storage conditions. Different peach cultivars of ‘Xiacui’ and ‘Yumyeong’, which are stonyhard, ‘Yinhualu’, which is soft-melting, ‘Hujing Milu’, which is hard-melting, and ‘Baby Gold 6’, which is non-melting at 80% ripening, were collected as test materials. The results showed that only slight ethylene production was detected after harvesting of ‘Yumyeong’ and ‘Xiacui’ under either a room temperature (25 °C or low temperature (4 °C. The fruit firmness of stonyhard cultivars was retained at a high level under room temperature over time, whereas a low temperature induced ‘Yumyeong’ fruit to soften. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that the PpACS1 gene was highly expressed in soft-melting, hard-melting and non-melting cultivars; however, expression was extremely low in stonyhard peaches. PpACS2 or PpACS3, however, was not detected in all five cultivars. Interestingly, cold treatment significantly decreased firmness along with endo-PG expression obviously up-regulated in ‘Yumyeong’, but not in ‘Xiacui’ peaches. In conclusion, this study revealed that fruit softening of peaches with different flesh textures was closely related to ethylene biosynthesis during the storage period, which was controlled via regulating relevant gene expression levels under different storage temperatures.

  12. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

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    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  13. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis: II. spawning in 1970 and 1971

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of eggs of Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, are presented for the years 1970 and 1971 and compared with that of the previous year (1969. The spawning size of three spawning seasons was calculated using Tanaka's method. Incubation time of sardine eggs was estimated using the method of Ahlstrom. During three spawning seasons a considerable change in the relative spawning size was observed. The spawning season (during spring and summer in the southern hemisphere of 1970-71 was poor when compared with those of 1969-70 and 1971-72. A slight change in the average diameter of eggs in different spawning seasons was also observed. The relation between oceanographie conditions and spawning size was analysed. It is suggested that the warm water covering the spawning ground during the 1970-71 spawning season may have caused an unsuccessful spawning in this year.O presente trabalho apresenta a distribuição e abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, na costa sul do Brasil nos anos de 1970 e 1971. Um dos principais objetivos do estudo quantitativo de ovos e larvas de peixes é estimar o tamanho do estoque, através da abundância de ovos desovados. Com essa finalidade, a computação da abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira foi feita usando o método apresentado por Tanaka (1955. O tempo de incubação dos ovos de sardinha foi estimado com base no método da Ahlstrom (1943. A quantidade de ovos desovados variou durante os tres anos (1969 a 1971. Foi feita uma comparação entre a abundância total de ovos desovados e a freqüência de ocorrência de ovos nas estações da região estudada. Os índices de abundância mostram que a desova na época de 1970-71 foi muito fraca, comparada com as de 1969-70 e de 1971-72. Para esclarecer a relação entre a variação anual de tamanho da desova e a condição ambiental, foi analisada a temperatura e salinidade da água na area de desova. Os

  15. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis on the Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during Refrigerated Storage

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    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3% of rosemary oil (RO on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food.

  16. Quality changes during storage of minced fish products containing dietary fiber and fortified with ω3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C; Mendes, R; Pedro, S; Vaz-Pires, P; Nunes, M L

    2010-02-01

    Two ready-to-eat minced fish products from hake were developed, their proximate composition and fatty acid profiles determined and their quality changes followed during 3.5 months under refrigeration at 2 ± 1 °C and 10 ± 1 °C. These products contain dietary fiber and are innovative and healthy. The formulation was identical, except vegetable oil (VO), 5.6% (w/w) in one group and 2.7% (w/w) plus 2.9% (w/w) cod liver oil (CLO) in the other. CLO products had a higher ω3/ω6 ratio (0.54 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.02) and ensured, per 100 g serving, the 500 mg recommended daily intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. CLO products showed lower gel strength (p ≤ 0.05), however, other textural properties were similar to those of the VO group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were higher in CLO products. All groups presented acceptable sensory scores and no microbiological growth. During storage products became redder and less yellow, while seafood aroma and flavor declined and saltiness perception augmented. Temperature had a negative effect on sensory elasticity and instrumental texture.

  17. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Raw Milk, Cheese, Minced Meat, and Chicken Meat Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Alper

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: i) to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in raw milk, cheese, beef minced meat, and chicken meat samples; ii) to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates; and iii) to determine clonal relation among the isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Therefore, a total of 160 food samples were randomly collected between August 2014 and May 2015 in Hatay province, located in the southern Turkey. Twenty (12.5%) of the samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. A total of 40 isolates from the 20 positive samples were confirmed to be S. aureus by multiplex PCR based on 16S rRNA and nuc gene. The mec A gene was not detected in any of the S. aureus strains. In the present study, 39 out of 40 (97.5%) isolates were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was detected in penicillin (95%) and ampicillin (92.5%), followed by tetracycline (30%), erythromycin (20%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%). Nine major patterns were determined by PFGE. In 6 of these patterns, thirty-six strains (90%) had identical PFGE profiles. PMID:28515641

  18. Inhibition of lipid oxidation in refrigerated and frozen salted raw minced chicken breasts with electron beam irradiated almond skin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Amanda S; Were, Lilian M

    2008-12-01

    Antioxidant effects of electron beam irradiated almond skin powder (ASP) in raw minced chicken breasts (MCB) during refrigerated and frozen storage were studied. MCB samples were treated with BHT, non-irradiated ASP (0kGy), irradiated ASP (10kGy, 20kGy and 30kGy) and compared to MCB without antioxidants. Colour was determined on initial and final day of analysis while conjugated dienes (CD), peroxide values (POV), TBARS and hexanal content were evaluated periodically for 12 days of refrigerated storage and seven months of frozen storage. ASP addition lowered L* values compared to MCB without ASP or BHT. During refrigerated storage, MCB containing ASP had decreased formation of lipid oxidation products ranging from 0 to 66%, 7 to 24%, 0 to 37% and 4 to 71% reduction in POV, CD, TBARS and hexanal content, respectively, as compared to MCB without antioxidants over duration of study. A 15-65%, 3-25%, 14-50% and 28-82% reduction in POV, CD, TBARS and hexanal content, respectively, for frozen MCB was detected.

  19. The Influence of Moderate Pressure and Subzero Temperature on the Shelf Life of Minced Cod, Salmon, Pork and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kołodziejska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moderate pressure at subzero temperature on natural microflora of minced cod, salmon, pork and beef meat was studied. Pressure of 193 MPa at –20 °C caused the reduction of total bacterial count in pork and beef meat by 1.1 and 0.6 log cycles, respectively, and by about 1.5 log cycles in fish meat. Under these conditions the psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria were below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g of sample in pork and beef meat, while in cod and salmon meat they were reduced only by 1.3 and 2.0 log cycles, respectively. In all tested samples of meat treated with the pressure of 193 MPa at –20 °C, the number of coliforms was below 10 CFU/g. Under these conditions a significant reduction in the number of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was also observed. During storage of samples at 4 °C after pressurization at 193 MPa and –20 °C, the inhibition of growth of all tested groups of bacteria was observed. Moderate pressure at subzero temperature does not ensure complete inactivation of bacteria; however, it allows the improvement of microbiological quality and extension of shelf life of food, which depends on the level of bacterial contamination of the initial raw material.

  20. Metabolic and transcriptional elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in peel and flesh tissue of loquat fruit during on-tree development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipieri, Margarita; Georgiadou, Egli C; Marin, Alicia; Diaz-Mula, Huertas M; Goulas, Vlasios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Manganaris, George A

    2017-06-14

    Carotenoids are the main colouring substances found in orange-fleshed loquat fruits. The aim of this study was to unravel the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of loquat fruit (cv. 'Obusa') in peel and flesh tissue during distinct on-tree developmental stages through a targeted analytical and molecular approach. Substantial changes regarding colour parameters, both between peel and flesh and among the different developmental stages, were monitored, concomitant with a significant increment in carotenoid content. Key genes and individual compounds that are implicated in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were further dissected with the employment of molecular (RT-qPCR) and advanced analytical techniques (LC-MS). Results revealed significant differences in carotenoid composition between peel and flesh. Thirty-two carotenoids were found in the peel, while only eighteen carotenoids were identified in the flesh. Trans-lutein and trans-β-carotene were the major carotenoids in the peel; the content of the former decreased with the progress of ripening, while the latter registered a 7.2-fold increase. However, carotenoid profiling of loquat flesh indicated trans-β-cryptoxanthin, followed by trans-β-carotene and 5,8-epoxy-β-carotene to be the most predominant carotenoids. High amounts of trans-β-carotene in both tissues were supported by significant induction in a chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB) transcript levels. PSY1, ZDS, CYCB and BCH were up-regulated and CRTISO, LCYE, ECH and VDE were down-regulated in most of the developmental stages compared with the immature stage in both peel and flesh tissue. Overall, differential regulation of expression levels with the progress of on-tree fruit development was more evident in the middle and downstream genes of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Carotenoid composition is greatly affected during on-tree loquat development with striking differences between peel and flesh tissue. A link between gene up- or down

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF WHITE AND RED FLESH FROM GUAVA LEAF ( Psidium guajava. L AGAINTS Staphylococcus aureus AND Escherichia coli

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    Hilda Maysarah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An antibacterial activity test of ethanol extract of white and red flesh from guava leaf (Psidium guajava. L against S.aureus and E.coli; using agar diffusion method was carried out in order to produce the extract. The extract was collected using maceration method. The concentration of extract was 7,8125; 6,1035; 5,00; 4,8828; 4,3944; and 3,90625 mg/mL. The results showed that both of extracts had antibacterial activities. Ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf had (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC value at 5.000 mg/mL against S.aureus and 4.8828 mg/mL against E.coli. Whereas ethanol extract of red flesh of fruit guava leaf had MIC value at 4.3944 mg/mL against S.aureus and E.coli.  MIC value of ethanol extract of white flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal with MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli. The MIC value of red flesh of fruit guava leaf is equal to the MIC value of clindamicin concentration at 3.00 µg/mL against S.aureus, and 1.00 µg/mL against E.coli.

  2. Expression Differences of Pigment Structural Genes and Transcription Factors Explain Flesh Coloration in Three Contrasting Kiwifruit Cultivars

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    Yanfei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red (‘Hongyang’, or yellow (‘Jinnong-2’, or green (‘Hayward’ flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the ‘Jinnong-2’ fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation. The red inner pericarps of ‘Hongyang’ fruit are due to anthocyanin accumulation. Expression differences of the pathway genes in the inner pericarps of the three different kiwifruits suggest that stay-green (SGR controls the degradation of chlorophylls, while lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β controls the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. The abundance of anthocyanin in the inner pericarps of the ‘Hongyang’ fruit is the results of high expressions of UDP flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGT. At the same time, expressions of anthocyanin transcription factors show that AcMYBF110 expression parallels changes in anthocyanin concentration, so seems to be a key R2R3 MYB, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further, transient color assays reveal that AcMYBF110 can autonomously induce anthocyanin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves by activating the transcription of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (NtDFR, anthocyanidin synthase (NtANS and NtUFGT. For basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs and WD-repeat proteins (WD40s, expression differences show these may depend on AcMYBF110 forming a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, instead of it having a direct involvement.

  3. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

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    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

  4. Regulating irrigation during pre-harvest to avoid the incidence of translucent flesh disorder and gamboge disorder of mangosteen fruits

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    Rawee Chiarawipa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In humid tropical areas, excess water during pre-harvest usually causes the occurrence of translucent flesh disorder (TFD and gamboge disorder (GD in mangosteen. To evaluate options for avoiding these incidences, an experiment was conducted with different water management regimes during pre-harvest. Twelve 14-year-old trees were grown under transparent plastic cover with three irrigation regimes: 1 Control (rainfed condition, 2 7-d interval watering, 3 4-d interval watering and 4 daily watering. A further four trees were arranged as the control (rainfed treatment, but these were grown without the plastic roof cover. The treatments were started at 9 weeks after bloom. The results showed that diurnal changes of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were lowest in the control, because intermittent drying occurred during the study period. The highest fruit diameter, fruit weight, flesh firmness and flesh and rind water contents were found in the daily watering treatment. However, all of these values were lowest in the control trees. The amount of TFD was also lowest in the control (3.7%, and it was significantly different from the treatment where trees were watered at 4-d intervals (18.0% and where trees were watered daily (28.9%. There was no significant difference of TFD between the control and the 7-d interval watering treatments. In contrast, GD was not significantly different among the treatments. It is suggested that the risk of TFD and GD incidence could be avoided by maintaining mild soil water deficit around -70 kPa during pre-harvest.

  5. Participatory selection of orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties in north and north-east Côte d’Ivoire

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    Brice Dibi Konan Evrard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweetpotato is cultivated in all the regions of Côte d’Ivoire for consumption and as a source of income. Only varieties with white or yellow flesh are grown. Production of nutritious orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP is hampered by the lack of genetic resources and planting material. To evaluate and release OFSP varieties, on-farm demonstration tests were conducted with women farmer groups in Bondoukou, Nassian, Korhogo and Bondiali in the north and northeast Côte d’Ivoire. Six varieties- ‘Kabode’, ‘Kakamega7’ (‘Irene’, ‘Tacha’, ‘Bela Bela’, ‘Vita’ and TIB-440060-were evaluated in comparison with locally grown varieties. The on-farm demonstration was laid out in a randomised complete block design with replicated three times per location. Assessments were made on yield, disease and pests; and consumer preference on attractiveness of skin color and flesh of the root (fresh and boiled, taste, texture and starchiness. Results showed that introduced varieties have generally recorded higher yields than the local varieties: Yields of about 25 t/ha have been recorded on the sites. The best average yield of about 15 t/ha, was recorded for TIB-440060 and ‘Irene’ varieties. Farmers’ acceptance of OFSP varieties based on the attraction of their color, the dry matter content and taste was more than 90%. At the end of the sensory tests, ‘Irene’, which achieved the best compromise between all observed and measured parameters, was most appreciated and was the farmers’ first choice, followed by varieties TIB-440060 and ‘Bela bela’.

  6. From lab to life: Making storable orange-fleshed sweetpotato purée a commercial reality

    OpenAIRE

    Bocher Temesgen; Low Jan W.; Muoki Penina; Magnaghi Antonio; Muzhingi Tawanda

    2017-01-01

    Research in Rwanda demonstrated that orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) purée (steamed, mashed roots) was an economically viable, vitamin A enhancing ingredient in baked products when the purée was produced and used in the same bakery. Having a storable, packaged OFSP purée produced by a firm to supply bakers is an alternative model. Vacuum-packed OFSP purée with preservatives with a four-month shelf-life at 23°C was developed by the International Potato Center under laboratory conditions in 2...

  7. Qualidade pós-colheita de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado armazenado sob refrigeração e atmosfera modificada Postharvest quality of fresh-cut 'Orange Flesh' melon stored under refrigeration and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Monteiro Vilas Boas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Melões 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processados foram armazenados por 8 dias sob refrigeração (6 ± 1ºC e 90 ± 5% UR e atmosfera modificada (passiva e ativas: 5% O2 + 5% CO2 e 2% O2 + 10% CO2. As variáveis pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e acetaldeído não foram influenciadas pelas atmosferas estudadas. Aumentos na concentração de CO2 ocorreram ao logo do armazenamento, sendo que a atmosfera modificada ativa (2% O2 + 10% CO2 foi mais eficaz no controle da produção de CO2 até o quarto dia de armazenamento.Fresh-cut 'Orange Flesh' melons were stored for 8 days under refrigeration (6 ± 1ºC e 90 ± 5% RH and modified atmosphere (passive and active: 5% O2 + 5% CO2 and 2% O2 + 10% CO2. The variables pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and acetaldehyde were not affected, differently, for the atmospheres studied. Increase in CO2 concentration occurred over the storage period. Active modified atmosphere (2% O2 + 10% CO2 was the most effective in controlling the CO2 production until the fourth day of storage.

  8. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  9. The Use of Tomato Powder Fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei for the Ready-to-Cook Minced Meat Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazina Juodeikiene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the infl uence of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of tomato powder was evaluated. The eff ect of adding fermented tomato powder to ready-to-cook minced pork meat to improve its nutritional value and sensory characteristics was also analysed. The cell growth of Lactobacillus sakei (7.53 log CFU/g was more intense in the medium containing tomato powder, compared to the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus (6.35 log CFU/g during 24 h of fermentation; however, higher acidity (pH=4.1 was observed in the tomato powder samples fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus. The spontaneous fermentation of tomato powder reduced cell growth by 38 % and pH values slightly increased to 4.17, compared to the fermentation with pure LAB. The lactofermentation of tomato powder increased the average β-carotene and lycopene mass fractions by 43.9 and 50.2 %, respectively, compared with the nonfermented samples. Lycopene and β-carotene contents in the ready-to-cook minced pork meat were proportional to the added tomato powder (10 and 30 %. Aft er cooking, β-carotene and lycopene contents decreased, on average, by 24.2 and 41.2 %, respectively. The highest loss (up to 49.2 % of carotenoids was found in samples with 30 % nonfermented tomato powder. Tomato powder fermented with 10 % Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 can be recommended as both a colouring agent and a source of lycopene in the preparation of ready-to-cook minced pork meat.

  10. The Use of Tomato Powder Fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei for the Ready-to-Cook Minced Meat Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Zadeike, Daiva; Viskelis, Pranas; Urbonaviciene, Dalia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the influence of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of tomato powder was evaluated. The effect of adding fermented tomato powder to ready-to-cook minced pork meat to improve its nutritional value and sensory characteristics was also analysed. The cell growth of Lactobacillus sakei (7.53 log CFU/g) was more intense in the medium containing tomato powder, compared to the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus (6.35 log CFU/g) during 24 h of fermentation; however, higher acidity (pH=4.1) was observed in the tomato powder samples fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus. The spontaneous fermentation of tomato powder reduced cell growth by 38% and pH values slightly increased to 4.17, compared to the fermentation with pure LAB. The lactofermentation of tomato powder increased the average β-carotene and lycopene mass fractions by 43.9 and 50.2%, respectively, compared with the nonfermented samples. Lycopene and β-carotene contents in the ready-to-cook minced pork meat were proportional to the added tomato powder (10 and 30%). After cooking, β-carotene and lycopene contents decreased, on average, by 24.2 and 41.2%, respectively. The highest loss (up to 49.2%) of carotenoids was found in samples with 30% nonfermented tomato powder. Tomato powder fermented with 10% Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 can be recommended as both a colouring agent and a source of lycopene in the preparation of ready-to-cook minced pork meat.

  11. Co-delivery of micronized urinary bladder matrix damps regenerative capacity of minced muscle grafts in the treatment of volumetric muscle loss injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Goldman

    Full Text Available Minced muscle grafts (MG promote de novo muscle fiber regeneration and neuromuscular strength recovery in small and large animal models of volumetric muscle loss. The most noteworthy limitation of this approach is its reliance on a finite supply of donor tissue. To address this shortcoming, this study sought to evaluate micronized acellular urinary bladder matrix (UBM as a scaffolding to promote in vivo expansion of this MG therapy in a rat model. Rats received volumetric muscle loss injuries to the tibialis anterior muscle of their left hind limb which were either left untreated or repaired with minced muscle graft at dosages of 50% and 100% of the defect mass, urinary bladder matrix in isolation, or a with an expansion product consisting of a combination of the two putative therapies in which the minced graft is delivered at a dosage of 50% of the defect mass. Rats survived to 2 and 8 weeks post injury before functional (in vivo neuromuscular strength, histological, morphological, and biochemical analyses were performed. Rats treated with the expansion product exhibited improved neuromuscular function relative to untreated VML after an 8 week time period following injury. This improvement in functional capacity, however, was accompanied with a concomitant reduction in graft mediated regeneration, as evidenced cell lineage tracing enable by a transgenic GFP expressing donor, and a mixed histological outcome indicating coincident fibrous matrix deposition with interspersed islands of nascent muscle fibers. Furthermore, quantitative immunofluorescence and transcriptional analysis following the 2 week time point suggests an exacerbated immune response to the UBM as a possible nidus for the observed suboptimal regenerative outcome. Moving forward, efforts related to the development of a MG expansion product should carefully consider the effects of the host immune response to candidate biomaterials in order to avoid undesirable dysregulation of pro

  12. Basis for calculating technological parameters of preparation of minced salted fish products of intermediate moisture with specified physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of water activity on basic physical and chemical characteristics of salted fish products with intermediate moisture has been defined. During the research the product quality has been assessed by the organoleptic method; determination of the water mass fraction has been carried out by the drying method; the salt mass fraction – by the argentometric method; water activity has been measured by a cooled mirror dew-point sensor. Based on experimental data the dependence of Aw on concentration of sodium chloride in the salt semi-finished products of pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias, blue whiting (Micromesistius, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus has been established. The empirical formula showing the correlation of the parameter (Aw with mass fraction of sodium chloride and water has been derived; on its basis it is possible to calculate the parameters of semi-finished product in order to obtain a final minced salt product of intermediate moisture with desired microbial stability upon storage. The relations between the salt mass fraction and water mass fraction excluding bacterial spoilage and mold growth has been determined, they make up S ≥ 0,135 ∙ W and S ≥ 0,34 ∙ W respectively, where S – the mass fraction of salt, %, W – the mass fraction of water, %. An example of calculating the required dosage of sodium chloride in the semi-finished minced salmon has been described to produce the finished product with the exactly given values of humidity and water activity. During the process of minced salted fish products' dehydration the basic physical and chemical parameters – the mass fraction of salt and water affecting the water activity (Aw – have been changing. Determination of these parameters' relationship provides the ability to predict the qualitative changes of salted fish products of intermediate moisture

  13. Control of spoilage microorganisms in minced pork by a self-developed modified atmosphere induced by the respiratory activity of meat microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoumanis, K P; Stamatiou, A P; Drosinos, E H; Nychas, G-J E

    2008-10-01

    The changes in microbial flora of minced pork during aerobic storage at 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees C were studied. Minced pork samples (100g) were packed using two types of packaging films: (a) a common food film with high permeability (HPF) and (b) a film with low permeability (LPF). The respiratory activity of meat microflora and the use of a LPF resulted in a modified atmosphere in the package headspace developed during storage. Oxygen concentration decreased from 18.7% (after packaging) to 7% (after 15 days of storage) in packages with LPF, stored at 0 degrees C, while CO(2) increased from 3% to 10.5%, respectively. On the contrary, no significant atmosphere changes were observed during storage of HPF packages. The self-developed modified atmosphere in LPF packages resulted in a significant inhibition of pseudomonad growth which was more pronounced at low storage temperatures. For example, during storage at 0 degrees C, the growth rate of pseudomonads in meat packed with LPF was reduced by 48.7% compared to HPF. At 10 degrees C the latter reduction decreased to 13.7%. LPF packaging was also found to inhibit the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta but this inhibition was weaker compared to pseudomonads. The effect of storage temperature on the growth rate of pseudomonads and B. thermosphacta in minced pork packed with the different films was modeled using an Arrhenius equation. For both bacteria, the activation energy was higher for LPF packaging. This can be attributed to the increased inhibitory effect of the modified atmosphere at lower storage temperature. The Arrhenius model was further used to evaluate the effect of temperature on the time required by the two bacteria to reach a spoilage level of 10(7)CFU/g. The results showed that when LPF packaging is combined with effective temperature control the time-to-spoilage can be significantly extended compared to HPF packaging.

  14. Household Consumption of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato and its Associated Factors in Chipata District, Eastern Province Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Patricia; Kunneke, Ernesta; Faber, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    The Integrating Orange Project promotes production and consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) to address vitamin A deficiency among rural populations of Zambia since 2011. This study assessed household production and consumption of OFSP and identified factors associated with consumption thereof in Integrating Orange Project areas in Chipata district, Zambia. Respondents of 295 randomly selected households were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the sweet potato harvest season. Associations between OFSP consumption and household factors were assessed using χ 2 tests. Frequency of OFSP consumption was categorized as ≥4 days during the last 7 days (30.2%), 1 to 3 days during the last 7 days (49.5%), eats OFSP but not during the last 7 days (7.1%), and never (13.2%). In total, 60.3% of households planted OFSP, and 40.0% bought OFSP, mostly from farmers within the community. Orange-fleshed sweet potato consumption was associated with the presence of children aged less than 5 years in the household ( P = .018), production of OFSP ( P .05). A high percentage of households consumed OFSP during the harvesting season in Integrating Orange Project areas. Programs promoting OFSP consumption should thus focus on OFSP production and sensitizing households on nutritional benefits of OFSP and target households with children aged less than 5 years as entry point.

  15. [Effects of exogenous ABA and GA3 on sugar concentration in flesh of cara cara navel orange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-yuan; Xia, Ren-xue; Zeng, Xiang-guo; Wu, Qiang-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The concentration of glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugar were determined after exogenous ABA and GA3 treatment during young period of fruit and before fruit coloring in flesh of Cara Cara Navel Orange. The results showed that 10 mg x L(-1) ABA treatment improved glucose, fructose and total sugar concentration significantly or very significantly, 50 mg x L(-1) ABA treatment improved sucrose concentration very significantly, but 100 mg x L(-1) ABA treatment reduced glucose concentration very significantly. GA3 treatment of lower and middle concentrations (10, 50 and 250 mg x L(-1)) improved sucrose concentration very significantly, 10 mg x L(-1) GA3 treatment had no remarkable effect on glucose and fructose concentration but improved total sugar concentration very significantly, GA3 treatment of 50, 250 and 500 mg x L(-1) decreased glucose, fructose and total sugar concentration very significantly. Therefore, ABA treatment of lower concentration could improve one or several kinds of sugar concentration, but GA3 treatment of higher concentration (250 and 500 mg x L(-1)) prohibited sugar accumulation in flesh of Cara Cara Navel Orange seriously.

  16. Characterization of olive oil obtained from whole fruit and fruit flesh of cultivar: Kaissy grown in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO from whole fruits and fruit flesh of Kaissy olive (Olea europaea cultivar was investigated in this study. Acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, specification number (SV, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value, phenol content, refractive index (RI and viscosity were measured after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. The physicochemical properties of oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh samples of olive were: AV (0.32 and 0.40%, PV (4.79 and 6.13%, TBA (0.056 and 0.052 mg MDA kg-1 oil, IV (84.41 and 83.87 g-1 oil, SV (195.48 and 187.56 mg KOH g-1 oil, total phenolic (339.52 and 226.68 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil, RI (1.4669 and 1.4668 and viscosity (129.33 and 130.00 mPa s-1 respectively. The results demonstrated that the AV, PV, RI and viscosity values significantly (p<0.05 increased, while TBA value and total phenolic content significantly (p<0.05 decreased during storage.

  17. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antiproliferative Activities of Free and Bound Phenolics from Peel and Flesh of Fuji Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jincan; Zhang, Pei; Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of flesh free (FF), flesh bound (FB), peel free (PF), and peel bound (PB) phenolics from Fuji apple. The PB, which had highest total phenolic contents (126.15 ± 2.41 mg/100 g wet weight) and lowest total carbohydrate contents (34.68 ± 2.78 mg/100 g wet weight), showed the strongest 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.36 ± 0.02 mg/mL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (Ferric reducing antioxidant power; EC50 = 0.19 ± 0.02 mg/mL) compared with those of FF, FB, and PF. The PB also showed the strongest antibacterial activities on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes and it also showed the highest antiproliferative effects on Caco-2 human colonic cancer cell (EC50 = 1.44 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and Hela human cervical cell (EC50 = 2.81 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Both free and bound phenolics from Fuji apple showed good antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities in our study, and bound phenolics had significantly higher activities compared with those of free phenolics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Gender-sensitive Value Chain Intervention Improved Profit Efficiency among Orange-fleshed Sweetpotato Producers in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rwanda Super Foods project sought to develop a value chain for processed orange-fleshed sweetpotato products to respond to farmer concerns over lack of markets. This study used data collected from five districts in rural Rwanda under supper food project between August and September 2014. The study applied a stochastic profit frontier model to data collected from 846 households growing sweetpotato, among which 327 were value chain participants; 312 were “spillover” households that received planting material from participant households, and the remainder control households with no project links. Results showed that average level of profit efficiency in sweetpotato production systems is 55%; suggesting that an estimated 45% of profit is lost due to the combined effect of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency. The profit efficiency of participant households was 64% compared to 20% of the control households. Moreover, the profit efficiency of the female beneficiary, female spillover, and male beneficiary households was found to be 55%, 70%, and 90% against 17% for male control households, respectively. Findings suggest that an orange-fleshed sweetpotato based value chain intervention can enhance the profit efficiency of the poor and disadvantageous households, if designed with special attention to women’s needs. Thus, polices and programs aiming at improving the livelihood of smallholder should be designed targeting women and resource poor.

  19. Gelation of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) minced muscle as affected by pressure and thermal treatments at low salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Binh Q; Buckow, Roman; Nguyen, Minh H; Furst, John

    2017-08-01

    Barramundi minced muscle with salt 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 added is gelled by different combinations of pressurisation (300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C for 10 min), cooking (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30 min) and setting (0.1 MPa, 50 °C for 2 h) to improve mechanical properties of barramundi gels and reduce salt added to barramundi gels. At the low salt concentration of 10 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to cooking (P-C) treatment induced barramundi gels with comparable mechanical properties and water-holding capacity to those of conventional heat induced (HI) gels with 20 g kg-1 added salt. At salt concentration of 20 g kg-1 , pressurisation prior to setting (P-S) and P-C gels exhibited higher mechanical properties and water-holding capacity as compared to HI gels. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth and dense microstructure of P-C and P-S gels whereas the microstructure of HI gels is rough and less compact. P-C treatment can reduce salt concentration added to barramundi gels to 10 g kg-1 . P-S and P-C treatment can result in higher mechanical and functional properties of barramundi gels at conventional salt concentration (20 g kg-1 ) as compared to HI gels. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready – to cook – minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significant...

  1. The Use of Tomato Powder Fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus sakei for the Ready-to-Cook Minced Meat Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Grazina Juodeikiene; Daiva Zadeike; Pranas Viskelis; Dalia Urbonaviciene; Elena Bartkiene

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the infl uence of lactic acid fermentation on the quality of tomato powder was evaluated. The eff ect of adding fermented tomato powder to ready-to-cook minced pork meat to improve its nutritional value and sensory characteristics was also analysed. The cell growth of Lactobacillus sakei (7.53 log CFU/g) was more intense in the medium containing tomato powder, compared to the growth of Pediococcus pentosaceus (6.35 log CFU/g) during 24 h of fermentation; however, higher acidity...

  2. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Smaoui, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2017-08-03

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is a flowing plant belonging to the Rutaceae family. Citrus plants constitute one of the main valuable sources of essential oil used in foods and medicinal purposes. In this study, we assessed chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. limon essential oil (ClEO) with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major components of the obtained ClEO. The antioxidant activities of this ClEO were determined according to the β-carotene bleaching assay, as well as by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For antimicrobial activity, agar well diffusion method was used and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as well as the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The in situ effect of the ClEO was evaluated through physicochemical parameters (pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as against L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat model. Twenty one components were identified in the ClEO and the two dominant compounds were limonene (39.74%) and β-Pinene (25.44%). This ClEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an extract concentration providing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of 15.056 μg/ml and a strong β-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC 50 of 40.147 μg/ml. The MICs varied from 0.039 to 1.25 mg/ml for Gram positive bacteria and from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria. The meat preserving potential of ClEO was investigated against L. monocytogenes. ClEO successfully inhibited development of L. monocytogenes in minced beef meat. The application of ClEO at a 0.06 and 0.312 mg/g, may open new promising opportunities for the prevention of contamination from and growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly L. monocytogenes, during minced beef meat storage at 4 °C. Additionally, during

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreover...... favourable pH and aw for bacterial growth, no microbial competition and no lag phase, the equivalent times reported are based on worst-case scenarios. This analysis suggested, for example, that red meat, vacuum packed beef and poultry could be stored at 2 °C for up to 14, 39 and 5 days, respectively, without...

  4. Comparison of spawning patterns of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita in Ubatuba region, southern Brazil during 1985 through 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita inhabit the southeastern Brazilian Bight. The former spawns at night (21:00-03:00 in coastal region during late-spring and summer, meanwhile, the latter spawns all year-around, mainly in coastal region during summer and in neritic region during winter. The spawning time of E. anchoita was observed all day long, but more intensively at night. During summer there occurs a strong vertical stratification of water masses. The spawning of S. brasiliensis occurs in surface mixed layer, while that of E. anchoita occurs beneath the thermocline inside the cool South Atlantic Central Water which occupies the bottom layer during late spring and summer. However, the sardine and anchovy egss and larvae were found inside both the upper tropical and lower cold water masses, but predominantly above thermocline in this regionNeste trabalho são analisados os padrões sazonais de desova da sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis, e da anchoita, Engraulis anchoita, baseado em dados coletados em águas costeiras de Ubatuba (SP, entre 1985 e 1988. Ambas as espécies habitam a costa sudeste do Brasil A primeira efetua desova durante a noite (21:00 - 23:00 h na região costeira durante o fim da primavera e o verão, enquanto que a segunda desova durante todo o ano, principalmente na região costeira durante o verão e na região nerítica durante o inverno. A desova da anchoita foi observada ao longo de todo o dia, porém com mais intensidade à noite. No verão, ocorre uma forte estratificação vertical das massas d'água. A desova da sardinha-verdadeira ocorre na camada superficial de mistura, enquanto que a da anchoita ocorre abaixo da termoclina, nas águas frias da "Água Central do Atlântico Sul" (ACAS, que ocupam as camadas do fundo durante o verão. Entretanto, ovos e larvas de ambas as espécies foram encontrados tanto na camada superior, de água tropical, como na camada

  5. Sensory evaluation of boar-taint-containing minced meat, dry-cured ham and dry fermented sausage by a trained expert panel and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Wauters, Jella; Vercruysse, Vicky; Aluwé, Marijke; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-10-15

    One of the main issues related to entire male pigs is the occurrence of boar taint, an off-odour, which compromises meat consumability. In this study, odour thresholds (indole: 24-65µgkg(-1), skatole: 44-89µgkg(-1), androstenone: 121-342µgkg(-1)) for the boar taint compounds were estimated in minced meat, dry fermented sausage and dry-cured ham. Afterwards, sensory evaluation of these products containing 10% tainted meat (minced meat and dry fermented sausage) or moderate boar taint compound levels (dry-cured ham) occurred. The beneficial effect of diluting tainted meat was demonstrated, as no significant difference in consumability was observed between gilts and 10% tainted meat by experts as well as consumers. Also dry-curing proved a promising technique for masking boar taint and preventing consumer dissatisfaction. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability of the estimated thresholds in meat as a tool for identifying masking and reducing strategies on the perception of boar taint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thymus capitata Essential Oil with Its Preservative Effect against Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated in Minced Beef Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Nariman; Kaabi, Belhassen; Smaali, Mohamed Issam; Chabbouh, Meriem; Habibi, Kamel; Mejri, Mondher; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Ben Hadj Ahmed, Sami

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and the preservative effect of Thymus capitata essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat were evaluated. The essential oil extracted was chemically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen components were identified, of which carvacrol represented (88.89%) of the oil. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by using both the DPPH and the ABTS assays. The findings showed that the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity, which was comparable to the reference standards (BHT and ascorbic acid) with IC50 values of 44.16 and 0.463 μ g/mL determined by the free-radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. Furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity using disc agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The results demonstrated that the zone of inhibition varied from moderate to strong (15-80 mm) and the minimum inhibition concentration values ranged from 0.32 to 20 mg/mL. In addition, essential oil evaluated in vivo against Listeria monocytogenes showed clear and strong inhibitory effect. The application of 0.25 or 1% (v/w) essential oil of T. capitata to minced beef significantly reduced the L. monocytogenes population when compared to those of control samples (P-value  <0.01).

  7. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg-1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. High pressure effect on the color of minced cured restructured ham at different levels of drying, pH, and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Lindahl, Gunilla; Karlsson, Anders H; Lloret, Elsa; Ferrini, Gabriele; Arnau, Jacint; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    Color changes of minced cured restructured ham was studied considering the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (600MPa, 13°C, 5min), raw meat pH(24) (low, normal, high), salt content (15, 30g/kg), and drying (20%, 50% weight loss). Raw hams were selected based on pH(24) in Semimembranosus, mixed with additives, frozen, sliced, and dried using the Quick-Dry-Slice® process. Meat color (CIE 1976 L*a*b*) and reflectance spectra were measured before and after HP treatment. HP significantly increased L*, decreased a*, and decreased b* for restructured ham dried to 20% weight loss, regardless of salt content and pH(24). L* and a* were best preserved in high pH/high salt restructured ham. HP had no effect on the color of restructured ham dried to 50% weight loss. HP had no effect on the shape of reflectance curves, indicating that the pigment responsible for minced cured restructured ham color did not change due to HP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The current impact and potential of biotechnology to improve the capacity of orange-fleshed sweet potato to prevent vitamin A deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world and an important cause of premature death in young children and pregnant women. Billions of people get most of their vitamin A from plants that are rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene. Orange-fleshe...

  11. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  12. Nutrigenomic studies on hilsa to evaluate flesh quality attributes and genes associated with fatty acid metabolism from the rivers Hooghly and Padma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Mitra, Tandrima; Mohanty, Sasmita; Das, Basanta Kumar; Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna

    2018-01-01

    The Indian shad hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), a commercially important food fish rich in oils, enjoys high consumer preference in the South Asian countries owing to its unique flavour and culinary properties. The present study was undertaken with the primary objective of determining the flesh quality attributes of hilsa in terms of nutritive value (gross chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral composition), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism and flesh quality. Additionally, comparative studies on the flesh quality attributes in hilsa from two distributaries of river Ganga i.e. Hooghly and Padma were also carried out. A high WHC (>80%) suggested juicy and tender nature of hilsa meat. The protein content was 18-21% in hilsa from both the rivers and essential amino acid lysine, valine and functional amino acids leucine and arginine were significantly higher in Hooghly hilsa (Pattributes of hilsa has enriched the knowledgebase. Further, from comparative nutrient analysis on hilsa from river Hooghly and Padma, it was observed that Hooghly hilsa is superior in terms of oil content, ω-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA and essential amino acids; however, the expression profile of genes associated with flesh quality were found to be similar. Thus, within the scope of the present study, Hooghly hilsa (medium size category, 500-700g size) was found to be nutritionally superior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  15. Phenolics content, fruit flesh colour and browning in cultivated eggplant, wild relatives and interspecific hybrids and implications for fruit quality breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prashant; Gramazio, Pietro; Vilanova, Santiago; Raigón, María D; Prohens, Jaime; Plazas, Mariola

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the content in bioactive phenolics in the eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is of interest, but may result in enhanced browning. We evaluated six varieties of S. melongena, 22 accessions of wild related species and 42 interspecific hybrids between cultivated eggplant and wild relatives for phenolics content, fruit flesh colour, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and fruit flesh browning. Wild relatives generally had a higher content in phenolics and a broader range of variation than cultivated eggplant. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant (>65.0%) phenolic acid in cultivated eggplant and its primary genepool wild ancestor S. insanum, while for the other wild species on average represented phenolics or chlorogenic acid contents and fruit flesh browning, but PPO activity was correlated to both the degree of browning (r=0.404) and colour difference (r=0.458). The results indicate that wild species can contribute to improving the bioactive properties of eggplant without affecting negatively fruit flesh colour and browning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical changes in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix minced muscle during frozen storage: Effect of a previous washing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Hedayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has acquired great attention because of its increasing farming production and application in the surimi-product commercialization. This work focuses on the effect of a washing process followed by frozen storage (6 months; -18 °C on the quality of minced silver carp muscle. A previous washing step has led to a positive effect on fish quality according to marked content decreases in expressible moisture, volatile amines, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; such quality performances were maintained throughout the frozen storage. On the other hand, most indexes tested showed quality losses throughout the frozen storage in both washed and unwashed fish material; however, water holding capacity (WHC remained unchanged in washed fish throughout the frozen storage. Among quality indexes, a special attention should be given to the expressible moisture value and accordingly the WHC, as being closely related to the gelforming ability in order to obtain surimi-type commercial products.La carpa plateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ha adquirido un gran interés debido a su creciente producción acuícola y a su empleo en la elaboración de surimi. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo el estudio del efecto que sobre la calidad de músculo de carpa plateada desmenuzada puede tener un proceso de lavado seguido de conservación en congelación (6 meses; -18 °C. Así, se observó un efecto positivo del lavado sobre la calidad de acuerdo con un descenso en los contenidos de humedad exprimible, aminas volátiles, ácidos grasos libres y sustancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico; esta mejora de calidad se mantuvo durante la conservación en congelación. Asimismo, la mayoría de los índices de calidad estudiados reflejaron pérdidas de calidad durante la conservación en congelación independientemente del tratamiento previo; sin embargo, la capacidad de retención de agua permaneci

  17. Substrates emulsification process to improve lipase-catalyzed sardine oil glycerolysis in different systems. Evaluation of lipid oxidation of the reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Melgosa, Rodrigo; Beltrán, Sagrario

    2017-10-01

    Mono- and diacylglycerols rich in omega-3 have a great interest due to their good bioavailability and oxidation stability compared with other kind of omega-3 concentrates. The main drawback in mono- and diacylglycerols production by glycerolysis is the immiscibility of the substrates, oil and glycerol. To improve mass transfer rates, avoiding the use of organic solvents, emulsification of both reactants as reverse micelles (glycerol-in-oil) was carried out previous to lipase-catalyzed sardine oil glycerolysis. Substrate emulsification yielded higher reaction rates compared to kinetics with no previous emulsification, but still lower than in organic solvents. To avoid the use of organic solvent, SC-CO 2 was used as reaction medium but no kinetic advantages were demonstrated in the pressure range from 15 to 25 MPa. By increasing temperature, from 40 to 90°C, reaction rates increased both in a solvent-free system and in SC-CO 2 medium. It was also found that an increase in temperature does not lead to an increase in the final oxidation status of the reaction products. This behavior was due to the adsorption capacity of the Lipozyme 435 support, giving lower oxidation status at the highest temperature, 80-90°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The commercial fishing of sardines (Triportheus spp. landed in the fishery market of Porto Velho, Rondônia (1990-2004: Yield and general profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jardim de Queiroz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The profile of sardine fishing, the Triportheus species, landed at the fishing market of Porto Velho (RO between 1990 and 2004, was established by analyzing variations in the intra- and inter-annual yield as well as the length and general characteristics of the fishing. The annual production varied from 15,372 to 78,340kg (average = 33,482kg, totaling 5.46% of the overall production during the studied period. These variations can be related to the changes in the fishermen’s effort, as a reflex to searching for alternatives for fishing, or related to the level of the river, since the greatest annual yields were preceded by years of having more intense flooding. The monthly production varied from 0 to 21,456kg (average=2,876kg. Greater values of production were obtained in periods of lower hydrological levels (dry season [r(Pearson= -0.53. p<0.0001]. The average capture per fisherman/day between 2003 and 2004 was 9.27kg. Rivers were the main environment from which the captures took place, mainly from the Jamari, Machado and Novo Aripuanã rivers, that are tributaries of the Madeira River. The lengths of the fishes varied from 70 to 380mm and presented a bimodal pattern, suggesting the presence of more than one species within the captures.

  19. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  20. Variation of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acid in the Flesh of Persimmon Fruit among Different Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.. The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection. Both OA and UA were present in all of the investigated cultivars, except for three, ‘Hiratanenashi’, ‘Ribenhongshi’ and ‘Matsumotowase’. The OA content ranged from traces to 88.57 μg/g FW, and that of UA were between traces and 27.64 μg/g FW.

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Flesh Fly (Dip¬tera: Sarcophagidae in a Patient with Eye Malignancy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Razmjou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a male patient with basal cell carcinoma. During the operation several live and motile maggots were removed from the lesion. Preliminary examination on the larvae confirmed their affiliation to the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae.This genus is widely distributed throughout the world and species are very difficult to identify. The authors made at¬tempt to approach species identification by rearing larvae to the adult flesh flies, but due to shortage of adult male specimen, reliable diagnosis in the level of species was not obtained. Possible interaction between ocular myiasis and malignancy concerning the case has not been addressed in this paper.

  2. Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Flesh Fly (Dip¬tera: Sarcophagidae in a Patient with Eye Malignancy in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Razmjou

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a male patient with basal cell carcinoma. During the operation several live and motile maggots were removed from the lesion. Preliminary examination on the larvae confirmed their affiliation to the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae.This genus is widely distributed throughout the world and species are very difficult to identify. The authors made at¬tempt to approach species identification by rearing larvae to the adult flesh flies, but due to shortage of adult male specimen, reliable diagnosis in the level of species was not obtained. Possible interaction between ocular myiasis and malignancy concerning the case has not been addressed in this paper.

  3. PERUBAHAN KARAKTERISTIK SURIMI IKAN CUCUT DAN IKAN PARI AKIBAT PENGARUH PENGKOMPOSISIAN DAN PENYIMPANAN DINGIN DAGING LUMAT [Characteristic Changes of Shark and Stingray Surimi as Affected by Compositioning and Chill Storage of the Mince Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Santoso1

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of leaching, compositioning, and chill storage of mince fish on the characteristic changes of surimi from shark and stingray fish. Three times leaching of mince fish could reduce the urea contents of the shark and stingray as much as 88% and 100%, respectively; with the salt soluble protein contents were 13.52% and 13.24%, respectively. Mixture of mince shark and stingray in proportion of 25% : 75% (A1B2 gave the highest value of gel strength being 209.29 g.cm in comparison with others composition. During chill storage, deterioration process still occurred as indicated by increasing value of acidity and contents of base volatile compounds i.e. total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN and tri-methyl amine (TMA; and also decreasing contents of urea and salt soluble protein. Deterioration process of mince fish also affected the physical characteristic of surimi i.e. decreasing values of gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC, and colour (whiteness.

  4. Direct Determination of Six Cytokinin Nucleotide Monophosphates in Coconut Flesh by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Ma, You-Ning; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2017-11-15

    Coconut contains many uncharacterized cytokinins that have important physiological effects in plants and humans. In this work, a method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification and quantification of six cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh. Excellent separation was achieved using a low-coverage C18 bonded-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, which greatly improved the retention of target compounds. To enable high-throughput analysis, a single-step solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridges was employed for sample preparation. This proved to be an effective method to minimize matrix effects and ensure high selectivity. The limits of detection varied from 0.06 to 0.3 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL. The linearity was statistically verified over 2 orders of magnitude, giving a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.9981. The mean recoveries were from 81 to 108%; the intraday precision (n = 6) was less than 11%; and the interday precision (n = 11) was within 14%. The developed method was applied to the determination of cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh samples, and four of them were successfully identified and quantified. The results showed that trans-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate was the dominant cytokinin, with a concentration of 2.7-34.2 ng/g, followed by N6-isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate (≤12.9 ng/g), while the concentrations of cis-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate were less than 2.2 and 4.9 ng/g, respectively.

  5. Global analysis of gene expression during development and ripening of citrus fruit flesh. A proposed mechanism for citric Acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Manuel; Soler, Guillermo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Gadea, José; Forment, Javier; Talón, Manuel

    2006-11-01

    Microarrays of cDNA have been used to examine expression changes of 7000 genes during development and ripening of the fruit flesh of self-incompatible Citrus clementina, a non-climateric species. The data indicated that 2243 putative unigenes showed significant expression changes. Functional classification revealed that genes encoding for regulatory proteins were significantly overrepresented in the up-regulated gene clusters. The transcriptomic study together with the analyses of selected metabolites highlighted key physiological processes occurring during citrus fruit development and ripening such as water accumulation, carbohydrate build-up, acid reduction, pigment substitutions (carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll decreases) and ascorbic acid diminution. Often, the combined analyses strongly suggested prevalence of specific metabolic alternatives. This observation has been exemplified with the proposal for a mechanism for citrate utilization, a process of much importance in citrus industry. Microarray data validated by real-time RT-PCR suggested that citrate was sequentially metabolyzed to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Thereafter, glutamate was both utilized for glutamine production and catabolyzed through the gamma-aminobutirate (GABA) shunt (GABA --> succinate semialdehyde --> succinate). This last observation appears to be of special relevance since it links the proton consuming reaction glutamate + H(+)--> GABA + CO(2) with high acid levels. GG-MS determinations showed that glutamate was constant while GABA levels decreased at ripening in agreement with a feasible activation of the GABA shunt during acid catabolism. This suggestion provides a convincing explanation for the strong reduction of both citrate and cytoplasmatic acidity that takes place in citrus fruit flesh during development and ripening.

  6. Effects of Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoera batatas Cultivar Ayamurasaki) Powder Addition on Color and Texture Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yeong-Jung; Park, Jae Hong; Hur, In-Chul; Nam, Sang-Hae; Shin, Daekeun

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFP) powder on the texture properties and sensory characteristics of cooked pork sausage. Sodium nitrite alone and sodium nitrite in combination with PFP were added to five different treatments sausages (CON (control) = 0.01% sodium nitrite, SP25 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, SP50 = 0.005% sodium nitrite and 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder combination, PP25 = 0.25% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder, PP50 = 0.5% purple-fleshed sweet potato powder). The sausages were cooked to 74°C, stored at 4°C for 6 wks, and used for chemical analysis, textural properties, and a sensory evaluation on 0, 2, 4 and 6 wks of storage, respectively. Similar CIE a* and b* values were determined in sausages from CON, SP25 and SP50 at the end of storage, and they were higher in CIE a* but lower in CIE b* than that of the PP25 and PP50 sausages. Significant differences were observed for brittleness and hardness when PFP was added to the sausages but were not confirmed after 4 wks of storage. The objective color score was influenced by adding PFP; however, the effect was not dose dependent. In overall acceptability, panelists favored the CON, SP25, SP50, and PP50 sausages but did not prefer PP25 sausages at the end of storage. Therefore, adding PFP to cooked pork sausages improved color and texture properties and sensory characteristics, but further study is needed to determine the proper ratio of sodium nitrite and PFP.

  7. KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN UBI JALAR UNGU SEGAR DAN PRODUK OLAHANNYA (Anthocyanins Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Purple Fleshed Sweet Potato and Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida El Husna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purple fleshed sweet potato is a potential source of anthocyanins which is as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic. Anthocyanins can be damaged by high temperatures. However, traditionally a number of processed sweet potato products involve heat treatment. This study aimed to assess the reduction of anthocyanins content in processed sweet potato products (flour, chips, sweet potato, steamed, boiled, and fried pieces from two types of local purple fleshed sweet potato (light purple and dark purple, therefore it might provide useful information stages in order to maintain the content of anthocyanins. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD of factorial arrangement treatments (two types of purple fleshed sweet potato, and five types of purple fleshed sweet potato processed products. The main analysis parameter are anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The anthocyanins content of dark purple fleshed sweet potato was 61.85 mg/100g, 17 times higher than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 3.51 mg/100g. Dark purple fleshed sweet potatoes have antioxidant activity approximately 59.25%, greater than light purple fleshed sweet potatoes 56.64%. Decrease in anthocyanins content for processed products from both types of purple sweet potatoes showed the same trend. Purple sweet potato processed products that able to maintain fairly high the content of anthocyanins (the lowest rate of decline in anthocyanin levels were obtained on a steamed sweet potato (34.14% for dark purple and 42.16% for light purple, while the highest reduction obtained on the product chips (95.21% for dark purple and 88.47% for light purple. Reduction of antioxidant activity showed a directly proportion of the decrease in anthocyanins content of processed products, with the exception of processed products chips. Keywords: Purple fleshed sweet potato, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity   ABSTRAK Ubi jalar ungu potensial

  8. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and isocitrate lyase in both tomato fruits and leaves, and in the flesh of peach and some other fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Paoletti, Andrea; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    In this study the occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis was investigated in both tomato fruits and leaves during their development and senescence and in some other fruits. The enzymes studied were phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase (ICL). PPDK was detected in the ripe flesh of tomato, and much smaller amounts were detected in the flesh of both peach and pepper, whereas it was not detected (not present or at very low abundance) in the other fruits which were investigated (apricot, aubergine, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, grape, plum, raspberry and red current). By contrast PEPCK was present in the flesh of all the fruits investigated. Very small amounts of ICL were detected in ripe tomato flesh. PEPCK was present in the skin, flesh, locular gel and columella of tomato fruit, and in these its abundance increased greatly during ripening. PPDK showed a similar distribution, however, its abundance did not increase during ripening. PEPCK was not detected in tomato leaves at any stage of their development or senescence. The content of PPDK g(-1) fresh weight (FW) increased in tomato leaves as they matured, however, it declined during their senescence. In tomato leaves the content of ICL g(-1) FW increased until the mid-stage of development, then decreased as the leaf matured, and then increased during the latter stages of senescence. In the flesh of tomato fruits the contents of PPDK and PEPCK g(-1) FW decreased during senescence. The results suggest that in fruits other than tomato the bulk of any gluconeogenic flux proceeds via PEPCK, whereas in tomato both PEPCK and PPDK could potentially be utilised. Further, the results indicate that the conversion of pyruvate/acetyl-CoA to malate by the glyoxylate cycle, for which ICL is necessary, is not a major pathway utilised by gluconeogenesis in fruits under normal conditions of growth. Finally, the results contribute to

  9. Electron microscope study of thin beryllium lamellae (1963); Observation de lames minces de beryllium au microscope electronique (1063)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudier-Antolin, J.; Dupouy, J.; Adda, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Thin SR beryllium lamellae are examined by electron microscopy after various treatments, together with other samples made up of Be - Fe at 1 per cent and 0.2 per cent iron. The SR beryllium is examined after annealing at 750 deg C and 900 deg C, strongly cold-worked and quenched at 900 deg C. At 950 deg C the metal is perfectly annealed; at 750 deg C the polygonisation is almost complete, the dislocations are arranged either is dislocation walls in the prismatic planes, or in hexagonal lattices with non-dissociated nodes suggesting a high stacking defect energy. The cold-worked structure has a high dislocation density and already existing crystal walls. In the quenched state, the few dislocations are very straight and are aligned in the crystallographic directions. Iron-precipitation is studied in two alloys during tempering at 660 deg after quenching in salt water. The precipitate appears at the grain boundaries and then spreads through the matrix leaving a depleted zone in the neighbourhood of the joints. These precipitates, in the form of platelets parallel to the base planes of the beryllium lattice have been identified as the inter metallic phase Be{sub 11} Fe oriented in relation to the matrix (0 0 0 1)//(0 0 0 1) (1 0 1-bar 0)//(1 1 2-bar 0). (authors) [French] Des observations au microscope electronique sont faites sur des lames minces de beryllium SR apres divers traitements et sur des lames de Be - Fe a 1 pour cent et 0,2 pour cent en poids de fer. Le Be SR est etudie a l'etat recuit, a 750 deg C et 950 deg C, fortement ecroui et trempe a 900 deg C. A 950 deg C le metal est parfaitement recuit; a 750 deg C la polygonisation est presque complete, les dislocations sont arrangees soit en parois de dislocations dans des plans prismatiques, soit en reseaux hexagonaux aux noeuds non dissocies suggerant une forte energie de faute d'empilement. La structure d'ecrouissage presente une grande densite de dislocations et des parois deja existantes. A l

  10. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS PALM STEARIN DAN MINYAK IKAN LEMURU UNTUK MEMBUAT LEMAK MARGARIN [Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Sardine oil to Produce Margarine-fat

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    Pudji Hastuti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of Palm Stearin (PS and Sardine Oil (SO as source of Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA have been of interest to modify the physical properties of the triglyceride. An attempt to enzymatic-restructure PS and SO to form Structured Lipid (SL which is suitable for margarine was investigated using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and that from Candida antartica. The effect of reaction time course, ratio of PS/SO and ratio of enzyme/substrate were studied in the present study. At the end of interesterification, the enzyme was filtered from the reaction mixture through a filter paper. The Solid Fat Index (SFI was determined by dillatometry. The Slip Melting Point (SMP was determined by capillary tube method. Both of interesterification catalyzed by immobilized sn 1,3 specific lipase from R.miehei,and non specific lipase from C.antartica were found to decrease the SFI value at 10; 21.1 and 33.3°C. The SMP value was decrease from 58-50°C to 37-39°C. The change of these parameters were slightly faster in the reaction which catalyzed by lipase from R miehei than lipase from C.antartica . The more the utilization of the enzyme the faster the change were occurred, especially the increase of enzyme utilization from 2.5% to 5%, which decrease the SFI value at 33,30C. The decrease of the PS/SO ratio resulted in the decrease of SFI and SMP values. It was found that the most suitable SFI and SMP value for margarine fat is the SL formed by carrying out the enzymatic-interesterification of PS/SO with the ratio of 40/60 using enzyme 2.5% of the total fat, for 8 hours at 60°C.

  11. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  12. Hydro-plankton characteristics and their relationship with sardine and anchovy distributions on the French shelf of the Bay of Biscay

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    Pierre Petitgas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern in hydro-plankton and fish distributions and their relationship were analysed based on the spring 2000 fisheries acoustic survey. The importance of this survey was that it was a multi-disciplinary platform which collected an extensive set of parameters in the hydro-plankton leading to a potentially finer description of hydro-plankton conditions and fish habitats. More than 50 variables were measured on a grid of stations, in four compartments of the ecosystem: hydrology, nutrients, primary producers and meso-zooplankton. First, a joint analysis of all hydro-plankton compartments was performed using multiple factor analysis (MFA. The method was used to estimate a compromise factorial space common to all compartments in which the stations were grouped by hierarchical clustering. The groups were represented spatially and a strong spatial pattern was evidenced. The fish and their spawned eggs were sampled along transect lines using acoustics and CUFES (continuous underway fish egg samplers. The distribution of the fish and their eggs was analysed in relation to the hydro-plankton groups of stations and difference in fish density across hydro-plankton conditions was tested by a pair-wise multiple comparison procedure. Anchovy was associated with a lesser number of hydro-plankton conditions than sardine. Eggs of both species were also associated with a lesser number of conditions than the fish. Finally, the gain provided by using the extensive set of hydro-plankton parameters for mapping large-scale hydro-plankton conditions was analysed in comparison with the situation in which a small set of parameters was available. The extensive set of parameters allowed more hydro-plankton conditions to be identified but only in the coastal area and not on the shelf. Size fractionated chlorophyll was determinant for tracking river plume hydro-plankton condition. However, the fish did not respond to the variety of the coastal hydro

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

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    Zweifel Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%. S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline. Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA. Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Vancomycin-Resistant enterococci (VRE and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feta soft cheese and minced beef meat

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    Samy Selim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven essential oils (EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial properties, against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE and E. coli O157:H7. EOs were introduced into Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI (15ml at a concentration of 0.25 to 2% (vol/vol to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for each pathogen evaluated. Results showed that the most active essential oils against bacteria tested were thyme oil, with MIC90 and MBC90 for the VRA strains of 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. Eucalyptus, juniper and clove oils were the least potent agent, with MIC90 and MBC90 of 2%. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EO were evaluated against VRE and E. coli O157:H7, experimentally inoculated (10³ cfu/g in Feta soft cheese and minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of the EO and stored at 7 ºC for 14 days. Out of eucalyptus, juniper, mint, rosemary, sage, clove and thyme oils tested against target bacteria sage and thyme showed the best results. Clove and mint did not show any effect on VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in both kinds of studied foods. The addition of thyme oil at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% caused best significant reduction in the growth rate of VRE and E. coli O157:H7 in cheese and meat at 7 ºC. It is concluded that selected plant EOs can act as potent inhibitors of both microorganisms in a food product. The results revealed the potential of thyme oil as a natural preservative in feta soft cheese and minced beef meat against VRE and E. coli O157:H7 contamination.

  15. Inhibition of Salmonella by thyme essential oil and its effect on microbiological and sensory properties of minced pork meat packaged under vacuum and modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Marija; Djordjevic, Jasna; Ivanovic, Jelena; Janjic, Jelena; Zdravkovic, Nemanja; Glisic, Milica; Glamoclija, Natasa; Baltic, Branislav; Djordjevic, Vesna; Baltic, Milan

    2017-10-03

    The antibacterial activity of thyme essential oil (TEO) was evaluated against four serovars of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Montevideo and S. Infantis), experimentally inoculated (10 6 CFU/g) in minced pork, which was treated with different concentrations of the TEO (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%) packaged under vacuum or MAP (30%O 2 /50%CO 2 /20% N 2 ) and stored at 3±1°C for 15days. GC-MS analysis of the TEO was performed in order to determine composition, and the predominant constituent was thymol (50.48%), followed by p-cymene and linalool. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for each Salmonella serovar studied. Among the tested active compounds, thymol and carvacrol exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect followed by TEO, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 320 to 640μg/ml. S. Enteritidis was the most sensitive serovar. During the storage period, Salmonella counts in pork were reduced by 1.69-4.05logCFU/g. The influence of TEO on Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and total viable count was determined in control mince with no added Salmonella. The most pronounced antibacterial effect was achieved by the combination MAP and 0.9% TEO. Although the antibacterial activities of all studied concentrations of TEO in pork were evident and significant (P<0.05), sensory analysis showed that 0.3% TEO was the most acceptable to trained panellists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Trigui, Mohamed; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Damak, Mohamed; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-07-15

    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and the protective effects of Ceratonia siliqua pods essential oil (CsEO), a food and medicinal plant widely distributed in Tunisia. Twenty five different components were identified in the CsEO. Among them, the major detected components were: Nonadecane, Heneicosane , Naphthalene, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutylester, Heptadecane, Hexadecanoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Phenyl ethyl tiglate, Eicosene, Farnesol 3, Camphor, Nerolidol and n-Eicosane. The antimicrobial activity of CsEO was evaluated against a panel of 13 bacteria and 8 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that CsEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested species. In addition, the inhibitory effect of this CsEO was evaluated in vivo against a foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, experimentally inoculated in minced beef meat (2×10(2) CFU/g of meat) amended with different concentrations of the CsEO and stored at 7 °C for 10 days. The antibacterial activity of CsEO in minced beef meat was clearly evident and its presence led to a strong inhibitory effect against the pathogens at 7 °C. On the other hand, the cytotoxic effects of the essential oil against two tumoral human cell lines HeLa and MCF-7 were examined by MTT assay. The CsEO showed an inhibition of both cell lines with significantly stronger activity against HeLa cells. The IC(50) values were 210 and 800 μg/ml for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Overall, results presented here suggest that the EO of C. siliqua possesses antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Helen; Ziegler, Dominik; Pflüger, Valentin; Vogel, Guido; Zweifel, Claudio; Stephan, Roger

    2011-01-27

    Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%). S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline). A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA). Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.

  18. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ATTX961014-1R/Y a.k.a. Sierra Rose: A red skin, yellow flesh cultivar for the specialty/gourmet market

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTX961014-1R/Y is a high yielding, red skin, yellow flesh cultivar which was released by Texas A&M AgriLife Research in 2012. It resulted from a cross of breeding clone A90601-2RDY by the potato cultivar Mazama. ATTX961014-1R/Y is susceptible to Late Blight (Phytopthora infestans), Potato Leaf Roll...

  20. An Ancient Duplication of Apple MYB Transcription Factors Is Responsible for Novel Red Fruit-Flesh Phenotypes1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagné, David; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V.; Volz, Richard K.; How, Natalie M.; Rouse, Simon; Brendolise, Cyril; Carlisle, Charmaine M.; Kumar, Satish; De Silva, Nihal; Micheletti, Diego; McGhie, Tony; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Storey, Roy D.; Velasco, Riccardo; Hellens, Roger P.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Allan, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is coordinated in plants by a number of conserved transcription factors. In apple (Malus × domestica), an R2R3 MYB transcription factor has been shown to control fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin pigmentation (MYB10) and fruit skin color (MYB1). However, the pattern of expression and allelic variation at these loci does not explain all anthocyanin-related apple phenotypes. One such example is an open-pollinated seedling of cv Sangrado that has green foliage and develops red flesh in the fruit cortex late in maturity. We used methods that combine plant breeding, molecular biology, and genomics to identify duplicated MYB transcription factors that could control this phenotype. We then demonstrated that the red-flesh cortex phenotype is associated with enhanced expression of MYB110a, a paralog of MYB10. Functional characterization of MYB110a showed that it was able to up-regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The chromosomal location of MYB110a is consistent with a whole-genome duplication event that occurred during the evolution of apple within the Maloideae family. Both MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved function in some cultivars, but they differ in their expression pattern and response to fruit maturity. PMID:23096157

  1. Reductions in flesh discolouration and internal morphological changes in Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) by electrolysed water and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Zhang, Guixiang; Hu, Yunsheng; Wu, Hui; Xie, Jing; Luo, Yudan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electrolysed water (EW) and EW in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene (EW/MCP) on flesh discolouration of Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) were examined during storage at 2°C. Changes in flesh colour, ethylene production, membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolic contents and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were assayed periodically after harvest and during 44days of storage. The internal morphological characteristics of Nanhui peaches were monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning and end of storage. These data revealed that the EW/MCP treatment is more effective than the EW treatment for decreasing ethylene production and maintaining fruit cell membrane integrity, delaying increases in MDA and total phenolic contents, and lessening changes in PPO and POD activities and the internal morphology of peaches. Each of these effects contributes to suppressing flesh discolouration and maintaining the quality of Nanhui peaches during storage. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of α-Glucosidase, Total Phenolic Content and Flavonoid Content on Skin Fruit and Flesh Extracts of Some Varieties of Snake Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, E.; Fauzi, M. R.; Batubara, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the skin fruit and flesh of snack fruit through α-glucosidase inhibition and correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as thin layer chromatography bio-autography. Seven varieties of varieties of skin and flesh of the fruits each extracted by maceration using ethanol 70%. The results show the highest power of the α-glucosidase inhibition obtained at Manonjaya skin extract with IC50 value of 17.9 µg/mL. The TLC pattern indicates the presence of four active spot on skin extract and two spots on flesh extracts on the use of solvent BuOH:HAc:water (6:2:2). The highest phenolic content obtained at skin fruit extract of Salak Mawar 186.15 ± 1.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram extract. The highest total flavonoid content obtained in Salak Malaka skin fruit extract that is 7:43 ± 0:04 milli gram of quercetin equivalents

  3. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl. as a Novel Source of Health Promoting Compounds: Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemicals and Sugar Content in Flesh, Peel, and Whole Tubers of Seven Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Khajehei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of seven yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. and Endl. cultivars (Cajamarca, Cusco, Early White, Late Red, Morado, New Zealand and Quinault cultivated in the southwest of Germany. The following phyto/chemical traits were investigated in different yacon tuber parts (flesh, peel, and whole tubers: total dry matter, sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose content, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results indicated a significant interaction between cultivar and tuber part on all of the examined traits (p < 0.0001. Of flesh and whole tuber, cv. Late Red, cv. Morado, and cv. Cajamarca had the highest TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. They also had relatively higher total sugar content. Cv. New Zealand had the lowest amount of sugars, TPC, TFC, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, but the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity content in its flesh and whole tuber. Moreover, the results indicated that the peel of yacon tubers contained considerably high amounts of phytochemicals while possessing low sugar contents. Overall, this study provides a broad insight into the phyto/chemical content of yacon tubers from different cultivars, which can be used for further breeding programs, and the selection of proper cultivars for specific food product development.

  4. Red beet and betaine as ingredients in diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on growth performance, nutrient retention and flesh quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Gil, Julia; Tomás-Vidal, Ana; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Almenar, Cristina; Sanz-Calvo, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Diana, Ana Belén

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of dietary red beet and betaine on the growth performance and fish flesh quality of rainbow trout. Therefore, a control diet was compared with four diets in which two levels of red beet (14% and 28%) and betaine (0.9% and 1.63%) were incorporated in combination. The study was set up with an average body weight of 69 ± 2.2 g and finished when fish reached commercial weight (175-250 g) after 105 d. The impact of the diets was studied based on the growth performance, biometric indexes, proximal composition, protein and fat retention efficiencies and apparent nutrient digestibility by fish reared on a recirculation system. Further estimates were the effect of red beet and betaine on the flesh proximate composition and quality of the final product (water activity, colour, texture, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and sensory characteristics). Results showed that inclusion of 14% red beet and 0.9% betaine did not affect growth, nutritive or biometric parameters and nutrient retention when compared with the control diet. However, higher levels of red beet and betaine had negative effects on growth and nutritive parameters. The tested ingredients enhanced quality parameters regardless of the concentration used. After feeding the red beet and betaine, fish flesh showed lower water activity and better textural and colour properties than the control and also a dose-dependent effect on lipid oxidation was observed.

  5. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

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    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  6. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia on flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Chuanyue; Liu, Wanjing; Xia, Hu; Li, Jian; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2017-03-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms result in the production of an organic biomass containing cyanotoxins (e.g. microcystins) and an elevated ammonia concentration in the water environment. The ingestion of toxic cyanobacteria and exposure to ammonia are grave hazards for fish. The present study assessed the effects of dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on the flesh quality of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure had no impact on fish growth performance, fillet proximate composition and drip loss, whereas it significantly decreased fillet total amino acids, total essential amino acids, hardness and gumminess, and increased fillet ultimate pH as well as malondialdehyde content. However, there was no significant interaction between dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure on these parameters. Additionally, dietary toxic cyanobacteria significantly increased fillet initial pH, thaw loss and protein carbonyl content, whereas ammonia exposure did not. The results of the present study indicate that dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure reduced the quality of blunt snout bream fillet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Genotype × Environment Interaction of Mosaic Disease, Root Yields and Total Carotene Concentration of Yellow-Fleshed Cassava in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert G. Maroya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes were evaluated over two years in five major cassava growing agroecological zones in Nigeria. The trials were established in a randomized complete block design with four replications to assess genotype performance and Genotype × Environment interaction for cassava mosaic disease (CMD, fresh and dry root yield (FYLD; DYLD, root dry matter content (DMC, and total carotene concentration (TCC. Combined analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001 among genotypes (G, environment (E, and Genotype × Environment interaction (GE for all the traits tested. For reaction to CMD, the best genotypes showing stable resistance were TMS 07/0539 and TMS 07/0628. For root yield, the best genotypes were TMS 01/1368 and TMS 07/0553. Genotype TMS 07/0593 was the best for DMC and TCC across the 10 environments. Variation among genotypes accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for CMD (72.1% and TCC (34.4%. Environmental variation accounted for most of the Total Sum of Squares for FYLD (42.8%, DYLD (39.6%, and DMC (29.2%. This study revealed that TMS 07/0593 has the highest and most stable TCC, DMC with the lowest CMD severity score and appeared to be the best genotype.

  9. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From lab to life: Making storable orange-fleshed sweetpotato purée a commercial reality

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    Bocher Temesgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in Rwanda demonstrated that orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP purée (steamed, mashed roots was an economically viable, vitamin A enhancing ingredient in baked products when the purée was produced and used in the same bakery. Having a storable, packaged OFSP purée produced by a firm to supply bakers is an alternative model. Vacuum-packed OFSP purée with preservatives with a four-month shelf-life at 23°C was developed by the International Potato Center under laboratory conditions in 2015. Turning it into a commercial reality required developing a public-private partnership to establish an OFSP purée-bread value chain. The phases in developing the chain are described. Cost-benefit assessment focuses on two points along the chain: the farmers producing roots for the purée factory and purée production. The first OFSP bread began to be marketed in six Tuskys’ stores in June 2015 at a premium price (5 Ksh above its regular bread, reaching 20 stores by August 2016. OFSP bread was well-received by consumers. Purée production became profitable (18% profit margin when we shifted from using peeled to unpeeled roots--the new product being a “high fiber” purée. Commercial OFSP purée production has been improved and is poised for profitable, larger-scale output.

  11. Effect of drying and storage on the degradation of total carotenoids in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Westby, Andrew; Owori, Constance; Menya, Geoffrey; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Dufour, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith

    2010-03-15

    Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) can be used to tackle vitamin A deficiency, a major public health problem in most developing countries. In East Africa, common ways of using sweetpotato include drying and subsequent storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of drying and storage on the total carotenoid retention (as an estimate of provitamin A retention) from OFSP. Losses of total carotenoid during drying were generally low (15% or less). Total carotenoid retention in OFSP was not dependent on the type of dryer (solar or sun). Sweetpotato cultivar (Ejumula, Kakamega, SPK004/1, SPK004/1/1, SPK004/6 or SPK004/6/6) had a significant effect on retention in drying (P < 0.05). High percentage losses of total carotenoids were, however, correlated with high moisture content and high carotenoid content in fresh sweetpotato roots. After 4 months' storage at room temperature in Uganda, losses of total carotenoid in dried sweetpotato chips were high (about 70%) and this was not dependent on the use of opaque or transparent packaging. Losses of carotenoids during storage were considered to be more of a nutritional constraint to the utilisation of dried sweetpotato than losses occurring during drying. The relationship between characteristics of the cultivars and losses of carotenoids during drying should be taken into account in selection of cultivars for processing.

  12. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  13. Effect of Frying Treatments on Texture and Colour Parameters of Deep Fat Fried Yellow Fleshed Cassava Chips

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    A. B. Oyedeji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of frying treatments on texture (hardness and colour parameters (L,a,b,ΔE during deep fat frying of yellow fleshed cassava root slices (TMS 01/1371 were investigated. Slices (dimension of 40 mm × 25 mm × 3 mm were divided into three portions and subjected to vacuum frying (fresh slices and atmospheric frying (fresh and predried slices and equivalent thermal driving forces (ETDF of 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C were maintained during frying. The quality attributes investigated were best preserved in vacuum fried chips. The overall colour change in chips fried under vacuum conditions at 118°C and 8 min was the least (21.20 compared to fresh and atmospherically predried ones (16.69 and 14.81, resp.. A sharp reduction in the breaking force was obtained for all frying treatments after 8 min and this effect was the least in vacuum fried chips. First-order kinetics modeled the changes in quality attributes for all the temperatures investigated. Rate constants k (min−1 obtained for vacuum frying were almost equal to that of atmospheric frying while activation energies for hardness and colour change were 53.30 and 467.11 KJ/mol, respectively. Quality attributes studied were best preserved during vacuum frying.

  14. Contributions of non-volatile and volatile compounds to the umami taste and overall flavour of shiitake mushroom extracts and their application as flavour enhancers in cooked minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermiki, Maria; Phanphensophon, Natalie; Mottram, Donald S; Methven, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were prepared as taste and flavour enhancers for meat formulations. Effects of time and temperature on the chemical and sensory properties of the extracts were examined. Extracts prepared at 70°C had significantly higher concentrations (pshiitake extract into minced meat formulations led to significantly higher levels of savoury tasting 5'-ribonucleotides in the cooked meat but no significant difference in umami perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of structure of the MinD-ATP complex reveals the orientation of MinD on the membrane and the relative location of the binding sites for MinE and MinC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Park, Kyung-Tae; Holyoak, Todd; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Summary The three Min proteins spatially regulate Z ring positioning in E. coli and are dynamically associated with the membrane. MinD binds to vesicles in the presence of ATP and can recruit MinC or MinE. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicate the binding sites for these two proteins on MinD overlap. Here we solved the structure of a hydrolytic-deficient mutant of MinD truncated for the C-terminal amphipathic helix involved in binding to the membrane. The structure solved in the presence of ATP is a dimer and reveals the face of MinD abutting the membrane. Using a combination of random and extensive site-directed mutagenesis additional residues important for MinE and MinC binding were identified. The location of these residues on the MinD structure confirms that the binding sites overlap and reveals that the binding sites are at the dimer interface and exposed to the cytosol. The location of the binding sites at the dimer interface offers a simple explanation for the ATP-dependency of MinC and MinE binding to MinD. PMID:21231967

  16. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayouni, El Akrem; Chraief, Imed; Abedrabba, Manaf; Bouix, Marielle; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Mohammed, Hammami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-07-31

    The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), beta-thujone (18.40%), alpha-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and alpha-phellandrene (35.86%), beta-phellandrene (29.3%), beta-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene (5.43%) and alpha-pinene (5.22%) in S. molle oil. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of both studied EOs. For this purpose, paper disc-diffusion method and broth microdilution test were used. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied (gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast). These activities remained stable after six months, and decreased approximately by 20% after one year of storage of the EOs at 4 to 7 degrees C. On comparing the efficiency of both EOs, S. officinalis EO exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the majority of strains and especially against Candida albicans (two fold more active according to the inhibition zones values). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 4.5 mg/ml and 72 mg/ml on nutrient broth. The particular chemotype of each EO may be involved in its specific antimicrobial behaviour. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EOs were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens belonging to Salmonella genus, experimentally inoculated (10(3) CFU/g) in minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations of the EO and stored at 4 to 7 degrees C for 15 days. Although the antibacterial activities of both EOs in minced beef meat were clearly evident, their addition had notable effects on the flavour and taste of the meat at concentrations more than 2% for S. molle and 1.5% for S. officinalis. One solution to

  17. Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene β-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or β-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

  18. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with krill meal on pigmentation and quality of flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of administration of krill meal and synthetic astaxanthin during the finisher phase of the fattening cycle of rainbow trout on flesh pigmentation and quality traits were studied. The inclusion of krill meal increased the body weight and size and decreased the peri-visceral fat and visceral weight indices. The astaxanthin diet produced the highest accumulation of total carotenoids in the fillet compared to the krill meal diet: the difference was significant after 15 days of feeding (2.50 vs 2.10 mg/kg till the end of the trial (5.00 vs 4.80 mg/kg. The same pattern was observed for astaxanthin concentration with the highest values in the fillets of fish fed the astaxanthin diet. Fillet lightness (L* was not affected by trout diets whereas redness (a* and yellowness (b* were significantly higher in fish fed the astaxanthin diet until day 30 of the trial. Hue was not affected by feeding, whereas chroma was significantly higher in the fish fed astaxanthin throughout the trial except on day 45 of sampling. Trout fed the krill meal diet had a paler pink-red colour on the SalmoFan scale than those receiving the astaxanthin diet. No significant differences emerged in proximate composition and cholesterol content of trout in the two groups. The fatty acid profile of the fillets reflected the fatty acids of the diets administered to the trout: eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in the fish fed the krill meal.

  20. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Medvedkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

  1. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geser Nadine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7% produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6% produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5% belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2% contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.

  2. Outbreak of uncommon O4 non-agglutinating Salmonella typhimurium linked to minced pork, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, January to April 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Katja; Simon, Sandra; Helmeke, Carina; Kohlstock, Claudia; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Fruth, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    In January 2013, the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (NRC) detected a salmonellosis cluster in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, caused by uncommon O4 non-agglutinating, monophasic Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium DT193. Circulating predominant monophasic S. Typhimurium DT193 clones typically display resistance phenotype ASSuT. We investigated common exposures to control the outbreak, and conducted microbiological investigations to assess the strains' phenotype. We conducted a case-control study defining cases as persons living or working in Saxony-Anhalt diagnosed with the O4 non-agglutinating strain between January and March 2013. We selected two controls contemporarily reported with norovirus infection, frequency-matched on residence and age group, per case. We interviewed regarding food consumption, especially pork and its place of purchase. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using logistic regression. The NRC investigated human and food isolates by PCR, SDS-PAGE, MLST, PFGE, MLVA and susceptibility testing. Altogether, 68 O4 non-agglutinating human isolates were confirmed between January and April 2013. Of those, 61 were assigned to the outbreak (median age 57 years, 44% female); 83% cases ≥ 60 years were hospitalized. Eating raw minced pork from butcheries within 3 days was associated with disease (31 cases, 28 controls; OR adjusted for sex: 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0-13). Phage type DT193 and MLST ST34 were assigned, and isolates' lipopolysaccharide (LPS) matched control strains. Isolates linked to Saxony-Anhalt exhibited PFGE type 5. ASSuT- and ACSSuT phenotype proportions were 34 and 39% respectively; 54% were resistant to chloramphenicol. Three pork isolates matched the outbreak strain. Raw minced pork was the most likely infection vehicle in this first reported outbreak caused by O4 non-agglutinating, mostly chloramphenicol-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193. High hospitalization proportions demand awareness on the risk of consumption

  3. The thin layer technique and its application to electron microscopy; La technique des couches minces et son application a la microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranc, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-10-15

    This work deals with the technique of thin layers obtained by evaporation under vacuum, in the thickness range extending from a few monoatomic layers to several hundred angstroms. The great theoretical and practical interest of these layers has, it is well known, given rise to many investigations from Faraday onwards. Within the necessarily restricted limits of this study, we shall approach the problem more particularly from the point of view of: - their production; - their use in electron microscopy. A critical appraisal is made, in the light of present-day knowledge, based on our personal experience and on an extensive bibliography which we have collected on the subject. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne la technique des couches minces obtenues par evaporation sous vide, dans le domaine d'epaisseur qui s'etend de quelques couches monoatomiques a plusieurs centaines d'angstroms. L'interet theorique et pratique considerable de ces couches a suscite, comme on sait, de nombreux travaux depuis Faraday. Dans le cadre necessairement restreint de cette these, nous aborderons plus particulierement le point de vue de: - leur obtention; - leur utilisation en microscopie electronique. Il s'agit d'une mise au point critique, a la lumiere des connaissances actuelles, appuyee sur notre experience personnelle et sur une importante bibliographie, qu'il nous a ete donne de reunir a ce sujet. (auteur)

  4. Evaluation of freshness decay of minced beef stored in high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaged at different temperatures using NIR and MIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelli, Nicoletta; Limbo, Sara; Torri, Luisa; Di Egidio, Valentina; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2010-11-01

    Meat freshness has been monitored by various microbiological, chemical and sensorial indices. However, these methods are slow and not suited to automation. Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most convenient analytical tools which could be used to monitor the evolution of food quality. The aim of this work was to investigate the ability of both NIR (Near Infrared) and MIR (Mid Infrared) spectroscopy to follow meat freshness decay. The minced beef was packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (30% CO2 and 70% O2) and stored at three temperatures. Spectra were collected by Fourier-Transformation (FT)-NIR and FT-IR instruments. PCA, applied to the data, was able to discriminate samples on the basis of storage time and temperature. The modelling of PC scores versus time allowed the setting of the time of initial freshness decay for the samples (6-7 days at 4.3°C, 2-3 days at 8.1°C and less than 1 day at 15.5°C). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The dynamics of the HS/SPME-GC/MS as a tool to assess the spoilage of minced beef stored under different packaging and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2015-01-16

    The aim of the current study was to assess meat spoilage through the evolution of volatile compounds using chemometrics. Microbiological and sensory assessment, pH measurement and headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (headspace SPME-GC/MS) analysis were carried out in minced beef stored aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. It was shown that the HS/SPME-GC/MS analysis provided useful information about a great number of volatile metabolic compounds detected during meat storage. Many of the identified and semi-quantified compounds were correlated with the sensory scores through the use of chemometrics, depicting possible spoilage indicators such as 2-pentanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl propanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl acetate, ethanol, 2-heptanone, 3-octanone, diacetyl, and acetoin. Finally, the applied GC/MS global models were able to estimate the microbial counts of the different microorganisms and the sensory scores of a meat sample regardless of storage conditions (i.e. packaging and temperature). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation on the Retention of Β-Carotene Content in Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard O. Oloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the effects of lactic fermentation on the levels of β-carotene in selected  orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP varieties from Kenya.  Furthermore,it sought to demonstrate fermentation as a potential process for making new products from sweet potato with enhanced nutraceutical attributes. The varieties (Zapallo, Nyathiodiewo and SPK004/06 were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 25 ± 2°C for 48 h and kept for 28 days to make lacto-pickles. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity (TA, lactic acid (LA, starch, total sugar, reducing sugar (g/kg roots, texture (N/m2, β-carotene (mg/kg roots] and sensory (texture, taste, flavour and after taste attributes of sweet potato lacto-juice were evaluated. Process conditions were optimized by varying brine levels, with fermentation time. A UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to identify and quantify β-carotene. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in analytical attributes between the fermented and unfermented samples (pH, LA, TA and β-carotene concentration of lacto-pickles, prepared from the potato roots, were assessed. The study reported a final composition of 156.49mg/kg, 0.53mg/kg, 0.3N/m2, 1.3g/kg, 5.86g/kg, 0.5g/kg and 5.86g/kg for β-carotene, Ascorbic acid, texture; Starch, total sugars, LA and TA respectively, and a pH of 3.27. The fermented products were subjected to flavour profiling by a panel. The product sensory scores were 1.5 to 2.5 on a 5 point hedonic scale, ranging from dislike slightly to like much. The products with brine levels at 4 and 6% were most preferred. The retention of β-carotene was 93.97%. This demonstrated lactic acid fermentation as a better method for processing OFSP as the main nutritional attributes are retained. The final product was resistant to spoilage microorganisms after 28 days of fermentation. Further preservation could be obtained by addition of sodium metabisulphite. In conclusion, Lactic

  7. Flesh mob / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2004-01-01

    Venemaa kultuuriuudised. Muuhulgas memoriaaltahvli asetamisest filmist "Hüva leili ehk Saatuse iroonia" tuttavale majale ning kuulsate näitlejatega õhtu veetmise võimalusele korraldatud konkurssidest

  8. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  9. Bias in the Flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Solomon; Jabon, Maria; Plaut, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence linking skin complexion to negative stereotypes and adverse real-world outcomes. We extend these findings to political ad campaigns, in which skin complexion can be easily manipulated in ways that are difficult to detect. Devising a method to measure how dark a candidate appears in an image, this paper examines how complexion varied with ad content during the 2008 presidential election campaign (study 1). Findings show that darker images were more frequent in negative ads—especially those linking Obama to crime—which aired more frequently as Election Day approached. We then conduct an experiment to document how these darker images can activate stereotypes, and show that a subtle darkness manipulation is sufficient to activate the most negative stereotypes about Blacks—even when the candidate is a famous counter-stereotypical exemplar—Barack Obama (study 2). Further evidence of an evaluative penalty for darker skin comes from an observational study measuring affective responses to depictions of Obama with varying skin complexion, presented via the Affect Misattribution Procedure in the 2008 American National Election Study (study 3). This study demonstrates that darker images are used in a way that complements ad content, and shows that doing so can negatively affect how individuals evaluate candidates and think about politics. PMID:27257306

  10. Divine Flesh, Embodied Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Anne-Claire

    2006-01-01

    What has Luce Irigaray's statement that women need a God to do with her thoughts on the relation between body and mind, or the sensible and the intelligible?Using the theological notion 'incarnation' as a hermeneutical key, Anne-Claire Mulder brings together and illuminates the interrelations

  11. From flesh to fossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the functions of natural philosophers at the court of the Medici through the case of anatomist/geologist Nicolaus Steno (1638 – 1686). By tracing Steno’s work during the years he spent in the service of the Florentine court this paper pinpoints how Steno’s natural philosophy w...

  12. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  13. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  14. Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Iskandar, Michèle M; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Sleno, Lekha; Sabally, Kebba; Azadi, Behnam; How, Emily; Prakash, Satya; Burgos, Gabriela; Felde, Thomas Zum

    2017-08-29

    A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for cytotoxicity and cell viability after 24 h exposure to colonic fecal water (FW) digests (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100% FW in culture media). After 24 h digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 36 and 15 anthocyanin species throughout the GI vessels for Amachi and Leona, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentration was over thirty-fold higher in Amachi compared to Leona digests but seven-fold higher anthocyanin concentrations were noted for Leona versus Amachi in descending colon digests. Leona FW showed greater potency to induce cytotoxicity and decrease viability of Caco-2 cells than observed with FW from Amachi. Amachi FW at 100% caused cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic cells while FW from Leona showed no effect. The present findings indicate major variations in the pattern of anthocyanin breakdown and release during digestion of purple-fleshed cultivars. The differing microbial anthocyanin metabolite profiles in colonic vessels between cultivars could play a significant role in the impact of FW toxicity on tumor and non-tumorigenic cells.

  15. Evaluation of feed and feeding regime on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Yong; Li, Xian; Wang, Shunkui

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different feeds and feeding regimes on growth performance, flesh quality and fecal viscosity of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) were investigated. Fish (initial body weight of 1677 g ± 157 g) were fed with four commercial feeds (Nosan salmon-NS, Aller gold-AG, Skretting salmon-SS and Han ye-HY) in two feeding regimes (80% and 100% satiation) for 78 d. The results showed that salmon specific growth ratio (SGR) and weight gain ratio (WGR) were significantly affected by feed type and feeding regime ( P enzymes including protease, lipase and amylase were also significantly affected by feed type and feeding regime ( P pH among all groups showed significant differences ( P < 0.05), ranging from 26.67 to 29.67, while no obvious difference was found in flesh color. Fecal viscosity for different treatments showed no significant difference, though improvement was found in 100% satiation group. From present experiment, it was concluded that both feed type and feeding regime can affect the important quality attributes of Atlantic salmon.

  16. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  17. Flesh quality and biochemistry of light-manipulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and the significance of collagen cross-links on fillet firmness and gaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ørjan; Johnsen, Chris André

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether light-manipulation, causing accelerated or delayed maturation, could be used as a tool to improve fillet gaping score and texture of farmed cod (Gadus morhua L.) harvested during summer. Control and accelerated groups had completed spawning by the time of harvest, and expressed sexual dimorphism in various biometric and flesh quality parameters. Pyridinoline cross-links, a key biochemical parameter investigated, were positively correlated with texture (r(2) = 0.4), as also were cathepsin B&L and sex. Gaping was also impacted by pyridinoline cross-links, together with body mass and maturation. Interestingly, the level of gaping was significantly reduced with a pyridinoline cross-link concentration of >2500 pmols g(-1) dry mass. In conclusion, light-manipulation can be used as a tool to improve flesh texture of farmed cod with a low gaping score, but with compromise of increased dress out percentage for the accelerated group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MinD directly interacting with FtsZ at the H10 helix suggests a model for robust activation of MinC to destabilize FtsZ polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviti, Ashoka Chary; Beuria, Tushar Kant

    2017-09-07

    Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring-like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen other cell division proteins. The Min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid-cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD. However, the mechanism by which MinD triggers MinC activity is not yet known. We showed that MinD directly interacts with FtsZ with an affinity stronger than the reported MinC-FtsZ interaction. We determined the MinD-binding site of FtsZ using computational, mutational and biochemical analyses. Our study showed that MinD binds to the H10 helix of FtsZ. Single-point mutations at the charged residues in the H10 helix resulted in a decrease in the FtsZ affinity towards MinD. Based on our findings, we propose a novel model for MinCD-FtsZ interaction, where MinD through its direct interaction with FtsZ would trigger MinC activity to inhibit FtsZ functions. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Recipe and technology development for minced canned products of special purpose based on the underutilized north region fishery object (thorny skate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raibulov S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of justifying the use of thorny skate in the technology of minced meat canned products of special purpose. The key criterion determined the specialized purpose of canned food is the high content of physiologically functional food ingredient of chondroitin sulfate in the cartilage of thorny skate wings. The high content of chondroitin sulfate in raw materials ensures that the content of the physiologically functional ingredient in the finished canned food will be at the level from 220 to 250 mg per 100 g of product. The method of IR blanching is presented for removing urea from the thorny skate muscle tissue. To confirm the efficiency of the developed method of urea removal, it has been proposed to use a modified photocolorimetric method for determination of mass fractions of urea in feed flour according to the governmental standard GOST R 50032–92 "Feed flour made of fish, marine mammals, crustaceans and invertebrates. Methods of determining the mass fraction of urea and calculation of the crude protein with a given mass fraction of carbamide". With the help of this technique, the efficiency of urea removal from the thorny skate tissue by the proposed method has been determined. The residual urea content in the meat of thorny skate after IR blanching is 0.76 %, which is two times lesser than border value of sensitivity of the person (approximated as 1.2 %. The paper presents the materials of experimental substantiation of optimum formulation of new canned meat based on the method of fuzzy modeling. The ratio of the main components of the meatballs recipe (thorny skate and Atlantic cod close to the optimum is 48 % by weight of meat for each component separately.

  20. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Caracterização da polpa de pêssegos produzidos em São Manuel-SP Characterization of peach fleshes produced in São Manuel, State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo de frutas e hortaliças sempre foram associados à presença de vitaminas e fibras. Entretanto, outros compostos são importantes e muitos exercem função antioxidante, destacando-se os polifenóis e pigmentos. Neste trabalho, foram caracterizadas as polpas de sete cultivares de pêssegos, duas de polpa branca e cinco de polpa amarela, utilizando-se frutas no ponto de consumo (frutos com coloração de fundo amarela. Foi avaliada a concentração de vitamina C, polifenóis, pigmentos e a capacidade antioxidante. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de sete tratamentos e três repetições, sendo cada repetição composta por seis frutos. O teor de vitamina C variou de 7,74 a 17,31mg em 100g-1 de polpa; a concentração de polifenóis variou de 53,33 a 141,77mg de ácido gálico em 100g-1 de polpa; o conteúdo de clorofila 'A' variou de 11,59 a 44,61ug em 100g-1 de polpa; o conteúdo de clorofila 'B' variou de 69,69 a 411,37ug em 100g-1 de polpa; os carotenóides totais variaram de 28,69 a 81,58ug em 100g-1 de polpa; as antocianinas variaram de 85,13 a 336,05ug em 100g-1 de polpa. A atividade antioxidante variou de 35,81 a 65,39mg de DPPH reduzido 100g-1 de polpa. Foi verificada correlação positiva significativa entre vitamina C e atividade antioxidante.The benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption have been always associated with the presence of vitamins and fiber. However, other compounds are important and many exert antioxidant function, especially the polyphenols and pigments. In this study, fleshes of seven peach cultivars were characterized, two from white flesh cultivars and five of yellow flesh, all from fruits at the point of consumption (fruits with yellow background color. It was evaluated the concentration of vitamin C, polyphenols, pigments and antioxidant capacity. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of seven treatments and three

  2. Studies On Optimization Of Protease Production Using Bacterial Isolate Clri Strain 5468 And Its Application In Dehairing And Hydrolysis Of Tannery Fleshings Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Devi Seenivasagham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain which produces protease was originally isolated characterized in Biotechnology laboratory at CLRI and was maintained. The microorganism was growned on several proteolytic media and the maximum activity was observed. The characterization of enzyme was analysed for different pH temperature size of inoculum inhibitors age of the culture. Then the enzyme was observed for the unhairing of skin and the disadvantage in chemical treatment was studied. The conformation of unhairing was studied using histology studies. The tannery waste solid fleshings as it is cannot be directly disposed off to the environment. It was treated with the microbial proteases. The hydrolysis of waste was done using proteases. The solid waste was converted to protien fat and the salt matter. Future work is to optimize the cheap media for the production of the enzyme for large scale applications in various industries.

  3. A Root-Preferential DFR-Like Gene Encoding Dihydrokaempferol Reductase Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xiang, Min; Fan, Yufang; Yang, Chunxian; Zeng, Lingjiang; Zhang, Qitang; Chen, Min; Liao, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato is good for health due to rich anthocyanins in tubers. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well understood in up-ground organs of plants, the knowledge on anthocyanin biosynthesis in underground tubers is limited. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a root-preferential gene encoding dihydrokaempferol reductase (IbDHKR) from purple-fleshed sweet potato. IbDHKR showed highly similarity with the reported dihydroflavonol reductases in other plant species at the sequence levels and the NADPH-binding motif and the substrate-binding domain were also found in IbDHKR. The tissue profile showed that IbDHKR was expressed in all the tested organs, but with much higher level in tuber roots. The expression level of IbDHKR was consistent with the anthocyanin content in sweet potato organs, suggesting that tuber roots were the main organs to synthesize anthocyanins. The recombinant 44 kD IbDHKR was purified and fed by three different dihydroflavonol substrates including dihydrokaempferol (DHK), dihydroquerctin, and dihydromyrecetin. The substrate feeding assay indicated that only DHK could be accepted as substrate by IbDHKR, which was reduced to leucopelargonidin confirmed by LC-MS. Finally, IbDHKR was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. The IbDHKR-overexpression tobacco corolla was more highly pigmented and contained higher level of anthocyanins than the wild-type tobacco corolla. In summary, IbDHKR was a root-preferential gene involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and its encoding protein, specifically catalyzing DHK reduction to yield leucopelargonidin, was a candidate gene for engineering anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. PMID:28293252

  4. A wild origin of the loss-of-function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-b) allele in cultivated, red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Lewis, Jamicia; Moore, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b). We performed an evolutionary genetic analysis of the CYC-b locus in wild and cultivated papaya to uncover the origin of this loss-of-function allele in cultivated papaya. We analyzed the levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the CYC-b locus and six loci in a 100-kb region flanking CYC-b and compared these to genetic diversity levels at neutral autosomal loci. The evolutionary relationships of CYC-b haplotypes were assessed using haplotype network analysis of the CYC-b locus and the 100-kb CYC-b region. Genetic diversity at the recessive CYC-b allele (y) was much lower relative to the dominant Y allele found in yellow-fleshed wild and cultivated papaya due to a strong selective sweep. Haplotype network analyses suggest the y allele most likely arose in the wild and was introduced into domesticated varieties after the first papaya domestication event. The shared haplotype structure between some wild, feral, and cultivated haplotypes around the y allele supports subsequent escape of this allele from red cultivars back into wild populations through feral intermediates. Our study supports a protracted domestication process of papaya through the introgression of wild-derived traits and gene flow from cultivars to wild populations. Evidence of gene flow from cultivars to wild populations through feral intermediates has implications for the introduction of transgenic papaya into Central American countries. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. CAROTENOID EXTRACTION OF ORANGE-FLESHED SWEET POTATO AND ITS APPLICATION AS NATURAL FOOD COLORANT [Ekstraksi Karotenoid Ubi Jalar Jingga dan Aplikasinya sebagai Pewarna Makanan Alami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliana Ginting

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The orange-fleshed sweet potato is rich in carotenoids, which can potentially be used as a natural food colorant. However, effective and safe extraction techniques are needed. The carotenoid extraction of deep orange-fleshed cultivar (Beta 1 at different moisture contents of fresh tubers using combined solvents was studied. The research design was a factorial randomized complete design with two factors and three replicates. The first factor was moisture content of the grated tubers. The second factor was the ratios of ethanol and acetone. The extract obtained from the most effective extraction process was stored for 1 month at room temperature and also applied as a topping colorant for steamed cakes (bolu kukus which was compared to bolu kukus treated with no colorant and with artificial yellow colorant. The results showed that the fresh tubers contained high moisture (79.28% and beta-carotene (12,169 µg/100 g wb with the lightness value (L* of 44.77. Extraction of reduced-water grated-tubers (m.c. 60.63% using ethanol-acetone at ratio of 5:5 v/v gave the highest content of beta-carotene in the extract (235.94 µg/ml with L* value of 52.48. Meanwhile, fresh grated tuber extracted with ethanol-acetone (9:1 v/v had the lowest beta-carotene content (12.49 µg/ml. The extract stored in a dark bottle for 1 month showed better color stability with higher beta-carotene content (92.18 µg/ml than that of transparent bottle (20.12 µg/ml. The color, odor and taste of steamed cakes with the extract as a topping colorant were slightly liked by panelists and were similarly scored to those of the counterparts, yet had better odor acceptance.

  6. Le dépôt de diamant en couche mince et ses applications Thin-Layer Diamond Depositing and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons cherché à faire le point sur la fabrication de couches minces de diamant qui, après avoir été très étudiée aux États-Unis vers la fin des années 1950, a fait l'objet d'une percée technologique soviétique en 1977. Celle-ci utilise l'effet solvant de l'hydrogène mélangé à un peu de méthane. Transformé en hydrogène atomique par décharge électrique, il interdit le dépôt de graphite et par conséquent permet seulement celui du diamant. Ce résultat est riche d'applications prometteuses en mécanique, en optique, en électronique. . . et constitue un élément clé pour la recherche spatiale. Les Japonais ont mis cinq ans pour réagir et les Américains cinq autres années. Mais ces derniers espèrent refaire leur retard grâce au programme Diamond Technology Initiative établi dans le cadre de l'initiative de Défense Stratégique (Guerre des Étoiles. Les retombées de ces travaux devraient concerner l'industrie pétrolière (paliers, trépans, capteurs en milieu extrême. This article reviews the depositing of diamond thin layers. After much research had been done on this technique in the United States in the late 1950s, a technological breakthrough was made by the Soviets in 1977. This breakthrough uses the solventeffect of hydrogen mixed with a bit of methane. This is transformed into atomic hydrogen by an electric discharge, thus preventing graphite from being deposited and hence enabling only diamond to be deposited. This achievement has a wealth of promising applications in mechanics, optics, electronics, etc. It is also a key element for space research. The Japanese took five years to react and the Americans another five years. But these latter hope to make up for lost time with the Diamond Technology Initiativepromoted within the framework of the Strategic Defense Initiative ( star wars . The fallouts from this research should involve the petroleum industry (bearings, drill bits, sensors in extreme

  7. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  8. Romans 8:3–4 and God’s resolution of the threefold problems of sin, the incapability of the law and the weakness of the flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuing from the argument of Romans 7:7–25, 8:3–4 presents ‘the incapability of the law’ as a significant part of the greater problem of sin that needed resolution. This is brought to the fore best when the opening clause of Romans 8:3 (τὸ ... ἀδύνατον is seen as an accusative of respect with dependant clauses and not as an anacoluthon as is often supposed. This opening clause points out sin’s two concomitant problems as (within this context the primary points of reference in regard to which the claims of Romans 8:3–4 are made. Consequently, in Romans 8:3–4 Paul addresses the resolution of this threefold problem. In Romans 8:3 in particular, he argues that, through the mission of God’s Son, the problems of sin and the weakness of the flesh are resolved by the condemnation of sin in the flesh (of Christ. This has the purpose-result of also resolving the problem of the incapability of the law through Christ’s fulfilment of the requirement of the law (Rm 8:4.Romeine 8:3–4 en God se oplossing van die drievoudige probleem van sonde, die onvermoë van die wet en die swakheid van die vlees. In die lig van Romeine 7:7–25 impliseer 8:3–4 dat die ‘onvermoë van die wet’ ‘n noemenswaardige deel van die groter probleem van die sonde was wat opgelos moes word. Hierdie insig tree veral duidelik na vore wanneer die sinsnede waarmee Romeine 8:3 begin (τὸ ... ἀδύνατον geïdentifiseer word as ‘n akkusatief van opsig (met bysinne en nie, soos dikwels veronderstel word, ‘n anakoluthon nie. Die twee probleme wat met sonde gepaard gaan (die onvermoë van die wet en die swakheid van die vlees, word dus deur Paulus uitgelig as die primêre verwysingspunte ten opsigte waarvan die stellings in Romeine 8:3–4 gemaak word. In Romeine 8:3 wys Paulus dat God, deur sy Seun te stuur, die probleme van die sonde en die vlees aangespreek het deurdat die sonde in die vlees (van Christus veroordeel is. Dit het die doel

  9. Preparation and properties of thin films used in activity determinations with a 4 {pi} counter; Preparation et proprietes des films minces utilises dans les determinations d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}

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    Jannez, M.; Le Gallic, Y.; Thenard, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Comparative study of various methods of preparing thin films, for use as source holders in the 4 {pi} counter, and of measuring their thickness. Comparative study of various properties: mechanical resistance; heat resistance; ageing; resistance of rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar and cellulose acetate films to the action of various chemical agents. (author) [French] Etude comparee de divers procedes de preparation de films minces, destines a etre utilises comme supports de sources dans le compteur 4 {pi} et de la mesure de leur epaisseur. Etude comparee de diverses proprietes: resistance mecanique; resistance a la chaleur; vieillissement; resistance a l'action de divers agents chimiques de films de rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar et acetate de cellulose. (auteur)

  10. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 μL/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 μL/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (pmeat odor even at abuse temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of phenolic and other polar compounds in peel and flesh of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. 'Criolla') by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Zimmermann, Benno F; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly consumed fruit in tropical countries. Despite of interesting research on health effects of this fruit, investigations into the profile of secondary plant metabolites are scarce. In this study, the phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of pink guava were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Sixty phenolic compounds were characterized by MS 2 and classified as ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanidins, and non-flavonoids such as phenolic acid derivatives, stilbenes, acetophenones, and benzophenones. Forty-two polyphenols are reported for the first time in both peel and flesh, and twenty-four compounds were detected for the first time in P. guajava, e.g., phlorizin, nothofagin, astringin, chrysin-C-glucoside, valoneic acid bilactone, cinnamoyl-glucoside, and two dimethoxycinnamoyl-hexosides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying Listeria monocytogenes prevalence and concentration in minced pork meat and estimating performance of three culture media from presence/absence microbiological testing using a deterministic and stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health, and the majority of cases of human listeriosis are associated with contaminated food. Reliable microbiological testing is needed for effective pathogen control by food industry and competent authorities. The aims of this work were to estimate the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat by the application of a Bayesian modeling approach, and also to determine the performance of three culture media commonly used for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods from a deterministic and stochastic perspective. Samples (n = 100) collected from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes using in parallel the PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono selective media according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 methods. Presence of the pathogen was confirmed by conducting biochemical and molecular tests. Independent experiments (n = 10) for model validation purposes were performed. Performance attributes were calculated from the presence-absence microbiological test results by combining the results obtained from the culture media and confirmative tests. Dirichlet distribution, the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the performance data from a stochastic perspective. No L. monocytogenes was enumerated by direct-plating (media were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. Sensitivity and specificity varied depending on the culture-dependent method. None of the culture media was perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat alone. The use of at least two culture media in parallel enhanced the efficiency of L. monocytogenes detection. Bayesian modeling may reduce the time needed to draw conclusions regarding L. monocytogenes presence and the uncertainty of the results obtained. Furthermore, the problem of observing zero counts may be overcome by applying Bayesian analysis, making the determination of a test performance feasible

  13. Nutritive values, flavor amino acids, healthcare fatty acids and flesh quality improved by manganese referring to up-regulating the antioxidant capacity and signaling molecules TOR and Nrf2 in the muscle of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Tang, Ren-Jun; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Flesh quality, amino acid and fatty acid composition, antioxidant status and related molecule expression in fish muscle were estimated by feeding grass carp with diets containing 3.65-27.86mg/kg diet of manganese (Mn) for 8weeks. Results demonstrated that optimal Mn increased toughness, collagen content, and pH, and decreased the cooking loss, and cathepsin B and L activities to enhance the flesh quality of fish. Meanwhile, optimal Mn increased the protein, lipid, the total essential amino acid (AA) (especially umami AA), and healthcare fatty acids, C18: 1c+t, C20: 3n-3, C20: 4 and DHA contents. These might be partially related to the decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and the enhanced activities of Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) modulated by their gene expression, Nrf2 and TOR signaling. We firstly demonstrated that Mn improved flesh quality, flavor and healthcare function in fish muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  15. Polyphenols from hawthorn peels and fleshes differently mitigate dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in association with modulation of liver injury in high fructose diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Li, Wenfeng; Huang, Di; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-09-25

    Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice. Meanwhile, HPP was also more effective than HFP to mitigate liver inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) release, and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities and PPARα expression, while reducing Nrf-2 and ARE expression in mice. Interestingly, HPP-treated mice also showed the lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo-B, and the higher levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 than HFP-treated mice via reducing FAS express. These results together with the histopathology of the liver with H&E and oil red O staining suggest that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents in the treatment of liver disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 'Dourado- 1' e 'Dourado-2': novos cultivares de pêssego amarelo para mesa 'Dourado-1' and 'Dourado-2': new yellow flesh peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Ojima

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Dourado-l' (IAC 976-6 e 'Dourado-2' (IAC 976-11 são dois novos cultivares de pêssego, obtidos no Instituto Agronômico, mediante o cruzamento 'Tutu' (IAC 1353-1 x 'Maravilha' (Fla. 13-72. Trata-se de pêssegos de tamanho grande, bela aparência, polpa amarela e sabor doce-acidulado bem agradável. As plantas são vigorosas e de alta produtividade; 'Dourado-l', de maturação precoce, e 'Dourado-2, semiprecoce, oferecem novas opções para a escolha do material a ser cultivado nas condições de inverno brando do Estado de São Paulo.'Dourado-l' (IAC 976-6 and 'Dourado-2' (IAC 976-11 are two new yellow-flesh dessert peach cultivars, selected for the mild winter climatic conditions prevailing in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. They resulted from the cross between 'Tutu' (IAC 1353-1 and 'Maravilha' (Fla. 13-72 cultivars. These cultivars present vigorous trees and high productivity with large and beautiful fruits of excellent taste quality.

  17. A reassessment of the study of cut mark patterns to infer hominid manipulation of fleshed carcasses at the Flk Zinj 22 site, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous experimental studies on cut marks have suggested that cut mark percentages and their anatomical distribution (based on element type and bone section type could be used to differentiate primary access to fleshed carcasses from secondary access to defleshed carcasses. In this study, the experimental sample of this type of studies is increased and further data are included to infer a primary access by hominids to carcasses at the FLK Zinj site of Olduvai.

    Estudios experimentales anteriores sobre marcas de corte han sugerido que los porcentajes de marcas de corte y su distribución (basada en tipo de hueso y tipo de sección ósea podrían usarse para diferenciar un acceso primario a carcasas con carne de un acceso secundario a carcasas descarnadas. En este estudio semejante muestra experimental se ve ampliada y se muestran más datos que sirven para inferir que los homínidos tuvieron un acceso primario a las carcasas representadas en el yacimiento FLK Zinj de Olduvai.

  18. Specific Changes of Exocarp and Mesocarp Occurring during Softening Differently Affect Firmness in Melting (MF and Non Melting Flesh (NMF Fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Onelli

    Full Text Available Melting (MF and non melting flesh (NMF peaches differ in their final texture and firmness. Their specific characteristics are achieved by softening process and directly dictate fruit shelf life and quality. Softening is influenced by various mechanisms including cell wall reorganization and water loss. In this work, the biomechanical properties of MF Spring Crest's and NMF Oro A's exocarp and mesocarp along with the amount and localization of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids were investigated during fruit ripening and post-harvest. The objective was to better understand the role played by water loss and cell wall reorganization in peach softening. Results showed that in ripe Spring Crest, where both cell turgor loss and cell wall dismantling occurred, mesocarp had a little role in the fruit reaction to compression and probe penetration response was almost exclusively ascribed to the epidermis which functioned as a mechanical support to the pulp. In ripe Oro A's fruit, where cell wall disassembly did not occur and the loss of cell turgor was observed only in mesocarp, the contribution of exocarp to fruit firmness was consistent but relatively lower than that of mesocarp, suggesting that in addition to cell turgor, the integrity of cell wall played a key role in maintaining NMF fruit firmness. The analysis of phenols suggested that permeability and firmness of epidermis were associated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids.

  19. Amino acid substitutions in homologs of the STAY-GREEN protein are responsible for the green-flesh and chlorophyll retainer mutations of tomato and pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Cornelius S; McQuinn, Ryan P; Chung, Mi-Young; Besuden, Anna; Giovannoni, James J

    2008-05-01

    Color changes often accompany the onset of ripening, leading to brightly colored fruits that serve as attractants to seed-dispersing organisms. In many fruits, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum), there is a sharp decrease in chlorophyll content and a concomitant increase in the synthesis of carotenoids as a result of the conversion of chloroplasts into chromoplasts. The green-flesh (gf) and chlorophyll retainer (cl) mutations of tomato and pepper, respectively, are inhibited in their ability to degrade chlorophyll during ripening, leading to the production of ripe fruits characterized by both chlorophyll and carotenoid accumulation and are thus brown in color. Using a positional cloning approach, we have identified a point mutation at the gf locus that causes an amino acid substitution in an invariant residue of a tomato homolog of the STAY-GREEN (SGR) protein of rice (Oryza sativa). Similarly, the cl mutation also carries an amino acid substitution at an invariant residue in a pepper homolog of SGR. Both GF and CL expression are highly induced at the onset of fruit ripening, coincident with the ripening-associated decline in chlorophyll. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that there are two distinct groups of SGR proteins in plants. The SGR subfamily is required for chlorophyll degradation and operates through an unknown mechanism. A second subfamily, which we have termed SGR-like, has an as-yet undefined function.

  20. Antimicrobial Effect of Filipendula ulmaria Plant Extract Against Selected Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria in Laboratory Media, Fish Flesh and Fish Roe Product

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    Charalampos Proestos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-methanol extract from Filipendula ulmaria contains a variety of phenolic compounds, such as caffeic, p-coumaric and vanillic acid, myricetin, etc, which demonstrate antibacterial activity. Monitoring this activity in the broth using absorbance measurements showed that species of the Enterobacteriaceae family were more resistant than other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested. Acidic environment enhanced the antibacterial activity of Filipendula ulmaria extract when it was tested against Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. The efficacy of Filipendula ulmaria extract against selected foodborne psychrotrophic bacteria was also tested using solid laboratory media and low incubation temperatures for better simulation of food preservation conditions. Higher concentrations of the extract, compared to minimum inhibitory concentration determined in the broth, were needed for satisfactory inhibition of spoilage bacteria. Potential use of Filipendula ulmaria extract as natural food preservative was also examined against natural spoilage flora and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fish flesh and fish roe product (tarama salad. No significant differences of viable populations of spoilage or pathogenic bacteria were found between the treated samples and controls. Further trials of Filipendula ulmaria extract should be carried out in acidic foods with low fat and protein content, supplemented with additional adjuncts, in order to explore its potential as effective natural food antimicrobial agent.

  1. Peach fruit ripening: A proteomic comparative analysis of the mesocarp of two cultivars with different flesh firmness at two ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo Simone; Fedeli, Chiara; Morgutti, Silvia; Negrini, Noemi; Cocucci, Maurizio; Espen, Luca

    2011-07-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted on peach fruit mesocarp in order to better elucidate the biochemical and physiological events which characterize the transition of fruit from the "unripe" to the "ripe" phase. The first goal of the present work was to set-up a protocol suitable for improving protein extraction from peach mesocarp. The use of freeze-dried powdered tissue, together with the addition of phenol prior to the extraction with an aqueous buffer, significantly increased the protein yield and the quality of 2-DE gels. The proteomic profiles of the mesocarp from peach fruit of a non-melting flesh (NMF; 'Oro A') and a melting flesh (MF; 'Bolero') cultivar, at "unripe" and "ripe" stages as defined by some parameters typical of ripening, were then analyzed. The comparative analysis of the 2-DE gels showed that in NMF and MF peaches the relative volumes of 53 protein spots significantly changed in relation to both the ripening stage ("unripe" versus "ripe") and/or the genetic background of the cultivar ('Oro A' versus 'Bolero'). Thirty out of the 53 differently abundant spots were identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The analysis revealed enzymes involved in primary metabolism (e.g. C-compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids) and in ethylene biosynthesis as well as proteins involved in secondary metabolism and responses to stress. Among these, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) appeared to be one of the proteins with the largest change in relative abundance during the fruit transition from the pre-climacteric ("unripe") to the climacteric ("ripe") phase. Other proteins, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and β-cyanoalanine synthase involved in ethylene metabolism, were also identified. Moreover, the changes in the relative abundances of a sucrose synthase and an α-amylase suggested differences between the two cultivars in the carbohydrate import activity of ripe fruit. The different accumulation of a few typical ROS

  2. Comparison of Plutarch’s Defence of Animals in the Treatise On the Eating of Flesh and Shelley’s A Vindication of Natural Diet

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    Branislava Vičar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the defence of animals in two texts which promote a vegetable diet: in Plutarch’s essay from Moralia, On the Eating of Flesh, and Shelley’s essay A Vindication of Natural Diet. The paper focuses on the conceptualisation of animals and consideration of their moral status in both texts and on Shelley’s treatment of Plutarch’s ethical argument. Anthropocentric  conceptions of animals and their moral status, based on the logic that all and only human beings deserve to be treated on the principles of moral consideration because all and only human beings possess reason, linguistic intelligence and self-awareness, have their roots in Aristotle and in particular in Stoic thought. The canonical Stoic position is based on the cosmological principle, by which each being has a specific place in the scheme of the cosmos, whereby this proper place is determined by the capacities of the being; the highest place belongs to those beings who are capable of rational contemplation. The implication of this position is the categorical denial of the duty of justice toward animals, and the ultimate implication is the denial of any direct duties toward animals: animals as fundamentally inferior to rational beings have only instrumental value in the cosmic scheme of things and exist only for the benefit of rational beings. Plutarch’s texts on animals in his early work (Whether Land or Sea Animals Are Cleverer, Beasts Are Rational, On the Eating of Flesh represent the first and most spirited de- fence of the capacities and moral status of animals, directed against the Stoic position. In contrast to the Stoics, Plutarch argues that animals have inherent value, and ultimately calls for a justice relationship between human beings and animals on the basis of their experiental capacities. Plutarch defends the view that animals have a fundamental interest to live on the basis of recognising animal perceptual awareness. He advocates the moral

  3. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: optimum temperature for activity, structure-activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qirui; Zdarek, Jan; Nachman, Ronald J; Denlinger, David L

    2008-02-01

    Diapause hormone (DH) effectively terminated pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea. This effect was temperature-dependent, with an optimum of 21 degrees C. The dose-response curve indicated an ED50 of DH for diapause termination of approximately 100 pmol. The core sequence and essential amino acids were determined by bioassays using modified and truncated DH analogs. A C-terminal hepta-peptide, LWFGPRLa, was the core sequence required for diapause termination. Activity was lost when Alanine was substituted for any of the amino acids in the hepta-peptide, with the exception of Glycine. A fragment series of analogs suggested that the amide and Arginine were the most important components needed for terminating diapause. Leucine, Tryptophan, and Phenylalanine at the N-terminus of the hepta-peptide were also critical for activity. The C-terminal Leucine was less important: deletion resulted in decreased activity, although it could not be substituted by Alanine. The fact that a portion of the DH sequence is similar to the pyrokinin that accelerates fly pupariation prompted us to also evaluate the capability of DH to accelerate development in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. The threshold dose of DH essential to accelerate fly pupariation was 5 pmol for immobilization/retraction and longitudinal contraction and 10 pmol for tanning, approximately one or two orders of magnitude lower than the effective dose required for diapause termination in H. zea. Tensiometric measurements revealed that DH affected neuromuscular patterns of pupariation behavior and associated cuticular changes in a manner similar to that of the fly pyrokinins and their analogs.

  4. Effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in yellow-fleshed cassava roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. BRS Jari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suellen; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Godoy, Ronoel; Pacheco, Sidney; Carvalho, José; Nutti, Marília

    2013-03-01

    The effects of boiling and frying on the bioaccessibility of all-trans-beta-carotene in biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots have not been investigated, although these are conventional methods of cassava preparation. The aims of the present study were to investigate beta-carotene micellarization efficiency of yellow-fleshed BRS Jari cassava roots after boiling and frying, as an indicator of the bioaccessibility of this carotenoid, and to apply fluorescence microscopy to investigate beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction. Uncooked, boiled, and fried cassava roots were digested in vitro for the evaluation, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), of the efficiency of micellarization of all-trans-beta-carotene in BRS Jari cassava roots. Fluorescence microscopy of the micellar fraction was used to confirm the presence of beta-carotene in the emulsified fraction and to observe the structure of the microemulsion from the boiled and fried cassava samples. Fried cassava roots showed the highest (p < .05) micellarization efficiency for total carotenoids and all-trans-beta-carotene (14.1 +/- 2.25% and 14.37 +/- 2.44%, respectively), compared with boiled and raw samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that after in vitro digestion there were no carotenoid crystals in the micellar fraction, but rather that this fraction presented a biphasic system compatible with emulsified carotenoids, which was consistent with the expected high bioavailability of beta-carotene in this fraction. Increased emulsification and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from fried biofortified BRS Jari cassava roots compensates for chemical losses during preparation, indicating that this preparation is suitable for home use of BRS Jari cassava roots and might represent a relatively good food source of bioavailable provitamin A.

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oils of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm. f.) and their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; Ashour, Mohamed L; Mulyaningsih, Sri; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The volatile secondary metabolites of essential oils from fruit peel and leaves of variegated pink-fleshed lemon (Citrus x limon) were investigated using GLC and GLC-MS (gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy). Altogether 141 compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.59% and 96.33% of the total hydrodistilled peel and leaf oil, respectively. Limonene occurred in higher amounts in fruit peel (52.73%) than in leaf oil (29.13%). Neral (12.72%), neryl acetate (8.53%), p-menth-1-en-7-al (4.63%), beta-pinene (6.35%), and nerol (4.42%) were the most abundant constituents in leaf oil, whereas gamma-terpinene (9.88%), beta-pinene (7.67%), geranial (4.44%), and neral (3.64%) dominated in the fruit peel oil. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal, and antimicrobial activities of the fruit peel essential oil were evaluated. The oil had a low antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of (26.66 +/- 2.07) mg/ml as compared to the efficient antioxidant ascorbic acid [IC50 (16.32 +/- 0.16) microg/ml]. The oil moderately inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with an IC50 value of (32.05 +/- 3.91) microg/ml and had moderate antitrypanosomal activity [IC50 (60.90 +/- 0.91) microg/ml]. In addition, moderate antimicrobial activities were detected against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus capitis, Micrococcus luteus), one Gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens), and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida parapsilosis).

  6. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  7. Myosin light chain isoforms retain their species-specific electrophoretic mobility after processing, which enables differentiation between six species: 2DE analysis of minced meat and meat products made from beef, pork and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Investigation of protein changes as well as authentication of meat is particularly difficult in processed meat products due to their different composition, complexity and very often inhomogeneity. The aim of this study was to check if the inter-species differences in the expression of myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms observed in raw meat were retained in meat products. MLCs from mixtures of minced meat (16 variants), frankfurters and sausages (15 products) made from cattle, pig, chicken, turkey, duck and goose were analysed by 2DE. Species-specific patterns of MLC isoforms were observed in all the mixtures and processed meat products. Relatively small degradation was observed in the MLCs after processing. Image analysis enabled species identification of the meat in all samples when the content of meat of one species was not lower than 10%. However, it was impossible to differentiate between all the six species under investigation on the basis of individual isoform. It was possible when the combination of all the three isoforms (myosin light chain 1 fast, myosin light chain 2 fast and myosin light chain 3 fast) was analysed. The results evidenced that MLCs have potential to be used as markers in authentication of meat products made from the analysed six species. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Influência da ingestão de sardinha nos níveis de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3 no leite materno The influence of sardine consumption on the omega-3 fatty acid content of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose V. Patin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A proposta deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da ingestão de sardinha, alimento rico em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3, na composição do leite materno. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliou 31 nutrizes acompanhadas no Hospital Guilherme Álvaro, as quais receberam 2 kg de sardinha fresca por duas vezes, em intervalos de 15 dias. Nos tempos 0, 15 e 30 dias, realizou-se inquérito alimentar de 24 horas e coleta de leite. Determinaram-se os ácidos graxos do leite materno por cromatografia a gás. Para análise estatística dos resultados, utilizaram-se testes não paramétricos, com nível de significância p OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the intake of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Álvaro. Each was given 2 kg of fresh sardines twice with a 15-day interval. Milk was sampled and a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was applied on days 0, 15 and 30. Milk was assayed for fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using nonparametric tests with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the nutritional intake of the nursing mothers was adequate at all three sample points. With regard to the omega-3 series fatty acid content of the breastmilk, it was observed that regular consumption and shorter intervals between intake and milk collection resulted in higher concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at 15 and 30 days into the study. Fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 series exhibited a significant correlation, r² was 0.58 and 0.59 at 15 and 30 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that incorporating fish into the diets of nursing mother during lactation, in the form of 100 g of

  9. Linea Trasversale, Flesh and Soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    The following article answers the specific need of providing information to all those who continually ask, “What is Linea Trasversale (LT)?” LT was founded in 1995 as a strategy to avoid isolation, in the shadow of the educational network called University of Eurasian Theatre (Università del Teatro...

  10. Nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation effects of anti-angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) peptide from Styela clava flesh tissue and its anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Dong Geon; Han, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Byun, Hee-Guk; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Park, Sun-Joo; Lee, Dae-Ho; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-09-15

    In our previous study, an anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) peptide (Ala-His-Ile-Ile-Ile, MW: 565.3Da) was isolated from Styela clava flesh tissue. In this study the fractions obtained during the isolation process and the finally purified peptide were examined to see if they had vasorelaxation effects in isolated rat aortas, and then the peptide was investigated for anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The induction of vasorelaxation in the rat aortas was observed with the isolated fractions and the peptide from the enzymatic hydrolysate of S. clava flesh tissue and could be markedly blocked by pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). In human endothelial cells, NO synthesis was found to be increased and eNOS phosphorylation was upregulated when the cells were cultured with the purified peptide. Furthermore, systolic blood pressure was reduced by administration of the potent vasorelaxation peptide in SHRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  13. anchovy Engraulis capensis, sardine Sardinops sa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    gain through prolonged bouts of low-cost filter-feeding. (Van der Lingen ... 3 000-l fibreglass tank supplied with a continuous flow of 5-µm-filtered ... A sample of 20 fish was taken from each trawl to provide data on stomach contents at t = 0. Fish in the tank were observed to ensure that there was no feeding, and dead or ...

  14. Microbiological quality of cold smoked sardine, Sardinella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium sp., Mucor sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Saccharomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. were found in the samples. The lowest mean for bacterial count was 0.350x106 cfu/g for smoked fish from the control in October (wet season) ...

  15. Effects of Dietary Lipid Source and Level on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters and Flesh Quality of Sub-adult Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid source and level on growth performance, blood parameters, fatty acid composition and flesh quality of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain 5% squid liver oil (SLO, 5% linseed oil (LO, 5% soybean oil (SO, a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 2% linseed oil and 2% soybean oil (MIX, no lipid supplementation with high protein level (LL-HP, 10% squid liver oil (HL-SLO, a mixture of 1% squid liver oil, 4.5% linseed oil and 4.5% soybean oil (HL-VO, and 1% squid liver oil with high starch level (LL-HC, respectively. Two replicate groups of fish (average initial weight of 296 g were fed the diets for 17 wks. After 5 wks, 11 wks and the end of the feeding trial, five fish from each tank were randomly sampled for analysis of body composition. At the end of the feeding trial, final mean weight of fish fed the LL-HP diet was significantly (p<0.05 higher than that of fish fed the HL-VO diet, but did not differ significantly from those of fish fed the SLO, LO, SO, MIX, HL-SLO and LL-HC diets. Fish fed the LL-HP diet showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the LO, HL-SLO and HL-VO diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the LO, SO and MIX diets were similar to those of fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets. Fish fed the HL-SLO diet showed significantly higher total cholesterol content in plasma compared with other diets. Fatty acid composition of tissues was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. The highest linoleic (LA and linolenic acid (LNA contents in the dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the SO and LO diets, respectively, regardless of feeding period. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in the dorsal muscle was observed in fish fed the LL-HP and LL-HC diets after 11 and 17 weeks of feeding, respectively. Fish fed the SLO and HL-SLO diets showed higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content than that of

  16. Caracterização química e bacteriológica de polpa e surimi obtidos do espinhaço residual da filetagem de tilápia Chemical and bacteriological characterization of minced fish and surimi obtained from fillet frames of tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar rendimentos, composição centesimal e características bacteriológicas da polpa e do surimi de tilápia obtidos a partir da desossa mecânica de espinhaços residuais da filetagem de peixes de 400 a 650 gramas e oriundos de unidade de processamento oficial. As amostras foram divididas em quatro lotes, com intervalos de prazo de coleta de dois meses. As análises realizadas foram determinação do rendimento, composição centesimal (umidade, proteína, lipídios e cinzas e análises bacteriológicas: contagem de Bactérias Heterotróficas Aeróbias Mesófilas (CBHAM e Psicrotróficas (CBHAP; isolamento e identificação de Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e Escherichia coli. Os rendimentos obtidos para a polpa e o surimi em relação aos espinhaços foram, respectivamente, de 17,96 e 13,61%, observando-se diferença significativa (PThe aim of this study was to assess the yields, proximate composition and bacteriological characteristics of minced fish and surimi obtained from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from 400 to 650 grams, recovered from fillet frames, after mechanical deboning. The samples were divided in four lots, collected each two months. The percentage yields were determined and the chemical analysis carried out included moisture, protein, lipids and ashes. Bacteriological analysis considered Heterotrophic Aerobics Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics bacteria count, isolation and identification of Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The yields obtained from minced fish and surimi, in relation with fillet frames, were 17.96% and 13.61% with significant gaps (P<0.05 between samples. The moisture, proteins, lipids and ashes percentage rate were for the minced fish: 80.69, 16.5, 3.14 and 0.50 and for the surimi: 80.82, 14.6, 0.27, and 0.98, with significant gaps (P<0.05 for lipids and ashes. The counted Mesophilics and Psychrotrophics Bacteria in the

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in minced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, D; Yangüela, J; Amrouche, T; Boubrit, S; Boussad, N; Roncalés, P

    2011-12-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted by hydrodistillation from leaf parts of Algerian Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus communis and Satureja hortensis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main components of EOs obtained were γ-terpinene (94.48%), 1,8-cineole (46.98%) and carvacrol (46.10%), respectively, for E. globulus, M. communis and S. hortensis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 CECT 4267 using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that E. globulus and S. hortensis EOs had more antibacterial effects than that from M. communis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) showed a range of 0.05-0.22% (volume by volume [v/v]). Sensitivity of gram-positive S. aureus was much higher than that of gram-negative E. coli. Plant EOs were added to minced beef (two-fold MIC value) at 0.10-0.44%, experimentally inoculated with the same pathogens at a level of 5 × 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g and stored at 5 ± 2 °C. Results showed that the EOs of E. globulus and S. hortensis had remarkable antibacterial properties, higher than that of M. communis, against S. aureus and E. coli. Indeed, a reduction of 5.8 log cfu/g (70.74% of reduction) was recorded after 7 days of storage for S. hortensis against E. coli. However, regarding S. aureus, both S. hortensis and E. globulus caused a highly significant (p beef meat treated with EOs was acceptable by panelists at the levels used.

  18. Efeito do gelo clorado sobre parâmetros químicos e microbiológicos da carne de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella Effect of chlorinated ice on chemical and microbiological features of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A rápida perecibilidade dos peixes provoca perdas na industrialização e comercialização desse alimento. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência da utilização de gelo clorado para ampliar a vida-de-prateleira de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram realizadas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos na carne, e determinada a concentração de bases voláteis totais e o pH da carne de carpas armazenadas inteiras, sob refrigeração (3±1ºC, cobertas com gelo sem cloro ou clorado (5ppm, ao longo de 20 dias. O cloro reduziu significativamente (pThe rapid spoilage of fishes causes economical losses in the processing and marketing of these products. In the present study, the efficiency of chlorinated ice to increase grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella shelf life was evaluated. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated in the flesh of grass carp stored refrigerated (3±1ºC for 20 days, covered with chlorinated (5ppm or non-chlorinated ice. Chlorine significantly reduced (p<0,05 mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count in the flesh, as well as pH and the initial values of TVBN. TVBN values were low and did not exhibit great changes over the storage time. Results showed that grass carp shelf life could be extended around 3 days by using chlorinated ice. Besides, pH and TVBN values were considered unsuitable to assess grass carp spoilage.

  19. Étude de la cinétique de croissance des couches minces de sulfure d'argent préparées par dépôt chimique en solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meherzi Maghraoui, H.; Cowache, P.; Lincot, D.; Dachraoui, M.

    1999-02-01

    The growth kinetics of silver sulfide films chemically deposited from aqueous silver nitrate-thiourea solutions at pH around 9 is studied as a function of the concentrations in solution, temperature (40 to 80 °C) and hydrodynamic regime. It is found that the growth takes place in a narrow pH window (8.8 to 9.4). It is activated by temperature with an apparent activation energy of 20.4 kJ.mol-1, which is coherent with a diffusion control evidenced by experiments at different hydrodynamic regimes. The overall rate equation has been determined. The ultimate thickness of the films (around 1-2 microns) is actually limited by a parasitic process attributed to unsticking. Cette étude concerne la croissance de couches minces de sulfure d'argent par dépôt chimique en solution (C.B.D) en présence de nitrate d'argent et de thiourée dans des conditions de pH légèrement basique (pH = 9) et à une température comprise entre (40 et 80 °C). L'équation de vitesse globale a été établie dans la fenêtre expérimentale de croissance. Le mécanisme réactionnel est sous contrôle diffusionnel avec une énergie d'activation apparente de 20,4 kJ.mol-1 et met probablement en jeu des étapes élémentaires. La croissance s'effectue en parallèle avec la réaction de précipitation en phase homogène. L'épaisseur des films peut atteindre 1,6 micron. Elle est actuellement limitée par un phénomène attribué à un décollement du substrat.

  20. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates; Utilisation d'un evaporateur a couche mince pour l'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Rodier, J.; Hullo, R.; Cudel, Y.; Rodi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors) [French] A la suite de la mise au point en laboratoire d'un procede d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats d'evaporation, une etude technologique de cet enrobage a ete entreprise. Ce rapport decrit une installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats utilisant un evaporateur a couche mince LUWA L 150. La premiere serie d'essais en inactif a eu pour but de definir les capacites maximales et optimales de l'evaporateur en faisant varier les dosages en bitume et en concentrats, la vitesse du rotor et la temperature du thermo-fluide. Deux rotors ont ete testes, l'un de type classique, l'autre d'un modele special concu pour les produits de haute viscosite. La capacite d'evaporation maximale de l'appareil est de 72 kg/h d'eau pour une temperature de chauffage de 221 deg. C. En marche normale l

  1. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento, consideramos a larva no estagio prejuvenil (=transformal.

  2. Quality of sausage elaborated using minced Nile Tilapia submmitted to cold storage Qualidade de salsichas elaboradas com carne mecanicamente separada de tilápias do Nilo e armazenadas sob refrigeração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Campagnoli de Oliveira Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Filleting yield of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. is low (30% and generates large amount of wastes that may turn into environmental and economic problem. However, these wastes can be used for the extraction of minced fish (MF which can be used in the preparation of sausages. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of sausages prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of MF from Nile tilapia filleting waste during storage at 0±0.3ºC. Alterations in the instrumental color (L*, a* and b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, total volatile nitrogenous bases (TVB-N, pH, microbiological condition (pathogenic bacteria and aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria, and sensory attributes (color, odor, flavor, texture and overall acceptability were evaluated for up to 40 days. The addition of MF to sausages increased TBARS values and decreases TVB-N, L*, a* and b* values. Acceptability of color attribute decreased with increasing MF; best flavor, texture and overall acceptability scores were registered for sausages containing 40 and 60% MF; best odor was registered for 100% MF. Pathogenic microorganisms were not detected, but decrease in pH and proliferation of aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria which, however, did not compromise sensory evaluation of sausages were registered throughout storage. Sausages prepared with MF from tilapia filleting waste have a shelf-life of 40 days when stored at 0±0.3ºC, and the maximum recommended MF inclusion to maintain good sensory quality is 60%.O rendimento de filetagem da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, é considerado baixo (30% gerando conseqüentemente uma grande quantidade de resíduos que podem causar perdas econômicas e problemas ambientais. Estes resíduos podem ser utilizados para a obtenção de carne mecanicamente separada (CMS e utilizado na elaboração de salsichas. Avaliou-se a qualidade de salsichas elaboradas com 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de inclusão de CMS de resíduos de filetagem

  3. Os cuidados com a "carne" na socialização sexual dos jovens Los cuidados con la 'carne' en la socialización delos jóvenes The care of the "flesh" in young people's sexual socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Rios

    2008-12-01

    ío/pecado/"riesgo"; resituándola como instancia positiva de los sujetos (de derecho y condiciones de fertilidad social.The positions of Christian leaders on the "management" of young people's sexuality, as contextualized within the sexual politics of the state, are discussed. They are the result of an ethnographic study undertaken through archival work, participating observation and interviews with 47 religious leaders in Recife PE Brazil. Analysis shows the space of religion as a disciplinary site, operating through transcendent reasoning ("responsibility". The person is expected to incorporate such reasoning and make the appropriate differentiations between "right" and "wrong". AIDS and adolescent pregnancy appear as a result of "temptations of the erotic flesh". From the perspective of human rights and health, the article deconstructs the idea of the "flesh" as dominated by "temptation," and as an "essential force" which leads the person to stray/sin/"risk". It re-situates sexuality as a positive instance for the subjects (with rights and a condition for social fertility.

  4. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  5. Effects of crowding on blood constituents and flesh quality variables in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) Efecto del confinamiento sobre las variables sanguíneas y calidad de carne de Salmón Atlántico (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    MC Gatica; GE Monti; TG Knowles; CB Gallo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anaesthesia (as a control treatment) and controlled crowding, with its concomitant low oxygen level, on harvest size salmon (Salmo salar) were compared in terms of blood constituents and flesh quality variables, at 0, 1, 4, 7 and 10 days post-mortem. Fish were held in tanks in triplicate and were sampled after anaesthetizing with AQUI-S® and after crowding for one hour. Eighteen fish from each treatment were stunned, blood sampled from the posterior aorta and the fish bled by g...

  6. Life cycle analysis of biodiesel production from flesh from the tannery industry Análisis del ciclo de vida de la producción de biodiésel a partir del descarne procedente de la industria de la curtiduría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Rodríguez Ibarra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The tanning industry is a source of contamination by hazardous waste generation and special handling. One of these elements is the flesh, which help this study to determine if fleshing is able to add value to a source of employment and a reduction of pollution: production of biodiesel promises to be the sustainable alternative, economically and socially viable. The study was divided into 3 unit processes with a base of 1 kg of biodiesel: a flesh collection, b cooked and rendered, c esterification and transesterification. The impact categories evaluated were the primary energy consumption and the potential nonrenewable emissions of greenhouse gases. As a result of this article, it is had that the tanning is a source of biodiesel economically and environmentally feasible for the least environmental impact occurred. With the availability of annual flesh (79 200 000 kg can be reduced combustion emissions of CO2 from the air to 11 980 300 kg per year.La industria de la curtiduría es un foco de contaminación debido a la generación de residuos peligrosos y de manejo especial. Entre estos elementos se encuentra el descarne. Sobre este elemento, el actual estudio busca determinar si puede contar con un valor agregado para nuevas fuentes de empleo y la reducción de la contaminación: la producción de biodiésel promete ser la alternativa sustentable, económica y socialmente viable. El sistema de estudio se dividió en 3 procesos unitarios con una base de 1 kg de biodiésel: a recolección del descarne, b cocido y rendido, c esterificación y transesterificación. Las categorías de impacto evaluadas fueron el consumo de energía primaria no renovable y el potencial de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. Como resultado del estudio se tuvo que la curtiduría resulta ser una fuente de producción de biodiésel económica y ambientalmente viable gracias a su menor impacto ambiental producido. Con la disponibilidad de descarne anual (79 200 000 kg

  7. Potassium transport in developing fleshy fruits: the grapevine inward K(+) channel VvK1.2 is activated by CIPK-CBL complexes and induced in ripening berry flesh cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Teresa; Azeem, Farrukh; Andrianteranagna, Mamy; Pascaud, François; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Sentenac, Hervé; Zimmermann, Sabine; Gaillard, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    The grape berry provides a model for investigating the physiology of non-climacteric fruits. Increased K(+) accumulation in the berry has a strong negative impact on fruit acidity (and quality). In maturing berries, we identified a K(+) channel from the Shaker family, VvK1.2, and two CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK)/calcineurin B-like calcium sensor (CBL) pairs, VvCIPK04-VvCBL01 and VvCIPK03-VvCBL02, that may control the activity of this channel. VvCBL01 and VvCIPK04 are homologues of Arabidopsis AtCBL1 and AtCIPK23, respectively, which form a complex that controls the activity of the Shaker K(+) channel AKT1 in Arabidopsis roots. VvK1.2 remained electrically silent when expressed alone in Xenopus oocytes, but gave rise to K(+) currents when co-expressed with the pairs VvCIPK03-VvCBL02 or VvCIPK04-VvCBL01, the second pair inducing much larger currents than the first one. Other tested CIPK-CBL pairs expressed in maturing berries were found to be unable to activate VvK1.2. When activated by its CIPK-CBL partners, VvK1.2 acts as a voltage-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel that is activated at voltages more negative than -100 mV and is stimulated upon external acidification. This channel is specifically expressed in the berry, where it displays a very strong induction at veraison (the inception of ripening) in flesh cells, phloem tissues and perivascular cells surrounding vascular bundles. Its expression in these tissues is further greatly increased upon mild drought stress. VvK1.2 is thus likely to mediate rapid K(+) transport in the berry and to contribute to the extensive re-organization of the translocation pathways and transport mechanisms that occurs at veraison. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  9. Meeting "real" physicists in the flesh

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN physicists don't wear white coats (at least not very often); they don't all wear glasses and they don't concoct dangerous potions. They are often even women. These are some of the discoveries made by children from local schools taking part in the "Draw me a physicist" project. Franck Martin, an ATLAS physicist, answers questions from children from the Satigny-Village school.   20 school-classes from the Swiss communes of Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier and from the Pays de Gex in France have been taking part in this project, which involved the children making an initial drawing and writing a "dictionary-style" definition of a physicist in their classrooms, and then visiting CERN during the week of March 15th. The Swiss children were also treated to a show put on by the Physicscope group. During their visit to CERN they were able to see the laboratories and experiments for real and get an idea of what a physicist's job involves by interviewing a real male and...

  10. Is There a Flesh Without Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Falque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was originally presented at a colloquium on Michel Henry’s book Incarnation at the Institut Catholique Paris. Michel Henry’s response to the present study can be found in “À Emmanuel Falque,” in Phénoménologie et christianisme chez Michel Henry, ed. Ph. Capelle  (Paris: Cerf, 2004: 168-182. This response was reprinted recently in Michel Henry, La Phénoménologie de la vie, vol. 5 (Paris: PUF, 2015.

  11. Composição em aminoácidos de silagens químicas, biológicas e enzimáticas preparadas com resíduos de sardinha Determination of amino-acid composition of silages prepared from sardine residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Floridalma MORALES-ULLOA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a composição em aminoácidos de silagens químicas, biológicas e enzimáticas elaboradas com resíduos de sardinha. Entre os aminoácidos essenciais a leucina apresentou valores mais altos para todas as silagens, a saber, em g/100g de proteína, 8,31 (química; 8,33 (protease 1 semana; 8,42 (pepsina, e 8,06 (inóculo L. plantarum + melaço 2 semanas, seguida pela lisina 6,46; 6,50 6,45, e 9,01; a fenilalanina com 5,32; 5,35 e 5,25 e 5,18. Destaque especial para o aumento na concentração de valina no decorrer do processo de ensilagem passando de 4,80 g/100g de proteína na matéria-prima para 7,67 na silagem química (3 semanas; 6,26 na silagem com meio inóculo de L.plantarum + melaço (48 horas; 6,27 na silagem protease (1 semana e 6,02 na silagem pepsina (2 semanas. A maior concentração de aminoácidos encontrados foi para o ácido glutâmico, que apresentou teor inicial de 15,20g/100g de proteína e posteriormente 14,02 na silagem química após 1 semana; 14,89 na silagem enzimática com protease (1 semana e 17,09 na silagem biológica com meio inóculo L.plantarum + melaço após 48 horas.The composition and amino-acid concentration of chemical, biological and enzymatic silages prepared from sardine residues, were determined. The essential amino-acid, leucine showed the highest values in all silages (8.31; 8,33 8.42; and 8.06 g/100g protein, followed by lysine (6.46, 6.50, 6.45 and 9,.01 g/100 protein, for chemical silage, protease silage after one week pepsin silage in the L. plantarum after 2 weeks respectively. Phenylalanine showed a value of 5.32g/100g protein in the chemical silages after one week, 5.35g/100g in the protease silage after one week, 5.25g/100g in the pepsin silage after two weeks and 5.18g/100g in the silage inoculated with L. plantarum plus its medium, also after two weeks. The increase in the valine during the silage processing deserves special mention, increasing from 4.80/100g protein in the raw

  12. Gastric evacuation, feeding periodicity and daily ration of Sardine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated gastric evacuation rates ranged between 0.05 and 0.29.h-1, with mean values of 0.09 and 0.27.h-1 for fish fed zooplankton and phytoplankton respectively. Despite this large range, no significant relationships were found between gastric evacuation rate and fish size, temperature, food particle size or meal size.

  13. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax supports major purse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    sampling shallower than about 25 m, two large floats were attached to the upper sweeps near the wings of the trawl. Temperature, salinity and oxygen were measured at six CTD stations in the bay, and ADCP current profiles were recorded at the last three stations. Sizing of schools. The primary task, from the point of view of ...

  14. In upwelling regions in which anchovy Engraulis spp. and sardine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and longitude) blocks extending from 29° to 36°45′S and from 15° to 28°00′E. Currents above the thermo- cline (vertically-averaged 30 and 50 m currents) were averaged for each grid block. The model was based on ADCP data collected during cruises on. F.R.S. Africana between September and March,. 1989–1993.

  15. The southern African sardine Sardinops sagax (also known as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    bined with poor recruitment, led to a crash in biomass in the late 1960s, to <2 million tons by 1970. Then, in 1972, a ..... length 20–21 cm, whereas in 1998 and 1999 the fish were larger, 21–23.5 cm. The distribution of the catches ..... garia), and Ms J. C. Coetzee. Drs P. Fréon (IRD, France) and C. L. Moloney (MCM) are ...

  16. Anchovy Engraulis capensis, sardine Sardinops sagax and round ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Formerly Marine Biology Research Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town; now Department of Mathematics and. Applied ..... material) in female anchovy, estimated from histo- logical studies of anchovy gonads (Fig. 5) were used as an index of reproductive condition. Previous studies. (Hunter and ...

  17. The South African sardine Sardinops sagax popu- lation partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    plane, polished with 0.05-µm aluminia powder and etched with 0.1M ethylene diamine-tetra-acetic acid. (EDTA). They were then mounted on stubs and sputter- coated with gold and examined with a SEM at. 600–1000× magnification. All otoliths that showed a clear sequence of daily increments in >90% of the longitudinal ...

  18. Evaluation of Bacteriological Stability of Minced Canned Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal inactivation of spoilage microorganisms is one of the widely used commercial food preservation techniques. However, its application may be too costly in terms of energy expenditure or inappropriate in terms of product quality. In this study, an attempt was made to produce tropical storage stable canned meat using ...

  19. Microbial Flora and Food Borne Pathogens on Minced Meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Food-borne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries. Changes in eating habits, mass catering, unsafe food storage conditions and poor hygiene practices are major contributing factors to food associated illnesses. In Ethiopia, the widespread habit of raw beef ...

  20. Nitruration de verres conducteurs ioniques en couches minces

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Yohann

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of nitrided ionic conducting glasses have been deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering. Glasses are particularly adapted for an use as electrolyte in electrochemical microsystems. In the case of phosphate glasses, it has already been shown that nitrogen incorporation in the vitreous network increases considerably the ionic conductivity of the deposited thin films. First of all, a measurement apparatus allowing the characterization of thin films conduction properties has been ...

  1. BACTÉRIAS DO GÊNERO Listeria EM CARNE E ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE LAVAGEM DE CARCAÇA DE UM MATADOURO-FRIGORÍFICO E EM CARNE MOÍDA COMERCIALIZADA NA CIDADE DE GOIÂNIA - GO BACTERIA OF THE GENUS Listeria IN MEAT AND RESIDUAL WASHING CARCASS WATER IN A FRIGORIFIC ABATTOIR AND BOVINE MINCED MEAT COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Timo Iaria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com vistas ao isolamento, à identificação e à caracterização sorológica de bactérias do gênero Listeria, foram colhidas em um matadouro-frigorífico de grande porte, sob inspeção federal, 70 amostras de tecido muscular bovino e 30 amostras de água residuária oriunda da lavagem de meias-carcaças. Nenhuma cepa de Listeria foi isolada a partir das amostras de carne bovina, mas uma amostra de água residuária (3,33% revelou-se positiva, sendo a cepa identificada bioquímica e sorologicamente como L. innocua 6a. Foram também analisadas 50 amostras de carne bovina moída, adquiridas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO, das quais 24 (48% mostraram-se positivas para Listeria spp. Destas amostras positivas foram isoladas 24 cepas, sendo 22 (91,8% de L. innocua 6a, uma (4,1% de L. innocua não tipável sorologicamente e uma (4,41% de L. monocytogenes 1/2b.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Listeria; carne; carne moída; carcaça.

    With the aim to isolate, identify and carry out serological characterization of’ bacteria of the genus Listeria, 70 samples of bovine muscle tissue and 30 samples of residual washing water of halves carcasses were collected in a large slaughterhouse, under Federal Inspection. No Listeria strain was isolated from samples of bovine meat, but one sample of residual water (3.33% was positive, being the strain identified biochemical and serologically as L. innocua 6a. Fifty samples were also analysed of bovine minced meat acquired in the market of Goiânia - GO, from which 24 (48% showed positive for Listeria spp. From these positive samples 24 strains were isolated, being 22 (91.8% of L. innocua 6a, one (4.1% of L. innocua not tipable and one (4.1% of

  2. Flesh quality differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in chemical composition and carcass traits among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations were analyzed to study and compare the differences among different wild (Manzalah lake, Nile river and Edku lake) and cultured Nile tilapia populations. Data of body composition of different ...

  3. The Wreckage of Our Flesh: Dementia, Autonomy and Personhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, T.R.V.; Denier, Y.; Gastmans, C.; Vandevelde, A.

    2013-01-01

    Could the principle of respect for autonomy - a principle that is considered so essential nowadays - still be relevant in guiding our conduct with regard to people who suffer from severe dementia? This seems particularly questionable because, as a severely disruptive and debilitating disease,

  4. Screwworms eating living flesh – not just another Halloween tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. Here we ...

  5. Relative abundance of sweetpotato whitefly in orange-fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    effect on sweetpotato yield in Peru. Plant Diseases 87: 297-302. Karyeija, R.F., Gibson, R.W. and. Valkonen, J.P.T. 1998. The significance of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in subsistence sweetpotato production in Africa. Plant Diseases. 82:4-15. Legg, J.P. 1996. Host-associated strains within Ugandan populations of the.

  6. the agronomic performance and acceptability of orange fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Howeven Mal'utha, Japon tresimesino and Tainung No. 64 were rated high for cooking quality. Zapallo and NC 1560 were rated high for dry texture. For children, intemal root colour was the most important attribute l'or accepting a variety. Sweetpotato produets prepared from orange fleshed varieties were preferred more by ...

  7. The agronomic performance and acceptability of orange fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mafutha and Japon tresimesino gave poor yields. Farmers ranked high Zapallo, Tainung No. 64 and NC 1560 for agronomic performance. However, Mafutha, Japon tresimesino and Tainung No. 64 were rated high for cooking quality. Zapallo and NC 1560 were rated high for dry texture. For children, internal root colour was ...

  8. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    15.4. 24.7. 26.3. 37.5. 42.3. 20.5. 20.0. 25.1. 26.7. Umuspo 3. 16.8. 26.4. 27.4. 37.1. 41.9. 44.4. 35.6. 24.0. 53.4. 34.1. Mean. 22.7. 20.9. 26.1. 31.7. 39.7. 43.4. 28.1. 22.0. 39.25. Weed density. Weed dry matter. LSD (0.05) for fertilizer (F) mean. = NS. 17.8. LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8. NS. LSD (0.05) for F x V mean.

  9. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  10. the agronomic performance and acceptability of orange fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and acceptabilin of orange fleshed sweetpotalo varietics except Mafutha. were rated very good for appearance, taste, and low for fibrousness but poor for dry texture (low dry matter content). Dry lexture, an indication of dry mattcr contentis important when considering the eating habits of people in the lake zone.

  11. Leadership-It’s More than Flesh and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-28

    Rowden writing on the line between leadership and management said: 23 NAVSWC MP 91-338 "The difference is this: the astute leader recognizes the... Management Development Program" (L&MDP) for Branch Heads and Division Heads would devote significant part of the program to leadership . A significant... LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT -- FUNCTIONS & ACTIONS .... 22 PROFESSIONAL FOLLOWERSHIP ......................................................... 30 GOOD LEADER

  12. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To illuminate whether and how taking care of forensic inpatients is experienced as a burden among staff and managers in general psychiatry. DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative analytical strategies based on interviews and questionnaires. FINDINGS: The interplay between physical environment...... sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and decrease...

  13. The agronomic performance and acceptability of orange fleshed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    64 and NC 1560 for agronomic performance. However, Mafutha, Japon tresimesino and Tainung No. 64 were rated high for cooking quality. Zapallo and NC 1560 were rated high for dry texture. For children, internal root colour was the most important attribute for accepting a variety. Sweetpotato products prepared from ...

  14. Effect of Harvest Time and L-Cysteine as an Antioxidant on Flesh Browning of Fresh-Cut Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Efecto del Momento de Cosecha y L-Cisteína como un Antioxidante en el Pardeamiento de Pulpa de Chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. Precortada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Campos-Vargas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Browning development is the most important factor limiting the quality of fresh-cut cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.. However, there is little information available about its causes and methods of control. The effectiveness of L-cysteine (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5% in fresh-cut cherimoya harvested on two occasions (October and November and stored for 6 and 12 days at 0 °C was studied. In order to understand the biological basis of browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity and total phenolic content in fresh-cut pieces were measured. Quality measurements and sensory analysis indicated that 0.5% L-cysteine was somewhat effective in reducing browning development, without affecting other quality attributes. In terms of physiological parameters, PPO activity did not show differences between mature (at harvest and ripe fruit (at processing in both harvest times, but cherimoya fruits picked in November presented lower PPO activity than fruit from October. In general, PPO activity and total phenolic content of L-cysteine treated fruits did not show consistent differences with untreated fruit at 6 or 12 days at 0 °C. PPO activity analyses demonstrated that PPO activity was higher in the outer part of cherimoya flesh compared to the middle or inner sector. These results would support the possibility of using L-cysteine as a postharvest treatment to reduce browning development in fresh-cut cherimoya.El desarrollo de pardeamiento es uno de los factores limitantes en la calidad de chirimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. precortada (fresh-cut. No obstante, existe poca información disponible en relación a sus causas y métodos de control en esta fruta. Se estudió la efectividad de L-cisteína (0,125; 0,25 y 0,5% en chirimoya precortada cosechada en dos oportunidades (octubre y noviembre y almacenada por 6 y 12 días a 0 ºC. Con el objetivo de conocer las bases biológicas del pardeamiento, se estudió la actividad de polifenol oxidasa (PPO y contenido de

  15. Artificial neural networks to forecast biomass of Pacific sardine and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros Mata, M.A.; Brey, T.; Jarre, Astrid

    1996-01-01

    We tested the forecasting performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using several time series of environmental and biotic data pertaining to the California Current (CC) neritic ecosystem. ANNs performed well predicting CC monthly 10-m depth temperature up to nine years in advance, using te...

  16. Saxitoxin Level Comparation in Bali Sardine (Sardinella Lemuru in Bali Strait in Different Monsoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Yuli Herawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinella fish (Sardinella lemuru is a species of important pelagic fish from the family of Clupeidae found in Bali Strait. The dynamic condition of Bali Strait makes it fertile which is identical with plankton blooming. The objective of this research was to understand the potential of saxitoxin in sardinella fish because of dinoflagellates consumption in Bali Strait. The research was conducted in Southeast Monsoon (June - August 2015 and Northwest Monsoon (December 2015 – February 2016. The method used was in situ plankton sampling, counting and ELISA test to determine the level of saxitoxin in the fish. Hydro-oceanographic parameters measured were temperatures, salinity, DO (dissolved oxygen, pH level, phosphate level, nitrate level and transparency. They showed average optimum value for phytoplankton growth especially during Southeast Monsoon which its temperature lower and the nutrients (phosphate nitrate higher than the Northwest Monsoon. This condition caused high richness of phytoplankton in the water and followed with dinoflagellates richness so they accumulated in sardinella fish. It was supported by the analysis of the fish gastric which showed positive correlation between dinoflagellates richness in the water and the fish gastric. ELISA test also showed that saxitoxin level of fish caught in Southeast Monsoon was higher than the one caught in Northwest Monsoon even though the level of saxitoxin was still in the safe range (less than 80 μg STXeq. per 100 g but the danger of saxitoxin accumulation should be watched out for.

  17. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from cadmium, and from <0.01 to 1.44 with an average value of 0.72 for lead. The results indicate that canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term trends in cetacean occurrence during the annual sardine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humpback whales were most frequently sighted between 2010 and 2014, and with significantly larger groups observed towards the end of the study period (p = 0.0121). For all these species, more sightings were made inside than outside of marine protected areas (>70% of the dolphin species, and >65% of the humpback ...

  19. Consumer preferences for welfare pork - is the interest for tenderloin greater than for minced meat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2015-01-01

    of their production cycles were estimated. Random utility theory (McFadden, 1974) was used to estimate respondents’ WTP for medium versus premium levels of animal welfare. Our results indicate that consumers are interested in animal welfare, and that moderate price premiums for medium levelled animal welfare products......Denmark has among the highest levels of organic consumption in the world when looking at the overall market shares. Nevertheless, the market shares for organic meat and other types of welfare friendly meat are low and animal welfare friendly production systems remain a niche. The main Danish animal...... welfare organisation, Dyrenes Beskyttelse, owns a label that approves premium levels of animal welfare similar to organic standards for pork, beef and poultry meat productions. Also, meats from production systems that guarantee medium levels of animal welfare are available in the Danish cool counters...

  20. Autologous Minced Muscle Grafts: A Tissue Engineering Therapy for the Volumetric Loss of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    cated nuclei in 30% of fibers observed in nonrepaired muscles ); and 3) significantly improves net torque production (i.e., 55% of the functional deficit...contractions; 150 Hz, 0.1-ms pulse width, 400-ms train). Maximal isometric torque of the anterior crural muscle unit [TA, extensor digitorum longus (EDL...the tenotomized EDL muscle was negligible in this testing system (e.g., TA muscle torque with EDL distally tenotomized vs. EDL ablation, 23.1 0.8 vs

  1. Un appareillage simple pour la mesure de la diffusivité thermique de plaques minces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadisaroyo, D.; Batsale, J. C.; Degiovanni, A.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new method for the measurement of the thermal diffusivity of samples of low thickness (lower than 1mm). The unsteady one-dimensional heat transfer problem is considered in a straight fin using the Laplace transform for the time variable. Two temperature measurements are made versus time at two different absicas. It allows to set out two parameters: the characteristic time of the sample and the Biot number relative to the lateral heat exchange. The sensitivity of the parameters is studied and a domain of Laplace variable is determined for the identification. Ce travail propose une méthode originale de mesure de la diffusivité thermique de matériaux de faible épaisseur (inférieure à 1mm). L'équation de la chaleur est résolue en régime transitoire en utilisant les hypothèses de l'ailette et dans l'espace de Laplace. La mesure de température au cours du temps en deux points de l'échantillon permet de mettre en évidence deux paramètres : le temps caractéristique de l'échantillon et le nombre de Biot associé aux échanges. Une étude de sensibilité est effectuée et une méthode d'identification est déduite pour un certain domaine de la variable de Laplace. Un dispositif expérimental simple et une validation sont présentés dans le cas de matériaux métalliques. Une extension pour les isolants est en cours de montage.

  2. Restoring Function after Volumetric Muscle Loss: Extracellular Matrix Allograft or Minced Muscle Autograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Autograft? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0086 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Jessica Rivera 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...study PI on this research project. MAJ Rivera will provide the necessary programmatic leadership, administrative oversight and support for all...proposed project. Finally MAJ Rivera will be responsible for the preparation of technical reports, manuscripts, and other dissemination materials

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, M; Zeinou, R

    2009-05-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat was irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated meat was kept in a refrigerator (1-4°C). General composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat was done two days after irradiation, whereas, microbiological and chemical analysis was done immediately after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total mesophilic aerobic plate counts (TPCs) and total coliforms of camel meat. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2weeks (control) to more than 6weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, total acidity and fatty acids of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. There were slight effects of gamma irradiation in both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation values in camel meat. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated camel meats.

  4. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-II Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2008-01-01

    Van de 30 Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) waren er 29 in staat hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella in rundergehakt aan te tonen. Vijf laboratoria hadden hiervoor een herkansing nodig. Een laboratorium kon ook tijdens deze herkansing niet voldoende presteren. Momenteel wordt

  5. EU Interlaboratory comparison study Food-I Bacteriological detection of Salmonella in minced beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers AFA; Veenman C; van de Kassteele J; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    De Europese Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella hebben in een ringonderzoek hoge en lage concentraties Salmonella aangetoond in rundergehakt. Hiermee hebben ze laten zien dat ze voldoen aan de gestelde eisen. De Modified Semi-solid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV), een

  6. Etude des propriétés physiques des couches minces de ZnO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of physical properties of the Al doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method associated with spin coating. In this work ... All films exhibit a transmittance above 80-90 % along the visible range up to 650 nm and a sharp absorption on set about 375 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption edge 3.3 eV.

  7. Effects of Two Leaf Extracts on Sensory Quality of Minced Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Sensory attributes of sabara treated (SDN), zogale treated (ZDN) and non treated dambun nama (NDN) were significantly (P<0.001) different; with NDN being superior in all the attributes investigated. For instance, taste, flavour, appearance, colour, aroma and acceptability were better (P<0.001) in the NDN than ...

  8. Microbial flora and food borne pathogens on minced meat and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Haimanot; Abdissa, Alemseged; Beyene, Getenet; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon

    2010-11-01

    Food-borne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries. Changes in eating habits, mass catering, unsafe food storage conditions and poor hygiene practices are major contributing factors to food associated illnesses. In Ethiopia, the widespread habit of raw beef consumption is potential cause for food borne illnesses. The present study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of meat available in common retail shops, restaurants and abattoir of Jimma City and determining susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates. A total of 165 samples from food establishments, butcher shops and a slaughter houses were processed and analyzed for the presence of indicator bacterial and potential food pathogens using standards methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for Salmonella, Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus isolates using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A total of 165 samples were collected from twenty four hotels and five butchers and an abattoir. Various food borne pathogens were isolated in 13 (43.3%) and indicator organisms in 29 (96.7%) out of the thirty food establishments (hotels, butchery and abattoir). Overall, ten different bacterial species were isolated which included, proteus spp 89 (53.9%), E. coli 44 (26.6%), Providencia spp 23 (13.9%) Citrobacter spp 15(9%), Pseudomonas spp 9 (5.5%), Klebsiella spp 2 (1.2%), Enterobacter spp 2 (1.2%), Salmonella spp 2(1.2%), and Shigella species 1 (0.6%). Out of the 44 E. coli isolates 37 (84%) were thermo tolerant E. coli and out of the gram positive organisms identified 20 (12.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus isolates. From the two Salmonella isolates one was susceptible against all 12 tested antimicrobials, while the other to all the 11 except cephalexin. Shigella dysentery was resistant only to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. Out of the 20 S. aureus isolates, 90% showed resistance to oxacillin, 85% to ampicillin, 65% to erythromycin, 60% to amoxicillin, 35% to streptomycin, and 20% to vancomycin and all isolates were sensitive to co-trimoxazole (100%). In this study, 90% (18/20) of the S. aureus isolates were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In this study high percentage of indicator organisms as well as food borne pathogens were identified, which shows unhygienic condition of handling and processing in the food establishments. Our data also confirmed the presence of resistant food pathogens; particularly Staphylococcus aureus isolates which are Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug resistant that emphasizes close follow up in the utilization of antibiotics. Therefore, meat handlers and sellers should be educated on the adverse effect of lack of proper personal, environmental hygiene and sanitation. In addition, consumers should be made aware of the risk of consuming raw and inadequately cooked meat.

  9. Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13. 1. INTRODUCTION. La protection contre la corrosion des structures métalliques est un enjeu stratégique à plusieurs aspects : industriel, économique et environnemental. La recherche de nouveaux matériaux ou système de protection permettant une augmentation de la durée de vie du matériau en service est un souci.

  10. Applications analytiques des films minces de mercure protégés par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical application of fibrinogen-coated mercury film electrodes for the detection of lead and cadmium in water samples. The aim of this study was the development of sensor based on fibrinogen (Fbg) coated mercury film electrodes at carbon paste electrode in the perspective of in-field stripping analysis of heavy metals ...

  11. Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La technique de dépôts par pulvérisation cathodique magnétron (PVD) offre une alternative louable pour remplacer les dépôts électrolytiques de chrome dur. Pour cela, des dépôts à base d'aluminium ont été élaborés par PVD afin de répondre aux exigences mécaniques et physico-chimiques. L'objectif de cette étude est ...

  12. Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthèse: Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Comportement à la corrosion de couches minces nano structurées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthèse: Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Raně středověké mince z hradu Přerov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf; Kučerovská, T.; Chumchal, M.; Kohoutek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 20 (2005), s. 3-16 ISSN 0862-1195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA404/05/2671; GA ČR GA404/03/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Moravia * castle Přerov * early Middle Age * coins Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN FISH CANNING COMPANY: A CASE STUDY OF A CANNED SARDINES PRODUCTION COMPANY IN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Idrıssi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean is a powerful tool, which can bring significant benefit to manufacturing industries by creating value through reduction of waste. Although the lean concept has become very popular in mass production industries such as the automotive industry, more recently the concept has been adopted in different batch processing industries and service sectors. The application of lean tools into the food processing industry has not received the same level of attention compared to the traditional manufacturing industries. The paper discusses how the lean concept could be applied to a fish manufacturing company. The paper first presents the lean concept tools. The empirical section discusses how a case company, operating as a contract manufacturer in the food industry, has applied the lean production concept and tools. In the case study, three analysis tools are examined and the structures of demand chains of different customers are presented. The delivery times will decrease and more flexibility will be needed from the contract manufacturer. The case study shows that much movement is possible toward the lean supply chain and partnership-based cooperation. By implementing the lean concept, food companies can increase customer value through cost reduction or through provision of additional value-enhanced services.

  17. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH) PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste) through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil) and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol). Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification r...

  18. The use of the sardine scale (Sardinella brasiliensis - STEIDACHNER, 1859), preserved in glicerine, in experimental lamellar keratoplasties in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Laus; Afonso Luis Ferreira; Alexandre Lima Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Estudou-se experimentalmente a escama de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) como substituto de córneas no reparo de ceratectomias superficiais em cães. Utilizaram-se 14 animais, machos e fêmeas, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10 kg, considerados sadios. Analisaram-se, macro e microscopicamente, as córneas receptoras bem como o material implantado aos 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As evidências clínicas para a enxertia lamelar mostraram fotofobia e blefarospasmo mais incid...

  19. the relation between freedom, love, spirit and flesh in galatians 5:13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    addressees and the opponents, based on the horror of such practice and on his negative feelings about the opponents (Betz 1979:270). In 5:13, ἐλευθερία builds on this thematic basis, recalling 5:1a. Verse 5:13 returns to some fundamental assertions, using a very engaged tone, and addressing Paul's audience directly ...

  20. The relation between freedom, love, spirit and flesh in Galatians 5:13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirit” and “flesh” are important: the semantic dimension of the letter and the theology of the letter strongly depend on these key concepts. Simultaneously, there is a complex relation and interaction between the four concepts. Hence an analysis of ...