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Sample records for sardina sardinella aurita

  1. Reproducción de la sardina, Sardinella aurita (Cupleiformes: Clupeidae del sureste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

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    Juan Gassman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la proporción y madurez sexual, fecundidad y época de desove de la sardina, Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 del sureste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela; a través de muestreos mensuales provenientes de la pesca comercial desde enero 2004 hasta abril 2005, examinándose un total de 3 736 individuos. La composición global por sexos fue de 55.06% hembras y 44.19% machos, siendo la proporción sexual 1:1.25 (χ² = 44.454, p Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela. Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (χ2 = 44.454, p < 0.05. Length at first sexual maturity (L50 was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10 530 to 83 779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = - 100 900 + 6 696.2 * L and to body weight (F = 13 327 + 5 666.3 * P. Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1 020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1813-1824. Epub 2008 December 12.

  2. La pesca de sardina, Sardinella aurita (Teleostei: Clupeidae) asociada con la variabilidad ambiental del ecosistema de surgencia costera de Nueva Esparta, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Leo W. González; Jorge Euán; Nora Eslava; Jesús Suniaga

    2002-01-01

    Se comparó la pesca de sardina (Sardinella aurita) con algunos parámetros climáticos y meteorológicos del ecosistema de surgencia costera de El Morro, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Para el período 1996-2000, se aplicaron los modelos de regresión lineal simple y múltiple a los datos de captura en función de la velocidad del viento, temperatura superficial del mar, temperatura del aire y pluviosidad. Hubo una correlación positiva de la captura con la velocidad del viento, y una negativa con tempera...

  3. Reproductive biology of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita in north-eastern Mediterranean

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    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of round sardinella, Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847, was studied for the first time in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea. Round sardinella has gained much attention lately because of its biomass increase, which might be the result of climatic changes occurring across the Mediterranean Sea. Monthly samples were collected on board commercial purse-seiners for two complete year cycles (September 2000 to August 2002. Round sardinella is a gonochoristic fish. The overall female to male ratio was not statistically different (P=0.34 from unity, although it varied monthly and with the length of the fish. The seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index and the macroscopic characteristics of gonads showed that round sardinella in the northern Aegean spawns between May and July. Male round sardinella reach first sexual maturity at a smaller total length than females (155.0 and 168.3 mm respectively. Mean absolute fecundity (FA increased exponentially with body length (FA=0.0949xL4.22 and weight (FA=511.19xW1.02, with an average of ~21,000 oocytes produced per spawning female. Relative fecundity (FR ranged between 242 and 681 oocytes/g of body weight (average: 445 oocytes/g. The frequency distribution of oocytes showed that round sardinella produces a single batch of oocytes. In general, the reproductive characteristics of round sardinella in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea differed when compared to stocks from other areas of its distribution.

  4. The link between migration, the reproductive cycle and condition of Sardinella aurita off Mauritania, north-west Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Mantingh, I.T.; Wague, A.

    2007-01-01

    The annual migration pattern of round sardinella Sardinella aurita up and down the north-western African coast between 12° N (Senegal) and 22° N (western Sahara) was shown to be associated with spawning activity and a distinct seasonality in fish condition, based on monthly sampling from commercial

  5. Spatial variability of Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) abundance as related to the upwelling cycle off the southeastern Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan José; Achury, Alina; Astor, Yrene

    2017-01-01

    The Sardinella aurita fishery off northeastern Venezuela, region of seasonal wind-driven coastal-upwelling, accounts for 90% of the Caribbean Sea small pelagic catch. This law-protected artisanal fishery takes place up to ~10 km offshore. The spatial distribution, number of schools, and biomass of S. aurita were studied using eight hydro-acoustic surveys (1995–1998). The study included the analysis of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. Surveys were grouped by strong, weak, and transitional upwelling seasons. Relationships between these observations were analyzed using Generalized Additive Models. Results show that during the primary upwelling season (January-May) sardines were widely distributed in upwelling plumes that extended up to 70 km offshore. In the other hand, during the weak upwelling season (September-October) higher sardine densities were found within 10 Km off the coastal upwelling foci. The number of small pelagic schools was directly correlated with small pelagic densities; however, regardless of the season, higher numbers of small pelagic schools were always closer to the shoreline, especially during warm conditions. These two behaviors increase the availability and catchability of sardines for the artisanal fishery during the warm season, regardless of the total stock size. Using this evidence, we pose the hypothesis that the collapse of the regional S. aurita fishery in 2005 was due to a combination of stressful habitat conditions sustained since 2004. These included bottom-up factors due to food scarcity caused by weak upwelling, combined with top-down stress due to overfishing, as sardines accumulated in narrow diminished upwelling plumes located close to the coast. The increased catchability within easily accessible upwelling foci led to the demise of this biological resource, which as of 2014 had not yet recovered. Environmental conditions affecting the sardine habitat needs to be taken into account for the

  6. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability.

  7. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysate against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Zeineb; Kamoun, Alya Sellami; Bougatef, Ali; Kharrat, Rim Marrakchi; Youssfi, Houssem; Boudawara, Tahia; Chakroun, Mouna; Nasri, Moncef; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol consumption-induced oxidative stress that is a major etiological factor has been proven to play important roles in organs' injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of fish protein hydrolysate prepared from the heads and viscera of sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) (SPH) against the toxicity of ethanol on the liver and kidney of adult male rats. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each: group C served as control, group Eth received 30 % ethanol solution at the dose of 3 g/kg body weight, group SPH received only 7.27 mg of SPH/kg body weight, and group Eth-SPH received ethanol and SPH simultaneously at the doses of 30 % and 7.27 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All groups were treated by gavage way for 15 days. Ethanol treatment decreased the defense enzymatic system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which increased after the co-administration of SPH. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and toxicity biomarker levels such as aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and alcaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transaminase (GGT) activities were enhanced after chronic ethanol treatment and reduced by co-treatment with SPH. The histological examination of the liver and kidney confirmed biochemical changes in ethanol-treated rats and demonstrated the protective role of SPH.

  8. Structure and function of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and cornea in the eye of Sardinella aurita (Clupeidae, Teleostei

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    Mostafa Ali Salem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and the cornea in the eye of a teleost, Sardinella aurita was examined by light and electron microscopy. The retinal pigment epithelium forms a single layer of cells joined laterally by cell junctions. Centrally in the retina these cells are columnar, while more peripherally they become cuboidal in shape. The basal (scleral border of the pigment epithelial cells is not infolded but is relatively smooth. Phagosomes containing lysosome-like bodies are also common features of the retinal pigment epithelium. Numerous melanosomes (pigment granules are abundant throughout the epithelial cells. These melanosomes probably absorb light which has passed through the photoreceptor layer. Four photoreceptor cells were identified; rods, long single cones, short single cones and double cones. The presence of these types suggests a diversity of photoreceptor function. Square mosaic pattern of cones and well-developed choroid gland are also main features of the eye. The inner segment of rods and cones were rich in organelles indicating much synthetic activity. Calycal processes projecting from cone outer segments are also observed. The cornea includes an epithelium with a complex pattern of surface microplicae, a basement membrane, dermal stroma, an iridescent layer, scleral stroma, Descemet’s membrane and endothelium. The autochthonous layer which is seen in some teleosts has not been observed in the cornea of this species. These and other observations were discussed in relation to the photic environment and habits of this fish.

  9. (Sardinella aurita) hydrolysates and peptone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    225. De la Broise D, Dauer G, Gildberg A, Guérard F (1998). Evidence of positive effect of peptone hydrolysis rate on Escherichia coli culture kinetics. J. Mar. Biotechnol. 6: 111-115. Dufossé L, De la Broise D, Guérard F (1997).

  10. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sardinella ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tissue using traditional proteinase K and phenol–chloroform extraction protocols as described by Ma et al. (2010). .... Food Chem. 51, 43–50. Jiang S. F. and Lin L. Y. 1986 Studies on the eggs and larvae of. Sardinella aurita (Cuv. & Val.) in the fishing grounds of southern. Fujian and the Taiwan Bank. C. J. Oceanol. Limnol.

  11. High genetic homogeneity of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moon jelly Aurelia aurita is one of the most common and widespread species of scyphomedusa in the Mediterranean Sea. In all, 18 allozyme loci were studied to investigate the genetic variation and population structure of 11 A. aurita populations from the Tunisian coast. Polymorphism was detected at 14 loci across the ...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, V M; Causey, D; López, J A

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the first detailed analysis of the mitochondrial DNA diversity of least cisco Coregonus sardinella in Alaska using a 678 bp segment of the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial genome. Findings suggest that the history of C. sardinella in Alaska differs from that of other species of Coregonus present in the state and surrounding regions. The examined populations of C. sardinella are genetically diverse across Alaska. Sixty-eight distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among 305 individuals sampled from nine locations. The haplotype minimum spanning network and phylogeny showed a modest level of geographic segregation among haplotypes, suggesting high levels of on-going or recent connectivity among distant populations. Observed ΦST values and the results of homogeneity and AMOVAs indicate incipient genetic differentiation between aggregations in three broad regional groups. Sites north of the Brooks Range formed one group, sites in the Yukon and Selawik Rivers formed a second group and sites south of the Yukon drainage formed the third group. Overall, the sequence data showed that a large proportion of mtDNA genetic variation in C. sardinella is shared across Alaska, but this variation is not homogeneously distributed across all regions and for all haplotype groups. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  14. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis: II. spawning in 1970 and 1971

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and abundance of eggs of Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, are presented for the years 1970 and 1971 and compared with that of the previous year (1969. The spawning size of three spawning seasons was calculated using Tanaka's method. Incubation time of sardine eggs was estimated using the method of Ahlstrom. During three spawning seasons a considerable change in the relative spawning size was observed. The spawning season (during spring and summer in the southern hemisphere of 1970-71 was poor when compared with those of 1969-70 and 1971-72. A slight change in the average diameter of eggs in different spawning seasons was also observed. The relation between oceanographie conditions and spawning size was analysed. It is suggested that the warm water covering the spawning ground during the 1970-71 spawning season may have caused an unsuccessful spawning in this year.O presente trabalho apresenta a distribuição e abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, na costa sul do Brasil nos anos de 1970 e 1971. Um dos principais objetivos do estudo quantitativo de ovos e larvas de peixes é estimar o tamanho do estoque, através da abundância de ovos desovados. Com essa finalidade, a computação da abundância de ovos de sardinha verdadeira foi feita usando o método apresentado por Tanaka (1955. O tempo de incubação dos ovos de sardinha foi estimado com base no método da Ahlstrom (1943. A quantidade de ovos desovados variou durante os tres anos (1969 a 1971. Foi feita uma comparação entre a abundância total de ovos desovados e a freqüência de ocorrência de ovos nas estações da região estudada. Os índices de abundância mostram que a desova na época de 1970-71 foi muito fraca, comparada com as de 1969-70 e de 1971-72. Para esclarecer a relação entre a variação anual de tamanho da desova e a condição ambiental, foi analisada a temperatura e salinidade da água na area de desova. Os

  15. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    of prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...

  16. Aurelia aurita ephyrae reshape a coastal microbial community

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    Luca eZoccarato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production, extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%, in parallel with increases in heterotrophic carbon production and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%. Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective

  17. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

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    Leonid S Adonin

    Full Text Available One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47 stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1 it attracts spermatozoids; (2 the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3 these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s; (4 contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  18. Little genetic variation in the oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps Val., from the western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Enzyme gene variability in the oil sardine, @iSardinella longiceps@@, from three localities along the western coast of India was studied by starch-gel electrophoresis. Out of 19 loci scored, no locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion. Seven loci...

  19. Saxitoxin Level Comparation in Bali Sardine (Sardinella Lemuru in Bali Strait in Different Monsoons

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    Endang Yuli Herawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sardinella fish (Sardinella lemuru is a species of important pelagic fish from the family of Clupeidae found in Bali Strait. The dynamic condition of Bali Strait makes it fertile which is identical with plankton blooming. The objective of this research was to understand the potential of saxitoxin in sardinella fish because of dinoflagellates consumption in Bali Strait. The research was conducted in Southeast Monsoon (June - August 2015 and Northwest Monsoon (December 2015 – February 2016. The method used was in situ plankton sampling, counting and ELISA test to determine the level of saxitoxin in the fish. Hydro-oceanographic parameters measured were temperatures, salinity, DO (dissolved oxygen, pH level, phosphate level, nitrate level and transparency. They showed average optimum value for phytoplankton growth especially during Southeast Monsoon which its temperature lower and the nutrients (phosphate nitrate higher than the Northwest Monsoon. This condition caused high richness of phytoplankton in the water and followed with dinoflagellates richness so they accumulated in sardinella fish. It was supported by the analysis of the fish gastric which showed positive correlation between dinoflagellates richness in the water and the fish gastric. ELISA test also showed that saxitoxin level of fish caught in Southeast Monsoon was higher than the one caught in Northwest Monsoon even though the level of saxitoxin was still in the safe range (less than 80 μg STXeq. per 100 g but the danger of saxitoxin accumulation should be watched out for.

  20. Observations on the near-surface behaviour of sardinella schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean packing density of the sardinella schools was about 3 fish m–3, but this figure varied by two orders of magnitude among the schools. There was a linear relationship between the area and the biomass of the schools, which can be used in future surveys to convert recordings of school area by camera, lidar or sonar ...

  1. The Occurrence of Vibrio species in the Gut of Sardinella madrensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of vibrio bacteria in the gut of “Songu”: Sardinella madrensis was investigated using enrichment procedures. Seventy percent (70%) of the total fish samples examined were positive for vibrios. The mean bacterial counts ranged between 2.68 x 102 to 1.30 x 104 cfu/g in all the fish samples. The weight of fish ...

  2. Comparative molecular analysis of evolutionarily distant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Sardina pilchardus and Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibai, Tarik; Oukhattar, Laila; Mountassif, Driss; Assobhei, Omar; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2010-12-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12), which is recognized as a key to central carbon metabolism in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and as an important allozymic polymorphic biomarker, was purified from muscles of two marine species: the skeletal muscle of Sardina pilchardus Walbaum (Teleost, Clupeida) and the incompressible arm muscle of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Comparative biochemical studies have revealed that they differ in their subunit molecular masses and in pI values. Partial cDNA sequences corresponding to an internal region of the GapC genes from Sardina and Octopus were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers designed from highly conserved protein motifs. Alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences were used to establish the 3D structures of the active site of two enzymes as well as the phylogenetic relationships of the sardine and octopus enzymes. These two enzymes are the first two GAPDHs characterized so far from teleost fish and cephalopod, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sardina GAPDH is in a cluster with the archetypical enzymes from other vertebrates, while the octopus GAPDH comes together with other molluscan sequences in a distant basal assembly closer to bacterial and fungal orthologs, thus suggesting their different evolutionary scenarios.

  3. Regulation of polyp-to-jellyfish transition in Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Björn; Wang, Wei; Graspeuntner, Simon; Li, Yizhu; Insua, Santiago; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Dirksen, Philipp; Böhm, Anna-Marei; Hemmrich, Georg; Sommer, Felix; Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klostermeier, Ulrich C; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Rosenstiel, Philip; Bosch, Thomas C G; Khalturin, Konstantin

    2014-02-03

    The life cycle of scyphozoan cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in the drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown. We show in the moon jelly Aurelia aurita that the molecular machinery controlling transition of the sessile polyp into a free-swimming jellyfish consists of two parts. One is conserved and relies on retinoic acid signaling. The second, novel part is based on secreted proteins that are strongly upregulated prior to metamorphosis in response to the seasonal temperature changes. One of these proteins functions as a temperature-sensitive "timer" and encodes the precursor of the strobilation hormone of Aurelia. Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish transition in a basal metazoan and provide insights into the evolution of complex life cycles in the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ulcerative umbrellar lesions in captive moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Garner, M M; Wynne, J; Fish, S; Adams, L

    2013-05-01

    Over a period of 6 months, dozens of moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae from a single-species exhibit at the California Science Center (CSC) developed exumbrellar ulcers. Ulcers were progressive, causing umbrellar creases that expanded radially to the bell rim and occasional adoral erosions that extended into gastrovascular cavities. Husbandry interventions, including addition of ultraviolet light sterilizers, repopulation with fresh cultures, and enclosure disinfection, did not arrest the recurrence of lesions. Biopsies or whole specimens representing 17 medusae (15 affected and 2 grossly unaffected) from CSC and 2 control medusae from Aquarium of the Pacific were submitted to a private diagnostic laboratory and processed for light and electron microscopy. Microscopic lesions were present in all CSC medusae and were not observed or negligible in control medusae. Lesions included ulceration, necrosis, and hyperplasia in all umbrellar layers, with most severe lesions in the exumbrella and amoebocyte infiltration in the underlying mesoglea. Special stains, electron microscopy, and fungal culture did not associate microorganisms with the lesions. Bacterial cultures from the CSC population consistently grew Shewanella and Vibrio spp, both of which were considered commensal. Trauma and environmental stress are proposed as possible causes for the ulcers.

  5. STATUS STOK SUMBERDAYA IKAN LEMURU (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lemuru (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 berperan penting baik secara ekologi ekosistem laut dan ekonomi masyarakat pesisir di Selat Bali. Tingginya permintaan pasar terhadap ikan lemuru mengakibatkan aktivitas penangkapannya dilakukan secara terus-menerus sepanjang tahun sehingga mengancam kelestariannya. Untuk mengelola sumber daya ikan lemuru ini tetap lestari, maka salah satu bahan masukan yang diperlukan adalah status stok terkini. Namun, ketersediaan data yang terbatas menjadi penghambat dalam upaya mengevaluasi status pemanfaatan stok, khususnya untuk kegiatan perikanan skala kecil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui status stok sumberdaya ikan lemuru di perairan Selat Bali yang dilakukan dari Agustus 2010 hingga Desember 2011. Pengkajian stok ikan lemuru dilakukan dengan pendekatan ratio potensi pemijahan yang berbasis ukuran panjang. Studi pustaka juga dilakukan untuk mendapatkan parameter-parameter life history sebagai pendukung analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa status stok ikan lemuru telah mengalami eksploitasi berlebih (over exploited yang diindikasikan dengan nilai Spawning Potential Ratio (SPRM. Upaya pemulihan stok perlu dilakukan sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam penelitian ini agar tercapainya SPR menjadi 20% dan 40% sebagai batas dan target biologi untuk keberlanjutan sumberdaya ikan lemuru. Bali sardinella (Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 plays an important role in terms of the ecology of marine ecosystems and also the economy and livelihoods of coastal communities in Bali Strait. High market demand has consequence in fishing activities, which is carried out continuously throughout the year, so that could threaten of resources sustainability. So that current stock status was needed as important input for management measures. However, evaluation of stock status is constrained by lack of the data, especially for small-scale fisheries. This study aims to determine the stock status of Bali sardinella in the Bali

  6. Assessment of fish coproducts Sardina pilchardus as the source of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Belkhodja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To recover the waste (edges, heads and guts of a species of pelagic fish Sardina pilchardus as a source of lactic bacteria. Methods: The microbiological control of the fish waste was carried out. Then, the fish waste was assessed as a source of bacteria of industrial interest among other lactic bacteria. The standard protocol for researches of these microorganisms was adopted which comprised enrichment, isolation, identification, purification and conservation. Results: The results of the microbiological control indicated the presence of some species as part of the normal flora of the fish. The physiological and biochemical characterization has presented 2 different groups of lactic bacteria: Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus spp. Conclusions: The assessment of fish waste can give us the opportunity to obtain different species of useful bacteria.

  7. Lithium and rubidium: effects on the rhythmic swimming movement of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, C; Smith, D F

    1979-09-15

    The effects of adding LiCl, RbCl, KCl or NaCl to sea water at concentrations up to 30 mmoles/1 on the frequency of contraction of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) suggest that studies on phylogenetically low animals with relatively simple nervous systems may be of use to determine mechanisms of action of lithium and rudidium on movements.

  8. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarel Ba

    Full Text Available The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  9. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  10. Composition of Bacterial Communities Associated with Aurelia aurita Changes with Compartment, Life Stage, and Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Neulinger, Sven C; Pinnow, Nicole; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2015-09-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is recognized as a key player in marine ecosystems and a driver of ecosystem change. It is thus intensely studied to address ecological questions, although its associations with microorganisms remain so far undescribed. In the present study, the microbiota associated with A. aurita was visualized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and community structure was analyzed with respect to different life stages, compartments, and populations of A. aurita by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We demonstrate that the composition of the A. aurita microbiota is generally highly distinct from the composition of communities present in ambient water. Comparison of microbial communities from different developmental stages reveals evidence for life stage-specific community patterns. Significant restructuring of the microbiota during strobilation from benthic polyp to planktonic life stages is present, arguing for a restructuring during the course of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the microbiota present in different compartments of the adult medusa (exumbrella mucus and gastric cavity) display significant differences, indicating body part-specific colonization. A novel Mycoplasma strain was identified in both compartment-specific microbiota and is most likely present inside the epithelium as indicated by FISH analysis of polyps, indicating potential endosymbiosis. Finally, comparison of polyps of different populations kept under the same controlled laboratory conditions in the same ambient water showed population-specific community patterns, most likely due the genetic background of the host. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the associated microbiota of A. aurita may play important functional roles, e.g., during the life cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Reconstrucción de las conexiones tróficas entre el plancton y la sardina del norte de la península Ibérica (Sardina Pilchardus) a través del análisis de las distribuciones de frecuencia de la abundancia natural de isótopos estables

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bode; María Teresa Alvarez-Ossorio; Pablo Carrera; Jorge Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    A partir de las medidas de la abundancia natural de isótopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno se reconstruyó la alimentación de juveniles (< 1 año de edad) y adultos de sardina (Sardina pilchardus) a partir de fito- y zooplancton en el noroeste de la península Ibérica. Las muestras de plancton y sardinas fueron tomadas al comienzo de la época de afloramiento y durante el máximo de freza de la sardina. Previamente a las determinaciones isotópicas, el plancton fue fraccionado por tamaños a travé...

  12. Impact of secondary hard substrate on the distribution and abundance of Aurelia aurita in the western Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Janßen, H.; Augustin, C. B.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kube, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impacts of wind farms on the occurrence of the moon jelly Aureliaaurita. • Artificial hard substrate has the potential to increase the abundance of A.aurita. • In the given example the abundance of A. aurita increases about 20%. • Distribution patterns indicate cross-border impacts on various sectors. This study assessed the impact of secondary hard substrate, as being introduced into marine ecosystems by the establishment of wind farm pillars, on the occurrence a...

  13. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  14. Optimization of Fish Oil Sardinella lemuru from Canning Industry by Products

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    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil could be extrated from lemuru (Sardinella lemuru or lemuru canning industry byproducts. The fish oil should be refined first before using as omega-3 sources. This reasearchobtained was purification of fish oil from lemuru canning industry by products at Bali usingvariations purification method. The fisrt step was done by analysis of crude oil such of free fattyacids value, peroxide value, and iodine value. Then after the purification process using variationspurification method, the refined fish oil was analyzed for same parametrs. The best refined fishoil was analyzed of composition fatty acid using gas chromatograph (GC instrument. The resultshowed that the crude oil had free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value as follows24.03%; 6.97 meq/kg sample; 189.13 g/100 g sample. After the refining process using four methods,the result showed that free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value became: the firstmethod 24.02%; 6.16 meq/kg sample; 187.91 g/100 g sample. The second method 23.14%; 4.17meq/kg sample; 193.94 g/100 g sample. The third method 9.38%; 4.88 meq/kg sample; 225.39 g/100 g sample. And the fourth method 11.03%; 5.64 meq/kg sample; 222.69 g/100 g sample. Dueto the peroxide value, the refined lemuru oil that could met standard of Indonesian farmacope forconsumed fish oil was resulted from the third method. In the refined lemuru oil could be found ofEPA component (Methyl cis-5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester with concentration650,65 μg/mL..Keywords: By products, fish oil, refining process, Sardinella lemuru

  15. Life-history stages of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita - towards a demographic understanding of jellyfish blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms are conspicuous demographic events that have received increasing attention by the public and the scientific community over the last decades due to their negative impact on fisheries, tourism and other human industries. Several aspects of the complex life cycles of the jellyfish...... species involved in mass occurrence have been covered in previous studies, providing important insight into diverse life stage-specific adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Quantification of the demographic rates that characterize different life-history stages however has remained......, including frequent mass occurrence of A. aurita medusae in temperate Danish waters. The present novel data show for instance, that jellyfish blooms of A. aurita are strongly affected by food availability and corresponding shifts between asexually reproducing benthic polyps and sexually reproducing pelagic...

  16. A novel Aurelia aurita protein mesoglein contains DSL and ZP domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, I V; Shaposhnikova, T G; Podgornaya, O I

    2007-09-01

    Body of the scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita consists of 2 epithelia -- epidermis and gastroderm. The layers are separated by a thick layer of extracellular matrix -- mesoglea. A. aurita has a lot of cells in the mesoglea unlike many other Cnidarians. The major protein of the mesoglea with apparent molecular mass of 47 kDa was detected by SDS-PAGE. A partial mRNA of the protein 1421 bp long was cloned and sequenced. The search for homologous nucleotide and protein sequences shows that the mRNA sequence is novel. Deduced amino acid sequence of 416 aa contains zona pellucida (ZP) domain and Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) domain. The protein was named mesoglein. According to reverse transcription PCR analysis it is expressed in the mature medusa exclusively in the mesogleal cells. Mesoglein belongs to the lowest phyla among ZP domain-containing proteins. The protein is supposed to be a structural element of the mesoglea extracellular matrix.

  17. The effects of food and photoperiod on strobilation of Aurelia aurita polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    After 30 days of experiment results showed 100 % survival independently of the treatment. In presence of food the strobilation increased (52.08 ± 4.11 % comparatively with the strobilation in polyps without food (33.33 ± 4.35% (pAurelia aurita. However face the necessity of the optimization of the culture jellyfish conditions for ornamental trade and as source of MNPs, more studies are necessary to turned profitable the mass production of this specie.

  18. Effects of chitosan on the shelf life of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets during refrigerated storage

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    Aygül Küçükgülmez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of chitosan on chemical, colour, sensory and microbial changes of marinated sardine (Sardina pilchardus fillets. Marination solution consisted of 10% sodium chloride + 1% chitosan (dissolved in 3% acetic acid for the chitosan group, and 10% sodium chloride + 3% acetic acid solution for the control group. After the marination process, sardine fillets were packed and stored at 4ºC for 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA values were found to be lower in the chitosan group than the control group (PL*, a*, or b* values of marinated sardine fillets. According to sensory analysis, shelf life of the chitosan group was found to be ten days longer than that of the control group. Total bacteria count of two marinated groups was found to be less than 1 log CFU/g. This study concluded that sardine marination with the addition of chitosan can delay undesirable chemical changes, retard lipid oxidation, improve sensory attributes and extend the shelf life of the product during refrigerated storage.

  19. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant Properties and Production of Chrysolaminarin from Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

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    Song Xia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new chrysolaminarin, named CL2, with a molecular mass of 7.75 kDa, was purified from the marine diatom, Odontella aurita, using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel-filtration chromatography. The monosaccharide and structural analysis revealed that CL2 was a glucan mainly composed of glucose, which was linked by the β-d-(1→3 (main chain and β-d-(1→6 (side chain glycosidic bond, demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The antioxidant activity tests revealed that the CL2 presented stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with increasing concentrations, but less was effective on reducing power analysis and scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. The influences of nitrogen concentration and light intensity on chrysolaminarin production of O. aurita were further investigated in a glass column photobioreactor, and a record high chrysolaminarin productivity of 306 mg L−1 day−1 was achieved. In conclusion, the chrysolaminarin CL2 from O. aurita may be explored as a natural antioxidant agent for application in aquaculture, food and pharmaceutical areas.

  20. Production, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Fucoxanthin from the Marine Diatom Odontella aurita

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    Chengwu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The production, characterization, and antioxidant capacity of the carotenoid fucoxanthin from the marine diatom Odontella aurita were investigated. The results showed that low light and nitrogen-replete culture medium enhanced the biosynthesis of fucoxanthin. The maximum biomass concentration of 6.36 g L−1 and maximum fucoxanthin concentration of 18.47 mg g−1 were obtained in cultures grown in a bubble column photobioreactor (Ø 3.0 cm inner diameter, resulting in a fucoxanthin volumetric productivity of 7.96 mg L−1 day−1. A slight reduction in biomass production was observed in the scaling up of O. aurita culture in a flat plate photobioreactor, yet yielded a comparable fucoxanthin volumetric productivity. A rapid method was developed for extraction and purification of fucoxanthin. The purified fucoxanthin was identified as all-trans-fucoxanthin, which exhibited strong antioxidant properties, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC50 of 1,1-dihpenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical being 0.14 and 0.03 mg mL−1, respectively. Our results suggested that O. aurita can be a natural source of fucoxanthin for human health and nutrition.

  1. A biophysical model of S. aurita early life history in the northern Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Vamara; Lett, Christophe; Penven, Pierrick; Bourlès, Bernard; Djakouré, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    S. aurita is the most abundant small pelagic fish in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Its reproduction and recruitment depend crucially on environmental conditions. We developed a biophysical model of S. aurita early life history by coupling offline an individual-based model with the regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS). We used this model to investigate the main factors driving variability in eggs and larval dispersal and survival in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Precisely, individuals were released from different spawning areas along the coast and tracked for a period of 28 days corresponding to their planktonic phase. Individuals that remained in the coastal recruitment areas at an age more than 7 days, at which they can supposedly actively retain themselves in a favorable area, were considered as recruited. Simulation results show the importance of the spawning areas around Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points where cyclonic eddies trap eggs and larvae along the coast, preventing their advection offshore by the Guinea Current. The spawning period also plays a key role in the recruitment success, with highest coastal retention obtained during the major upwelling period (July-September). We find that a second retention peak can occur during the minor upwelling period (February-March) when larval mortality due to temperature is included in the model. These results are in general agreement with knowledge of S. aurita reproduction in the northern Gulf of Guinea.

  2. Identificación de rasgos morfológicos para una rápida diferenciación de sardina austral (Sprattus fuegensis y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aranis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La pesquería artesanal de cerco multiespecífica que opera en aguas interiores de Chiloé captura sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y sardina austral (Sprattus fuegensis al mismo tiempo y en la misma área. Debido a la gran similitud morfológica externa que presentan estas dos especies de peces óseos, la identificación específica en terreno es difícil, aún para observadores científicos experimentados. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es proponer cual o cuales rasgos morfométricos externos debiesen ser considerados para una rápida identificación de estas especies en terreno. Se analizaron 60 ejemplares de sardina común y 79 de sardina austral. Se identificaron los ejemplares a nivel de especie y se registraron las siguientes medidas: longitud total, longitud de la cabeza, preórbita, órbita y posórbita. Todas las medidas morfométricas fueron estandarizadas para evitar colinealidad. Las diferencias en las medidas morfométricas entre especies fueron probadas mediante métodos estadísticos multivariados que incluyen el análisis de componentes principales, análisis de varianza y covarianza (ANOVA y ANCOVA, análisis multivariado de covarianza (MANOVA y análisis lineal discriminante. La medida posórbita fue el rasgo morfométrico que presentó mayor diferenciación entre especies. Se concluye que la medida de posórbita es por sí sola un carácter morfométrico externo que permitiría una rápida identificación de estas especies en terreno. Los resultados de esta investigación pueden ser tomados como línea base para la generación de guías de campo que apoyen el trabajo de identificación de especies de los observadores científicos.

  3. Identification of Odontella aurita by rbcL gene sequence - a high antibacterial potential centric marine diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Annadurai; Mohammed Esa, Syed Abdul Rahman; Suresh, Murugan; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2017-09-01

    The antibacterial potential of centric marine diatoms has been compared against the clinical pathogens and identified the potential diatom by rbcL gene sequencing. Totally, five diatoms namely Odontella aurita, Thalassiosira subtilis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Skeletonema costatum and Coscinodiscus centralis were isolated from Cuddalore coastal waters. The diatoms were morphologically identified and isolated using micro capillary-pipette and serial dilution method. The isolated diatoms were cultured in Guillard's f/2 medium to get biomass for the antibacterial study. The dried biomass of the cultured diatoms was individually extracted with methanol, ethanol and hexane. All the obtained extracts were tested against Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Proteus vulgarius and Vibrio alginolyticus. The crude ethanol extract of O. aurita was exhibited highest zone of inhibition against all the test pathogens. The MIC of O. aurita was recorded as 50 μg/ml against both Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Proteus vulgarius whilst 75 μg/ml against Vibrio alginolyticus. This study indicates that O. aurita possesses antibacterial activities but the release of antibiotics depends on physical or chemical rupture of algal cells and extractive solvents. Based on the maximum antibacterial activity, O. aurita was further identified by rbcL gene sequencing. The rbcL gene could be an identical region for the species level identification of diatoms.

  4. Effects of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on oesteoblast proliferation in bone defect healing process

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    Rima Parwati Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone damage is the most common case in dentistry. One way to fix the bone damage is by using bone graft. Anadara granosa shell is a potential bone substitute since it is rich in calcium which can be processed into hydroxyapatite. The addition of Sardinella longiceps oil rich in omega-3 can modulate inflammation, thus accelerating the healing process. Purpose: This study aimed to determine effects of application of Anadara granosa shell combined with Sardinella longiceps oil on osteoblast proliferation in the healing process of bone defects. Method: The subjects were 32 male rats type Wistar divided into 4 groups (n = 8. Making defect was performed on the right bone of the femurs with a half of the diameter of round Mcisinger® Germany bur sized 18. The first group (K is a negative control group that was not given anything. The second group (AG was given Anadara granosa pasta. The third group (AM10 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 10% Sardinella longiceps oil. And, the fourth group (AM30 was given Anadara granosa pasta combined with 30% Sardinella longiceps oil. Next, preparations and animal euthanasia were performed on the 7th day after the treatment. The number of osteoblasts then was measured after making preparations for HPA with Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE. Afterward, tabulation of data followed by statistical analysis of Anova and HSD Tukey was carried out. Result: The average number of osteoblasts in Groups K, AG, AM10, and AM30 was 19.00, 34.63, 33.50, and 38.50. The results of Anova test showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Similarly, the results of Tukey-HSD test also showed significant differences (p<0.05 between Group K and all other groups (AG, AM10, and AM30. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between Group AG and Groups AM10 and AM30, as well as between Group AM10 and Group AM30. Conclusion: The application of the combination of Anadara granosa shell and Sardinella longiceps

  5. Reconstruction of trophic pathways between plankton and the North Iberian sardine (Sardina pilchardus using stable isotopes

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    Antonio Bode

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on phyto- and zooplankton by juvenile (< 1 year old and adult sardines (Sardina pilchardus was inferred from analyses of natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in samples from the northwestern Iberian Peninsula (Spain collected at the beginning of the upwelling season and peak spawning period of sardine. Plankton samples were fractionated through nets of 20, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ?m mesh-size and the muscle protein of individual sardines was isolated before isotopic determinations. Up to six planktonic components and two sardine feeding types were identified from the modes in the frequency distributions of isotope abundance values. Also, the most probable pathways for carbon and nitrogen flows between compartments were analysed. The resulting food web revealed a relatively large degree of omnivory, both in plankton and sardine components, which confirms that complex trophic interactions could also occur in pelagic upwelling ecosystems. Young sardines had isotope abundance values clustered around a single mode in the frequency distribution, while adult sardines displayed two main modes. These modes are interpreted as representative of two extreme feeding types: one related to the individual capture of zooplankton prey and the other to unselective filter-feeding. Although both types of feeding could include micro- (20-200 ?m and mesozooplankton (200-2000 ?m prey, phytoplankton appears to be ingested mainly by filter-feeding. However, even adult sardines must be mainly zoophagous to achieve the observed isotopic abundance values, taking into account current assumptions on stable isotope enrichment through trophic levels. From the differences in the resulting pathways using either carbon or nitrogen isotopes, we interpreted that sardines acquire most of the protein nitrogen from zooplankton while a substantial fraction of their carbon would derive from phytoplankton. These interpretations agree with the information

  6. Horizontal distribution and growth of jellyfish, Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) sensu lato, in Mikawa Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Kaoru; Yamada, Satoshi; Toyokawa, Masaya; Yasuda, Akira; Kikuchi, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, growth, and horizontal distribution of the moon jelly, Aurelia aurita sensu lato, in Mikawa Bay from April 2007 to November 2008. In May and August 2007, dense populations of adults occurred in the bay mouth. After August, larger individuals with no planula larvae had involuted bells. In March 2008, adults were highly abundant in the western part of the bay. Small-sized moon jellies were observed from March to June, and dense swarms of adults and semi-adults sh...

  7. Tracking Vertical Movement of the Moon Jelly Aurelia aurita using a Micro Data Logger

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Hideki; Kajikawa, Yoritake

    2011-01-01

    Vertical movement of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita was investigated in the southwestern area (5.8〜9.4m deep) of Omura Bay, Nagasaki. We examined the influence of attaching micro data loggers on the behavior of six moon jellies in an aquarium. No significant difference was observed in mean bell pulse frequencies in experimental animals vs. controls (p>;0.05). In addition, micro data loggers remained attached to the bells for at least 5h. From June to July and October to November, 2009, the ver...

  8. Evaluating fishermen's conservation attitudes and local ecological knowledge of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus), Peniche, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Heitor O; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Oliveira, Henrique M F; Pardal, Miguel A

    2017-05-05

    European sardines are an important fishing resource in the North Atlantic. Recognized for its great commercial and economic value in southern Europe, this resource currently has low stock indices. From this perspective, fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) is appreciated as an auxiliary tool in the management of sardines in this region. Our goal is to evaluate the LEK and attitudes towards the conservation of Sardina pilchardus in the typical fishing village of Peniche, Portugal. From June to September 2016, we carried out 87 semi-structured interviews. The four main points of the interviews were interviewee profile, fishing structure, fishermen's LEK and attitudes towards sardine conservation. The interviews were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using a 3-point Likert scale. An LEK index and an attitude index were generated. Comparison analyses and correlations were made between the indices and variables of the interviewee profile and the fishing structure. The mean LEK index was 0.55 and was classified as moderate. The attitudes index in relation to conservation was 0.76 and was classified as positive. This index had a positive and significant correlation with the LEK index and a significant negative correlation with the fishermen's age. When the LEK index was compared with the educational level, significant differences were observed only between class A and class C. The result showed that the differences in the attitudes index were statistically significant when the three educational classes were compared. The fishermen of Peniche in Portugal present moderate informal knowledge about the biology and ecology of sardines. Attitudes towards conservation were predominantly positive. Fishermen with greater LEK, with a higher educational level and at a younger age presented more positive attitudes in relation to environmental conservation issues in the present case of the sardine population. The LEK is not necessarily related to the educational level of

  9. Optimization of a chemical method for skinning of sardines (Sardina pilchardus during canning processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches is used for canning purposes. The most common product presentation is a beheaded sardine with skin and bones packed in a tin can. Canned sardines can also be presented skinless and boneless. For this last type of product, after beheading and evisceration, sardines are placed in trays, cooked and then skinned by hand, one by one, and placed in the tins, a process involving high labour costs. The aim of this work was to develop a chemical process for peeling raw sardines and its subsequent application in a canning industry processing line just after the beheading and evisceration step and before cooking. Potassium hydroxide treatments (pellets a.r. 85% KOH were applied at concentrations of 2, 3 and 4% (v/v, distilled water. Frozen sardines were beheaded and eviscerated after thawing and immersed in the different potassium hydroxide solutions at 93ºC (pH respectively 13, 13 and 13.02 for 3 min and further washed with distilled water at 100°C. In this first set of experiments, fat sardines were used (average of 9.86% of fat, w/w. The best performance, with respect to skin removal, was achieved with the 2% potassium hydroxide immersion (pH 13. With this treatment the skin was totally removed after immersion. With the other tested concentrations portions of skin were always visible and in some cases changes in texture with breakdown of muscle structure and changes of colour occurred. It was decided to perform a second set of experiments using the 2% KOH treatment, but this time applied to low fat sardines (average of 4.77% of fat, w/w, following the same subsequent procedures. The results showed that the lower fat sardines are more prone to surface changes of colour and major muscle breaks than fat sardines after the potassium hydroxide treatment. In the canning industry for this type of product (skinless and boneless only fat sardines are used to assure the total removal of skin. This treatment of 2% KOH

  10. The use of the sardine scale (Sardinella brasiliensis - STEIDACHNER, 1859), preserved in glicerine, in experimental lamellar keratoplasties in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Laus; Afonso Luis Ferreira; Alexandre Lima Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Estudou-se experimentalmente a escama de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) como substituto de córneas no reparo de ceratectomias superficiais em cães. Utilizaram-se 14 animais, machos e fêmeas, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10 kg, considerados sadios. Analisaram-se, macro e microscopicamente, as córneas receptoras bem como o material implantado aos 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As evidências clínicas para a enxertia lamelar mostraram fotofobia e blefarospasmo mais incid...

  11. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

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    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  12. Optimization of Fish Oil Sardinella lemuru from Canning Industry by Products

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    Rodiah Nurbaya Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil could be extrated from lemuru (Sardinella lemuru or lemuru canning industry by products. The fish oil should be refined first before using as omega-3 sources. This reasearch obtained was purification of fish oil from lemuru canning industry by products at Bali using variations purification method. The fisrt step was done by analysis of crude oil such of free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value. Then after the purification process using variations purification method, the refined fish oil was analyzed for same parametrs. The best refined fish oil was analyzed of composition fatty acid using gas chromatograph (GC instrument. The result showed that the crude oil had free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value as follows 24.03%; 6.97 meq/kg sample; 189.13 g/100 g sample. After the refining process using four methods, the result showed that free fatty acids value, peroxide value, and iodine value became: the first method 24.02%; 6.16 meq/kg sample; 187.91 g/100 g sample. The second method 23.14%; 4.17 meq/kg sample; 193.94 g/100 g sample. The third method 9.38%; 4.88 meq/kg sample; 225.39g/100 g sample. And the fourth method 11.03%; 5.64 meq/kg sample; 222.69 g/100 g sample. Due to the peroxide value, the refined lemuru oil that could met standard of Indonesian farmacope for consumed fish oil was resulted from the third method. In the refined lemuru oil could be found of EPA component (Methyl cis-5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester with concentration 650,65 μg/mL

  13. Effects of nutrients and light intensity on the growth and biochemical composition of a marine microalga Odontella aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Song; Wan, Linglin; Li, Aifen; Sang, Min; Zhang, Chengwu

    2013-11-01

    Algal biotechnology has advanced greatly in the past three decades. Many microalgae are now cultivated to produce bioactive substances. Odontella aurita is a marine diatom industrially cultured in outdoor open ponds and used for human nutrition. For the first time, we have systematically investigated the effects of culture conditions in cylindrical glass columns and flat-plate photobioreactors, including nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur), light intensity and light path, on O. aurita cell growth and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, β-1,3-glucan, lipids, and ash). The optimal medium for photoautotrophic cultivation of O. aurita contained 17.65 mmol/L nitrogen, 1.09 mmol/L phosphorus, 0.42 mmol/L silicon, and 24.51 mmol/L sulfur, yielding a maximum biomass production of 6.1-6.8 g/L and 6.7-7.8 g/L under low and high light, respectively. Scale-up experiments were conducted with flat-plate photobioreactors using different light-paths, indicating that a short light path was more suitable for biomass production of O. aurita. Analyses of biochemical composition showed that protein content decreased while carbohydrate (mainly composed of β-1,3-glucan) increased remarkably to about 50% of dry weight during the entire culture period. The highest lipid content (19.7% of dry weight) was obtained under 0.11 mmol/L silicon and high light conditions at harvest time. Fatty acid Profiles revealed that 80% were C14, C16, and C20, while arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) accounted for 1.6%-5.6% and 9%-20% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass production and characteristic biochemical composition Profiles make O. aurita a promising microalga for the production of bioactive components, such as EPA and β-1,3-glucan.

  14. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Emily J; Sturt, Michael M; Ruane, Neil M; Doyle, Thomas K; McAllen, Rob; Harman, Luke; Rodger, Hamish D

    2011-04-07

    Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  15. Relative role of life-history traits and historical factors in shaping genetic population structure of sardines (Sardina pilchardus

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    Zardoya Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine pelagic fishes exhibit rather complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are the result of both historical processes and present day gene flow. Comparative multi-locus analyses based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers are probably the most efficient and informative approach to discerning the relative role of historical events and life-history traits in shaping genetic heterogeneity. The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a small pelagic fish with a relatively high migratory capability that is expected to show low levels of genetic differentiation among populations. Previous genetic studies based on meristic and mitochondrial control region haplotype frequency data supported the existence of two sardine subspecies (S. p. pilchardus and S. p. sardina. Results We investigated genetic structure of sardine among nine locations in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using allelic size variation of eight specific microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering and assignment tests, maximum likelihood estimates of migration rates, as well as classical genetic-variance-based methods (hierarchical AMOVA test and RST pairwise comparisons supported a single evolutionary unit for sardines. These analyses only detected weak but significant genetic differentiation, which followed an isolation-by-distance pattern according to Mantel test. Conclusion We suggest that the discordant genetic structuring patterns inferred based on mitochondrial and microsatellite data might indicate that the two different classes of molecular markers may be reflecting different and complementary aspects of the evolutionary history of sardine. Mitochondrial data might be reflecting past isolation of sardine populations into two distinct groupings during Pleistocene whereas microsatellite data reveal the existence of present day gene flow among populations, and a pattern of isolation by distance.

  16. Food safety considerations in relation to Anisakis pegreffii in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) fished off the Ligurian Coast (Cinque Terre National Park, NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Carducci, Annalaura; Verani, Marco; Prearo, Marino; Tomei, Laura; De Montis, Gabriella; Ercolini, Carlo

    2014-11-03

    Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus are pelagic fishes of notable economic and gastronomic importance in the northwest Mediterranean (Ligurian Sea, Italy). The consumption of thermally unprocessed or lightly processed, marinated or salted anchovies and sardines presents a potential risk to acquire anisakiasis, a fish-borne parasitic disease in humans. Prevalence and abundance of Anisakis larvae in Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardina pilchardus from the Monterosso fishing grounds (Cinque Terre National Park, Ligurian Sea, Italy) were assessed, and the larvae were identified by morphological and PCR-RFLP methods. Anisakis larvae, all belonging to Anisakis pegreffii spp. were found in the visceral mass of 1050 anchovies (0.8% overall prevalence), whereas no Anisakis larvae were found in the 750 sardines examined. According to these data, the risk of acquiring anisakiasis from the consumption of raw or undercooked anchovies and sardines caught in the fishing area we investigated is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  18. Flexible margin kinematics and vortex formation of Aurelia aurita and Robojelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Vlachos, Pavlos; Priya, Shashank

    2014-01-01

    The development of a rowing jellyfish biomimetic robot termed as "Robojelly", has led to the discovery of a passive flexible flap located between the flexion point and bell margin on the Aurelia aurita. A comparative analysis of biomimetic robots showed that the presence of a passive flexible flap results in a significant increase in the swimming performance. In this work we further investigate this concept by developing varying flap geometries and comparing their kinematics with A. aurita. It was shown that the animal flap kinematics can be replicated with high fidelity using a passive structure and a flap with curved and tapered geometry gave the most biomimetic performance. A method for identifying the flap location was established by utilizing the bell curvature and the variation of curvature as a function of time. Flaps of constant cross-section and varying lengths were incorporated on the Robojelly to conduct a systematic study of the starting vortex circulation. Circulation was quantified using velocity field measurements obtained from planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV). The starting vortex circulation was scaled using a varying orifice model and a pitching panel model. The varying orifice model which has been traditionally considered as the better representation of jellyfish propulsion did not appear to capture the scaling of the starting vortex. In contrast, the pitching panel representation appeared to better scale the governing flow physics and revealed a strong dependence on the flap kinematics and geometry. The results suggest that an alternative description should be considered for rowing jellyfish propulsion, using a pitching panel method instead of the traditional varying orifice model. Finally, the results show the importance of incorporating the entire bell geometry as a function of time in modeling rowing jellyfish propulsion.

  19. Flexible margin kinematics and vortex formation of Aurelia aurita and Robojelly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villanueva

    Full Text Available The development of a rowing jellyfish biomimetic robot termed as "Robojelly", has led to the discovery of a passive flexible flap located between the flexion point and bell margin on the Aurelia aurita. A comparative analysis of biomimetic robots showed that the presence of a passive flexible flap results in a significant increase in the swimming performance. In this work we further investigate this concept by developing varying flap geometries and comparing their kinematics with A. aurita. It was shown that the animal flap kinematics can be replicated with high fidelity using a passive structure and a flap with curved and tapered geometry gave the most biomimetic performance. A method for identifying the flap location was established by utilizing the bell curvature and the variation of curvature as a function of time. Flaps of constant cross-section and varying lengths were incorporated on the Robojelly to conduct a systematic study of the starting vortex circulation. Circulation was quantified using velocity field measurements obtained from planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV. The starting vortex circulation was scaled using a varying orifice model and a pitching panel model. The varying orifice model which has been traditionally considered as the better representation of jellyfish propulsion did not appear to capture the scaling of the starting vortex. In contrast, the pitching panel representation appeared to better scale the governing flow physics and revealed a strong dependence on the flap kinematics and geometry. The results suggest that an alternative description should be considered for rowing jellyfish propulsion, using a pitching panel method instead of the traditional varying orifice model. Finally, the results show the importance of incorporating the entire bell geometry as a function of time in modeling rowing jellyfish propulsion.

  20. HUBUNGAN PANJANG BOBOT, FAKTOR KONDISI DAN STRUKTUR UKURAN IKAN LEMURU (Sardinella lemuru DI PERAIRAN SELAT BALI

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    Arief Wujdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lemuru merupakan jenis ikan hasil tangkapan utama kegiatan perikanan di perairan Selat Bali yang status pemanfaatannya sudah mengalami lebih tangkap dan memerlukan upaya pengelolaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan panjang dan bobot, faktor kondisi, serta struktur ukuran ikan lemuru di perairan Selat Bali. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Agustus 2010 hingga Desember 2011 dengan metode survei dan pengamatan langsung di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan panjang dan bobot ikan lemuru mengikuti persamaan W=0,007FL3,167 dan memiliki pola pertumbuhan allometrik positif (b>3 namun pada setiap bulannya mengalami perubahan pola pertumbuhan. Nilai faktor kondisi relatif berkisar antara 0,95-1,28 dan berfluktuasi setiap bulannya. Hasil ini diduga dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan makanan. Ikan lemuru berukuran kecil atau “sempenit” (<11 cmFL banyak tertangkap pada bulan Agustus dan September 2010 serta Juli dan November 2011 dan diduga pada waktu tersebut terjadi awal rekruitmen.   Bali sardinella (“lemuru” is mostly caught by fishers in the Bali Strait waters, and its status predicted have overfishing so that it needs to manage this resources. The purpose of this study to investigate the length-weight relationship, the condition factors and size structure of lemuru in the Bali Strait waters. The data was collected through survey and direct observation in the field from August 2010 to December 2011. The result of this study shows that length-weight relationship could be described as W = 0.007 FL3, 167. Nevertheless,  it is change on the growth pattern by monthly. The value of relative condition factors of lemuru were ranging from 0.95 to 1.28 and very fluctuated by monthly. It is predicted that influenced by feed availability in Bali Strait waters. The smaal size of lemuru, namely “sempenit (<11 cmFL are dominantly caught during August to September 2010 and July and November 2011 that indicated

  1. Impact of secondary hard substrate on the distribution and abundance of Aurelia aurita in the western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, H; Augustin, C B; Hinrichsen, H H; Kube, S

    2013-10-15

    This study assessed the impact of secondary hard substrate, as being introduced into marine ecosystems by the establishment of wind farm pillars, on the occurrence and distribution of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita in the southwestern Baltic Sea. A two-year data sampling was conducted with removable settlement plates to assess the distribution and population development of the scyphozoan polyps. The data collected from these samples were used to set up a model with Lagrangian particle technique. The results confirm that anthropogenic created hard substrate (e.g. offshore wind farms) has the potential to increase the abundance of the A. aurita population. The distribution of wind farm borne jellyfish along Danish, German and Polish coasts indicates conflicts with further sectors, mainly energy and tourism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of metamorphosis and the evolution of life cycles: insights from the common moon jelly Aurelia aurita

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Life histories of ancient marine invertebrates offer insight into the evolution of life cycles. The archetypal metagenetic life cycle of cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in these drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown. Here I show in the moon jelly Aurelia aurita that the molecular machinery controlling transitio...

  3. Grafting effectiveness of Anadara granosa shell combined with sardinella longiseps gel on the number of osteoblast-osteoclast cells

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    Eddy Hermanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone grafts derived from Anadara granosa shells contain calcium carbonate that possesses bone-healing properties. The combination of Sardinella Longiceps fish oil, containing EPA and DHA, and Anadara granosa shells was assumed to regulate the number of osteoblasts-osteoclasts during the bone-healing process. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Anadara granosa shell grafts, combined with Sardinella Longiceps fish oil, in the bone-healing process by observing the ratio of osteoblasts-osteoclasts in Rattus novergicus rats. Methods: The Wistar rat subjects (n = 25 were divided into five groups, namely: one untreated group (control, one group treated with bone grafts derived from Anadara granosa shells (P1, and the other three groups treated with a combination of Anadara granosa shells and Sardinella longiceps fish oil at concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 30% (P2, P3, and P4. Then, a wound equivalent in size to half the diameter of a round bur (±1.5mm was intentionally inflicted on the right femur of all the subjects. The rats were subsequently sacrificed on day 14, their femur in the transversal side being cut before HE staining was completed. Thereafter, the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts was measured by means of a light microscopy. The data was subsequently analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: The average number of osteoblasts in all research groups increased, viz: 9.420±0.8044 for control group (K, 12.080±0.79811 for group P1, 20.020±0.7190 for group P2, 25.940±0.7197 for group P3, and 36.280±0.9985 for group P4. Similarly, the number of osteoclasts in all groups subject to analysis also increased, namely: 1.73±0.098 for group K, 2.19±0.305 for group P1, 1.60±0.088 for group P2, 1.60±0.724 for group P3, and 1.80±1.302 for group P4. Moreover, the results of the One-way Anova test confirmed that there were no significant differences in osteoclasts between all research groups (p>0.05. The results

  4. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35).

  5. Growth and mortality estimates of Sardinella brasiliensis in the southeastern Brazilian bight

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    Maria Cristina Cergole

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Length frequency analisys were applied for sardine data collected from commercial catches throughout the southeastern Brazilian coast in 1977-1987. Age/length keys were obtained by otolith ring countings and utilized to transform length into age composition. Growth parameters were estimated by the von Bertalanffy growth equation using age and length data for each year and for all the period of investigation. The mean growth parameters for the entire period were estimated as L∞ = 271 mm and K= 0.59 year-1. Instantaneous total mortality (Z coefficients per year were estimated using catch curves and methods based on the mean length of the fish caught. Total mortality rate for the entire period was obtained through the average of the annual values. Natural mortality (M was estimated using the Paul/s empirical equation (1980a, and fishing mortality (F by the difference between total and natural mortality values.The results were Z = 3.6 year-1; M = 0.96 year-1; and F= 2.6 year-1.Estudo sobre o crescimento e a mortalidade de Sardinella brasiliensis, da costa sudeste do Brasil, foi realizado para o período 1977 a 1987. As análises foram efetuadas a partir de dados existentes sobre distribuições de freqüência de comprimento de amostras da captura comercial. Chaves idade/comprimento, construidas a partir de leitura de anéis de crescimento em otólitos, dentro do Programa Integrado de Estudos Biológicos sobre a Sardinha - PIEBS, foram utilizadas para transformar as distribuiçes de comprimento em idade. Os parâmetros de crescimento da equação de von Bertalanffy foram estimados, anualmente e para o período como um todo, a partir de métodos que utilizam dados de idade e comprimento. Os parâmetros médios encontrados para o período foram: L∞ = 271 mm e K= 0,59 ano-1. Os coeficientes instantâneos de mortalidade total (Z anuais foram calculados pelas curvas de captura e por métodos baseados no comprimento médio dos indivíduos nas capturas

  6. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

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    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  7. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

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    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  8. Culture viability of Sardina pilchardus (Fish, Teleost: Preliminary results of growth in captivity up to 18 months

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    José Iglesias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Sardina pilchardus were obtained in captivity from fertilized eggs captured in the wild and grown in a 10000-L tank. Isochrysis galbana, Artemia franciscana nauplii and live zooplankton were used as prey during the first two weeks; afterwards, the animals were fed on Artemia metanauplii enriched with Isochrysis galbana. A dry feed (Gemma 0.4 and 0.8 from Skretting S.A. (Burgos, España was supplied from the 3rd to the 18th month. The total length reached by sardines at one year of life was 162.02±9.49 mm, corresponding to a wet weight of 36.12±10.82 g. Total length of the last survivor individual at 18 months was 182.37 mm. An 18-month experiment of sardine culture is described for the first time, and the growth data reported can help to determine its potential as a candidate for marine aquaculture.

  9. Offshore dispersion of ephyrae and medusae of Aurelia aurita s.l. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) from port enclosures: Physical and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Hidetaka; Uye, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. have been increasingly significant, particularly in human perturbed coastal waters, where numerous artificial constructions increase suitable habitat for polyp populations. We examined the spatiotemporal dispersion process in 6 ports of ephyrae of A. aurita after release from strobilating polyps, to offshore waters of northern Harima Nada (eutrophic eastern Inland Sea of Japan) from January to May 2010. Almost exclusive occurrence of the ephyra stage in the ports demonstrated that their seeding polyps reside in the port enclosures, and liberated ephyrae are rapidly exported offshore by tidal water exchange. Post-ephyra stages occurred primarily outside the ports, and their age increased gradually offshore, ca. up to 9 km off the ports, and the pattern of age increase could be simulated by a simple diffusion model. However, there was an abrupt decline in A. aurita density beyond ca. 3 km off the shore, where jellyfish-eating Chrysaora pacifica medusae were prevalent. We conclude that physical forces are primarily responsible for offshore dispersion of A. aurita, and a biological factor, i.e. predation by C. pacifica, jointly affects the distribution pattern of A. aurita.

  10. Discards of the purse seine fishery targeting small pelagic fish in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Konstantinos Tsagarakis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analysed data collected on board commercial purse seine vessels in the Aegean and Ionian Seas (eastern Mediterranean Sea, Greece in 13 seasonal sampling periods from 2003 to 2008 in order to describe the composition of the retained and discarded catch and shed light on discarding practices. In each area, five species constituted the majority of the marketable catch (> 97%: sardine (Sardina pilchardus, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, round sardinella (Sardinella aurita, bogue (Boops boops (in both areas, mackerel (Scomber japonicus; in the Aegean Sea and picarel (Spicara smaris; in the Ionian Sea. Discarded quantities were on average 4.6% and 2.2% of the total catch in terms of weight in the Aegean and Ionian Seas respectively. Discards on the marketable ratio fluctuated over years and seasons without showing any particular trend. At the species level, sardine and mackerel were seldom discarded while large amounts of anchovy were discarded only during its recruitment period (autumn, when juvenile fish dominate the population. The discarding ratio for bogue, picarel and round sardinella ranged from zero to total discarding because they constitute a supplementary source of income for the fishers. Discarded fish comprised mainly small individuals for all species considered with the exception of round sardinella. However, the lengths at which 50% of the individuals were discarded were generally small, often smaller than the species minimum landing sizes. Geographical coordinates and marketable catch explained part of the variability of the discarded quantities, as revealed by generalized additive models. Discarding practices and implications for management of purse seine fisheries are also discussed.

  11. ENRIQUECIMENTO AMBIENTAL X COMPORTAMENTO EM CATIVEIRO DE CALLITHRIX AURITA (É. Geoffroy, 1812

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    Marcellus Pereira Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas de enriquecimento ambiental foram utilizadas para avaliação dos comportamentos em cativeiro de um grupo de três indivíduos, duas fêmeas e um macho de Callithrix aurita (sagui-da-serra-escuro, cativos do Mantenedor de Fauna Silvestre da UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP. Foram implantados seis diferentes enriquecimentos alimentares e observações com duração de uma hora pelo método “focal sampling grupal” no período de agosto a novembro de 2015. Os comportamentos categorizados, inicialmente, eram Alimentação, Alerta, Comunicação, Social, Manutenção e Território. A categoria Cuidado Parental foi adicionada após o nascimento de dois filhotes. Percebeu-se que Alimentação e Alerta foram as categorias mais evidentes, que Cuidado Parental apareceu equilibrada entre os membros e as expressões de comportamentos típicos foram significantes para concluir que enriquecimentos ambientais melhoram o bem-estar animal de animal em cativeiro.

  12. Artificial substrates preference for proliferation and immigration in Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amounts of artificial marine substrates, in many parts of the world have been proposed as a potential driver of Aurelia spp. blooms, on account of providing extra habitats for the settlement and the proliferation of the benthic stage (polyps). Previous experiments have mainly focused on the substrate choices of Aurelia spp. planulae. However, substrate preferences for the proliferation and immigration of polyps have not been reported. We monitored the propagation and immigration of Aurelia aurita (s. l.) polyps on two natural and nine artificial substrates at constant temperature (20±0.5°C) and salinity (30±0.5) in beakers and a glass aquarium in the laboratory, respectively. The results showed that, among artificial substrates, the highest number for polyp proliferation and immigration was found on nets, rigid polyvinyl chloride plates (RPVC), and wood. The lowest density of polyps was present on iron plates. Among natural substrates, the asexual reproduction rate of polyps on Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) shells was significantly higher than Azumapecten farreri (Jones & Preston, 1904). On the account of the distinction in the roughness, chemical properties and biofilms of these material surfaces, bare artificial or natural substrates discriminatively affect the proliferation and the immigration of Aurelia spp. polyps at laboratory. These observations suggest that, even in the natural environment, different materials and texture may influence the composition and the abundance of the fouling communities and the assemblages of polyps and, indirectly, have effects on the amounts of released medusae.

  13. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E ACEITABILIDADE DA SARDINHA (SARDINELLA BRASILIENSIS EM CONSERVA ADICIONADA DE MOLHO COM TOMATE

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    Janise Pedroso COLEMBERGUE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O pescado é um alimento rico em proteínas, minerais, vitaminas e possui fácil digestão. A procura por alimentos prontos para o consumo, como pescado em conserva, ainda é uma opção interessante para o consumidor, devido ao tempo reduzido de preparação. As características sensoriais estão entre os principais determinantes na aquisição, consumo, aceitação e preferência dos produtos alimentícios por diferentes faixas etárias. A aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho de tomate foi avaliada por 50 provadores não treinados em ambiente laboratorial através de uma fi cha com escala hedônica de nove pontos. Além disso, a determinação da composição química foi realizada e comparada com os valores declarados no rótulo do produto. A aceitação obtida para este tipo de conserva foi de 84% e a média de pontuação de 7.56, sendo esta caracterizada entre “gostei” e “gostei muito”, observou-se ainda que 54% dos julgadores possuíam hábitos de consumir pescado em conserva. A composição química da sardinha em conserva obtida foi de 62,44±0,33% de umidade, 2,7±0,22% de resíduo mineral fi xo, 19,35±1,05% de proteínas e 15,11±0,6% de lipídios totais, apresentando-se de acordo com a rotulagem, exceto para o teor de lipídio. Este estudo permitiu observar a grande aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho com tomate, mesmo entre os julgadores que não possuíam o hábito de consumi-lo.

  14. Fishing area and fish size as risk factors of Anisakis infection in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) from Iberian waters, southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Fernández, Dolores; Malagón, David; Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Benítez, Rocío; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-16

    The sardine (Sardina pilchardus) is a fish commonly consumed and appreciated in many countries, although they are more likely to be eaten fresh in western Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Portugal, France or Italy. A molecular epidemiological survey of sardines from 5 fishing areas of the Spanish Mediterranean (Málaga, southern Spain) and Atlantic coasts (southern: Cádiz and Isla Cristina; northern: A Coruña and Ondarroa) was carried out to determine the presence of Anisakis spp. larvae. The highest prevalence of these larvae was observed in fish from A Coruña (28.3%), followed by Ondarroa (5%) and Cádiz (2.5%). No Anisakis larvae were found in fish from Málaga and Isla Cristina. Three Anisakis genotypes were identified: Anisakis simplex sensu stricto, Anisakis pegreffii and a hybrid genotype between these two species. A. pegreffii was the most prevalent species in A Coruña (71% of larvae). Only three Anisakis larvae (9% collected larvae) were located in the musculature of sardines: two were identified as A. pegreffii while the other was a hybrid genotype. Sardine infection was associated with fishing area and fish length/weight (length and weight were strongly correlated; Pearson's correlation 0.82; pAnisakis through consumption of sardines is generally low due to the low epidemiological parameter values (prevalence 10%, mean intensity 1.7 (range 1-5) and mean abundance 0.17), as larger fish are more heavily parasitized, there is an increased risk of infection by Anisakis through consumption of large sardines which are raw or have undergone insufficient treatment (undercooked, smoked, marinated, salted, pickled, freezing,…). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Matthew J; Jed, Jason

    2003-11-01

    It is not well understood how ontogenetic changes in the motion and morphology of aquatic animals influence the performance of swimming. The goals of the present study were to understand how changes in size, shape and behavior affect the hydrodynamics of jet propulsion in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and to explore how such changes affect the ontogenetic scaling of swimming speed and cost of transport. We measured the kinematics of jellyfish swimming from video recordings and simulated the hydrodynamics of swimming with two computational models that calculated thrust generation by paddle and jet mechanisms. Our results suggest that thrust is generated primarily by jetting and that there is negligible thrust generation by paddling. We examined how fluid forces scaled with body mass using the jet model. Despite an ontogenetic increase in the range of motion by the bell diameter and a decrease in the height-to-diameter ratio, we found that thrust and acceleration reaction scaled with body mass as predicted by kinematic similarity. However, jellyfish decreased their pulse frequency with growth, and speed consequently scaled at a lower exponential rate than predicted by kinematic similarity. Model simulations suggest that the allometric growth in Aurelia results in swimming that is slower, but more energetically economical, than isometric growth with a prolate bell shape. The decrease in pulse frequency over ontogeny allows large Aurelia medusae to avoid a high cost of transport but generates slower swimming than if they maintained a high pulse frequency. Our findings suggest that ontogenetic change in the height-to-diameter ratio and pulse frequency of Aurelia results in swimming that is relatively moderate in speed but is energetically economical.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of the dynamic life cycle of the scypohozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhman, Vera; Malik, Assaf; Haas, Brian; Sher, Noa; Lotan, Tamar

    2015-02-14

    The moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a widespread scyphozoan species that forms large seasonal blooms. Here we provide the first comprehensive view of the entire complex life of the Aurelia Red Sea strain by employing transcriptomic profiling of each stage from planula to mature medusa. A de novo transcriptome was assembled from Illumina RNA-Seq data generated from six stages throughout the Aurelia life cycle. Transcript expression profiling yielded clusters of annotated transcripts with functions related to each specific life-cycle stage. Free-swimming planulae were found highly enriched for functions related to cilia and microtubules, and the drastic morphogenetic process undergone by the planula while establishing the future body of the polyp may be mediated by specifically expressed Wnt ligands. Specific transcripts related to sensory functions were found in the strobila and the ephyra, whereas extracellular matrix functions were enriched in the medusa due to high expression of transcripts such as collagen, fibrillin and laminin, presumably involved in mesoglea development. The CL390-like gene, suggested to act as a strobilation hormone, was also highly expressed in the advanced strobila of the Red Sea species, and in the medusa stage we identified betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, an enzyme that may play an important part in maintaining equilibrium of the medusa's bell. Finally, we identified the transcription factors participating in the Aurelia life-cycle and found that 70% of these 487 identified transcription factors were expressed in a developmental-stage-specific manner. This study provides the first scyphozoan transcriptome covering the entire developmental trajectory of the life cycle of Aurelia. It highlights the importance of numerous stage-specific transcription factors in driving morphological and functional changes throughout this complex metamorphosis, and is expected to be a valuable resource to the community.

  17. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Panteleev, Pavel V.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K.; Altukhov, Dmitry A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokryakov, Vladimir N. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its {sup 15}N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3{sub 10}-helix and two {alpha}-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two {alpha}-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the 'functional dyad' required for the high-affinity interaction with the K{sup +}-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  18. Distribution and abundance of early life stages of Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean Sea in relation to environmental and biological factors

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    Rafik Zarrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four seasonal surveys were carried out in the Gulf of Tunis between summer 2002 and spring 2003 to study the abundance and distribution of Sardina pilchardus eggs and larvae in relation to environmental parameters. In the Gulf of Tunis, Sardina pilchardus begins spawning in autumn (23 eggs/10 m² and attains its peak in winter (257 eggs/10 m² when the mean SST is lowest (13.4°C. Sardine reproduction seems to be triggered by the decrease in the SST. In winter, the main spawning areas were located to the south of Zembra Island and the north of Cape Bon. Larvae were more abundant in winter (38 larvae/10 m², while lower densities were collected in autumn and spring (1 larva/10 m². The highest abundance of larvae (288 larvae/10 m² was recorded southwest of Zembra Island. Eggs and larvae were mainly concentrated in the relatively warmer and saltier waters with high zooplankton abundance and, inversely, with a low concentration of nitrate and chlorophyll a and a low diatom abundance.

  19. Species identification of small pelagic fish schools by means of hydroacoustics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    K. TSAGARAKIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass estimates by means of hydroacoustics largely depend on the correct identification of acoustic targets. Data collected during five summer acoustic surveys (2004-2008 in the North Aegean Sea (Greece were analyzed to explore effective discrimination of small pelagic fish schools according to the species they belong. Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA using bathymetric, energetic and morphometric school descriptors as explanatory variables were applied per research cruise as well as to pooled data from all surveys. Results revealed that the schools can be successfully classified into the five species considered (anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine Sardina pilchardus, round sardinella Sardinella aurita, blue whiting Micromessistius poutassou, and Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus. The percentage of correct classifications in terms of number of schools was higher in the analyses of the annual cruises (75.6%-95.36% than in the analysis of pooled data (≈72%. This is because of (i the lower number of species, as well as (ii the reduced intraspecific variability, occurring in each separate cruise. Significant differences were detected among school descriptors for the different species, revealing discrete aspects of schooling behaviour for each species. The benefit of the specific approach is that the classification functions of the DFAs can be used to classify a larger set of schools, which has not been possible to assign to specific species. Overall the approach constitutes an objective, more automated and less time consuming procedure for the analysis of acoustic data and can contribute to the improvement of biomass estimates in the area.

  20. Ecological energetics of forage fish from the Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal dynamics and interspecific differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo-Puigserver, M.; Muñoz, A.; Navarro, J.; Coll, M.; Pethybridge, H.; Sánchez, S.; Palomera, I.

    2017-06-01

    Small and medium pelagic fishes play a central role in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to top predators. In this study, direct calorimetry was used to analyze the energy density of seven pelagic species collected over four seasons from the western Mediterranean Sea: anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine Sardina pilchardus, round sardinella Sardinella aurita, horse mackerels Trachurus trachurus and T. mediterraneus, and mackerels Scomber scombrus and S. colias. Inter-specific differences in energy density were linked to spawning period, energy allocation strategies for reproduction and growth, and feeding ecologies. Energy density of each species varied over time, with the exception of S. colias, likely due to its high energetic requirements related to migration throughout the year. In general, higher energy density was observed in spring for all species, regardless of their breeding strategy, probably as a consequence of the late-winter phytoplankton bloom. These results provide new insights into the temporal availability of energy in the pelagic ecosystem of the Mediterranean Sea, which are pivotal for understanding how the population dynamics of small and medium pelagic fishes and their predators may respond to environmental changes and fishing impacts. In addition, the differences found in energy density between species highlighted the importance of using species specific energy-values in ecosystem assessment tools such as bioenergetic and food web models.

  1. Effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of canned Portuguese sardines (Sardina pilchardus

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    Rita Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Canned foods have a long history of success and are likely to remain popular for the foreseeable future owing to their convenience, long shelf life and economy. Interest in fish consumption has increased in recent years due to the wide range of its health benefits. In addition to fresh product, canned fish enables a delayed consumption of this appreciated kind of food. Among the different types of fish, in Portugal, the most used in canning manufacture are sardines, tuna, anchovies, mackerels. Vegetable oils and tomato sauce are usually adopted as coatings (liquid medium. In fact, oil has a preserving effect and contributes to make the product more palatable. Its protective action lies in the ability to insulate products from air, rather than having an active bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. Among the different types of coatings the most commonly used in canning are: olive oil, seed oils and different sauces, such as tomato sauce. Tomato sauce has also vegetable oil on its formulation. The amount of coating substance can affect the nutritional composition as well as texture properties of the sardines. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different types of coatings on texture and nutritional properties of whole, skinless and boneless canned Portuguese Sardines (Sardina pilchardus. An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ash content, texture and colour profile of canned sardine with different kinds of coatings: olive oil, sunflower oil and tomato sauce. The obtained results showed that protein and carbohydrates content were not significantly influenced by the coating used, varying between 5%-8% and13%-18%, respectively. For the moisture content it was found that the samples with tomato sauce were 2.2-fold higher than the samples with sunflower oil, and 1.3-fold higher than the samples with olive oil, independently of being whole, skinless or boneless sardine. As

  2. Formación de compuestos fluorescentes durante el almacenamiento refrigerado de sardina (Sardina pilchardus: comparación con índices de alteración lipídica

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    Aubourg, S. P.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Sardine was stored at 0°C on ice during 16 days. During this time the fluorescent compounds formation was studied at different wavelength maxima in order to assert quality changes; fluorescence analyses were undergone on the aqueous and organic (lipids phases resulting from the lipid extraction. Quality measures of lipid hydrolysis (free fatty acids content, FFA and oxidation (conjugated diene formation and thiobarbituric acid, TBA, test were also carried out. Traditional indexes of lipid damage did not assert deterioration in the case of advanced damage. Diene content reflected and increasing value till the day 9 of storage, and then a continuous decrease. Further, FFA content and TBA test showed the highest values on the day 13 of storage, followed by a slight decrease. An increase in fluorescence content was observed in most of the excitation/emission maxima studied (393/463 nm, 446/490 nm and 479/516 nm, at the time that others decreased (327/415 nm, specially; as an overall result, a relative increase in the maxima of higher wavelength was observed in comparison with the lower ones. The ratio between two of the fluorescence maxima analyzed (393/463 nm and 327/415 nm exhibited an overall increase respect to the time of chilled storage. The study of this ratio in the aqueous extract showed a better correlation (r= 0,8533 than in the case of the organic one (r= 0,7457. From the present results, it is concluded that the interaction compounds determination by mean of their fluorescent properties is useful as a damage measure during the chilled storage.

    Durante 16 días se almacenaron sardinas en hielo. A lo largo de este tiempo se estudió la formación de compuestos fluorescentes a distintos máximos de longitud de onda de excitación/emisión con el fin de seguir las posibles variaciones de estos compuestos producidas al aumentar el tiempo de almacenamiento; las medidas de fluorescencia se realizaron sobre las fases acuosa y org

  3. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

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    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  4. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

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    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  5. Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis by Lactobacillus sakei 2a

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    Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6% and glucose (2, 4%. After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentation, even when 6% NaCl was used. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6.0 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4.0 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl respectively. This could have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the spoilage microorganisms. After 21 days of the fermentation, the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1.Lactobacillus sakei 2a é uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste estudo, procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador na fermentação de filés de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4, 6% e glicose (2, 4%. Com 21 dias (fermentação, os microrganismos deterioradores atingiram 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% NaCl e 4% de glicose. Sem a adição do starter e da glicose, a deterioração (filés iniciou a partir de 72 horas, mesmo quando foi utilizado 6% NaCl. Pouca diferença foi observada na produção de ácido lático quando se adicionou 2 e 4% de glicose, já que a acidez atingiu 1,32 e 1,34%, respectivamente (6% NaCl, os quais apresentaram os melhores resultados. O pH inicial dos filés foi 6 e, ao término de 21 dias, atingiu 3,8, 3,9 e 4, equivalente aos experimentos com 2, 4 e 6% NaCl. Este comportamento pode ser atribuído ao

  6. Extraction of fish body oil from Sardinella longiceps by employing direct steaming method and its quantitative and qualitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Pravinkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the quantitative and qualitative properties of the extracted fish oil from Sardinella longiceps (S. longiceps. Methods: Four size groups of S. longiceps were examined for the extraction of fish oil based on length. The size groups included Group I (size range of 7.1–10.0 cm, Group II (size range of 10.1–13.0 cm, Group III (size range of 13.1–16.0 cm and Group IV (size range of 16.1– 19.0 cm. Fish oil was extracted from the tissues of S. longiceps by direct steaming method. The oil was then subjected to the determination of specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, free fatty acids, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and observation of colour. Results: The four groups showed different yield of fish oil that Group IV recorded the highest values of (165.00 ± 1.00 mL/kg followed by Group III [(145.66 ± 1.15 mL/kg] and Group II [(129.33 ± 0.58 mL/kg], whereas Group I recorded the lowest values of (78.33 ± 0.58 mL/ kg in monsoon season, and the average yield was (180.0 ± 4.9 mL/kg fish tissues. These analytical values of the crude oil were well within the acceptable standard values for both fresh and stocked samples. Conclusions: The information generated in the present study pertaining to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of fish oil will serve as a reference baseline for entrepreneurs and industrialists in future for the successful commercial production of fish oil by employing oil sardines.

  7. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimeur Adil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other

  8. Occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris in regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi de determinar a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. albiventris e D. aurita em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, utilizou-se noventa e oito Didelphis mortos, sendo 66 D. aurita e 32 D. albiventris, e também 28 D. aurita e cinco D. albiventris vivos. O método de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose foi empregado para isolamento dos oocistos/esporocistos de Sarcocystis spp. do intestino delgado e das fezes. Encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. no intestino delgado de 9,1% dos D. aurita (6/66, sendo que quatro destes também houve positividade nas fezes. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre machos e fêmeas positivos (P= 0,522, e entre os positivos de diferentes origens do Estado de São Paulo (P= 0,627, quanto a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. Entretanto, houve diferença estatística significativa entre animais de vida livre e de cativeiro (P = 0.009, sendo que somente os de vida livre foram positivos. Entre adultos e filhotes positivos também houve diferença (P= 0,004, sendo os adultos mais parasitados que os filhotes. Das amostras provenientes dos 28 D. aurita vivos, encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. em 7.1% (2/28 deles. Dos 32 D. albiventris, todos foram negativos para Sarcocystis spp. nas amostras de intestino delgado e fezes. Os cincos D. albiventris vivos também foram negativos. Sendo assim, pode-se observar que a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. aurita e D. albiventris nestas três regiões do Estado de São Paulo é baixa para estas condições analisadas.

  9. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs: orange (Citrus sinensis L., lemon (Citrus limonum L. and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37% for orange essential oil (EO; linalyl acetate (37.28%, linalool (23.36%, for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%, β-pinene (17.04% and γ-terpinene (13.46% for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs

  10. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO, TAURIN, MINERAL MAKRO-MIKRO, DAN VITAMIN B12 UBUR-UBUR (Aurelia aurita SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjanah - -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan komposisi gizi, asam amino, taurin, mineral makro dan mikro,dan vitamin B12 pada ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita segar dan kering. Asam amino esensial pada ubur-ubur,yaitu arginin, leusin, valin, treonin, lisin, isoleusin, fenilalanin, metionin, dan histidin, sedangkan asamamino non esensial, yaitu asam glutamat, glisin, asam aspartat, serin, alanin, dan tirosin. Asam aminoesensial tertinggi segar dan kering adalah arginin sebesar 1,72% (bk dan 1,44% (bk dan terendah histidin,yaitu sebesar 0,19% (bk dan 0,13% (bk. Asam amino non esensial segar dan kering tertinggi adalah asamglutamat dan glisin, yaitu sebesar 3,26% (bk dan 2,62% (bk dan terkecil tirosin sebesar 0,38% (bk dan0,41% (bk. Taurin segar sebesar 2,68% (bk dan kering sebesar 0,67% (bk. Mineral makro tertinggi segardan kering adalah natrium, yaitu 180.092,1 ppm (bk dan 111.209,4 ppm (bk, terkecil adalah kalsium, yaitu5.750,2 ppm (bk dan 11,1 ppm (bk. Mineral mikro tertinggi segar dan kering adalah iodium, yaitu 8.291,5 ppm (bkdan 1.800 ppm (bk dan yang terkecil adalah tembaga yaitu 1,1 ppm (bk dan 0,6 ppm (bk. Vitamin B12segar adalah 396,6 μm/100 g (bk dan kering 63,5 μm/100 g (bk.Kata kunci: asam amino, mineral, taurin, ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita, vitamin B

  11. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO, TAURIN, MINERAL MAKRO-MIKRO, DAN VITAMIN B12 UBUR-UBUR (Aurelia aurita SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - - Nurjanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan komposisi gizi, asam amino, taurin, mineral makro dan mikro,dan vitamin B12 pada ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita segar dan kering. Asam amino esensial pada ubur-uburyaitu arginina, leusina, valina, treonina, lisina, isoleusina, fenilalanina, metionina, dan histidina, sedangkanasam amino non esensial yaitu asam glutamat, glisina, asam aspartat, serina, alanina, dan tirosina. Asamamino esensial tertinggi segar dan kering adalah arginina sebesar 1,72% (bk dan 1,44% (bk dan terendahhistidina yaitu sebesar 0,19% (bk dan 0,13% (bk. Asam amino non esensial segar dan kering tertinggiadalah asam glutamat dan glisina yaitu sebesar 3,26% (bk dan 2,62% (bk dan terkecil tirosina sebesar0,38% (bk dan 0,41% (bk. Taurin segar sebesar 2,68% (bk dan kering sebesar 0,67% (bk. Mineral makrotertinggi segar dan kering adalah natrium yaitu 180.092,1 ppm (bk dan 111.209,4 ppm (bk, terkecil adalahkalsium yaitu 5.750,2 ppm (bk dan 11,1 ppm (bk. Mineral mikro tertinggi segar dan kering adalah iodium yaitu8.291,5 ppm (bk dan 1.800 ppm (bk dan yang terkecil adalah tembaga yaitu 1,1 ppm (bk dan 0,6 ppm (bk.Vitamin B12 segar adalah 396,6 μm/100 g (bk dan kering 63,5 μm/100 g (bk.Kata kunci: asam amino, mineral, taurin, ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita, vitamin B12

  12. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  13. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  14. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from delta C-13 and delta N-15 values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, Paco; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Mornet, Francoise; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish...

  15. Small pelagic fish feeding patterns in relation to food resource variability: an isotopic investigation for Sardina pilchardus and Engraulis encrasicolus from the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Violamer, Laurie; Dessier, Aurélie; Bustamante, Paco; Mornet, Françoise; Pignon‑Mussaud, Cécilia; Christine, Dupuy

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Small pelagic fish represent an essential link between lower and upper trophic levels in marine pelagic ecosystems and often support important fisheries. In the Bay of Biscay in the north-east Atlantic, no obvious controlling factors have yet been described that explain observed fluctuations in European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus stocks, in contrast to other systems. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate to which...

  16. Biochemical composition of some marine fish species of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroscombus chrysurus, Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Sardinella aurita, Scombus japonicus and Syacium micurum) landed at the Elmina landing quay were analyzed using standard analytical techniques. The results indicate significant differences ...

  17. KANDUNGAN ASAM AMINO, TAURIN, MINERAL MAKRO-MIKRO, DAN VITAMIN B12 UBUR-UBUR (Aurelia aurita SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Nurjanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan komposisi gizi, asam amino, taurin, mineral makro dan mikro,dan vitamin B12 pada ubur-ubur (Aurelia aurita segar dan kering. Asam amino esensial pada ubur-ubur,yaitu arginin, leusin, valin, treonin, lisin, isoleusin, fenilalanin, metionin, dan histidin, sedangkan asamamino non esensial, yaitu asam glutamat, glisin, asam aspartat, serin, alanin, dan tirosin. Asam aminoesensial tertinggi segar dan kering adalah arginin sebesar 1,72% (bk dan 1,44% (bk dan terendah histidin,yaitu sebesar 0,19% (bk dan 0,13% (bk. Asam amino non esensial segar dan kering tertinggi adalah asamglutamat dan glisin, yaitu sebesar 3,26% (bk dan 2,62% (bk dan terkecil tirosin sebesar 0,38% (bk dan0,41% (bk. Taurin segar sebesar 2,68% (bk dan kering sebesar 0,67% (bk. Mineral makro tertinggi segardan kering adalah natrium, yaitu 180.092,1 ppm (bk dan 111.209,4 ppm (bk, terkecil adalah kalsium, yaitu5.750,2 ppm (bk dan 11,1 ppm (bk. Mineral mikro tertinggi segar dan kering adalah iodium, yaitu 8.291,5 ppm (bkdan 1.800 ppm (bk dan yang terkecil adalah tembaga yaitu 1,1 ppm (bk dan 0,6 ppm (bk. Vitamin B12segar adalah 396,6 μm/100 g (bk dan kering 63,5 μm/100 g (bk.

  18. Efecto de la variabilidad ambiental en el reclutamiento y modelación bioeconómica en la pesquería de sardina del Pacífico (Sardinopssagax caerulea) de Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, México

    OpenAIRE

    de Anda-Montañez, Juan Antonio; Ramos-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Martínez-Aguilar, Susana

    2010-01-01

    La ecuación stock-reclutamiento de Ricker incorporándole el índice multivariado del ENSO(IME) como variable ambiental fue ajustada a datos de la pesquería de sardina (Sardinops sagax caerulea) de Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, México. Esta ecuación fue incorporada a un modelo bioeconómico estructurado por edad. La incertidumbre fue considerada al incorporar la variabilidad ambiental, y se realizaron proyecciones de siete años de duración, que equivalen a una generación de sardina. En l...

  19. Population dynamics and factors controlling somatic degrowth of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in a temperate semi-enclosed cove (Kertinge Nor, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    , mm), following the exponential relationship NL = 160.8 × e0.029d. The percentage of body mass made up by planulae ranged from 6 to 11 % in Kertinge Nor and 10 to 33 % in Great Belt. ≤15 % of total size-specific body mass losses were due to the release of planulae in Kertinge Nor, suggesting shortage...... reproduction. Seasonal variability in food supply, rather than energy allocation to reproduction, appears to shorten life spans of A. aurita medusae in temperate Danish waters....

  20. Comparison of spawning patterns of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita in Ubatuba region, southern Brazil during 1985 through 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita inhabit the southeastern Brazilian Bight. The former spawns at night (21:00-03:00 in coastal region during late-spring and summer, meanwhile, the latter spawns all year-around, mainly in coastal region during summer and in neritic region during winter. The spawning time of E. anchoita was observed all day long, but more intensively at night. During summer there occurs a strong vertical stratification of water masses. The spawning of S. brasiliensis occurs in surface mixed layer, while that of E. anchoita occurs beneath the thermocline inside the cool South Atlantic Central Water which occupies the bottom layer during late spring and summer. However, the sardine and anchovy egss and larvae were found inside both the upper tropical and lower cold water masses, but predominantly above thermocline in this regionNeste trabalho são analisados os padrões sazonais de desova da sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis, e da anchoita, Engraulis anchoita, baseado em dados coletados em águas costeiras de Ubatuba (SP, entre 1985 e 1988. Ambas as espécies habitam a costa sudeste do Brasil A primeira efetua desova durante a noite (21:00 - 23:00 h na região costeira durante o fim da primavera e o verão, enquanto que a segunda desova durante todo o ano, principalmente na região costeira durante o verão e na região nerítica durante o inverno. A desova da anchoita foi observada ao longo de todo o dia, porém com mais intensidade à noite. No verão, ocorre uma forte estratificação vertical das massas d'água. A desova da sardinha-verdadeira ocorre na camada superficial de mistura, enquanto que a da anchoita ocorre abaixo da termoclina, nas águas frias da "Água Central do Atlântico Sul" (ACAS, que ocupam as camadas do fundo durante o verão. Entretanto, ovos e larvas de ambas as espécies foram encontrados tanto na camada superior, de água tropical, como na camada

  1. Endocrine cells and nerve ganglia of the small intestine of the Opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Gláucia M. Freitas-Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nervous and endocrine systems jointly control intestinal movements, secretions of their glands and also participate of the processes of nutrient digestion and absorption. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to verify the existence of a possible relationship between the number of nervous cells and ganglia of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses and the number of endocrine cells in the small intestine of adult D. aurita. The utilized staining techniques were Grimelius, modified Masson-Fontana, direct immunoperoxidase and H-E. Argyrophillic, argentaffin and insulin immunoreactive endocrine cells do not numerically vary between the initial, mid and final regions of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P>0.05, except for argyrophillic cells in the jejunum (P>0.05. No numerical relationship has yet been verified between the number of nerve ganglia and endocrine cells, and also between nervous and endocrine cells. We recommended the use of new immunohistochemical techniques to confirm the numerical correlation between the nervous and endocrine systems in the small intestine. The morphology and distribution of endocrine cells and the nerve ganglia studied were similar to those encountered in eutherian mammals.Os sistemas nervoso e endócrino controlam integra-damente os movimentos intestinais, a secreção de suas glândulas e também participam dos processos de digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Portanto, o objetivo central deste estudo foi verificar a existência de uma possível relação entre o número de células nervosas e gânglios dos plexos submucosos e mioentéricos e o número de células endócrinas no intestino delgado de adultos de D. aurita. As técnicas de coloração utilizadas foram Grimelius, Masson-Fontana modificada, imunoperoxidase direta e H-E. As células endócrinas argirófilas, argentafins e imunorreativas à insulina não variaram numericamente entre as regiões inicial, média e final do duodeno, jejuno e

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2006-10-15

    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum.

  3. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  4. Exposure to elevated pCO2 does not exacerbate reproductive suppression of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in low oxygen environments

    KAUST Repository

    Treible, LM

    2017-08-15

    Eutrophication-induced hypoxia is one of the primary anthropogenic threats to coastal ecosystems. Under hypoxic conditions, a deficit of O2 and a surplus of CO2 will concurrently decrease pH, yet studies of hypoxia have seldom considered the potential interactions with elevated pCO2 (reduced pH). Previous studies on gelatinous organisms concluded that they are fairly robust to low oxygen and reduced pH conditions individually, yet the combination of stressors has only been examined for ephyrae. The goals of this study were to determine the individual and interactive effects of hypoxia and elevated pCO2 on the asexual reproduction and aerobic respiration rates of polyps of the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita during a manipulative experiment that ran for 36 d. pCO2 and pO2 were varied on a diel basis to closely mimic the diel conditions observed in the field. Exposure to low dissolved oxygen (DO) reduced asexual budding of polyps by ~50% relative to control conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, rates of respiration were elevated during an initial acclimation period (until Day 8), but respiration rates did not differ between DO levels under prolonged exposure. There was no significant effect of increased pCO2 on either asexual reproduction or aerobic respiration, suggesting that elevated pCO2 (reduced pH) did not exacerbate the negative reproductive effects of hypoxia on A. aurita polyps.

  5. Emprego de escama de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis - STEIDACHNER, 1859, conservada em glicerina, em ceratoplastias lamelares experimentais em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Laus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sardine scales (Sardinella brasiliensis were experimentally studied as a corneal substitute in keratectomy in dogs. For this purpose, fourteen healthy male and female mongrel dogs, with an average weight of ten kilograms, were used. The recipient corneas and the implanted material were examined macro- and microscopically at 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 postoperative days. The clinical evidence for the lamellar graft showed a higher incidence of photophobia and blepharospasm during the early and intermediate postoperative periods, tending to regress during later phases. The corneas showed a mild and equally regressive edema, a more proeminent neovascularization during the intermediate periods and rare neovascularization at the later ones. The microscopic study demonstrated a "benign pattern" of reaction signs. Moreover, both studies showed good adhesiveness of the "prosthesis", and neoformed epithelium and neoformed stroma beneath and above the prosthesis. The transparency of the recipient corneas close to the graft areas was maintained for fourteen days. For the interlamellar procedure, the phenomena showed an evident "benign pattern" with non-significant reaction signs. There were no signs of extrusion of the prosthesis. The sardine scale can be used with good results in lamellar keratoplasties in dogs for tectonic effects.

  6. Calcium and phosphorus determination in bones of low value fishes, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes and Trichiurus savala (Cuvier, from Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India

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    Logesh AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate calcium and phosphorus levels in the bones of low value fishes Sardinella longiceps (oil sardine and Trichiurus savala (ribbon fish. Methods: Bones and skeletal remains were subjected to alkaline-alcohol treatment for specified period of time and were then dried and pulverized. Calcium and phosphorus levels were determined by both volumetric and instrumental methods using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: Volumetric analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 28.98% and 14.2% in oil sardine; 24.2% and 11.6% in ribbon fish respectively. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis of calcium and phosphorus were 32.73% and 17.2% for oil sardine and 27.17% and 10.83% for ribbon fish respectively. Protein level was 4.82% in oil sardine and 3.97% in ribbon fishes. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that sardine bones are rich in calcium and will be utilized for the production of calcium powder to treat osteoporosis.

  7. Occurrence, inter-annual variability and zooplankton-predation impact of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the native jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Limfjorden (Denmark) in 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik; Jaspers, Cornelia; Serre, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was observed for the first time in Limfjorden (Denmark) where it exhibited mass occurrence in late summer while the indigenous and usually dominating common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, was nearly absent. Both species were further studied in 2008...

  8. Feeding strategies and ecological roles of three predatory pelagic fish in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Sáez-Liante, Raquel; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the feeding ecology of marine predators is pivotal to developing an understanding of their ecological role in the ecosystem and determining the trophic relationships between them. Despite the ecological importance of predatory pelagic fish species, research on these species in the Mediterranean Sea is limited. Here, by combining analyses of stomach contents and stable isotope values, we examined the feeding strategies of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus and Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda, in the western Mediterranean Sea. We also compared the trophic niche and trophic level of these species with published information of other sympatric pelagic predators present in the ecosystem. Results indicated that, although the diet of the three species was composed mainly by fin-fish species, a clear segregation in their main feeding strategies was found. Swordfish showed a generalist diet including demersal species such as blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, and European hake, Merluccius merluccius, and pelagic fin-fish such as barracudina species (Arctozenus risso and Lestidiops jayakari) or small pelagic fish species. Little tunny and Atlantic bonito were segregated isotopically between them and showed a diet basically composed of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, and round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, and sardines, Sardina pilchardus, respectively. This trophic segregation, in addition to potential segregation by depth, is likely a mechanism that allows their potential coexistence within the same pelagic habitat. When the trophic position of these three predatory pelagic fish species is compared with other pelagic predators such as bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, and dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, present in the western Mediterranean Sea, we found that they show similar intermediate trophic position in the ecosystem. In conclusion, the combined stomach and isotopic results highlight, especially for little tunny and Atlantic

  9. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SÍNTESE E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE BIODIESEL COM MATERIAL LIPÍDICO EXTRAIDO DAS VÍSCERAS DA Sardinella Brasiliensis

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    Anderson Fernandes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a extração atraves dois métodos (a frio e a quente, com solventes orgânicos o material lipídico obtido das vísceras da Sardinella Brasiliensis. Os lipidios foram submetidos a uma hidroesterificação utilizando iodo sublimado como catalisador. O óleo e o biodiesel foram caracterizados por RMN H1, espectroscopia FTIR, tensão superficial, densidade e água e sedimentos. Os resultados de água e sedimentos e densidade foram comparados com os previstos na legislação. Os resultados evidenciaram que o método à frio forneceu melhor rendimento na extração do óleo, que ocorreu a hidroesterificação do material indicado na técnica de  RMN H1 pelos dois prótons com sinal de quarteto na região de 4,2 ppm referentes aos hidrogênios metilênicos (CH2 ɑ-O, característicos de mono ésteres etílicos (biodiesel e na técnica de FTIR pelo aparecimento de deformações axiais características de ésteres em 1.742 cm-1.  Assim concluiu-se que as vísceras da sardinha são uma matéria-prima promissora e barata para produção de biodiesel, no entanto há necessidade de melhor caracterização da sua qualidade físico-química e estabilidade.

  11. Fritura de filetes de sardinas congeladas en aceite de oliva. Influencia de diferentes métodos de descongelación sobre el contenido graso y la composición en ácidos grasos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvsarez-Pontes, M. E.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of freezing and different thawing methods on the moisture, fat an fatty acid content of fried sardines, fresh sardine fillets were first frozen and then some were thawed either in a refrigerator at 4°C or in a microwave over prior to frying. These fillets were then analyzed both before and after being fried in olive oil. Frying increased the fat content of the fillets, mainly due to water losses, especially in those thawed in the refrigerator. Mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content increased in fresh and frozen fillets after frying from 21% to 55% and 56%, respectively. However, thawing prior to frying had a different effect depending on the method because oleic acid absorption was facilitated by refrigerator-thawing, the MUFA content increased to 61,8%, whereas after microwave-thawing the MUFA content reached 47%. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in fried fillets compared to uncooked ones as a consequence of the increase in MUFA. Frying decreased the C22:6/C16:0 ratio with respect to fresh fillets in frozen fillets and in those thawed in the refrigerator but not in those thawed in a microwave.

    Filetes de sardinas frescas, congeladas y descongeladas en frigorífico a 4°C o en microondas se analizaron en crudo y después de freírlos en aceite de oliva, con objeto de conocer si la congelación y descongelación, previa a la fritura, alteraba los cambios en humedad, grasa y composición en ácidos grasos que introdujera la fritura. El contenido graso (g/100g de filetes de sardinas se incrementó durante el proceso de fritura, debido, sobre todo, a las pérdidas de agua. Dicho efecto aumentó principalmente en la descongelación en frigorífico. Con la fritura, la sardina fresca y la congelada sin previa descongelación se enriquecieron en ácido oleico, ascendiendo el contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados en (AGM del 21 al 55-56%. La descongelación, anterior a la fritura, influyó de forma

  12. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona centro-sur de Chile

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    Marcos Arteaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los factores claves a considerar en el desarrollo de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM para los recursos pequeños pelágicos en la zona de centro-sur de Chile, sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens. En Chile, la EEM no ha sido aplicada al manejo de estas pesquerías y la asesoría científica se ha desarrollado sobre la evaluación de estrategias de explotación utilizando modelos de evaluación mono-específicos. Para ambas especies se analizan los siguientes tópicos: i alternancia en la abundancia poblacional asociada a los pulsos de reclutamientos y capturas, ii variabilidad temporal en la fuerza del reclutamiento, iii estacionalidad del crecimiento cohorte y especie-específico, y iv relación ambiente-recurso. Los resultados evidencian que los tópicos analizados debieran ser considerados en la construcción de un modelo operativo y/o en la regla de cosecha, dado el carácter mixto de ambas pesquerías, su marcada alternancia y la influencia de las condiciones ambientales. Por lo tanto, se propone que el diseño e implementación de una EEM para sardina común y anchoveta, incluya los elementos señalados en un marco de evaluación multi-especifico y de manejo de carácter mixto.

  13. [The plate in the zone of oocyte and germinal epithelium contact in scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita binds antibodies to ZP-domain-containing protein mesoglein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, L S; Podgornaia, O I; Matveev, I V; Shaposhnikova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Cnidaria are lower multicellular animals with the body consisting of two epithelial layers. An extracellular substance--mesoglea--is situated between epidermal and gastrodermal layers of these animals. Mesoglein is one of the major mesogleal proteins of adult medusa of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Search for the known domains in mesoglein amino acid sequence reveals prominent zona pellucida (ZP) domain (which was found at first in the mammal oocyte zona pellucida proteins), so the protein belongs to ZP family of extracellular matrix proteins and it is an early metazoan member of ZP-domain-containing protein family. However, nothing is known about oogenesis related ZP-domain proteins in the lower multicellular animals. Oogenesis in Scyphozoa is described poorly. In this work morphological features of the zone in contact area between the oocyte and the germinal epithelium were investigated in semi-fine sections: To make it more convenient we identified seven stages according to the oocyte size and the structure found in this area was named the plate. It was shown that the components of the plate bound specifically the antibodies against mesoglein. So it seems the plate material contains ZP-domain proteins. Electrophoresis and immunoblot results give evidence that the proteins immunologically related to mesoglein have a higher molecular mass. It might be due to either the posttranslational modifications of the precursors or that they represent other proteins of ZP-domain family in Cnidaria.

  14. Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

    2015-09-01

    Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity

  15. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  16. Estudo da diversidade de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre Macaé (22º23'S e Ilha de Santa Catarina (27º35'S: 1. Crescimento de dimensões corporais

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    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of body proportions of Sardinella brasiliensis was not homogeneous in the study area, between Macaé (RJ and Santa Catarina Island (SC; the growth rates (K of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were greater than growth rates for another áreas. In this area the biomass estimates for pelagic fish is poor, and near Cabo Frio occurs an upwelling zone. These facts permit the sardines to attain large lengths in this area. Between Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis the growth rates were lower than in the northern part and Paranaguá Bay. On the other hand the biomass estimates for pelagic fish in Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis region was very high, and in this zone the population density is high and the growth rates are small. Paranaguá Bay is a particular region because of its geographical and oceanographic conditons; this is a shelter region with different features and the sardines living there attain small length. In this area the growth rates are intermediary among growth rates for fishes from Macaé-Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis regions. Therefore, the growth rates for sardines in southeast Brazilian proves to be dependent of the population density, food and oceanographic conditions.

  17. Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Fisheries Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative abundance of key organisms in the beach seine landings include Chloroscombrus chrysurus (26.0%) in 2007, Brachydeuterus auritus (22.8%) in 2008, Ilisha africana (14.7%) in 2008, Sardinella aurita (13.1%) in 2009 and Selene dorsalis (11.2%) in 2007. The organisms that were in low relative abundance ...

  18. An upwelling-induced retention area off Senegal: A mechanism to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in areas such as Peru, Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana, spawning and upwelling occur simultaneously. What are the mechanisms that allow such reproductive strategies to be successful? To attempt to answer this question, some environmental characteristics of the spawning ground of Sardinella aurita in the ...

  19. Microbiological quality of cold smoked sardine, Sardinella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus wentii, Fusarium sp., Mucor sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizopus stolonifer, Saccharomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. were found in the samples. The lowest mean for bacterial count was 0.350x106 cfu/g for smoked fish from the control in October (wet season) ...

  20. Trypanosoma janseni n. sp. (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae isolated from Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: integrative taxonomy and phylogeography within the Trypanosoma cruzi clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Madeira Tavares Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Didelphis spp. are a South American marsupial species that are among the most ancient hosts for the Trypanosoma spp. OBJECTIVES We characterise a new species (Trypanosoma janseni n. sp. isolated from the spleen and liver tissues of Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS The parasites were isolated and a growth curve was performed in NNN and Schneider's media containing 10% foetal bovine serum. Parasite morphology was evaluated via light microscopy on Giemsa-stained culture smears, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Molecular taxonomy was based on a partial region (737-bp of the small subunit (18S ribosomal RNA gene and 708 bp of the nuclear marker, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH genes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were used to perform a species coalescent analysis and to generate individual and concatenated gene trees. Divergence times among species that belong to the T. cruzi clade were also inferred. FINDINGS In vitro growth curves demonstrated a very short log phase, achieving a maximum growth rate at day 3 followed by a sharp decline. Only epimastigote forms were observed under light and scanning microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed structures typical to Trypanosoma spp., except one structure that presented as single-membraned, usually grouped in stacks of three or four. Phylogeography analyses confirmed the distinct species status of T. janseni n. sp. within the T. cruzi clade. Trypanosoma janseni n. sp. clusters with T. wauwau in a well-supported clade, which is exclusive and monophyletic. The separation of the South American T. wauwau + T. janseni coincides with the separation of the Southern Super Continent. CONCLUSIONS This clade is a sister group of the trypanosomes found in Australian marsupials and its discovery sheds light on the initial diversification process based on what we currently

  1. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  2. Market supply response of imported sardinella in Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The own price long-run elasticity estimates were in accordance with a priori expectations. Adjustment from short-run towards long-run equilibrium was achieved instantaneously. Consequently, short-run elasticity estimates were found to be larger than those of the long-run. This study recommends the provision good ...

  3. Assessment of Sardinella and other Small Pelagics in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2003 was the sixth year of the cooperation between RIVO and the Mauritanian fisheries research institute IMROP (Institut Mauritanien des Recherches Océanographiques et de Pêche). It was also the second year of the current contract between RIVO and the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature

  4. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ”) fishing in order to review regulatory measures for management of fishery capital at the time when Sierra Leone is working hard to lift ban on export of fish and fishery products to developed countries through implementation of HACCP system.

  5. Diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae assemblage associated with Posidonia oceanica beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoana del Pilar Ruso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat complexity is a strong determinant of fish assemblage structure. Enhanced food resources and protection from predators are generally considered the main benefits of vegetated areas. We investigated the diel and vertical movements of preflexion fish larvae within and above the leaf canopy of Posidonia oceanica to determine if it acts as an important habitat for larval stage fish. Samples were taken with moored plankton nets during the night and day at two depths (13 and 15 m over five consecutive days in July 2000 in the Marine Protected Area off Tabarca Island (Spain, SW Mediterranean Sea. In total, 353 fish larvae were captured. The most abundant taxa were Sardinella aurita, Sparidae, Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. Sparidae were more abundant within the leaf canopy during the day but increased in waters 2 m above the canopy at night. In contrast, Sardinella aurita were present throughout the entire water column during both the day and night. We conclude that the P. oceanica leaf canopy is important as a transitional shelter for the early stage larvae of some demersal fish species.

  6. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

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    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  7. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect.

  8. Freshness assessments of Moroccan sardine (Sardina pilchardus): comparison of overall sensory changes to instrumentally determined volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triqui, Réda; Bouchriti, Nourredine

    2003-12-17

    Freshness of ice-stored sardine was assessed by two sensory methods, the quality index method (QIM) and the European Union freshness grading system, and by instrumental means using the method of aroma extract dilution analysis. Screening of sardine potent volatiles was carried out at three freshness stages. In the very fresh state, the plant-like fresh volatiles dominated the odor pattern, with the exception of methional. Overall odor changes in sardine throughout storage correlated with changes in the concentration of some potent volatiles: after 2 days of ice storage, (Z)-4-heptenal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, and methional imparted an overall "fishy" odor character to sardine, whereas at a lower sensory grade (B), the compounds (E)-2-nonenal and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal could be, in part, associated with the slightly rancid aroma top notes. Trimethylamine was detected as a highly volatile odorant using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace analysis of refrigerator-stored sardine. Intensity and sensory characteristics of some SPME determined volatiles, for example, 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione, were closely related to overall odor changes. SPME headspace analysis may be useful in the characterization of off-flavors in fish.

  9. Temporal genetic variation as revealed by a microsatellite analysis of European sardine ( Sardina pilchardus) archived samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    ) that explain the genetic diversity variation, while the same parameters turned out to be more stable in the southern samples. In addition, we detected the presence of a genetic bottleneck and low effective population size ( Ne) values in several northern samples. Even if the northern and southern Adriatic...... of otoliths and scales from sampling locations of northern (Chioggia) and southern (Vieste) Adriatic Sea, with the aim to investigate the genetic effects of these stock biomass fluctuations. The northern samples showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity ( HO) and mean number of alleles ( Na...... sardine samples belong to the same genetic stock, the more pronounced decrease in genetic variability recorded in the northern sample led us to speculate that a more intensive fishing pressure and a more pronounced oceanographic isolation of this area could have accentuated the effects of the genetic...

  10. Proteolysis of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus and Anchovy (Stolephorus commersonii by Commercial Enzymes in Saline Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Minh Le

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish sauce production is a very long process and there is a great interest in shortening it. Among the different strategies to speed up this process, the addition of external proteases could be a solution. This study focuses on the eff ect of two commercial enzymes (Protamex and Protex 51FP on the proteolysis of two fish species traditionally converted into fish sauce: sardine and anchovy, by comparison with classical autolysis. Hydrolysis reactions were conducted with fresh fish at a temperature of 30 °C and under different saline conditions (from 0 to 30 % NaCl. Hydrolysis degree and liquefaction of the raw material were used to follow the process. As expected, the proteolysis decreased with increasing amount of salt. Regarding the fi sh species, higher rate of liquefaction and higher hydrolysis degree were obtained with anchovy. Between the two proteases, Protex 51FP gave better results with both fi sh types. This study demonstrates that the addition of commercial proteases could be helpful for the liquefaction of fi sh and cleavage of peptide bonds that occur during fi sh sauce production and thus speed up the production process.

  11. Feeding of European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus in the northwestern Mediterranean: from late larvae to adults

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    David Costalago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the relative importance of different prey types of the European pilchard (European sardine from the late larval to the adult stage. Two different methodologies for analysing stomach contents were used to describe the trophic dynamics of sardine and the relationship of sardine feeding behaviour with the ontogenetic development of body structures used for feeding, such as gill rakers and pyloric caeca. This information is essential to accurately depict the use of the planktonic resources in the area by sardine and to discuss the extent to which the sardine population could be affected by environmental changes in the Mediterranean Sea. We showed that cladocerans in summer and diatoms in winter were numerically the most important prey types for both juveniles and adults. However, decapod larvae were the most important prey during all seasons in terms of carbon content. Accordingly, differences in methodology should be considered in the analysis of sardine diets. An analysis of the composition of the plankton showed that small copepods were strongly selected by sardines at all ages and in both seasons. We also observed that the pyloric caeca began to grow when the sardines were approximately 4-5 cm standard length (SL and ended their development when the sardines reached approximately 8 cm SL, whereas the gill rakers appeared to be completely functional when the sardines reached 7 cm SL. Therefore, filter feeding of small particles could be performed with total efficacy beginning at 7-8 cm SL. In view of the energetic advantage of filter feeding in a well-adapted filter-feeding species such as sardine, the prospective limited availability of small particles hypothesized by certain authors for the Mediterranean could have negative consequences for sardine. This study demonstrates that sardine populations, given their extremely high dependence on the lower marine trophic levels, could be strongly affected by alterations in the environment and in the planktonic community.

  12. Effect of natural antioxidants on the quality of frozen sardine fillets (Sardina pilchardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Maneta Ganhão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of new technologies / processes provides different benefits on seafood sector, namely by enhanced the shelf-life of fish products with high polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. This is particularly critical during some months of the year when fish (e.g. sardines are larger supply than demand by consumers. The aim of this study was to performed the optimization process of adding natural antioxidants on frozen sardine fillets and evaluated the effect of addition of two natural antioxidants on the lipid oxidation process during storage at -200C. To evaluate the effect of the addition of antioxidants in sardine fillets, the product matrix was chemical characterized, including by the evaluation of the fatty acid profile. The lipid oxidation process was followed by the primary products (peroxide value and secondary products (TBARS quantification, and also by the analysis of the sensory changes (instrumental assessment of color. Finally, it was done a hedonic preference test to know the opinion of consumers about the frozen fillets with and without antioxidant. The natural antioxidants used, tocopherol (54 mg/fillet and tocopherols (15 mg/fillet with rosemary extract (6.5 mg/fillet inhibited or retarded the oxidation over time of storage when compared with the control samples, that had advanced oxidation process. There was not statistically differences among the fillets treated with tocopherol in the presence and absence of rosemary extract. However, our laboratorial results shown slight tendency for the view that the antioxidant tocopherols and rosemary extract had a greater effect on the oxidative stability of fillets. This observation is in line with results of the hedonic test consumer preference. The use of natural antioxidants is an inexpensive solution which allows the complete use of products with less waste of fish products and with a great need for disposal. At the same time meets the consumer´s requirements.

  13. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbel, H; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2012-05-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  14. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  15. Effect of Poor Handling on the Nutritional Composition of Some Imported Frozen Fishes in Nigeria

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    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare proximate composition of three commonly commercial imported frozen fish species in Nigeria (Scromber scrombrus, Trachurus  trachurus and Sardinella aurita with reference to poor handling and size. Major nutrient compositions of raw muscles like protein, fat, moisture, ash were estimated. Fish samples were collected from importing fishing company in Lagos State (loading point (location I and three cold rooms in Ogun State (location II. Proximate analysis revealed that the protein, carbohydrate, lipid ash and fibre contents were high in the three species in the two locations even though nutrition quality of  the three frozen fish samples  obtained in the location I were higher than location II. The results revealed that the correlations between weights and proximate composition were relatively precise for moisture and protein, but were much more variable for lipid content, ash and crude fibre.

  16. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E

    2017-01-01

     individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap......, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow...... the prey [22–24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success...

  17. Assessment of sardinella and othter small pelagics in West Africa: Progress Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The co-operation between the Dutch fisheries research institute RIVO and the Mauritanian fisheries research institute IMROP (Institut Mauritanien des Recherches Océanographiques et de Pêche) in the field of pelagic stock assessment was continued in 2002. In January, a new contract was signed between

  18. Genetic relationships among three species of the genus @iSardinella@@ (Clupeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    no alleles. Nei's genetic distance values ranged from 0.31 + or - 0.15 to 1.68 + or - 0.51. Four loci were polymorphic in @iS. albella@@, and three in @iS. fimbriata@@ at P=0.95 level. No locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion in @iS. longiceps@@. Average...

  19. Sharing fishers´ ethnoecological knowledge of the European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) in the westernmost fishing community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda

    2017-09-14

    With the present difficulties in the conservation of sardines in the North Atlantic, it is important to investigate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen about the biology and ecology of these fish. The ethnoecological data of European pilchard provided by local fishermen can be of importance for the management and conservation of this fishery resource. Thus, the present study recorded the ethnoecological knowledge of S. pilchardus in the traditional fishing community of Peniche, Portugal. This study was based on 87 semi-structured interviews conducted randomly from June to September 2016 in Peniche. The interview script contained two main points: Profile of fishermen and LEK on European pilchard. The ethnoecological data of sardines were compared with the scientific literature following an emic-etic approach. Data collected also were also analysed following the union model of the different individual competences and carefully explored to guarantee the objectivity of the study. The profile of the fishermen was investigated and measured. Respondents provided detailed informal data on the taxonomy, habitat, behaviour, migration, development, spawning and fat accumulation season of sardines that showed agreements with the biological data already published on the species. The main uses of sardines by fishermen, as well as beliefs and food taboos have also been mentioned by the local community. The generated ethnoecological data can be used to improve the management of this fishery resource through an adaptive framework among the actors involved, in addition to providing data that can be tested in further ecological studies. Therefore, this local knowledge may have the capacity to contribute to more effective conservation actions for sardines in Portugal.

  20. Environmental conditions influencing the larval fish assemblage during summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia: South central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. KOCHED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic survey was carried out during the summer of 2009, from June 25 to July 3 in the Gulf of Gabes. The study area is characterized by a wide continental shelf. A plankton sampling scheme was carried out to study the structure of the larval fish assemblages that characterizes the surface mixed layer, and to assess the influence of the environmental parameters on their spatial distribution. A total of 36 taxa were identified, 3 classified to the level of genus, 5 to family and 28 to species. The majority of identified fish larvae belonged to demersal species, mainly picarel Spicara smaris (23.76% of the total larval fish abundance, followed by red mullet Mullus barbatus (14.92% and several species of the Sparidae family (9.15%. Small pelagic species as Sardinella Sardinella aurita and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus were also abundant (27.75 % and dominated the fish larvae community in offshore stations. Five large pelagic species were found among the larvae, including bullet tuna Auxis rochei, Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, swordfish Xiphias gladius and the highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. All these apex predator species appear in 38.5% of the sampling stations and contribute about 7.9% of the total larval catches. The larval fish assemblage of the Gulf of Gabes is predominantly composed of neritic species in correspondence with the shallow depths of the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that larval distributions were mainly conditioned by depth. However, other factors, like hydrographic processes, play also a very important role in shaping the spatial pattern of larval fish distribution.

  1. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  2. Mercury and selenium in seston, marine plankton and fish (Sardinella brasiliensis) as a tool for understanding a tropical food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Moreira, Isabel; Kehrig, Helena Amaral

    2015-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were evaluated in a planktivorous fish and four size classes of organisms (FSCO), collected at an oligotrophic bay in the Southeastern Brazilian coast. No significant spatial differences between Hg and Se were found in the FSCO within the five sampling points in the bay. Hg and Se concentrations increased with successive increases in the size class of the analyzed plankton, i.e. approximately 3-and 2-fold, respectively, from microplankton to macroplankton. Hg and Se biomagnified throughout the planktonic food web. The smallest size class of organism, seston, composed of both biotic and abiotic portions, and fish showed the highest Hg concentrations. This indicates that Hg is not biomagnifying in the base of the bay food web. Selenium concentrations in fish were approximately 5.9 times higher than those in seston. Hg and Se concentrations in fish were approximately 3.5 and 14.6 times higher than those found in the plankton, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  4. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Tomaru

    Full Text Available It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  5. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  6. Density-driven water exchange controls seasonal declines in the abundance of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) in a Danish fjord system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Jürgensen, Carsten; Steiner, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    a dynamic description for the density-driven water exchange in Kerteminde Fjord/Kertinge Nor to quantify the degree of physical dilution of the jellyfish population. The predicted mean residence time (± SD) of 45 ± 1 d for the water masses in Kertinge Nor is in good agreement with an observed residence time......, respectively. Our findings emphasize the relevance of hydrodynamic processes in context with jellyfish blooms by ensuring dispersal of local jellyfish populations from semi-enclosed, food-limited regions to open coastal waters....

  7. Geographic and host size variations as indicators of Anisakis pegreffii infection in European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) from the Mediterranean Sea: Food safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušelić, Ivana; Botić, Antonela; Hrabar, Jerko; Stagličić, Nika; Cipriani, Paolo; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona

    2018-02-02

    European pilchards are traditionally eaten marinated or salted in the Mediterranean countries often without thermal processing or gutting due to small size. Since ingestion of live third stage Anisakis larvae represents a causing agent in the onset of anisakiasis, the aim of our study was to assess prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infection in European pilchards originating from different Mediterranean regions in a three-year sampling period (2013-2015). A total of 1564 specimens of European pilchard collected from two geographically distinct sampling regions (western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea) were examined using the UV-Press method, which utilises the fluorescence of frozen anisakids in flattened and subsequently frozen fillets and viscera. A subsample of 67 isolated larvae was identified as A. pegreffii by diagnostic allozyme markers and sequence analyses of the mtDNA cox2 locus. The overall prevalence in pilchards was 12.2% (range 0-44.9% for different sampling points) and mean intensity 1.8. More importantly, we have observed an overall larval prevalence of 1.5% in fillets. The highest prevalence (44.9%) was recorded in pilchards caught in western parts of the Mediterranean. As fish host size was a significant predictor of parasite abundance, it should be highlighted that these pilchards were also the largest (mean total length 173.2mm); on average >2cm larger than the rest of the samples. Other isolated nematode species included Hysterothylacium sp. in viscera, showing almost a double of A. pegreffii prevalence, 20.1%. In summary, our study demonstrates that the presence of A. pegreffii in European pilchards from the Mediterranean Sea is highly influenced by both geographic and host size variation. This implies that, before future risk management measures are developed, these variables should be assessed in order to minimize public health concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring fidelity of Sardines (Sardina pilchardus to feeding grounds in the Atlantic Moroccan waters using stable isotope analyses (C, N and otolith microchemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Masski

    2015-11-01

    Sardine individuals from the different sites showed significantly different trophic position for both C and N isotopes. The northern individuals were depleted in d15N (1‰ difference, suggesting that phytoplankton is more important in their diet. The d13C values showed greater differences (~3‰ for both Sardines and zooplankton between the two sites, pointing high fidelity for sardine individuals towards the feeding grounds. While Anchovy and Horse Mackerel showed a similar pattern with sardine for δ13C, chub mackerel showed no significant differences between the two areas suggesting a higher seasonal migratory behavior for this species. Sardine Microelements profiles reinforced the sedentary behavior hypothesis for sardine. The Barium (Ba profiles were the most discriminant: the concentration range was 7× higher for the southern area where upwelling intensity is higher [4].

  9. Searching for a stock structure in Sardina pilchardus from the Adriatic and Ionian seas using a microsatellite DNA-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Bonanomi, Sara

    2013-01-01

    of homozygote individuals higher than expected at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The inter-population differentiation level estimated by AMOVA, qST and rRST and Bayesian descriptors detected no signs of population differentiation between the samples analysed. These results are consistent with previous studies...

  10. Searching for a stock structure in Sardina pilchardus from the Adriatic and Ionian seas using a microsatellite DNA-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruggeri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the genetic variability of European sardine from Adriatic and Ionian seas was investigated in order to detect the occurrence of genetic structure within and between these basins. In several samples the analysis of genetic variability at eight microsatellite loci showed a number of homozygote individuals higher than expected at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The inter-population differentiation level estimated by AMOVA, qST and rRST and Bayesian descriptors detected no signs of population differentiation between the samples analysed. These results are consistent with previous studies based on allozymes and several mitochondrial DNA markers and add further evidence contradicting the early identification, based on morphological and reproductive data, of two sub-populations in the Adriatic Sea.

  11. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  12. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  13. Concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some popular fish species in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Tesi, Godswill O; Overah, Loretta C; Bassey, Francisca I; Nwadukwe, Frank O; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 10 popular fish species in the Nigerian market were determined with a view to providing information on the health hazards associated with the consumption of these fish species. The concentrations of PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction by ultrasonication with acetone-dichloromethane and clean up. The concentration ranges of the Σ16 PAHs were 20 to 39.6 μg kg(-1) for Parachanna obscura (African snake head), 6.8 to 532.3 μg kg(-1) for Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia), 7.4 to 91.1 μg kg(-1) for Gymnarchus niloticus (Asa), 13.1 to 34.1 μg kg(-1) for Sebastes fasciatus (red fish), 11.2 to 80.0 μg kg(-1) for Gadus morhua (cod), 23.9 to 34.6 μg kg(-1) for Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus (silver cat fish), 63.4 to 131.4 μg kg(-1) for Sardinella aurita (sardine), 22 to 52.9 μg kg(-1) for Trachurus trachurus (Atlantic horse mackerel), 21.0 to 63.7 μg kg(-1) for Scomber scombrus (mackerel), and 27.7 to 44.5 μg kg(-1) for Pseudotolithus senegalensis (croaker). Benzo[a]pyrene occurred in 23% of these fish samples at concentrations above the European Union permissible limit of 2.0 μg kg(-1). The calculated margins of exposure based on the indicators for occurrence and effects of PAHs were greater than 10,000 indicating no potential risk for the consumers of the species evaluated in this study.

  14. Molecular Detection of the Three Major Pathogenic Vibrio Species from Seafood Products and Sediments in Tunisia Using Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdoura, Morsi; Sellami, Hanen; Nasfi, Hanen; Trabelsi, Rahma; Mansour, Sabeur; Attia, Touraya; Nsaibia, Siwar; Vallaeys, Tatiana; Gdoura, Radhouane; Siala, Mariam

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio spp. have emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. V. parahaemolyticus , V. cholerae , and V. vulnificus pose a considerable public health risk in Tunisia because they cause sporadic and epidemic foodborne infections associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. More recently, toxR-positive V. alginolyticus was also reported to be a potential source of contaminated seafood. A total of 247 samples, including 113 fishes ( Labrus viridis , Penaeus kerathurus , Diplodus annularis , Diplodus sparaillon , Scorparna porcus , Sarpa salpa , Dentex dentex , Scorparna scrofa , Sardinella aurita , Trachurus trachurus , Synodus saurus , Pagellus erythrinus , and Metapenaeus monoceros ), 83 clams ( Ruditapes decussatus species), 30 seawater samples, and 21 sediment samples were analyzed using traditional culture methods (ISO/TS 21872-1; International Organization for Standardization 2007) and a conventional PCR method for Vibrio spp. A rapid, sensitive, and highly reproducible real-time PCR assay was developed to detect the three major Vibrio spp. pathogenic for humans in Tunisian seafood products and sediments. A conventional culture method found 102 (41.3%) of 247 analyzed samples positive for Vibrio spp.; a conventional PCR method found 126 (51%) of the 247 samples positive. Real-time PCR assay found 126 (51.1%) samples positive; V. alginolyticus toxR was the most common, found in 99 (78.57%) of samples, followed by V. parahaemolyticus in 26 (20.63%) and V. cholerae in 1 (0.7%). All culture-positive samples were PCR positive. However, 24 samples that were positive by conventional PCR and real-time PCR were culture negative. Our findings indicate that retail seafood is commonly contaminated with Vibrio spp. and presents a potential risk to human health in Tunisia. These data also indicate that real-time PCR can provide sensitive species-specific detection of Vibrio spp. in seafood without prior isolation and characterization

  15. A method for in situ estimation of prey selectivity and predation rate in large plankton, exemplified with the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    among individual jellyfish and among the various oral arms and gastric pouches within individuals. Clearance rates varied strongly with prey type. The medusae selected large crustacean prey (cladocerans and copepods/copepodites) over echinoderm larvae and copepod nauplii. Prey distribution within...

  16. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Driessen, F.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, Oscar; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; Veer, van der H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  17. Spatial distribution and dietary overlap between Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of ichthyoplankton and jellyfish, and dietary overlap between the ichthyoplankton and jellyfish in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS, Japan. Ichthyoplankton, copepods, and jellyfish were collected during two cruises in July 2005 in the Sea of Hiuchi and in July 2006 in Hiroshima Bay within the SIS. Sea surface temperature (˚C, salinity, bottom-layer dissolved oxygen (mg l-1 and the abundance (no. m-2 of fish eggs and larvae were significantly higher in the Sea of Hiuchi. Japanese anchovy was most dominant (69.3% in number of eggs and 52.3% in number of larvae among the ichthyoplankton. Mean jellyfish biomass (g m-2 in Hiroshima Bay was significantly higher (50-folds than that in the Sea of Hiuchi. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant among the jellyfish collected, accounting for 85.6% in wet weight. Surface temperature had a significant effect on fish egg and larval distribution: abundance of fish eggs and larvae increased with increasing temperature. Jellyfish abundance was negatively correlated with the bottom-layer oxygen concentration. Stable isotope analysis indicated dietary overlap between the Japanese anchovy and the moon jellyfish in Hiroshima Bay.

  18. Características hidro-planctónicas y su relación con las distribuciones de sardina y anchoa en la plataforma francesa del Golfo de Vizcaya

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Petitgas; Jacques Masse; Paul. Bourriau; Pierre Beillois; Daniel Delmas; Alain Herbland; Noussithe Koueta; Jean Maire Froidefond; Maria Santos

    2006-01-01

    The spatial pattern in hydro-plankton and fish distributions and their relationship were analysed based on the spring 2000 fisheries acoustic survey. The importance of this survey was that it was a multi-disciplinary platform which collected an extensive set of parameters in the hydro-plankton leading to a potentially finer description of hydro-plankton conditions and fish habitats. More than 50 variables were measured on a grid of stations, in four compartments of the ecosystem: hydrology, n...

  19. Composição em ácidos graxos de líquidos de cobertura de sardinhas brasileiras (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v26i1.1535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ricardo Tarley

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição em ácidos graxos nos líquidos de cobertura com óleo de soja ou molho de tomate de diferentes marcas de sardinhas comercializadas no Brasil. Os teores percentuais dos ácidos graxos EPA e DHA em óleo de soja como líquido de cobertura variaram de 0,95 a 3,96% e 0,63 a 1,09%, respectivamente. Para a cobertura molho de tomate os resultados indicaram que as migrações dos ácidos graxos EPA e DHA foram superiores em relação à cobertura em óleo de soja. Os percentuais encontrados para os ácidos graxos EPA e DHA na cobertura molho de tomate variaram de 2,95 a 13,29% e 1,25 a 4,67%, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças em relação à qualidade das sardinhas utilizadas bem como no processamento. Embora exista diferença entre as duas formulações, com relação à composição de ácidos graxos, ambas podem ser consideradas boas fontes de ácidos graxos, principalmente os ácidos ômega-3

  20. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation.

  1. 6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and.

  2. PATTERNS OF PREY BIOMASS CONSUMPTION BY SMALL ODONTOCETES IN THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin E. Oviedo Correa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships are conditioned by population dynamics of interacting species in the community (species present, food web connections among them, and the strength of interactions, and on the consequences of these species interactions depend various ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient flux. Odontocetes target a wide range of prey items and are adapted to feeding at different depths. The aim of this report is to describe the patterns of prey consumption by small odontocetes, incorporating natural predatory patterns into a potential management scheme of strategic food sources, for both human and marine predators. Using the geo-statistical analysis tool of ArcGIS 9.2, maps illustrating the intensity and location of prey consumption were made for species with a sighting index (SPUE > 0.15. The biomass consumption emphasized the differences in habitat use by species. The trends in distribution of prey biomass removal by odontocetes particularly suggest a stratification of prey consumption primarily in shelf waters, with a prey biomass that is comprised basically by demersal fish and small pelagics (including Sardinella aurita, and into transition-oceanic depths where most of the predatory pattern would potentially rely on pelagic - mesopelagic squid and myctophids. Overall the spatial tendencies in regionalization presented in this contribution will serve as a base-line to assess ecosystem health and evaluate management scenarios.   Las relaciones tróficas son reguladas por la dinámica poblacional de las especies que interactúan dentro de la comunidad (especies presentes, conexiones interespecíficas, y nivel de interacción y de las consecuencias de esas interacciones para procesos del ecosistema como la productividad y el flujo de nutrientes. El objetivo de este reporte es evaluar el patrón de consumo de biomasa por odontocetos de menor tamaño en la costa Nororiental de Venezuela, incorporando patrones de depredaci

  3. Trophic ecology of small pelagic fish in the northwestern Mediterranean / Ecología trófica de peces pelágicos pequeños en el Mediterráneo noroccidental

    OpenAIRE

    Costalago, D.

    2012-01-01

    [spa] En el Mediterráneo noroccidental, anchoa, Engraulis encrasicolus, y sardina, Sardina pilchardus, son las especies más importantes en términos de biomasa y de toneladas capturadas. La anchoa y la sardina son especies planctívoras que consumen, durante todas sus fases de desarrollo, un amplio rango de especies, lo que podría esperarse que se tradujera en un posible solapamiento de sus nichos tróficos. Sin embargo, las interacciones tróficas entre las dos especies habían sido, hasta el...

  4. Metazoan Parasites of Some Commercially Important Fish along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus commerson and Rastrelliger kanarguta), parrot fish (Leptoscarus vagiensis), sardine (Sardinella gibbosa), tuna (Thunnus sp.) and needle fish (Hemiramphus far). Of the eight species, Si. sutor was ...

  5. Immunochemical analyses of soluble lens proteins in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    Soluble eye lens proteins of 10 fishes, belonging to the families Clupeidae, Hemirhamphidae, Lactaridae, Scombridae, Stromatidae, Psettodidae, Bothidae and Soleidae were studied by immunoelectrophoresis using the lens antiserum of Sardinella...

  6. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  7. Determination of total hydrocarbons levels in some marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pachyelina aurita), mussels (Mylitus edulis) and mangrove Oysters (Cassostrea gasar) from polluted and unpolluted (i.e. control) sampling stations in parts of the Niger Delta area has been assessed. Statistical results revealed that the THC levels ...

  8. Green fluorescence in young individual(s) of cubomedusa, scyphomedusa and ctenophora

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescence is found in young individual(s) of cubomedusa (possibly Carybdea rastoni) and ctenophora (Haeckelia rubra and possibly Beroe cucumis), while it is not found in ephyrae of scyphomedusa (possibly Aurelia aurita).

  9. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  10. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  11. Colombian dry moist forest transitions in the Llanos Orientales - A comparison of model and pollen-based biome reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchant, R.A.; Berrio, J.C.; Behling, H.; Boom, A.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Colombian vegetation, at the ecological level of the biome, is reconstructed at six sites using pollen data assigned a priori to plant functional types and biomes. The chosen sites incorporate four savanna sites (Laguna Sardinas, Laguna Angel, El Piñal and Laguna Carimagua), a site on the

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 24 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ... Gustavo Veloso, Deonir Secco, Helton Aparecido Rosa, Reginaldo Ferreira Santos, Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza, Aracéli Ciotti de Marins, Willian Tenfen Wazilewski, Tiago Roque Benetoli da Silva ...

  13. On the dynamics of the Mauritanian small-pelagic fishery, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catches are influenced by region and by seasonal hydrographic conditions. Yields of carangids (Trachurus trachurus, T. trecae and Decapterus rhonchus) are significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the southern part of the fishing zone than in the north, whereas the reverse is observed for Sardina pilchardus. Carangids are caught ...

  14. Juan Ruiz, un hombre de nuestro tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Escalera Cordero

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguien. Cual.quiera. Nos cuenta una historia. Es la historia del rico emperador de las viandas. Es la historia de una escuálida hembra, adusta como el tiempo que anuncia. De un reto. Son ejércitos de chuletas y de pechugas. Son sardinas, boquerones y arenques. Trabados en confusa reyerta. En batalla encarnizada.

  15. Spatial and seasonal patterns of European short-snouted seahorse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melenara Bay (mean sighting rate = 0.44 individuals VFC–1; SD 0.72) offered protected environments where seahorse distribution varied with substratum type, irrespective of season. Strong hydrodynamic forces in winter affected abundance and size at exposed locations in Sardina del Norte Bay (mean sighting rate = 0.21 ...

  16. Influencia de la topografía submarina sobre la distribución horizontal de las comunidades de ictioplancton en el entorno de la reserva marina de cabo de Palos - islas Hormigas (sudeste ibérico)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Peñas, I.; López Castejón, F.; Mas-Hernández, J. (Julio)

    2001-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships between the horizontal distribution of ichthyoplankton populations and submarine topography, in both neritic and oceanic waters of Cape Palos - Hormigas Islands Marine Reserve (southeast Spain). Larvae from self-spawners (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum, 1792; Gobiidae and Sparidae) constituted the shallow community which dominated neritic waters, whereas larvae of Myctophidae (Benthosema glaciale, Reinhardt, 1837, and Lampanyctinae) constituted anothe...

  17. Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile Fish Species in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the qualitative and quantitative spectra of the diets of these fish species were investigated. It was found that the eight most abundant fish species, Sardinella gibbosa, Pellona ditchella, Spratelloides delicatilus, Atherinomorous ...

  18. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    systems from which Sardinops are absent, for example, Brazil, where they and Sardinella are segregated vertically in the water column. 1 Scripps Institution ..... Kushiro Fisheries Experimental Station. Fig. 4: Annual changes in (a) ...... discrete spawning areas, which are consistent in space and time, but the products of these ...

  19. Predatory pelagic fishes of the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea-Bissau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings show a high degree of dietary overlap among these three predator species, despite some degree of segregation by prey size and type. All three predators depend on Sardinella maderensis as the most important prey, which together with other members of the Clupeidae represented 47–96% of the ingested ...

  20. Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the genetic structure and phylogeographical patterns of Sardinella zunasi in Northwestern Pacific. The mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced for 77 individuals of S.zunasi from four localities over most of the species range. A total of 215 polymorphic sites (72 parsimony informative) and 69 ...

  1. Identification document for large by-catch species in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.

    2003-01-01

    The coastal waters of Mauritania (Northwest Africa) contain large numbers of pelagic fish such as sardinella, sardine, mackerel and horse mackerel. Freezer-trawlers from the European Union (EU), mainly of Dutch origin, have exploited these resources since 1996. In 1998 the Dutch ship owners

  2. Occurrence of bacteria in the buccal cavity, gill and skin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric characteristics of Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus, Sardinella maderensis and Mugil cephalus species collected from Lagos lagoon were studied. Swab samples were taken from the gills, ... from the three fish sample. The bacteria organisms isolated from the fish were pathogenic and of public health importance.

  3. Towards the development of an environmental rule-based model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rule-based model was built in order to analyse the effects of environmental variables (wind stress, Ekman transport, turbulence, and sea surface temperature [SST]) on the recruitment of the Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis. The purpose of modelling was (1) to test the optimal environmental window hypothesis ...

  4. Effect of smoking on the iodine content of some Ghanaian sea fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penaeus notialis, Boboe-Brachydeuterus auritus, Saman-Scomber japonicus, Antele-Chloroscombus chrysurus et Antebo- Sardinella eba) de la même pêche étaient fumées et analysées pour l'humidité et l'iode. En tout, à l'exception de ...

  5. Species composition, length-weight relationship and condition factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (b=3.75), Mugil cephalus (b=3.02) and Atherina formis (b=3.46) exhibited positive allometry growth while Pseudotolithus elongatus (b=2.55), Eleotris africana (b=2.79), Sardinella maderemsis (b=2.04), Periophthalmus barbarous (b=2.77), Microchirus poscanion had negative allometry growth.

  6. Studies on Some Major and Trace Metals in Smoked and Oven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral (Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb) composition of each of five species of fish, including Sarotherodon galilaues, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias gariepinus, Sardinella spp. and Labeo spp. Was determined in samples previously dried, either by traditional smoking method, or in laboratory oven, to gain ...

  7. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  8. A matter of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Augustin, Christina B.; Bleich, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    . aurita polyps were investigated at different levels of water temperature, pH and salinity. Survival and physiological condition of C. capillata polyps were examined after exposure to low salinity levels. Increased settlement of A. aurita planula larvae was observed on substrate plates at low temperature......Jellyfish blooms are unpredictable, unsustainable events, frequently affecting aquatic ecosystems severely. Of particular interest are the consequences of environmental change for jellyfish populations, especially in semi-enclosed habitats. Regional and seasonal changes in water chemistry...... and physics may control the distribution of sessile polyps in the Baltic Sea, hence potentially driving the population dynamics of the two abundant medusa species Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). In laboratory experiments, settlement, growth, survival and physiological condition of A...

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,971 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. nov. and characterized it by comparing with Aurelia aurita. They had 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with three tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met). Both have another two PCGs, orf969 and orf324 with telomeres at both ends. After comparison of Aurelia sp. nov. with Aurelia aurita, we found low-protein similarity of orf969 (59%) and orf324 (75%), respectively, while the other 13 PCGs showed 80% to 98% protein similarities.

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Concentrations and Human Health Risk of Cu, Zn, Fe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... State, Niger-Delta Area, Nigeria and assessed the health risk associated with consumption of these organisms by human. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample collection: The marine periwinkles (P. aurita and T. fuscatus) were collected from three local government areas in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Area ...

  12. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deli, T. Vol 31, No 1 (2009) - Articles High genetic homogeneity of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae) along the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annabi, A. Vol 31, No 1 (2009) - Articles High genetic homogeneity of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae) along the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  14. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 1050 ... Vol 22 (2000), Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997, Abstract PDF. GC Pitcher, D Calder. Vol 31, No 1 (2009), High genetic homogeneity of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae) along the Mediterranean ...

  15. Enkele waarnemingen betreffende de ongeslachtelijke voortplanting van de Scyphozoa:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, J.

    1958-01-01

    Polyp stages were reared from planulae by keeping adult jellyfish in aquaria. Polyps of the species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea capillata and Chrysaora hysoscella, were kept at different temperatures. Scyphistomae of Aurelia reproduce mainly by stolonization. An influence of

  16. Fowleria abocellata, a new cardinal fish from the Gulf of Elat — Red Sea (Pisces, Apogonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, M.; Karplus, I.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The genus Fowleria Jordan & Evermann, 1903 is represented in the Red Sea by four species: F. aurita (Valenciennes, 1831) (the type species); F. variegata (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1832); F. isostigma (Jordan & Seale, 1905) and F. marmorata (Alleyn & Mecleay, 1876). All of them are very

  17. Clearance rates of jellyfish and their potential predation impact on zooplankton and fish larvae in a neritic ecosystem (Limfjorden, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L. J.; Moeslund, O.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    . The clearance rate of A. aurita varied widely with prey organisms. Large crustacean prey with low escape capabilities (Artemia salina nauplii and cirripede larvae) were cleared at high rates, whereas copepodites were cleared at lower rates, and clearance rates of small bivalve larvae and copepod nauplii were...

  18. Evaluation of Concentrations and Human Health Risk of Cu, Zn, Fe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... ABSTRACT: This study has investigated the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Fe in P. aurita and. T. fuscatus obtained from Bayelsa State, Nigeria and assessed the health risks associated with the consumption of these shellfishes. The concentrations of the metals in mg/kg dry wt basis mean + SD were Cu ...

  19. Impact of thermal stress on the growth, size-distribution and biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports an in-vivo account of the impact of thermal stress on the biomass and sizedistribution of estuarine populations of Pachymelania aurita in Epe Lagoon, Nigeria. Off all physicochemical variables investigated only water temperature was statistically different among study stations. A total of 7626 individuals of ...

  20. Macroinvertebrates communities of a coastal lagoon in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annelids and Insects were the second most predominant. This restricted biodiversity is based on a limited number of species such as Tympanotonus fuscatus radula, Pachymelania aurita, Neritina glabrata, Corbula sp., Clibanarius spp., Grandidierella africana, Nereis sp. and Chironomus sp.. Site typology based on ...

  1. Revision of the Platystictidae of the Philippines (Odonata), excluding the Drepanosticta halterata group, with descriptions of twenty-one new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-one species of the family Platystictidae of the Philippines are revised, i.e. all species recognised, excluding the species of the Drepanosticta halterata-group. The following new taxa are described: 16 species in Drepanosticta Laidlaw: D. acuta spec. nov., D. aurita spec. nov., D.

  2. LES VIBRIONS DANS LES PRODUITS DE LA PÊCHE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC_WINDOWS

    Pour une meilleure compréhension des effets du stockage à l'état congelé de la sardine (Sardina pilchardus), principale espèce de ... Mots-clés : conservabilité, sardine, congélation, altération chimique, acides gras omega-3, EPA, DHA, ABVT ... Cependant, la qualité des produits congelés dépend entre autres de la ...

  3. Population changes in small pelagic fish of the Gulf of Lions : a bottom-up control?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beveren, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on population dynamics is key to the improvement of management and the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Since 2007, the size of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) has severely decreased, which has strongly affected the fisheries. Simultaneously, the commercially uninteresting sprat population increased remarkably. As the economic and ecological stakes are high, the EcoPelGol project of which this PhD is pa...

  4. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  5. Gelatinous zooplankton – a potential threat to the ecosystem of the Puck Bay (the southern Baltic Sea, Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Olenycz, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton is a group of organisms, which in recent decades has become one of the most important elements to shape the marine ecosystem. Their growing numbers and spreading to the new marine regions, in combination with the high feeding rate, causes significant changes in the flow of energy in the food webs. The only regularly-occurring gelatinous zooplankton species in the Puck Bay area is scyphozoan Aurelia aurita, most abundant in the summer and fall seasons. As sh...

  6. New taxa of the subfamily Picobiinae (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) parasitizing antbirds and gnateaters (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae) in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Schmidt, Brian K

    2014-09-12

    A new genus and three new species of the picobiin quill mites (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) are described from passeriform birds in Guyana, Phipicobia pygiptilae gen. nov. and sp. nov. parasitizing Pygiptila stellaris (Spix) (Thamnophilidae), Rafapicobia thamnophili sp. nov. from Thamnophilus insignis Salvin et Godman (type host), Myrmoborus leucophrys (Tschudi), Myrmeciza ferruginea (St. Müller), Myrmotherula longipennis Pelzeln, and Hypocnemis cantator (Boddaert) (Thamnophilidae), and Rafapicobia milenskyi sp. nov. from Conopophaga aurita (Gmelin) (Conopophagidae).

  7. Optimal stroke patterns for a model jellyfish swimmer with thin, flexible body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2007-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model is built to simulate swimming of oblate jellyfish (e.g. Aurelia aurita). The model swimmer is a thin, axisymmetric circular plate which is flexible and is able to deform, mimicking contraction and relaxation of a jellyfish. Using body deformation, the swimmer is able to swim by shedding vortices into fluid wake. A prescribed body motion extracted from a free-swimming Aurelia aurita is applied to the swimmer. The induced vortex wake is solved by a vortex sheet method and is compared with the wake of the free-swimming Aurelia aurita measured by PIV. The stoke pattern of the swimmer is optimized for minimal cost of locomotion. The body kinematics are parameterized and cost of locomotion is calculated from simulation using the vortex sheet method. A surrogate management framework is used as the optimization scheme. The vortex wake induced by the optimal stroke pattern is investigated to identify the characteristics of the wake which enhance swimming performance.

  8. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank, E-mail: spriya@vt.edu [Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s{sup -1} while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s{sup -1}. A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  9. CONCENTRACION DE VITAMINA C EN PECES PELAGICOS PEQUEÑOS Y RESPUESTA DE EFECTORES DE INMUNIDAD INNATA Y ANTIOXIDANTE DURANTE LA ESTACION DE DESOVE EN EL AREA DE SURGENCIAS DE CHILE CENTRO-SUR

    OpenAIRE

    KRAUTZ BORQUEZ, MARIA CRISTINA

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio abordó la variabilidad en la calidad de alimento, entendida como la composición de macromoléculas y de sustancias esenciales (e.g. vitaminas), y su disponibilidad, en distintos aspectos de la reproducción/fisiología de las poblaciones de peces pelágicos pequeños (Strangomera bentincki, sardina común y Engraulis ringens, anchoveta) endémicos del Sistema de Corrientes de Humboldt. Para ello, se determinó la composición bioquímica (proteínas, aminoácidos libres, lípid...

  10. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, S.; R. Ben-Hamadou; Santos, A. M. P.; Ferreira, S.; Teodósio, M. A.; U. Cotano; Irigoien, X.; Peck, M A; Saiz, E.; Ré, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was a...

  11. La pesquería de peces pelágicos pequeños en Ecuador durante 2008

    OpenAIRE

    De Prado, M

    2009-01-01

    Se realizó el seguimiento a los desembarques de peces pelágicos pequeños en la costa ecuatoriana durante el 2008, los cuales se incrementaron en un 11 % con relación al 2007. Las especies que aumentaron fueron chuhueco (Cetengraulis ringens), sardina redonda (Etrumeus teres), y pinchagua (Opisthonema spp) en un 96 %, 80 % y 56 %, respectivamente, mientras disminuyeron los desembarques de macarela (Scomber japonicus) en un 50 % y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) en un 25 %, mientras que botell...

  12. Tissue effect on RNA:DNA ratios of marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pilar Olivar; Marina V. Diaz; M. Alexandra Chícharo

    2009-01-01

    [ES] Efecto del tipo de tejido sobre los cocientes ARN:ADN en larvas de peces marinos. – En estudios de condición nutricional larvaria basados en la relación ARN:ADN, las cabezas y/o tubos digestivos suelen diseccionarse para posteriores estudios de edad o alimentación. Además, durante la captura algunas larvas pierden los ojos. En este trabajo analizamos el efecto de diferentes tejidos (músculo, cabeza, ojos y tubo digestivo) sobre la relación ARN:ADN en Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasi...

  13. Ants (Hymenoptera:Fonnicidae) from Atlantlc rainforest at Santa Catarina Island, Brazil: two years of sampling

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Rogério Rosa; Córtes Lopes, Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Se muestreó las hormigas diurnas y nocturnas durante el período 1992/1994, en una región de selva atlantica ("mata atlantica"), en cerro de "Lagoa da Conceicao", Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, con cebos de sardina distribuidos sobre el suelo y en la vegetación arbustiva y arbórea para las especies diurnas, y embudo de BerleseTullgren para las nocturnas. Se identificó 74 especies diurnas (d) y 49 nocturnas (n) en las subfaruilias: Dolichoderinae (7d, 3n), Ecitoninae (Id), Formicinae (l...

  14. Quimeras. Presentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Premat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Si a una cabeza humana,muy peinada a la moda y muy galana,le añadiera un pintor plumas de galloy un pescuezo de burro o de caballo ;si juntando las piezas desigualesde varios animalespor último en el lienzo retratarauna mujer de lindo talle y caracon alas de avestruz o de gallinay cola de merluza o de sardina,¿quién, amigos Pisones,dejara de reírse a borbotones ?Pues a este lienzo semejante fuera,el poema o quimera,cuyas partes sin tino colocadas,no fuesen a una forma conspiradas [...]Félix...

  15. Dinámica poblacional de Opisthonema medirastre (Pisces: Clupeidae en la Costa Pacífica de Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lidia Soto Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron la curva de crecimiento y la talla de la primera madurez  de la sardina Opisthonema medirastre en el Golfo de Nicoya. Los resultados muestran que esta especie presenta una L∞ de 30,6 cm para las hembras y de 28,0 cm para los machos. Los valores de la tasa de crecimiento (K fueron bajos en concordancia con lo esperado para especies de vida corta. La talla de primera madurez de esta especie es de 17,0 cm.

  16. Fatty acid composition of fish species with different feeding habits from an Arctic Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, M I; Sushchik, N N; Glushchenko, L A; Zadelenov, V A; Rudchenko, A E; Dgebuadze, Y Y

    2017-05-01

    We compared the composition and content of fatty acids (FAs) in fish with different feeding habits (sardine (least) cisco Coregonus sardinella, goggle-eyed charr (pucheglazka) form of Salvelinus alpinus complex, humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian, broad whitefish Coregonus nasus, boganid charr Salvelinus boganidae, and northern pike Esox lucius from an Arctic Lake. Feeding habits of the studied fish (planktivore, benthivore, or piscivore) significantly affected the composition of biomarker fatty acids and the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in their biomass. The hypothesis on a higher content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the fish of higher trophic level (piscivores) when compared within the same taxonomic group (order Salmoniformes) was confirmed.

  17. STUDY ON OCEANGRAFHIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN NATUNA SEA USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Prayogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have abundance of natural resources; the potential of small pelagic fish in Natuna Sea and SouthChina Sea have not been optimized yet explores. Unfortunately, it was caused by lacking in the data of environmentalconditions that have been changed and the information of appropriate fishing ground. Hence, dynamical oceanographicinformation and weather condition is necessary to optimize small pelagic fish exploitation.Research location in Natuna Sea and its surrounding with geographical position is 08°N–03°S; 103°–111°E. Theoceanographic condition representative by monthly SST, Chl-a, SSH that derived from satellite data and Dipole ModeIndex for 2002-2007 from FRCGC website. Monthly wind data is variable for weather condition. Small pelagic fishabundance representative by annual fish production (2002-2005 and monthly Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE ofGoldstripe sardinella, Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2006. It was data collected from Directorate General of CaptureFisheries (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and daily fishing operation (2007 used to calculate match-up ratiothat was collected from Pemangkat fishing port in West Kalimantan. Research process consists of image processing,descriptive correlation analysis and GIS analysis to predict fishing ground map and match-up ratio calculation.Result of this research is the annual fish catch production of Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2002-2005 is tend toincrease and the monthly CPUE of both species is high during SE Monsoon (May-Sep that is condition contrarily in NWMonsoon (Nov-Apr. Meanwhile, the annual fish catch production of Goldstripe sardinella production is tend to decreasefrom 2002-2005, it has CPUE is high in early SE Monsoon (May. During the SE Monsoon (May-Sep when DM Index ispositive (+ the Indian scad and Bigeye scad production is high, for Goldstripe sardinella the fish production is highwhen DM Index is positive (+ in May. The accuracy of prediction map of

  18. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50 for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1 A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2 larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3 some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  19. Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L−1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L−1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L−1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L−1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

  20. The investigation of morphological characteristics of willow species in different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative or renewable energy is a modern strategy with a good per­spective in the nearest future. There are several directions of renewable energy development that depend on climatic, economic and technological opportunities of a region. The perspective choice for areas with moderate climate is bioenergy. One of the bioenergy directions is agro forestry based on short rotation coppice plantations (SRC of trees, like willow, poplar and others. The goal of experiments was the assessment of the potential of different willow species for the obtaining of energy in two climatic zones and on two types of soils of Belarus. For this purpose several morphological characteristics were metered: height of plants, biomass, diameter and number of sprouts. The field experiments were conducted on two types of soils: post-mining peaty soils in Grodno region and on degraded peaty soils in Brest region of Belarus. The same soils are very problematic for growing of traditional agricultural crops, thus willow production is a good alternative for biomass production of energy as well as for the reclamation of these soils. In our experiments the following species of willow were tested (Salix alba, Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, Salix aurita that may grow on peaty soils at the natural conditions. The most popular species for modern selection of SRC of willow is Salix viminalis. Nevertheless, the most suitable morphological characteristics on post-mining peaty soils were established for plants of Salix dasyclados and on degraded peaty soils for the plants of Salix alba. The unfavorable parameters at the both type of soils were identified for the plants of Salix aurita. However, it is necessary to take into account that the used species are more popular for natural wetlands and in our experiments plants have best results of survival of cutting and rates of growth at the beginning of vegetation. In accordance with these facts Salix aurita may not be used for energy

  1. Efectos del fenómeno "El Niño 1997-98" sobre los principales recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el período abril 1997 setiembre 1998 fueron realizados 5 cruceros de evaluación de los recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana, éstos permitieron observar cambios en la composición por especies, distribución, estructura por tamaño, reproducción y niveles poblacionales de los principales recursos pelágicos. Estos cambios guardan similitud con los observados en los eventos El Niño 1972-73 y 1982-83, especialmente en cuanto a la disminución de la biomasa de anchoveta y el incremento de otras especies pelágicas. En el período post-Niño se observó cambios notables en la estructura por tallas de anchoveta, mientras que la sardina, samas a y caballa coincidieron en mostrar buenos reclutamientos. La actividad reproductiva también se incrementó, inclusive en tallas juveniles, destacando la incidencia de sardinas sexualmente maduras con longitudes de 18-20 cm, situación que no había sido antes registrada.

  2. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. S. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site.

  3. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Débora M. S.; Melo, Mércia Regina S.; Mendes, Denise Carla S.; Rocha, Iolanda Karoline B. S.; Silva, Jakeline Priscila L.; Cantanhêde, Sildiane M.; Meletti, Paulo C.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI) average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site. PMID:25514148

  4. Smile, you are on camera or in a live trap! The role of mammals in dispersion of jackfruit and native seeds in Ilha Grande State Park, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santana Lorenzo Raíces

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The alien species Artocarpus heterophyllus, originally from India, was introduced to Brazil in the colonial period and has become invasive in some areas in the Atlantic Forest. Its fruits can weigh 35 kg and produce up to 500 seeds each. In their native range they are dispersed by turtles, rodents, monkeys, wild pigs and elephants. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mammals in jackfruit predation and seed dispersal, as well as the influence of jackfruit in native plant species dispersal by mammals, in the Ilha Grande State Park, Southeastern Brazil. Seeds with and without mesocarp were tied to thread spools and checked for predation and dispersion on 37 sites. We recorded mesocarp or jackfruit seed feeding on video. Six species of mammals were recorded feeding on jackfruit, but Trinomys dimidiatus, Didelphis aurita and Cuniculus paca accounted for 92% of all records. Cuniculus paca and Trinomys dimidiatus preyed and dispersed seeds while Didelphis aurita consumed mesocarp only. Seeds with mesocarp were more preyed on than seeds without mesocarp and its consumption was lower during more intense fruit production. Hence, jackfruit production can exceed the capacity of mammals to consume its seeds in areas where jackfruit density is high. Faeces of small mammals were collected in areas with (10 grids and without jackfruits (8 grids and analysed for the presence of native seeds. Twelve small mammal species were captured in areas with and without jackfruits, but faeces of 11 species were collected. Didelphis aurita dispersed proportionally more native seeds in area without jackfruits. Our results showed that mammals are playing a negative role helping to disperse jackfruit trees, and this is occurring in different ways depending on mammal species.

  5. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nicholas E.C.; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ13C and δ15N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ15N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ15N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions that

  6. Functional and antioxidant properties of hydrolysates of sardine (S. pilchardus) and horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) for the microencapsulation of fish oil by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, R; Tamm, F; Guadix, A M; Guadix, E M; Drusch, S

    2016-03-01

    The functionality of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the microencapsulation of fish oil was investigated. Muscle protein from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) was hydrolysed using Alcalase or trypsin. Physically stable emulsions suitable for spray-drying were obtained when using FPH with a degree of hydrolysis of 5%. Microencapsulation efficiency amounted to 98±0.1% and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil over a period of twelve weeks was in a similar range as it is reported for other matrix systems. Therefore, the suitability of FPH for use in spray-dried emulsions has been shown for the first time. Since no clear correlation between the antioxidative activity of the FPH and the course of lipid oxidation could be established future research is required to more specifically characterise the molecular structure of the peptides and its impact on protein alteration and role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    2012-01-01

    eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species......Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly...... for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from 1/2-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain...

  8. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-In-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Fish Protein Hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M.

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were...... hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against...... prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3...

  9. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-09-01

    The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal changes in infection with trematode species utilizing jellyfish as hosts: evidence of transmission to definitive host fish via medusivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Okada, Shoma; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Shimazu, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan, metacercariae of three species of trematodes, Lepotrema clavatum Ozaki, 1932, Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970, and Opechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934), were found in the mesoglea of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l., Chrysaora pacifica, and Cyanea nozakii. Moreover, these jellyfish frequently harbored juveniles of the fish species Psenopsis anomala, Thamnaconus modestus, and Trachurus japonicus. The former two fish species are well-known medusivores. We investigated seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of these metacercariae in their host jellyfish from March 2010 to September 2012 and presumed that infection by the trematodes of the definitive host fish occurs through these associations. The mean intensity of metacercariae in A. aurita s.l. clearly showed seasonality, being consistently high in June of each year. The intensity of metacercariae in C. nozakii was highest among all jellyfish hosts and appeared to be enhanced by medusivory of this second intermediate, and/or paratenic host. Trophic interactions between jellyfish and associated fish were verified using both gut content and stable isotope analyses. The detection of trematodes and nematocysts in the guts of P. anomala and T. modestus juveniles, in addition to stable isotope analysis, suggests that transmission of the parasites occurs via prey-predator relationships. In addition, the stable isotope analysis also suggested that P. anomala is more nutritionally dependent on jellyfish than Th. modestus and Tr. japonicus. © Y. Kondo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  11. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA-only group (H group; two qniumucin-only groups (M groups; and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups. One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA.

  12. Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi Kıyısal Yüzey Sularında Scyphomedusae ve Ctenophora Üzerine Yerinde Gözlemler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Mavili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skifomedüz ve ktenoforların dağılımı ve bolluğu, 1998 ve 2005 arasında yaz ve sonbahar dönemlerinde yerinde gözlemlerle incelenmiştir. Skifomedüzler (A. aurita, R. pulmo Kuzey Ege ve Marmara Denizi’nde geniş bir dağılım göstermiştir. Yazın baskın olan A. aurita sonbaharda azalmış, oysa R. pulmo bu dönemde belirgin olarak artmıştır. Ktenoforlar (M. leidyi, B. ovata Kuzey Ege’de bulunmamıştır. M. leidyi Marmara Denizi’nde 1999’da bol olarak bulunmuş, B. ovata’nın ortaya çıktığı 2000’de belirgin bir azalma göstermiştir. Her iki ktenofor da 2004 ve 2005’de çalışma bölgesinde bulunmamıştır. Bu da pek muhtemelen M. leidyi yoğunluğunda büyük bir azalmaya işaret etmektedir

  13. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  14. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Estimating digestion rate and the problem of individual variability, exemplified by a scyphozoan jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båmstedt; Martinussen

    2000-08-23

    Short-term (h) and long-term (days) individual variability and the effects of momentary change in feeding intensity on digestion time were studied in the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita as a basis for developing a method to experimentally measure the digestion rate with a high precision. Ten individual medusae showed only small, non-significant differences in average digestion time (range, 2.1-2.5 h at 10 degrees C) over a 9-day experiment, whereas variability within and between days and between individuals at a given occasion was high. When medusae were manually kept at a constant feeding intensity, stomach fullness showed high variability both between individuals and within an individual over time. With a feeding intensity of, respectively, 1, 2, 4 and 8 prey h(-1) over a 5-h experimental period, stomach fullness of most individuals corresponded to a theoretical digestion time of 1-3 h, whereas single meals of the same size usually gave somewhat higher digestion time. Medusae subject to a switching from a low to a high feeding intensity tended to increase the variability, but most individuals showed a digestion time of 1-3 h. An opposite switching tended to increase the digestion time and its variability. It is concluded that the digestion time of A. aurita is randomly variable over time within given limits for a given food and environmental condition. This variability is non-synchronised in the population, causing high variability between individuals, and changes in the feeding intensity cause additional variability. However, the average digestion time of A. aurita in a physically and nutritionally stable environment is robust, and changes in the feeding intensity give predictable effects. The use of field collected data on stomach contents and laboratory determined digestion times is therefore an attractive method to calculate predation rate, but the inherent high variability in digestion time must be taken into consideration when designing the digestion

  16. Dynamics of tethered versus free-swimming animals: A wake structure comparison in jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, Kakani; Dabiri, John O.

    2006-11-01

    Previous research has shown that jellyfish utilize the formation and shedding of vortices to help feed and move the animal. Laboratory experiments often require restricting the motion of an animal by tethering/fluming to allow for repeatable results. However, past research has not addressed the differences that arise when the motion of an animal is restricted/confined. This presentation will attend to this issue by comparing the wake structure of a tethered and free-swimming Aurelia aurita. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to collect measurements of the velocity field surrounding an animal that is either tethered or swimming freely. Dynamical systems methods are used to compute Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), which is used to identify the geometries of structures in the wake of the animal. Using LCS, a comparison between the wake of a tethered and free-swimming animal can be made. This research provides a quantitative measure of the differences between a tethered and freely moving jellyfish.

  17. Ephyra jellyfish as a new model for ecotoxicological bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, M; Garaventa, F; Piazza, V; Costa, E; Greco, G; Mazzola, V; Beltrandi, M; Bongiovanni, E; Lavorano, S; Gnone, G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary investigation on the possibility of using the ephyra of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758), the common moon jellyfish, as an innovative model organism in marine ecotoxicology. A series of sequential experiments have been carried out in laboratory in order to investigate the influence of different culturing and methodological parameters (temperature, photoperiod, ephyrae density and age) on behavioural end-points (% of Frequency of Pulsations) and standardize a testing protocol. After that, the organisms have been exposed to two well known reference toxic compounds (Cadmium Nitrate and SDS) in order to analyse the acute and behavioural responses during static exposure. Results of this work indicate that the proposed behavioural end-point, frequency of pulsations (Fp), is an easily measurable one and can be used coupled with an acute one (immobilization) and that ephyrae of jellyfish are very promising model organisms for ecotoxicological investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. On the dynamics of jellyfish locomotion via 3D particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Matthew; Kim, Jin-Tae; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) locomotion is experimentally studied via 3D particle tracking velocimetry. 3D locations of the bell tip are tracked over 1.5 cycles to describe the jellyfish path. Multiple positions of the jellyfish bell margin are initially tracked in 2D from four independent planes and individually projected in 3D based on the jellyfish path and geometrical properties of the setup. A cubic spline interpolation and the exponentially weighted moving average are used to estimate derived quantities, including velocity and acceleration of the jellyfish locomotion. We will discuss distinctive features of the jellyfish 3D motion at various swimming phases, and will provide insight on the 3D contraction and relaxation in terms of the locomotion, the steadiness of the bell margin eccentricity, and local Reynolds number based on the instantaneous mean diameter of the bell.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on marine organisms belonging to different trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Costa, Elisa; Piazza, Veronica; Fabbrocini, Adele; Magi, Emanuele; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are increasingly used in a wide range of consumer products and such an extensive use raises questions about their safety and environmental toxicity. We investigated the potential toxicity of Ag-NPs in the marine ecosystem by analyzing the effects on several organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Skeletonema costatum), cnidaria (Aurelia aurita jellyfish), crustaceans (Amphibalanus amphitrite and Artemia salina) and echinoderms (Paracentrotus lividus) were exposed to Ag-NPs and different end-points were evaluated: algal growth, ephyra jellyfish immobilization and frequency of pulsations, crustaceans mortality and swimming behavior, and sea urchin sperm motility. Results showed that all the end-points were able to underline a dose-dependent effect. Jellyfish were the most sensitive species, followed by barnacles, sea urchins, green algae, diatoms and brine shrimps. In conclusion, Ag-NPs exposure can influence different trophic levels within the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  2. Notas sôbre a evolução do virus vacínico em animais silvestres da fauna brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Alves Moreira

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available A note on the evolution of cow-pox virus in wild animals of Brazilian fauna. We have tried the sensibility of wild animals of Brazilian fauna to the cow-pox virus. The following specimens were submitted to experiences: Procyon cancrivorus, Hydrochoerus capybara, Cavea aperea, Coendu villosus, Didelphis aurita, Bradypus tridactylus, Euphractus sexcintus, Tamandua tetradactylus, Nasua narica, Dasyprocta aguti and Testudo tabulata. In all these animals, - excepting Bradypus tridactylus - we have obtained an infection with incubation (five days, aspect and duration similar to cow-pox of the laboratorial animals (calf and rabbit. In the Bradypus tridactylus howewer, the incubation was very long. Only after 30 days of inoculation we verified the infection with the formation of vesiculae and postulae.

  3. Radioactivity in three species of eastern Mediterranean jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamish, S; Al-Masri, M S; Durgham, H

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were determined in umbrella and oral arms of three widely distributed jellyfish species; namely Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, Aurelia aurita Linne, 1758 and Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 collected from February 2011 to January 2012 in four sampling locations along the Syrian coast (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The results have shown significant variations in radionuclides activity concentrations amongst the species. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in the umbrella of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in the umbrella of A. aurita species by about 3.2, 1.4, 1.8, 3.2 and 3.2 folds, and A. forskalea species by about 45.5, 15.4, 19, 7.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in oral arms of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in oral arms of A. aurita species by about 3.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.9 folds, respectively. (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. In addition, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were also determined in 44 surface seawater samples and the activity concentrations ranged between 10.6 and 11.9 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, 1.1 and 1.4 mBq l(-1) for (210)Po, 0.5 and 0.7 mBq l(-1) for (210)Pb, 40.8 and 44.5 mBq l(-1) for (234)U, and 36.9 and 38.4 mBq l(-1) for (238)U, while (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. Moreover, the umbrella and oral arms readily accumulated (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U above ambient seawater levels in the sequence of (210)Po > (210)Pb > (4) K > (234)U and (238)U. Concentration ratio (CR) values were relatively high for (210)Po and (210)Pb and reached 10(3) and 10(2), respectively for the jellyfish R

  4. From fish to jellyfish in the eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Andersen, Per; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    years where the fish have been replaced by an increasing number of especially the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, which mainly preys on zooplankton. Next, we evaluate the ecological consequences of the present high number of jellyfish, based on data from recent years’ research on the abundance...... the historical development of nutrient overloading and subsequent oxygen depletion in near-bottom water, and how the annual landings of edible bottom-dwelling fish species (plaice, flounder, eel and others) caught in Limfjorden have decreased from about 2,500 t in the early 1920s to only about 20 t in recent...... a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass. Marine environmental management programmes should be aware of the increasing importance of both indigenous and new invasive jellyfish species that may show mass occurrence in especially eutrophicated and overfished areas...

  5. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Saraiva, Danilo Gonçalves; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Dubey, Jitender Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25) were found in 8.6% (13/151) of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48) of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus), and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita) presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  6. Abiotic control of phytoplankton blooms in temperate coastal marine ecosystems: A case study in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Paula; Helbling, E Walter; Durán-Romero, Cristina; Cabrerizo, Marco J; Villafañe, Virginia E

    2018-01-15

    Coastal waters of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) sustain one of the highest levels of production of the World's ocean, maintained by dense phytoplankton winter blooms that are dominated by large diatoms. These blooms have been associated to calm weather conditions that allow the formation of a shallow and well illuminated upper mixed layer. In Bahía Engaño, a coastal site in Patagonia, Argentina (chosen as a model coastal ecosystem) winter blooms recurrently peaked on June and they were dominated almost entirely by the microplanktonic diatom Odontella aurita. However, during the year 2015, a new wind pattern was observed - with many days of northerly high-speed winds, deviating from the calm winter days observed during a reference period (2001-2014) used for comparison. We determined that this new wind pattern was the most important factor that affected the phytoplankton dynamics, precluding the initiation of a June bloom during 2015 that instead occurred during late winter (August). Furthermore, the 2015 bloom had a higher proportion of nanoplanktonic cells (as compared to the reference period) and it was co-dominated by O. aurita and Thalassiossira spp. Other variables such as nutrient supply and incident solar radiation did not have an important role in limiting and/or initiating the June 2015 bloom, but temperature might have benefited the growth of small cells during August 2015. If these changes in the timing and/or the taxonomic composition of the bloom persist, they may have important consequences for the secondary production and economic services of the coastal SAO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological consequences of plant hybridization in willows: inheritance patterns of secondary compounds and herbivore foraging behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Ecology

    2002-07-01

    Segregation of genetic variation into species is traditionally viewed as the principal unit of evolution while intraspecific hybridization was regarded as a mistake in nature. Nevertheless, intraspecific hybridization is common between many plant species and recent studies have suggested that hybridization may be beneficial to individuals. hybridization is also of interest as it influence species that are interacting with the hybridising species, for example herbivores that need to decide whether or not to forage on hybrids between host plants and non-host plants. To understand how herbivores are influenced by hybridization, and how herb ivory influences hybrid plants, I have studied the inheritance of plant resistance characters, foraging preference and performance of herbivores (leaf beetles and voles) and the degree of herbivore damage on pure and hybrid willows. The studied willow species, Salix caprea, S. repens and S. aurita differ in secondary metabolite composition. The results show that both studied groups of secondary metabolites, phenolic glucosides and condensed tannins, are additively inherited in hybrids between S. repens and S. caprea, while condensed tannins axe equal in S. caprea, S. aurita and hybrids between the two parental species. There is no common response of the studied herbivore community. Instead, it seems that specialist herbivores either discriminate against hybrids and non-host parental species or do not separate between hybrids and host parental species. In contrast, generalists usually show either intermediate preference for hybrids, or do not discriminate between hybrids and parental species. One generalist species shows a preference that indicates a breakdown in resistance. When adding together the effects of all herbivores, it appears that herbivores inflict more damage to hybrids than parental species.

  8. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; en tanto, desde mediado de los 70's los desembarques de sardina (Sardinops sagax aumentan notablemente. Un segundo cambio de régimen se observa a finales de los 80's, representado principalmente por la notable recuperación de anchovy y disminución de sardina. Se presenta un modelo conceptual integrador de los diferentes fenómenos locales y de gran escala que afectan el ambiente marino del norte de Chile, y la distribución y abundancia de recursos pelágicos. El modelo considera análisis de datos ambientales y bio-pesqueros a distintas escalas, y describe como las fluctuaciones interdecadales (asociadas a cambios de régimen e interanuales (asociadas a los eventos El Niño del Pacífico Ecuatorial se manifiestan en el Pacífico Sur Oriental y por tanto en la zona norte de Chile, afectando el ciclo anual, la dinámica de las ondas atrapadas a la costa y la surgencia costera. En este marco, las fluctuaciones interdecadales estarían jugando un rol importante en la secuencia del reemplazo anchoveta-sardina-anchoveta.

  9. Glycerolysis of sardine oil catalyzed by a water dependent lipase in different tert-alcohols as reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaesa, Á. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of monoacylglycerol rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA via enzymatic glycerolysis of sardine oil in a homogeneous system was evaluated. Reactions were conducted in two different tert-alcohols. Based on the phase equilibrium data, the amount of solvent added to create a homogeneous system has been calculated and optimized. The immobilized lipase used in this work was Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, a water dependent lipase. The amount of water added as well as other reaction parameters were studied to evaluate the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol obtencion. An initial reactant mole ratio glycerol to sardine oil 3:1, 12 wt% of water based on glycerol content and 10 wt% of lipase loading (based on weight of reactants, achieved a MAG yield of around 70%, with nearly 28 wt% PUFA, with low free fatty acid content (lower than 18 wt%.En este trabajo se ha estudiado la producción de monoacilglicéridos, ricos en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI, mediante glicerolisis enzimática de aceite de sardina. La reacción se ha llevado a cabo en dos tert-alcoholes para conseguir de esta forma un medio homogéneo de reacción. La cantidad de disolvente añadida al medio de reacción se ha optimizado y calculado en base al equilibrio de fases de los componentes del sistema. La lipasa empleada como biocatalizador ha sido la enzima inmovilizada Lipozyme RM IM de Rhizomucor miehei, una lipasa dependiente de agua. Se ha estudiado el efecto de distintos parámetros cinéticos, así como de la cantidad de agua añadida al medio de reacción, en la producción de monoacilglicéridos. De los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que, para una relación molar inicial de reactantes glicerol:aceite de sardina de 3:1, un 12 % en peso de agua en base al glicerol y un 10 % en peso de lipasa, en base al peso de reactantes; se puede llegar a conseguir un rendimiento en monoacilglicéridos alrededor del 70 % en peso, con casi un 28 % en

  10. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

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    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  11. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

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    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  12. Born small, die young: Intrinsic, size-selective mortality in marine larval fish

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, S.

    2015-11-24

    Mortality during the early stages is a major cause of the natural variations in the size and recruitment strength of marine fish populations. In this study, the relation between the size-at-hatch and early survival was assessed using laboratory experiments and on field-caught larvae of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Larval size-at-hatch was not related to the egg size but was significantly, positively related to the diameter of the otolith-at-hatch. Otolith diameter-at-hatch was also significantly correlated with survival-at-age in fed and unfed larvae in the laboratory. For sardine larvae collected in the Bay of Biscay during the spring of 2008, otolith radius-at-hatch was also significantly related to viability. Larval mortality has frequently been related to adverse environmental conditions and intrinsic factors affecting feeding ability and vulnerability to predators. Our study offers evidence indicating that a significant portion of fish mortality occurs during the endogenous (yolk) and mixed (yolk /prey) feeding period in the absence of predators, revealing that marine fish with high fecundity, such as small pelagics, can spawn a relatively large amount of eggs resulting in small larvae with no chances to survive. Our findings help to better understand the mass mortalities occurring at early stages of marine fish.

  13. Distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of five toothed-whale species of the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodello, J P; Roméo, M; Viale, D

    2000-06-01

    Mercury levels were determined in the tissues and organs (lung, liver, kidney, skin, muscle, bone) of five toothed-whales stranded along the Corsican coast between November 1993 and February 1996. The species taken into consideration were the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis, the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba, the pilot whale Globicephala melas and the Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus. The variation in mercury levels between the different tissues and organs (lung, liver, kidney, skin, muscle, bone) of the cetacean species are discussed as regards storage, biotransformation and elimination. In all cases, the liver appears to be the preferential organ for mercury accumulation (with concentrations as high as 4250 microg Hg/g dw and 3298 microg Hg/g in the livers of Tursiops truncatus and Grampus griseus, respectively). The kidney and lung are the next organs in terms of mercury uptake followed by the muscle, bone and skin. The stomach contents of Grampus griseus and D. delphis were determined and consisted of cephalopods for Grampus griseus, and of sardines Sardina pilchardus and mackerels Trachurus sp. for D. delphis. Cephalopods had higher mercury concentrations (25.4 microg Hg/g dw) than fish (ca 1 microg Hg/g). These contents represent only one meal and mercury levels found in livers may integrate mercury uptake having occurred during the whole life span of animals.

  14. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  15. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Joan; Marçalo, Ana; Ramírez, Francisco; Verborgh, Philippe; Gauffier, Pauline; Esteban, Ruth; Nicolau, Lídia; González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Vilas, César; Vingada, José; G Forero, Manuela; de Stephanis, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA) and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean). Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger) and European hake (Merluccius merluccius) as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR), using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus) and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus), European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma) and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA) and assimilated (SIA) diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA) or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA).

  16. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Giménez

    Full Text Available The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA and stable isotope analyses (SIA to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean. Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger and European hake (Merluccius merluccius as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR, using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus, European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA and assimilated (SIA diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA.

  17. FIRST APPROACH TO THE TROPHIC ECOLOGY AND DIET OF THE RAINBOW RUNNER, Elagatis bipinnulata (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1825 (PISCES: CARANGIDAE, IN THE CENTRAL COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Bernardo García Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata scores high in trophic level (4.24 but it is not a voracious fish (Q/B = 10.8. Its diet is dominated by the dwarf herring (Jenkinsia lamprotaenia, eats more in the dry season, than in the rainy season and significantly more in the afternoon that in the morning suggesting preference for daylight feeding. Primera aproximación a la ecología trófica del salmón, Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy y Gaimard, 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae, en el Caribe central colombianoEl salmón (Elagatis bipinnulata marca alto en nivel trófico (4,24 pero no es un pez voraz (Q/B = 10,8. Su dieta está dominada por la sardina enana (Jenkinsia lamprotaenia, come más en la época seca que en la época de lluvia y come significativamente más en la tarde que en la mañana, lo cual sugiere preferencia por la alimentación diurna. 

  18. Contents of cadmium, mercury and lead in fish from the Atlantic sea (Morocco) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Adil; Hilali, Mustapha; Benlhachimi, Abdeljalil; Bouzid, Taoufiq

    2014-03-15

    As a part of a specific monitoring program, lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in important species of fish from various fishing ports of the southern Kingdom of Morocco (Sardina pilchardus, Scomber scombrus, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus, Octopus vulgaris, Boops boops, Sarda sarda, Trisopterus capelanus, and Conger conger) were investigated by the Moroccan Reference Laboratory (NRL) for trace elements in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples were analysed for lead and cadmium by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS); and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The results were expressed as μg/g of wet weight (w/w). The levels of Cd, Pb and Hg in muscles of fish were 0.009-0.036, 0.013-0.114 and 0.049-0.194 μg/g, respectively. The present study showed that different metals were present in the sample at different levels but within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the EU for the fish and shellfish from these areas, in general, should cause no health problems for consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ¿Criaríamos leones en granjas? Uso de pruebas y conocimiento conceptual en un problema de acuicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bravo Torija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es analizar la influencia de la tarea en el uso de pruebas y modelos conceptuales al resolver un problema sobre la sustentabilidad de la acuicultura. Los participantes son 134 estudiantes universitarios de biología de tres cursos. La tarea solicitaba comparar desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia ecológica alimentarse de arenques y sardinas o de salmones. Se comparan resultados de un curso en el que habían realizado un mapa conceptual sobre la eficiencia ecológica con los de dos en los que no se había hecho. Los resultados muestran diferencias sustanciales tanto en el uso de modelos de flujo de energía y pirámide trófica como de pruebas. Estas diferencias ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de prestar atención al papel de los conceptos al diseñar actividades para desarrollar la competencia de uso de pruebas.

  20. [Effects of an obesogenic diet enriched in sardine by-products on pro-atherogenic markers in Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affane, F; Boukhari Benahmed Daidj, N; Louala, S; Munezero, A N; Lamri-Senhadji, M Y

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an obesogenic diet enriched in sardine by-products (Sardina pilchardus) on blood pressure, glycemic control and some cardiovascular risk factors, in particular pro-atherogenic were studied on an experimental model. Male rats (n=12) weighing 200±10g were subjected to an adjustment phase of 10 days in an obesogenic diet containing 30% sheep fat. After this period, the rats were divided into two homogeneous groups. The first group (HF-SBp) consumes the obesogenic diet supplemented with 30% of by-products flour (F-SBp), and the second (HF) continuous to consume the obesogenic diet and serve as control. At day 30, in HF-SBp versus HF group: a reduction was noted in diastolic (-11%) and systolic (-10%) pressure, glycemia (-19%), glycated hemoglobin percent (-43%), serum total lipids concentration (-22%), triacylglycerols (-37%), total cholesterol (-29%) and unesterified cholesterol (-30%), cholesteryl esters (-30%), cholesterol of very low density lipoprotein (-37%) and low density (-37%) was noted. Inversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LCAT activity were enhanced by 19% and 77%, respectively. However, the atherogenicity index and membrane fluidity were reduced (P<0.05). Sardine by-products probably by their bioactive compounds properties seem to have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic properties that could prevent and/or attenuate some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. ECOLOGÍA TRÓFICA DE LA DONCELLA (Ageneiosus pardales Lütken, 1874 EN LA CUENCA DEL RÍO SINÚ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arneth Tobías-Arias

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Se estudió la ecología trófica de la doncella (Ageneiosus pardalis Lütken, 1874 en la cuenca del río Sinú entre enero y diciembre 2002. Materiales y Métodos. El contenido estomacal se evaluó con el coeficiente de vacuidad, grado de llenado, grado de digestión, frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, gravimetría, índice de importancia relativa (IIR y la relación longitud intestinal (LI-longitud total (LT. Resultados. El 58.3% de los estómagos se encontró vacío y el 6.4% de las presas en estado fresco. Se identificaron cuatro ítems alimenticios: peces, crustáceos, insectos y otros. Peces fue el ítem más frecuente (46.5% y abundante (44.7% con especies como cocobolo, yalúa, cachana, chipe y sardina, y con mayor composición en peso (85.7%. Conclusión. El índice de importancia relativa (IIR alcanzado por peces (40.0%, indican que la doncella es un pez carnívoro, con tendencia piscívora

  2. Environmental factors affecting larval fish community in the salt marsh area of Guadiana estuary (Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh areas in the Guadiana estuary are important nursery sites for many fish species of commercial and recreational value. More effective protection measures should be adopted as the area is highly affected by anthropogenic and natural threats. Studying larval fish communities in these impacted nursery areas will be relevant to the management of local ecosystems and to larval fish ecology in general. Spatial and seasonal distribution and the effect of environmental factors on the larval fish community of this ecosystem were studied for one year (April 2010 to March 2011. Larvae were sampled monthly in parallel with phytoplankton and zooplankton. Hydrological data and physical parameters were monitored. A decision tree model was used to assess the influence of environmental factors on the larval fish community. A total of 130 larvae and 1171 eggs were caught. Diplodus sargus, Sardina pilchardus, and Pomatoschistus microps were the most abundant larval fish species. The peaks of fish larvae abundance occurred in March and April. The output of the model demonstrates that the abundance of larval fish is determined by the abundance of eggs, zooplanktonic food, and water flood and flow. This study shows the importance of the Guadiana salt marsh as an area for fish nursery and highlights the need for conservation of this area.

  3. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on (210)Po, (210)Pb activity concentrations and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that (210)Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while (210)Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and (210)Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence (210)Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecology and genetic structure of zoonotic Anisakis spp. from adriatic commercial fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladineo, Ivona; Poljak, Vedran

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live Anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. We investigated the population dynamics of Anisakis spp. in commercially important fish-anchovies (Anisakis), sardines (Sardina pilchardus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)-captured in the main Adriatic Sea fishing ground. We observed a significant difference in the numbers of parasite larvae (1 to 32) in individual hosts and between species, with most fish showing high or very high Anisakis population indices. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that commercial fish in the Adriatic Sea are parasitized by Anisakis pegreffii (95.95%) and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (4.05%). The genetic structure of A. pegreffii in demersal, pelagic, and top predator hosts was unstructured, and the highest frequency of haplotype sharing (n = 10) was between demersal and pelagic fish.

  5. Is natural bait type a stochastic process for size and condition of fishes in the recreational fishery of Ιzmir Bay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. AYDIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining bait type might be one of the most important factors that influence the amount and size of the fish catch in marine recreational fishery. To this end, the relationships between two types of natural bait and catch per unit effort (CPUE, yield per unit effort (YPUE, fish size and condition (K=W/TL3 were evaluated in recreational fishery İzmir Bay (Middle Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. The most abundant angling species in Turkish coasts; annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, blotched picarel (Spicara flexuosa, two banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris and bogue (Boops boops were collected by anglers between September 2006 – February 2007 with using baits; onyx (Solen vagina, and sardine (Sardina pilchardus. The average CPUE and YPUE of hooks baited with onyx were significantly higher than the bait sardine. Eventhough the averages of specimens caught with bait sardine were bigger than onyx except for bogue but, total length-frequency distributions were revealed some differences only for annular sea bream and blotched picarel between two baits. High conditioned individuals of bogue were caught with bait sardine and the rest of the other species with onyx.

  6. Incorporating parasite data in population structure studies of South African sardine Sardinops sagax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Lingen, Carl David; Weston, Laura Frances; Ssempa, Nurudean Norman; Reed, Cecile Catharine

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been applied to examine the population structure of sardine Sardinops sagax off South Africa, where this species supports significant fisheries and is also of ecological and eco-tourism importance. Observations of discontinuous sardine distribution patterns, discrete spawning grounds and significant spatial differences in a variety of phenotypic characteristics have suggested the existence of discrete western, southern and eastern sardine sub-populations or stocks. The use of parasites as biological tags to elucidate sardine population structure has recently been investigated, and strong spatial gradients around South Africa in the prevalence, mean infection intensity and mean abundance of a digenean 'tetracotyle' type metacercarial endoparasite considered to be of the genus Cardiocephaloides and found in the humours of fish eyes support and have proved particularly convincing evidence for the sardine multiple stock hypothesis. A discontinuous distribution in the occurrence of another parasite, the coccidean Eimeria sardinae found in fish testes, has provided additional but weaker evidence of discrete stocks. These results have contributed to a changed understanding of the population structure of South African sardine and have significant implications for management of the fisheries for this species.

  7. EXPLOITATION AND CATCH FLUCTUATION OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHES IN PRIGI WATERS, SOUTH COAST OF JAVA

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    Suwarso Suwarso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the exploitation and catch fluctuations of pelagic fishes have been undertaken in order to understand the fishery systems, annual and seasonal change of fishing effort and catches, as well as species composition. The study was based on the daily monitoring data of the purse seiners. The results showed that generally the fishing activities is one day fishing, the increase of fishing effort reflected in the number of fishing units and the number of trip, while the trend of production and catch rate were fluctuated by either annual or seasonal; the peak of catch rate was occurred in 2007, 2008 and 2012 periods, during December to June were low catches, and are going in the peak season in September-October. The lowest catch rate is about 100kg/trip and the maximum of 4.3 tons/trip (the average of 1.3 tons/trip, however the fail of fishing was often occurs and reached 30% of the total number of trips; the failed fishing was decline from year to year. The catch rate (kg/trip/day was showed a pattern fluctuations; the small pelagic fish mainly the scads (Decapterus spp. and clupeids (Bali sardine, Sardinella lemuru, respectively 33% and17%, whereas the dominan large pelagic fish is ‘tongkol’/frigate tuna (Auxis thazzard. The changes of species domination was occurred either in annually or seasonally.

  8. Influência das variáveis ambientais na fauna acompanhante na pesca da manjuba Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Influences of environmental parameters on the accompanying fauna in the anchovy fisheries of Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro

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    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829 is the only anchovy of commercial importance in Sepetiba Bay, supporting an intensive commercial fishery by small sized seine boats provide of hydroacustics sounder detecting device. This study analyses the accompanying fauna in the A. tricolor fishery, and the influence of environmental parameters in fish composition. Seven samples were taken with a seine net between March and September 1999, capturing 114,430 fish, comprising 17 species and 11 families. Engraulidae and Clupeidae were the most abundant families, accounting to 94.2 % of the total number of fish. A. tricolor was the most abundant species contributing to more than one half of the total numerical abundance, followed in decreasing order by Anchoa januaria (Steindachner, 1879, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1789 and Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829. A. tricolor showed a highly significant positive correlation with salinity, transparency and depth. A. januaria showed the opposite, being inversely correlated to these parameters and directly correlated to temperature. Clupeidae, on the other hand, seems to show a wider distribution in relations to these environmental parameters.

  9. Panjang Karapas dan Laju Pertumbuhan Spesifik Kepiting Bakau (Scylla serrata yang diberi Jenis Pakan Berbeda di Area Ekowisata Kampung Kepiting, Bali

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    Ni Desak Putu Ida Suryani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is tropical coastal vegetation that grow on muddy and sandy soils which affected by sea tides. One of important commercial species that live in mangrove ecosystem is the mud crab (Scylla serrata. Feed and water quality have been considered as critical components for supporting the growth both of weight and carapace length of this species. This study was conducted from January to February 2017 in the area of ??Ecotourism Kampung Kepiting, Bali. The influence of different natural feed such as Jerbung shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis, Mollusca, lemuru fish (Sardinella lemuru and sea worms (Nereis sp. on the growth performance of the mud crab were investigated. Water quality parameter data such as pH, DO, temperature, salinity and ammonium were also collected. The obtained data were analyzed by using variance analysis of Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS version 21. The result showed that the use of different types of feed have no effect on  the length of carapace, but it has significantly influence on  the specific growth rate of mud crab. Finally, different types of the given feeding were still resulted in the save range of water quality parameters for mud crab culture.

  10. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

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    Bimal Prasanna Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition and Contents of Seven Commercial Fish Species of Genus Coregonus from Russian Subarctic Water Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Glushchenko, Larisa A; Rudchenko, Anastasia E; Makhrov, Alexander A; Borovikova, Elena A; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-12-01

    In several Russian northern lakes and rivers, Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis, least cisco C. sardinella, peled C. peled, tugun C. tugun, broad whitefish C. nasus, whitefish C. lavaretus and vendace C. albula were sampled in periods of officially permitted commercial fishery. Special attention was paid to contents (mg g-1 of wet weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in muscle tissues (filets), which are essential for human nutrition. The highest values of EPA + DHA content in semi-anadromous fish and freshwater fish were recorded for C. autumnalis from the Yenisei River, 17.60 mg g-1 wet weight, and for C. lavaretus from the Sobachye Lake, 16.61 mg g-1 wet weight, respectively. Intra-genus variations of EPA + DHA contents of Coregonus species were from 1.87 to 17.60 mg g-1 wet weight. Since the congeneric species were genetically close to each other, the variations in EPA and DHA contents were thought to be caused primarily by ecological factors: migrational capability, type of feeding and trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. In general, the majority of studied species appeared to be of a high nutritive value for humans, although unfavorable environmental conditions could considerably diminish this value.

  12. First record of the Indo-Pacific areolate grouper Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Shevy B S; Stern, Nir; Goren, Menachem

    2016-01-25

    The number of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is steadily increasing and it seems that the pace has been accelerating since the turn of the century (Galil et al. 2014). In 2015 alone five additional fish species have been reported, Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015); Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823) (Fricke et al. 2015); Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (Stern et al. 2015); Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Capapé et al. 2015); and Cryptocentrus caeruleopunctatus (Rüppell, 1830) (Rothman & Goren 2015). Among the ca. 100 alien fish species reported from the Mediterranean to date (Galil & Goren 2014), five Indo-Pacific species belong to the genus Epinephelus Bloch, 1793: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822), Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775), Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1804) Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 (Golani et al. 2013a) and Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Golani et al. 2015). Additional alien Epinephelus species reported from the Mediterranean are excluded for various reasons (Golani et al. 2013b). Here we report the finding of a sixth Indo-Pacific species of this genus along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

  13. Coordinated feeding tactics of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rodrigo H. O. Tardin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in distribution, prey species, season and social learning opportunities influence the feeding tactics used by marine mammals. Here, we analyze the coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864, Delphinidae and its relation to seasonality and the presence of calves. In a total of 201 feeding bouts, we observed four types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in mean number of engaged individuals. Tactics in which dolphins used their bodies to herd and capture prey were the most frequent, presenting a higher frequency and engaging a higher number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fishes which form larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the feeding behavior used by dolphins. During spring-summer, a longer duration of bouts and a larger number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics was observed, which may be related to the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish, such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactic occurrences. This study indicates a complete preference of dolphins for coordinating their actions to capture prey and for the first time reports the presence of calves in the coordinated tactics and jumps. This broadens the current knowledge of the Guiana dolphin feeding tactics.

  14. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  15. Patterns in larval fish assemblages under the influence of the Brazil current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragawa, M.; Dias, J. F.; Harari, J.; Namiki, C.; Zani-Teixeira, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    The present work investigates the composition of larval fish assemblages in the area under the influence of the Brazil Current (BC) off the Southeastern Brazilian Bight. Ichthyoplankton was sampled during two oceanographic cruises (November-December/1997 - spring; May/2001 - autumn) with bongo nets oblique tows. Seasonal variation and a coastal-ocean pattern in the distribution of larval fish was observed and was influenced by the dynamics of the water masses, Coastal Water (CW), Tropical Water (TW) and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), the last two of which were transported by the BC. During spring, the shelf assemblage was dominated by larvae of small pelagic fishes, such as Sardinella brasiliensis, Engraulis anchoita and Trachurus lathami, and was associated with the enrichment of shallow water by the SACW upwelling. In autumn, the abundance of coastal species larvae was reduced, and the shelf assemblage was dominated by Bregmaceros cantori. A transitional assemblage occurred during the spring, and comprised mesopelagic and coastal species. In both seasons, the oceanic assemblage was dominated by the mesopelagic families, Myctophidae, Sternopthychidae and Phosichthyidae. The oceanographic conditions also demonstrated clear differences between the northern and southern subareas, particularly in the shelf zone. This was especially the case during autumn when a latitudinal gradient in larval fish assemblages became more pronounced.

  16. Ecosystem structure and trophic analysis of Angolan fishery landings

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    Ronaldo Angelini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on the mean trophic level of fishery landings in Angola and the output from a preliminary Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE model were used to examine the dynamics of the Angolan marine ecosystem. Results were compared with the nearby Namibian and South African ecosystems, which share some of the exploited fish populations. The results show that: (i The mean trophic level of Angola’s fish landings has not decreased over the years; (ii There are significant correlations between the landings of Angola, Namibia and South Africa; (iii The ecosystem attributes calculated by the EwE models for the three ecosystems were similar, and the main differences were related to the magnitude of flows and biomass; (iv The similarity among ecosystem trends for Namibia, South Africa and Angola re-emphasizes the need to continue collaborative regional studies on the fish stocks and their ecosystems. To improve the Angolan model it is necessary to gain a better understanding of plankton dynamics because plankton are essential for Sardinella spp. An expanded analysis of the gut contents of the fish species occupying Angola’s coastline is also necessary.

  17. Densidade, tamanho populacional e conservação de primatas em fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Maurício Djalles Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a densidade e o tamanho populacional de quatro espécies de primatas [Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940; Callicebus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Callithrix aurita (É. Geoffroy, 1812; Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809] que ocorrem em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de aproximadamente 350 ha, localizado no município de Pouso Alegre, estado de Minas Gerais e reunir subsídios para a conservação dessas espécies na região. O levantamento populacional foi realizado através do método de amostragem de distâncias em transecções lineares (Distance Sampling. Os dados foram coletados entre os meses de abril e agosto de 2008 a partir de quatro transecções implantadas na área de estudo. Os cálculos de densidade e tamanho populacional foram realizados empregando-se o programa Distance 5.0. As densidades foram estimadas em 23,83 ± 9,78 ind./km² para Callicebus nigrifrons, 14,76 ± 5,92 ind./km² para Callithrix aurita e 7,71 ± 2,13 ind./km² para Cebus nigritus. O tamanho populacional foi estimado em 83,0 ± 34,0 indivíduos para C. nigrifrons, 52,0 ± 20,8 indivíduos para Callithrix aurita e 27,0 ± 7,4 indivíduos para Cebus nigritus. Com relação ao bugio (A. guariba clamitans, constatou-se que apenas um grupo com seis indivíduos sobrevive na área. Conclui-se que, no caso de continuarem isoladas, essas populações têm poucas chances de sobrevivência no futuro frente aos riscos de eventos estocásticos. A criação de corredores ecológicos conectando a área de estudo aos outros fragmentos em seu entorno e a translocação de indivíduos de outras áreas da Mata Atlântica para esta região poderão constituir alternativas para garantir a viabilidade dessas populações em longo prazo. Para tanto, é necessário que se consolide uma política pública no município de Pouso Alegre voltada à criação, ampliação e gestão de Unidades de Conservação, e ao incentivo para a adoção de pr

  18. Possibilidades de transmissão e vias de inoculação da lepra murina em ratos e outros animais

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    Herminio Linhares

    1943-06-01

    Full Text Available 1 O A. revê as vias de infecção naturais e os processos de inoculações empregados em ratos, no estudo da lepra murina. 2 Na natureza, o contacto prolongado de animal sadio com doente e a infecção por via gástrica devem ser os modos comuns de contaminação. 3 Foram encontrados dentro do Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister capturados em ratos leprosos, bacilos ácido álcool resistentes. Tentativas de cultura com êste material, foram infrutíferas. 4 O A. infectou ratos colocando no estômago, por meio de sondas de vidro, material leproso. Em cinco animais, todos se infectaram. 5 Por via subcutânea e por via intraperitoneal, a infecção se processa em quase 100% dos casos. 6 Foi possível infectar gambás (Didelphis aurita com lepra murina. Êsses animais provavelmente são mais suscetíveis à lepra dos ratos que à humana. 7 Conseguiu-se infectar pinto por inoculação de emulsão de lepra murina no músculo do peito, por via intraperitoneal e por via gástrica. 8 Pombos também se infectaram após inoculação no músculo do peito e por via venosa.1 The A. reviews the routes of natural transmission of rat leprosy and the experimentally induced disease. 2 The infection in the natural disease must be made by contact with an infected rat or through the gastro-intestinal route by eating infected tissue. 3 They were found acid-fast bacilli in lice (Polyplax spinulosa caught on rats dying of leprosy; but it was impossible to obtain cultures in Löwenstein medium, from these lice. 4 Rat leprosy emulsion introduced into the stomach, may infect rats. Five rats fed with infected material became infected. 5 After subcutaneous or intraperitoneal inoculation there were obtained infection in almost 100% of cases. 6 It was possible to infect Didelphis aurita after inoculation of infected rat material. These animals most likely are more susceptible to rat leprosy than to human leprosy. 7 It was possible to infect chicks by inoculation in chest muscle

  19. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

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    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  20. Revisión del género de mariposas Forsterinaria Gray, 1973 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

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    Carlos Peña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica de las mariposas satírinas neotropicales incluidas en el género Forsterinaria Gray, 1973, comprendiendo una discusión de la clasificación y distribución geográfica de sus especies componentes, ilustraciones de los adultos de todos los taxones y de sus genitalias masculinas, así como descripciones de 12 especies y dos subespecies nuevas: Forsterinaria antje sp. n., F. coipa sp. n., F. enjuerma sp. n., F. falcata sp. n., F. guaniloi sp. n., F. itatiaia sp. n., F. pallida sp. n., F. pallida aurita ssp. n., F. pichita sp. n., F. pilosa sp. n., F. punctata sp. n., F. pyrczi sp. n., F. rotunda sp. n. y F. rustica glendita ssp. n. Euptychia stelligera Butler y E. fabiana Butler son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de Forsterinaria quantius (Godart. Euptychia magdalena Hayward y E. pseudonecys Strand son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de F. inornata (C. Felder & R. Felder y F. necys (Godart, respectivamente. Se designa lectotipos para 14 taxones nominales. Se reconoce un total de 23 especies. Se ofrece una clave para la identificación de todos los taxones.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of jellyfish bell kinematics and flow fields using PTV and PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of jellyfish swimming can potentially improve the energy efficiency of aquatic vehicles or create biomimetic robots for ocean monitoring. Aurelia aurita is a simple oblate invertebrate composed of a flexible bell and coronal muscle, which contracts to eject water from the subumbrellar volume. Jellyfish locomotion can be studied by obtaining body kinematics or by examining the resulting fluid velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Typically, swim kinematics are obtained by semi-manually tracking points of interest (POI) along the bell in video post-processing; simultaneous measurements of kinematics and flows involve using this semi-manual tracking method on PIV videos. However, we show that both the kinematics and flow fields can be directly visualized in 3D space by embedding phosphorescent particles in animals free-swimming in seeded environments. Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) can then be used to calculate bell kinematics, such as pulse frequency, bell deformation, swim trajectories, and propulsive efficiency. By simultaneously tracking POI within the bell and collecting PIV data, we can further study the jellyfish's natural locomotive control mechanisms in conjunction with flow measurements. NSF GRFP.

  2. Control of vortex rings for manoeuvrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Troolin, Daniel R; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P; Satterlie, Richard A

    2015-07-06

    Manoeuvrability is critical to the success of many species. Selective forces acting over millions of years have resulted in a range of capabilities currently unmatched by machines. Thus, understanding animal control of fluids for manoeuvring has both biological and engineering applications. Within inertial fluid regimes, propulsion involves the formation and interaction of vortices to generate thrust. We use both volumetric and planar imaging techniques to quantify how jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) modulate vortex rings during turning behaviour. Our results show that these animals distort individual vortex rings during turns to alter the force balance across the animal, primarily through kinematic modulation of the bell margin. We find that only a portion of the vortex ring separates from the body during turns, which may increase torque. Using a fluorescent actin staining method, we demonstrate the presence of radial muscle fibres lining the bell along the margin. The presence of radial muscles provides a mechanistic explanation for the ability of scyphomedusae to alter their bell kinematics to generate non-symmetric thrust for manoeuvring. These results illustrate the advantage of combining imaging methods and provide new insights into the modulation and control of vorticity for low-speed animal manoeuvring. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of jellyfish turning using 3D-PTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

    2017-11-01

    Aurelia aurita are oblate, radially symmetric jellyfish that consist of a gelatinous bell and subumbrellar muscle ring, which contracts to provide motive force. Swimming is typically modeled as a purely vertical motion; however, asymmetric activations of swim pacemakers (sensory organs that innervate the muscle at eight locations around the bell margin) result in turning and more complicated swim behaviors. More recent studies have examined flow fields around turning jellyfish, but the input/output relationship between locomotive controls and swim trajectories is unclear. To address this, bell kinematics for both straight swimming and turning are obtained using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) by injecting biocompatible elastomer tags into the bell, illuminating the tank with ultraviolet light, and tracking the resulting fluorescent particles in a multi-camera setup. By understanding these kinematics in both natural and externally controlled free-swimming animals, we can connect neuromuscular control mechanisms to existing flow measurements of jellyfish turning for applications in designing more energy efficient biohybrid robots and underwater vehicles. NSF GRFP.

  4. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P; Stewart, Colin J; Dabiri, John O; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2013-10-29

    Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required.

  5. Can gelatinous zooplankton influence the fate of crude oil in marine environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-12-15

    Gelatinous zooplankton are known for their capacity to excrete copious amounts of mucus that can be utilized by other organisms. The release of mucus is exacerbated by stressful conditions. Despite the recognized importance of cnidarian mucus to production and material flux in marine ecosystems, the role of gelatinous zooplankton in influencing the fate of oil spills is unknown. In this study we used laboratory experiments to observe the influence of mucus from the moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) on the aggregation and degradation of crude oil. The results show that jellyfish swimming in a dispersed solution of oil droplets produced copious amounts of mucus and the mucus aggregates that were shed by the animals contained 26 times more oil than the surrounding water. Incubation experiments showed that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria cell densities more than doubled in the presence of mucus and after 14days, resulted in a significant increase in oil degradation. These results suggest that jellyfish can aggregate dispersed oil droplets and embed them within a matrix that favors hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. While this study lends support to the hypothesis that the presence of gelatinous zooplankton can impact oil spills large scale mesocosm studies will be needed to fully quantify the influence on a natural system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance by Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, R

    2011-05-01

    The ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance was studied in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus to compare its life-history strategy with two other common pelagic fishes, jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cruise swimming speed of E. japonicus increased allometrically from 1·4 to 3·9 standard length (L(S) ) per s (L(S) s(-1) ) from early larval to metamorphosing stage. Burst swimming speed also increased from 6·1 to 28 L(S) s(-1) in these stages. Cruise speed was inferior to that of S. japonicus, as was burst speed to that of T. japonicus. Engraulis japonicus larvae were highly vulnerable to predation by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and were readily eaten until they reached 23 mm L(S) , but not at 26 mm L(S) . Schooling behaviour (indicated by parallel swimming) started at c. 17 mm L(S) . Average distance to the nearest neighbour was shorter than values reported in other pelagic fishes. The relatively low predator avoidance capability of E. japonicus may be compensated for by their transparent and thus less conspicuous body, in addition to their early maturation and high fecundity. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Role of chemical and visual cues in food recognition by leatherback posthatchlings (Dermochelys coriacea L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Maricela A; Salmon, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We raised leatherback posthatchlings in the laboratory for up to 7 weeks to study the role of visual and chemical cues in food recognition and food-seeking behavior. Turtles were reared on a formulated (artificial gelatinous) diet and had no contact with test materials until experiments began. Subjects were presented with visual cues (a plastic jellyfish; white plastic shapes [circle, square, diamond] similar in surface area to the plastic model), chemical cues (homogenates of lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata; moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita; and a ctenophore, Ocyropsis sp., introduced through a water filter outflow), and visual and chemical cues presented simultaneously. Visual stimuli evoked an increase in swimming activity, biting, diving, and orientation toward the object. Chemical cues elicited an increase in biting, and orientation into water currents (rheotaxis). When chemical and visual stimuli were combined, turtles ignored currents and oriented toward the visual stimuli. We conclude that both cues are used to search for, and locate, food but that visual cues may be of primary importance. We hypothesize that under natural conditions turtles locate food visually, then, as a consequence of feeding, associate chemical with visual cues. Chemical cues then may function alone as a feeding attractant.

  8. Modeling and optimization of IPMC actuator for autonomous jellyfish vehicle (AJV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Keyur B.; Akle, Barbar J.; Leo, Donald J.; Priya, Shashank

    2011-04-01

    Ionomeric Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuators generate high flexural strains at small voltage amplitudes of 2-5V. IPMCs bend toward the anode when a potential drop is applied across its thickness. The actuation mechanism is due to the motion of ions inside it; which requires a form of hydration to dissociate and mobilize the charges. In our group IPMCs are developed either water based or Ionic Liquid based which is also known as the dry IPMCs. This combination of small voltage requirement with operation in both dry and underwater conditions makes the IPMCs a viable alternative for an Autonomous Jellyfish Vehicle (AJV). In this study, we estimate the mechanical properties of IPMC actuator having curved geometry using FEM model to match the experimental deformation. We combine the results from an electric model to estimate charge accumulated on electrode surface with piezoelectric model to estimate stress due to this charge accumulation. In the last step, the results are integrated with a structural model to simulate the actuator deformation. We have designed an AJV with embedded IPMC actuators using these properties to achieve the curvature of relaxed and contracted Jellyfish (Aurelia Aurita). Bio-mimetic deformation profile was achieved by using structural mechanics of beams with large deformation with only application of +/- 0.8V to optimized beam within 8.1% error norm in relaxed state and 21.3% in contracted state, with only -0.24% to 0.26% maximum flexural strain at maximum curvature point in contracted state.

  9. Can Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa species be differentiated by comparing their scyphistomae and ephyrae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gambill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate exists regarding the number of species of the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia, a common member of the planktonic community of the coastal shelf seas around the world. Three Aurelia congeners (A. aurita, A. labiata and A. limbata are currently considered to exist but recent genetic analyses suggested that this is an oversimplification. We analyzed the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae, morphological characteristics of ephyrae and differences in the time span of the strobilation process of Aurelia congeners from 17, 7 and 6 different source populations, respectively, of known species. Morphological characteristics of scyphistomae were similar among the 17 populations but those of ephyrae, such as the shape and form of lappets, were effective discriminators in the 6 cases examined. We recommend identifying species based on differences in 1 the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae and ephyrae (and not only medusae, 2 the genetics of individuals, and 3 the geographical occurrence of the population. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on scyphozoan scyphistomae and ephyrae, stages of the metagenic life cycle of scyphozoans that have received relatively little study compared to medusae.

  10. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca R; Dunn, Casey W

    2017-01-01

    Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa). To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole) on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae). In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  12. Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, John O; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Gharib, Morteza

    2005-04-01

    Flow patterns generated by medusan swimmers such as jellyfish are known to differ according the morphology of the various animal species. Oblate medusae have been previously observed to generate vortex ring structures during the propulsive cycle. Owing to the inherent physical coupling between locomotor and feeding structures in these animals, the dynamics of vortex ring formation must be robustly tuned to facilitate effective functioning of both systems. To understand how this is achieved, we employed dye visualization techniques on scyphomedusae (Aurelia aurita) observed swimming in their natural marine habitat. The flow created during each propulsive cycle consists of a toroidal starting vortex formed during the power swimming stroke, followed by a stopping vortex of opposite rotational sense generated during the recovery stroke. These two vortices merge in a laterally oriented vortex superstructure that induces flow both toward the subumbrellar feeding surfaces and downstream. The lateral vortex motif discovered here appears to be critical to the dual function of the medusa bell as a flow source for feeding and propulsion. Furthermore, vortices in the animal wake have a greater volume and closer spacing than predicted by prevailing models of medusan swimming. These effects are shown to be advantageous for feeding and swimming performance, and are an important consequence of vortex interactions that have been previously neglected.

  13. Parasitic fungi of the genera Betula and Salix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001-2004, the occurrence of parasitic fungi of plants of the genera Betula and Salix growing in the Słowiński National Park was investigated. The plant species examined included B. pubescens, B. pendula, S. aurita, S. caprea, S. cinerea, S. fragilis, and S. repens. Plants of the genus Betula were affected by 9 species of parasiting fungi. In Poland, three of them (Microsphaera ornata var. europaea, Phyllactinia guttata, Melampsoridium betulinum occur commonly, five (Asteroma leptothyrioides, Discula betulina, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, Septoria betulina are rare, and Septoria betulae-odoratae has not been recorded to date. Three species, Asteroma leptothyrioides, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, were found on new plant hosts. Plants of the genus Salix were attacked by 8 species of parasiting fungi. Four of them (Melampsora allii-fragilis, M. caprearum, M. epitea, Uncinula adunca var. adunca are common in Poland, four (Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola, Trimmatostroma betulinum rarely occur here. Uncinula adunca var. adunca, Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola and Trimmatostroma betulinum were associated with the plant species not reported earlier to be their hosts.

  14. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Angélica H; Oliveira, Pablo V; Britto, Karollini B; Freire, Bárbara F; Moreno, Marcel R; Dos Santos, Alexandre R; Banhos, Aureo; Paneto, Greiciane G

    2015-01-01

    Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  15. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  16. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  17. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-01-01

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  18. Indomethacin reproducibly induces metamorphosis in Cassiopea xamachana scyphistomae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cabrales-Arellano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported. Such controlled metamorphosis induction is necessary for an ensured synchronicity and reproducibility of biological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. For this purpose, we tested if differentiation could be pharmacologically stimulated as in Aurelia aurita, by the metamorphic inducers thyroxine, KI, NaI, Lugol’s iodine, H2O2, indomethacin, or retinol. We found reproducibly induced strobilation by 50 μM indomethacin after six days of exposure, and 10–25 μM after 7 days. Strobilation under optimal conditions reached 80–100% with subsequent ephyrae release after exposure. Thyroxine yielded inconsistent results as it caused strobilation occasionally, while all other chemicals had no effect. Thus, indomethacin can be used as a convenient tool for assessment of biological phenomena through a controlled metamorphic process in C. xamachana scyphistomae.

  19. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1 Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwi Heo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris. The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai.

  20. Detection of hantavirus in bats from remaining rain forest in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Henriques, Dyana Alves; Lautenschalager, Daniele; Ometto, Tatiana; Dutra, Lilia Mara; Aires, Caroline Cotrin; Favorito, Sandra; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2012-12-21

    The significant biodiversity found in Brazil is a potential for the emergence of new zoonoses. Study in some places of the world suggest of the presence to hantavirus in tissues of bats. Researches of hantavirus in wildlife, out rodents, are very scarce in Brazil. Therefore we decided to investigate in tissues of different species of wild animals captured in the same region where rodents were detected positive for this virus. The present work analyzed ninety-one animals (64 rodents, 19 opossums, and 8 bats) from a region of the Atlantic forest in Biritiba Mirin City, São Paulo State, Brazil. Lungs and kidneys were used for RNA extraction. The samples were screened for evidence of hantavirus infection by SYBR-Green-based real-time RT-PCR. Sixteen samples positive were encountered among the wild rodents, bats, and opossums. The detection of hantavirus in the lungs and kidneys of three marsupial species (Micoureus paraguayanus, Monodelphis ihering, and Didelphis aurita) as well in two species of bats (Diphylla ecaudata and Anoura caudifer) is of significance because these new hosts could represent an important virus reservoirs. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of the partial S segment revealed that these genes were more related to the Araraquara virus strains. This work reinforces the importance of studying hantavirus in different animal species and performing a continued surveillance before this virus spreads in new hosts and generated serious problems in public health.

  1. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  2. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  3. Patch size, functional isolation, visibility and matrix permeability influences neotropical primate occurrence within highly fragmented landscapes.

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    Lucas Goulart da Silva

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are among the major current extinction causes. Remaining fragments are mostly small, isolated and showing poor quality. Being primarily arboreal, Neotropical primates are generally sensitive to fragmentation effects. Furthermore, primates are involved in complex ecological process. Thus, landscape changes that negatively interfere with primate population dynamic affect the structure, composition, and ultimately the viability of the whole community. We evaluated if fragment size, isolation and visibility and matrix permeability are important for explaining the occurrence of three Neotropical primate species. Employing playback, we verified the presence of Callicebus nigrifrons, Callithrix aurita and Sapajus nigritus at 45 forest fragments around the municipality of Alfenas, Brazil. We classified the landscape and evaluated the metrics through predictive models of occurrence. We selected the best models through Akaike Selection Criterion. Aiming at validating our results, we applied the plausible models to another region (20 fragments at the neighboring municipality of Poço Fundo, Brazil. Twelve models were plausible, and three were validated, two for Sapajus nigritus (Area and Area+Visibility and one for Callicebus nigrifrons (Area+Matrix. Our results reinforce the contribution of fragment size to maintain biodiversity within highly degraded habitats. At the same time, they stress the importance of including novel, biologically relevant metrics in landscape studies, such as visibility and matrix permeability, which can provide invaluable help for similar studies in the future and on conservation practices in the long run.

  4. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

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    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  5. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia from the Late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil

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    Patricia Villa Nova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domesticaand Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphyscould also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region.

  6. Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, K N; Diomandé, D; Ouattara, A; Koné, Y J M; Gourène, G

    2008-09-15

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones.

  7. Mollusca from a species-rich deep-water Leptometra community in the Alboran Sea

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    Serge Gofas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An exceptional species richness for Mollusca was found on Avempace bank (349-365 m, Djibouti group, Alboran Sea, where the most abundant species was the crinoid Leptometra phalangium. A sample of sediment sieved on a 0.5-mm mesh yielded 156 species of molluscs (83 live-taken, 1772 specimens with a high Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’(log2=3.60. The dominant mollusc was Limopsis aurita and the six most common species accounted for 77% of the specimens. On the other hand, 42 species were represented by only one or two specimens. Two species are described as new, three more are first findings in the Mediterranean and two are first findings in Iberian waters. One-third of the species have not been reported from the neighbouring, well-explored Alboran Island platform. There is a considerable balance between the trophic groups, denoting a stable and structured community. Most of the species have an extensive Atlantic range, and most have a planktonic larval stage. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the fauna benefits from a diverse influx of larvae carried in by the more superficial incoming Atlantic current. Because of its exceptional richness, this type of bathyal community with Leptometra and Limopsis should be considered a high priority for habitat conservation in the Mediterranean deep sea.

  8. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

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    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  9. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  10. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  11. Patch size, functional isolation, visibility and matrix permeability influences neotropical primate occurrence within highly fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucas Goulart; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Hasui, Érica; da Costa, Carla Aparecida; da Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are among the major current extinction causes. Remaining fragments are mostly small, isolated and showing poor quality. Being primarily arboreal, Neotropical primates are generally sensitive to fragmentation effects. Furthermore, primates are involved in complex ecological process. Thus, landscape changes that negatively interfere with primate population dynamic affect the structure, composition, and ultimately the viability of the whole community. We evaluated if fragment size, isolation and visibility and matrix permeability are important for explaining the occurrence of three Neotropical primate species. Employing playback, we verified the presence of Callicebus nigrifrons, Callithrix aurita and Sapajus nigritus at 45 forest fragments around the municipality of Alfenas, Brazil. We classified the landscape and evaluated the metrics through predictive models of occurrence. We selected the best models through Akaike Selection Criterion. Aiming at validating our results, we applied the plausible models to another region (20 fragments at the neighboring municipality of Poço Fundo, Brazil). Twelve models were plausible, and three were validated, two for Sapajus nigritus (Area and Area+Visibility) and one for Callicebus nigrifrons (Area+Matrix). Our results reinforce the contribution of fragment size to maintain biodiversity within highly degraded habitats. At the same time, they stress the importance of including novel, biologically relevant metrics in landscape studies, such as visibility and matrix permeability, which can provide invaluable help for similar studies in the future and on conservation practices in the long run.

  12. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

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    Donna Dimarchopoulou

    Full Text Available We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310 of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109 of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%, diet (29%, growth (25%, maturity (24%, lifespan (19% and fecundity (17%. The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%. European hake (Merluccius merluccius, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, annular seabream (Diplodus annularis, common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus, European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus and bogue (Boops boops were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays and mortality/fecundity instead of

  13. Medidas de conservación y ordenación pesquera del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

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    Jorge Zuzunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las pesquerías peruanas como actividades realizadas sobre recursos naturales renovables son reguladas por un marco jurídico, cuyo objetivo es asegurar su conservación y uso sostenible. La Ley General de Pesca (DL N°. 25977 señala que para cada tipo de pesquería y según la situación del recurso explotado debe establecerse un sistema de ordenamiento que concilie el principio de sostenibilidad de los recursos pesqueros o conservación en el largo plazo, con la obtención de los mayores beneficios económicos y sociales. En el ordenamiento pesquero del jurel Trachurus murphyi, las medidas incluyen entre otras, el régimen de acceso constituido por las autorizaciones de incremento de flota y permisos de pesca, que se otorgan solo a los buques cuyas capturas son destinadas únicamente para el consumo humano directo, de acuerdo a lo dispuesto en el Reglamento de Ordenamiento Pesquero (DS N.° 011-2007-PRODUCE. La obligación de destinar los recursos sardina Sardinops sagax, jurel T. murphyiy caballa Scomber japonicus al consumo humano directo rige desde septiembre 2002 (DS N°. 001-2002-PRODUCE. Otras medidas vigentes restringen el tamaño mínimo de malla de las redes, prohíben la captura de ejemplares menores de 31 cm de longitud total, determinan el inicio y cierre de las temporadas de pesca, los límites de captura o cuotas anuales. Estas disposiciones son complementadas por medidas de seguimiento, control y vigilancia para la efectiva conservación y uso sostenido del recurso.

  14. Helmintofauna de Opisthonema libertate y Harengula thrissina (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae de la bahía de Chamela, Jalisco, México

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    Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El registro helmintológico de las "sardinas" Harengula thrissina (N=61 y Opisthonema libertate (N=43en la Bahía de Chamela, Jalisco, México, establecido en este trabajo, está integrado por 12 y seis especies, respectivamente. De éstas, la que alcanzó los valores más elevados de prevalencia y abundancia en O. libertate fue el nemátodo Pseudoterranova sp. (11.6% y 0.13 gusanos por pez revisado, mientras que para H. thrissina lo fue tremátodo Parahemiurus merus con 49.1% y 1.40 helmintos por hospedero muestreado. La reducida similitud cualitativa y cuantitativa registrada entre las helmintofaunas de ambos hospederos, se atribuye a la naturaleza oportunista de su alimentación (100% de las especies parásitas de H. thrissina y 66% de las de O. libertate las infectan a través de esta vía, así como a la exposición diferencial de ambas especies de hospederos a los helmintos.We collected helminths from the "sardines" Harengula thrissina (N=61 and Opisthonema libertate (n=43, from Chamela Bay, Jalisco State, Mexico (12 and six species, respectively. The nematode Pseudoterranova sp., reached the highest values of prevalence and mean abundance in O. libertate (11.6% and 0.13 worms per host, respectively, while in H. thrissina the digenean Parahemiurus merus reached a prevalence of 49.1% and a mean abundance of 1.40 worms per host. Low similarity values (qualitative and quantitative between helminths of both host species is a result of their opportunistic feeding habits (100% of the parasitic species in H. thrissina and 66% of those from O. libertate infect their host from prey and differential exposure to helminth larvae.

  15. Body reserves mediate trade-offs between life-history traits: new insights from small pelagic fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Fauvel, Christian; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Marques, Virginie; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Limited resources in the environment prevent individuals from simultaneously maximizing all life-history traits, resulting in trade-offs. In particular, the cost of reproduction is well known to negatively affect energy investment in growth and maintenance. Here, we investigated these trade-offs during contrasting periods of high versus low fish size and body condition (before/after 2008) in the Gulf of Lions. Female reproductive allocation and performance in anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus ) and sardine ( Sardina pilchardus ) were examined based on morphometric historical data from the 1970s and from 2003 to 2015. Additionally, potential maternal effects on egg quantity and quality were examined in 2014/2015. After 2008, the gonadosomatic index increased for sardine and remained steady for anchovy, while a strong decline in mean length at first maturity indicated earlier maturation for both species. Regarding maternal effects, for both species egg quantity was positively linked to fish size but not to fish lipid reserves, while the egg quality was positively related to lipid reserves. Atresia prevalence and intensity were rather low regardless of fish condition and size. Finally, estimations of total annual numbers of eggs spawned indicated a sharp decrease for sardine since 2008 but a slight increase for anchovy during the last 5 years. This study revealed a biased allocation towards reproduction in small pelagic fish when confronted with a really low body condition. This highlights that fish can maintain high reproductive investment potentially at the cost of other traits which might explain the present disappearance of old and large individuals in the Gulf of Lions.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in fish community of the Ria de Aveiro estuarine lagoon (Portugal.

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    Eva García-Seoane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblages of Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Northwest Portugal were studied from February 2012 and January 2013. Sampling were monthly conducted with a traditional beach-seine net (“chincha” at 9 sites. Multivariate approach were used in order to analyse the spatial and temporal variation in fish community. A total of 58,201 fishes, weighting 249,540 g, were identified, representing 37 taxa and 21 families. Four taxa (Atherina spp., Dicentrarchus labrax, Liza spp., and Sardina pilchardus were responsible for 94.7% and 85.4% of the total abundance, in number and weight. There were significant differences in fish community, in terms of fish number and weight, between sites and between months (ANOSIM, p<0.01. A total of 12 species appeared as characteristics of one of more sampling sites either in terms of number and weight. In both cases, D. labrax, Liza spp. and Atherina spp. were typical throughout the study area. Other species, such as Spondyliosoma cantharus appeared as typical only in the part of the lagoon more influenced by marine waters, whereas Anguilla anguilla was typical of the inner area. A total of 11 (in number or 13 (in weight species appeared as typical of at least one month of the year. Liza spp. and Atherina spp. were typical all the year round for number and weight data. In both cases, D. labrax, Diplodus spp. and S. pilchardus, appeared as a typical from spring to autumn. The number of typical species varied with the season, being maximum in May and minimum in winter. Finally, results of this work were discussed in comparison to previous studies.

  17. Energy density of zooplankton and fish larvae in the southern Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta, Ziortza; Olivar, M. Pilar; Palomera, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    In marine communities, energy of small planktonic organisms is transferred to their predators through feeding. The energy accumulated as organic substances by the different plankton organisms (Energetic Density content, ED) has been analysed in high latitudes and tropical areas, but not in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we approach this type of investigation for Mediterranean plankton through measures of total calorimetric content using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. We examined the spatiotemporal variation in the ED of microplankton (50-200 μm) and mesozooplankton (200-2000 μm), and two plankton-consumers, sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae. The study was carried out during the winter and summer of 2013 off the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both plankton fractions showed a more coastal distribution and higher biomasses during winter, the period of sardine larvae occurrences, in front of a wider cross-shelf distribution and lower biomasses in summer, when anchovy appeared. ED values increased with the size of each plankton component, i.e., microzooplankton associated to the more productive waters there. Sardine and anchovy larvae showed an increasing trend in the amount of energy during development, with significantly lower ED between early larvae (6-10 mm standard length) and late postflexion stages (16-20 mm standard length). Small larvae of both species departed from a similarly low ED content, but in the next two size classes sardine larvae showed higher ED values than anchovy, being significantly higher in the 16-20 mm size class. Information on larval feeding patterns and larval growth rates for each species were used to discuss differences in energy allocation strategies.

  18. Survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C

    2014-05-13

    Species diversity in the Black Sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. To assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. The cells showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were subjected to ELISA and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-mPCR), for VHSV and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), after blind passaging to determine the virus species causing CPE. The virus species and possibility of co-infection with IPNV were verified by the RT-mPCR developed in this study. Twelve species of fish (pontic shad Alosa immaculata, red mullet Mullus barbatus, three-bearded rockling Gaidropsarus vulgaris, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus, stargazer Uranoscopus scaber, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, garfish Belone belone, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, thornback ray Raja clavata, and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus) tested positive for VHSV Genotype Ie (VHSV-Ie). Except whiting, pilchard, and round goby, the rest are new host records for VHSV. The extent and spread of VHSV-Ie was significantly higher among bottom fish than among pelagic fish. Sensitivity and specificity of the RT-mPCR developed was sufficiently high, suggesting that this assay may be used for both diagnostic and surveillance testing. According to the RT-mPCR results, IPNV was not present in wild fish. These results support the hypothesis that the VHSV-Ie genotype, highly prevalent among fish species in the Black Sea, may have a serious impact on the population dynamics of wild fish stocks.

  19. Habitat selection response of small pelagic fish in different environments. Two examples from the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea.

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    Angelo Bonanno

    Full Text Available A number of scientific papers in the last few years singled out the influence of environmental conditions on the spatial distribution of fish species, highlighting the need for the fisheries scientific community to investigate, besides biomass estimates, also the habitat selection of commercially important fish species. The Mediterranean Sea, although generally oligotrophic, is characterized by high habitat variability and represents an ideal study area to investigate the adaptive behavior of small pelagics under different environmental conditions. In this study the habitat selection of European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and European sardine Sardina pilchardus is analyzed in two areas of the Mediterranean Sea that largely differentiate in terms of environmental regimes: the Strait of Sicily and the North Aegean Sea. A number of environmental parameters were used to investigate factors influencing anchovy and sardine habitat selection. Acoustic surveys data, collected during the summer period 2002-2010, were used for this purpose. The quotient analysis was used to identify the association between high density values and environmental variables; it was applied to the entire dataset in each area in order to identify similarities or differences in the "mean" spatial behavioral pattern for each species. Principal component analysis was applied to selected environmental variables in order to identify those environmental regimes which drive each of the two ecosystems. The analysis revealed the effect of food availability along with bottom depth selection on the spatial distribution of both species. Furthermore PCA results highlighted that observed selectivity for shallower waters is mainly associated to specific environmental processes that locally increase productivity. The common trends in habitat selection of the two species, as observed in the two regions although they present marked differences in hydrodynamics, seem to be driven by the

  20. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarchopoulou, Donna; Stergiou, Konstantinos I; Tsikliras, Athanassios C

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length

  1. Organochlorine compounds (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in seafish and seafood from the Spanish Atlantic Southwest Coast.

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    Bordajandi, L R; Martín, I; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and congener specific profiles of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined in edible fish and seafood species from the Coast of Huelva, in the Spanish southwest Atlantic coast. Five fish species, namely wegde sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata), common sole (Solea vulgaris), white seabream (Diplodus sargus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), angler fish (Lophius piscatorius), two shellfish species (Donax trunculus and Chamelea gallina), common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and prawns (Parapenaeus longirostris), frequently found and consumed in the area were analysed. Concentrations ranged from 861 to 23787pg/g wet weight for total PCBs, while 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs showed concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.18pg/g wet weight. WHO-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.038 to 0.186pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g wet weight, values well below the maximum concentrations established by the EU. When non- and mono-ortho PCBs were included the values increased to a maximum of 0.99pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+PCBs)/g wet weight. The PCB and PCDD/F accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples, and no remarkable differences were found between species. The PCBs were the ones contributing with the highest percentage to the total TEQ content in most species studied. Concerning the seafood, specially prawns and shellfish, the opposite was observed and PCDD/Fs were found to contribute with a higher percentage than PCBs. The congener specific contribution to the TEQ showed PCB 126 followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as the most abundant ones.

  2. Ecología trófica del Liso (Rhamdia quelen Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 en el río Sinú, Colombia

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    Charles W. Olaya-Nieto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la ecología trófica del Liso en el río Sinú como contribución al conocimiento de su biología y ecología, a su preservación en el medio natural y al ordenamiento de su pesquería en la cuenca. Materiales y métodos. El contenido estomacal se evaluó con el Coeficiente de vacuidad, Grado de digestión, Frecuencia de ocurrencia, Frecuencia numérica, Gravimetría, Índice de importancia relativa (IIR y la relación longitud intestinal (LI-longitud total (LT. Resultados. El 38.2% de los estómagos estaban vacíos y el 92.5% de las presas estaban medio digeridas, identificándose 5 grupos alimentarios: Peces, Crustáceos, Insectos, Material vegetal y Otros. Peces, conformado por Cachana, Cocobolo, Mayupa, Sardina y Restos de peces, fue la presa más frecuente (69.9%, abundante (45.5% y con mayor composición por peso (76.8%. El Índice de importancia relativa (IIR indica que Peces fue el alimento principal (IIR =53.7%, y que las demás presas eran de baja importancia relativa, circunstanciales o incidentales. Conclusiones. Los resultados alcanzados en este estudio indican que el Liso es un pez con hábitos alimentarios nocturnos y carnívoros, con tendencia a consumir Peces.

  3. Desodorización de aceite de pescado mediante destilación a alto vacío: preservación de las características químicas del aceite

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    Nieto, S.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction and the operation conditions of a high vacuum glass-equipment for deodorizing sardine oil at laboratory scale is described. The equipment working at 120°C and at a pressure of 0.05-0.1 mmHg maintains unchanged the n-3 fatty acid composition of the oil producing a considerable reduction in the cholesterol and peroxide content of the oil. The stripper, having a throughput of 1500-1800 mL/hr, allows the obtaining of a high quality fish oil suitable for experimental and for pharmacological and/or nutritional applications.

    Se describe la construcción y condiciones de operación de un destilador de vidrio de alto vacío que permite, a escala de laboratorio, la desodorización del aceite de sardina española. El equipo operando a temperaturas no superiores a 120°C y a una presión constante de 0,05-0,1 mmHg no altera la composición de ácidos grasos n-3 del aceite y permite una disminución considerable del colesterol y de los peróxidos orgánicos. La destilación permite obtener un aceite de alta calidad con un rendimiento de 1500-1800 mL/hr que puede ser utilizado para fines experimentales o para uso farmacológico y/o nutricional.

  4. The use of pelagic fish as proxies of environmental contamination: a case study with sardine populations

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    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioindicators to analyze marine ecosystems contamination is often made difficult due to the absence of appropriate species. Pelagic fish species, captured by commercial fishing fleets around the world, can be successfully used to assess contaminant levels, by determining their body burden in specific compounds. However the study of biological responses elicited by such compounds, through the analysis of biomarkers, is highly dependent on the physiological and reproductive status of the organisms. Such confounding factors elicit seasonal fluctuations that difficult the extrapolation of data. Sardine (Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, being easily available through commercial fisheries. The present work intended to explore the potential of this species in biomonitoring studies, by simultaneously using enzymatic biomarkers and condition indices determined in fish landed in three commercial harbors along the west coast of Portugal. This strategy allowed devising spatial and temporal patterns in the sardine metapopulation. Results evidenced significant variability in both biochemical and physiological profiles of the fish, which were coherent among all sampling sites. Throughout the year, large seasonal differences for most markers were reported, which were strongly linked to the reproductive cycle and its physiological consequences (acquisition of energy, mobilization of energy reserves, etc.. It was possible to conclude that seasonality acts as a strong factor underlying chronological physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are usually employed as indicators of contamination. These effects can limit the usefulness of such a biomarker approach unless seasonality is not accounted for, and if no background values are known from previous studies. In this sense, studies such as this are pivotal to establish a baseline for biomonitoring studies. Also, despite the difficulty in

  5. Quantifying the predation on sardine and hake by cetaceans in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian peninsula

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    Begoña Santos, M.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pierce, Graham J.

    2014-08-01

    Construction of ecosystem models requires detailed information on trophic interactions which may not be readily available, especially for top predators such as cetaceans. Such information can also be useful to estimate natural mortality (M) for fish stock assessments and to evaluate the potential for competition between cetaceans and fisheries. In the present paper we provide estimates and confidence limits, taking into account sampling error, for consumption of fish by the four most common cetaceans along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, while highlighting the uncertainties and biases inherent in the information presently available on energy requirements, diet and population size. We estimated that common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) consume around 6800 (95% CI, 4871-9476) tons of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), 8800 (6195-12,647) tons of gadids, 1100 (721-1662) tons of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and 1900 (1222-2752) tons of scads (Trachurus sp.) annually. For striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), prey consumed were 900 (196-2661) tons of sardine, 6200 (3448-11,129) tons of gadids, 200 (11-504) tons of hake and 1600 (0-5318) tons of scads. Estimated amounts taken by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are much lower, reflecting their low abundance in the area. Cetacean predation on sardine represents 2-8% of the current M value, indicating that cetaceans probably have little influence on sardine population dynamics. For the southern hake stock, estimated average removal by cetaceans often exceeds M. While this may indicate that both M and the consumption estimates for hake require revision it also suggests that cetaceans could have a more significant impact on hake populations. Different approaches to estimation of energy requirements of cetaceans can result in figures that differ by at least a factor of 2. The lack of good estimates of field metabolic rate for most species probably represents the most

  6. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

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    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Møller, Peter Rask; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus). Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp) eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental conditions, our

  7. KAJIAN KERENTANAN BEBERAPA JENIS IKAN PELAGIS KECIL DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA

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    Setya Triharyuni

    2015-09-01

    productivity of the stock and its susceptibility to the fishery. There are eight attributes for productivity indicator and four attributes for susceptibility indicator. The value of all the indicators are 1-3. The value of 1 is the low productivity and low Susseptibility, the value 2 is a moderate productivity and moderate Susceptibility as well as the value of 3 is high productivity and high Susceptibily. The data was taken from fish resources such as: spotted sardinella (Ambligaster sirm, scads (Decapterus macrosoma & Decapterus ruselli, short bodied mackerel (Rastrelliger branchysoma, indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta and bigeye scad (Selar crumenopthalmus. The vulnerability index for spotted sardinella (Ambligaster sirm, scads (Decapterus macrosoma & Decapterus ruselli, short-bodied mackerel (Rastrelliger branchysoma is above 1,8. Whereas indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta and bigeye scad (Selar crumenopthalmus were 1.59 and 1.75 . The vulnerability has been exceeding of 1,8, so that fisheries management was needed to ensure sustainability.

  8. Concentração e retenção do selênio em peixes marinhos Concentration and retention of selenium in marine fish

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    Alfredo Tenuta Filho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O pescado contém substancialmente maiores concentrações de selênio (Se do que outras carnes e é, por isso, considerado a maior fonte dietária desse nutriente. Ao mesmo tempo, o pescado também é a maior fonte de ingestão de mercúrio (Hg na dieta humana, cuja toxidez pode ser reduzida pelo Se, por interação entre ambos. Em consequência, a biodisponibilidade do Se é reduzida. No presente estudo, a ocorrência do Se foi avaliada em espécies marinhas de peixes brasileiros, comercialmente disponíveis, e determinada sua retenção em cação-mangona. Os níveis médios de Se encontrados nos peixes ósseos, corvina (Micropogonias furnieri, peixe-porco (Balistes capricus, pescada-branca e sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis, 0,48 ± 0,18 μg.g-1, e nos peixes cartilaginosos, cação-anjo, cação-cambeva, cação-machote e cação-mangona, 0,36 ± 0,07 μg.g-1, não diferiram entre si (p > 0,05 e situaram-se na mesma faixa de ocorrência indicada na literatura para peixes marinhos em geral. Os níveis de Se detectados nos cações (espécies predadoras não permitem o estabelecimento de relação estequiométrica suficiente para a interação com o Hg, visando à proteção tóxica esperada. A retenção efetiva do Se medida em cação-mangona, após extração com água, foi considerada elevada (mínimo de 68,81% e importante sob os pontos de vista nutricional e toxicológico.Fish contains considerably higher selenium (Se concentrations than other kinds of meats, and thus it is considered a major dietary source of this nutrient. At the same time, fish is also the major source of mercury (Hg in the human diet, whose toxicity can be reduced by the Se through the interaction between both compounds. In consequence, the biological availability of Se is reduced. In the current study, the occurrence of Se was evaluated in commercially available Brazilian marine species, and the retention of Se in sharks (sand tiger shark was determined. The

  9. Diel and tidal variation in surf zone fish assemblages of a sheltered beach in southern Brazil Variación diaria y mareal de ensambles de peces en la zona de surf de una playa protegida en el sur de Brasil

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    Fabiana C Félix-Hackradt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diel and tidal variations of fish assemblages were assessed at Pontal beach, southern Brazil, using a seine net. Species richness was greater at night, whereas fish number, weight, and richness (cornmunity indicators were all influenced by the tidal state. Samples from rising tides were more representative, probably due to onshore fish movements for feeding purposes. However, lower catches were associated with high tides, mainly through net avoidance, indicating that sampling in these conditions is not highly informative. Clupeoids exhibited greater variation in a 24 h period, and the night occurrence of A. tricolor and daylight shoaling of Harengula clupeola, Anchoa parva and Sardinella brasiliensis suggested distinct strategies for avoiding daylight predators. In some species, this behaviour may have been induced by the bottom morphology and tidal state, facilitating nearshore grouping. In addition to being caught at night, the occurrences of Menticirrhus littoralis, Pomadasys corvinaefórmis, Umbrina coroides and Hyporhamphus unifasciatus indicated a spatial niche partition according to tidal state. Although not evaluated properly, temporal fluctuations could reflect species recruitment patterns. Seasonal fluctuations have to be considered when analysing short-term changes in the cornmunity as such fluctuations are synchronized with the natural history of the species, making it difficult to interpret short-term variations in isolation.Se utilizó una red de arrastre para evaluar la variación diaria y mareal del ensamble de peces en la playa de Pontal, sur de Brasil. Se encontró la mayor riqueza de especies durante la noche mientras que la abundancia, peso y riqueza (indicadores de la comunidad fueron influenciados por la marea. Las muestras de marea creciente fueron las más representativas debido probablemente a los movimientos costeros con fines alimentarios; sin embargo, las menores capturas estuvieron asociadas a pleamares debido a la

  10. KAPASITAS PENANGKAPAN IKAN PELAGIS KECIL DI PERAIRAN PANTAI BARAT SULAWESI SELATAN (FISHING CAPACITY OF SMALL PELAGIC FISH IN OF WEST COAST OF SOUTH SULAWESI

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    Alfa Nelwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kapasitas penangkapan adalah ukuran kemampuan yang dikerahkan oleh berbagai jenis unit penangkapan ikan yang tergabung sebagai suatu armada penangkapan ikan untuk memperoleh hasil tangkapan. Penelitian ini menganalisis trend dan kapasitas penangkapan ikan pelagis kecil di perairan pantai barat Sulawesi Selatan. Delapan jenis alat penangkap yang signifikan di Selat Makassar, perairan barat Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan adalah payang, pukat pantai, pukat cincin, jaring insang hanyut, jaring lingkar, jaring insang tetap, bagan perahu dan bagan tancap.  Produksi dari 8 unit penangkapan berdasarkan 6 jenis ikan pelagis kecil, yaitu (1 kembung (Rastrelliger sp, (2 layang (Decapterus sp, (3 lemuru (Sardinella longiceps, (4 selar (Selaroides spp, (5 tembang (Sardinella  fimbriata, (6 teri (Stolephorus spp. Total upaya penangkapan ikan tahunan dari kedelapan jenis unit penangkapan ikan tersebut dihitung untuk kurun waktu selama 20 tahun (1987-2006 dengan menerapkan standardisasi berdasarkan kemampuan setiap jenis unit penangkapan ikan.  Analisis dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi trend CPUE dan kapasitas penangkapan ikan pelagis kecil menggunakan metode Peak to Peak Analysis di tiga zona perairan pantai, yaitu perairan laut dangkal  (zona A, perairan bentuk teluk (zona B dan perairan laut dalam (zona C, Tren CPUE di ketiga zona menunjukkan cenderung menurun dalam kurun waktu 30 tahun, dimana tren menurun CPUE di zona C menunjukkan lebih besar dibandingkan zona lainnya.  Kapasitas penangkapan di zona A, perlu mereduksi jumlah unit penangkapan sebesar 6%, sedangkan di zona B sebesar 5% dan zona C sebesar 11% untuk mencapai produksi optimal. Fishing capacity can be regarded as a total mobilized capability made by fishing fleet to produce catch. This research analyze trend and fishing capacities of small pelagic fish in off west coast of South Sulawesi. There are 8 significant fishing unit operated in off west coast of South Sulawesi ; these are  payang

  11. Diel variation of fish community in sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo Gaelzer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish living in coastal waters present behavior patterns ruled by environmental light levels. Diel variations in fish community structure were investigated at Arraial do Cabo surf zone (22º58'S, 42º01'W. From September/2001 to August/2002 monthly sampling consisted of 12 hauls of a beach seine during the day and at night at Praia dos Anjos, Praia Grande and Prainha beaches. Different temporal distribution patterns of the ichthyc community were recorded. At Praia dos Anjos, total richness was higher at night while the average number of species, CPUE, Margalef's richness and Shannon diversity were generally higher during the day. We believe that this pattern was caused by the displacement of some species such as Harengula clupeola,Trachinotus carolinus and Umbrina coroides at night to deeper areas searching for food or for predator avoidance. At Praia Grande and Prainha the average number of species, CPUE, richness and diversity indexes were generally higher at night with the dominant species H. clupeola, Pomatomus saltatrix and Sardinella brasiliensis. It is suggested that the main factor to diel variation is the protection against predators due to darkness, making visualization of the prey difficult, besides the presence of seasonal macroalgae beds at Prainha, which might function as a food area for piscivorous fishes due to the proximity of larger individuals in shallower water especially at night.Peixes que vivem em águas costeiras marinhas exibem modelos de comportamento que são regulados pelos níveis de luz do ambiente. A variação nictemeral na estrutura da comunidade de peixes de zona de arrebentação foi investigada na região de Arraial do Cabo (22º58'S, 42º01'W. Desetembro/2001 a agosto/2002 foram realizadas coletas mensais, sendo efetuadas 12 arrastos utilizando cerco de praia nos períodos diurnos e noturnos na Praia dos Anjos, Praia Grande e Prainha. Diferentes padrões de distribuição da comunidade ictíca foram

  12. Spatial distribution and species composition of small pelagic fishes in the Gulf of California

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    Edgar Lanz

    2008-06-01

    regiones, incluyen áreas arbitrarias y homogéneas sobre las cuales se realiza estadística básica o inferencias relacionadas con la distribución y la abundancia de estos recursos. El presente trabajo describe una metodología para la regionalización y el análisis de la actividad pesquera de pelágicos menores en el Golfo de California basado en los patrones espaciales de la información de lances y capturas utilizando herramientas de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG. La información pesquera, con atributos espaciales, provino de bitácoras de pesca para el periodo comprendido de octubre 2002 a junio 2007. Los datos de lances y capturas fueron transformados a un Índice de Región Ponderada (WRI utilizando operadores de lógica difusa. El WRI reveló centros de actividad pesquera caracterizados por áreas con los valores más altos de WRI y se obtuvo un orden jerárquico para denotar la importancia relativa de cada región, siendo las regiones de Guaymas, el Desemboque de Caborca, Isla Patos y Bahía San Rafael, los más prominentes. El análisis de la frecuencia relativa de la composición de especies mostró que la sardina Monterrey tuvo una abundancia relativa mayor al 80% en la región de las Grandes Islas y permaneció como la especie más importante en las regiones del alto golfo, mientras que en la parte central del golfo las abundancias de la sardina Monterrey y la ancho-veta norteña estuvieron más equilibradas. La abundancia relativa de la macarela fue significativamente mayor en la región de la Isla Patos, respecto a cualquier otra región. La región de Guaymas mostró la mayor composición relativa de anchoveta norteña, en contraste con los más bajos valores de sardina Monterrey. El Desemboque de Caborca mostró la mayor homogeneidad en la composición relativa de especies. Estos resultados provienen de datos in situ, mientras que los resultados previamente reportados provienen de estadísticas de lances por puerto. En consecuencia, el

  13. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

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    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    de pequenos peces pelágicos de la región norte del Sistema de la Corriente de Humboldt (NHCS son el producto de la variación de forzantes ambientales en diferentes escalas de tiempo y espacio que influyen entre el ecosistema 'frío' costero y el oceánico 'cálido'. La información para estudiar estas fluctuaciones provienen mayormente de las pesquerías, y muestran que la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens incrementa su abundancia cuando la de sardina (Sardinops sagax declina y viceversa. Sin embargo, utilizando datos acústicos de biomasa latitudinal se muestra que otras especies como la caballa (Scomber japonicus y el jurel (Trachurus murphyi también siguen la misma tendencia opuesta a anchoveta, lo que en principio indica que los datos pesqueros disponibles no indican la verdadera dimensión del balance de abundancia entre especies. Utilizando diagramas de Hovmoller se analizan los cambios en la biomasa acústica latitudinal, capturas e influencia de eventos El Nino ocurridos entre 1966 y 2009 con el objetivo de describir: 1 cómo el patrón de distribución decadal de anchoveta se movió de sur a norte desde la década de 1960, 2 cómo se han producido cambios concomitantes en la abundancia latitudinal de otras especies tales como sardina, caballa y jurel antes, durante y después de eventos El Nino, y 3 cuál fue el efecto general de la sucesión de eventos El Nino sobre todas estas especies. Se concluye que: a cada evento El Nino ha tenido un efecto en la expansión o contracción de la distribución de especies pelágicas, con diferente gradiente latitudinal, y b El Nino 1997-98 no disparó sino aceleró la fase declinante de la abundancia de sardina, caballa y jurel al reducirse el tamano de su hábitat ideal debido a una expansión del hábitat costero que presentó además un acercamiento a la superficie del límite superior de la Zona Mínima de Oxígeno (MOZ. Las observaciones logradas con datos acústicos podrían ser tomadas en consideración para el

  14. Levels of polonium-210 in highly consumed sea foods from a fish market of the city of Niteroi, RJ-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsico, Eliane T.; Sao Clemente, Sergio C. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos - LARARA

    2007-07-01

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), a short-lived member from the uranium series, is broadly distributed in Nature being among all alpha-emitters the major contributor to the internal dose in man. Studies of diets have shown that marine foods are important sources of this radionuclide. The levels of {sup 210}Po have been determined in three highly consumed marine species, the fishes Sardinella brasiliensis (sardine) and Thunnus atlanticus (tuna), and the shrimp Litopenaeus brasiliensis, purchased from the Niteroi (RJ, Brazil) fish market, and caught along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Doses of {sup 210}Po were determined for the entire organisms and for some tissues and organs, such as eyes, heart, gills, muscle, stomach liver, intestine and pyloric caecal (fishes) or eyes, head content, exoskeleton, muscle, hepatopancreas and pleopods. {sup 210}Po is not uniformly distributed within these species, the highest levels being observed for sardine in the intestine (1634.6 mBq g-1), tuna in pyloric caecal (4656.1 mBq g-1) and shrimp in the hepatopancreas (1460.5 mBq g-1). The {sup 210}Po activities in sardine, tuna and shrimp, calculated on a mean whole-organism basis, were 64.6, 34.5 and 39.5 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) respectively, with corresponding concentration factors of 7.2 x104, 3.8 x104 and 4.4 x104. Considering body distribution, almost 60% of the total activity is concentrated in the pyloric caecal of both fishes and in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp. In turn, the edible parts concentrate much less activity. (author)

  15. ANALISIS NILAI TAMBAH PRODUK PERIKANAN LEMURU PELABUHAN MUNCAR BANYUWANGI

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    Ratna Purwaningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lemuru fisheries in Bali strait, Muncar, Banyuwangi has strategic role for fish canning industries. Sardinella lemuru has low economic value as fresh fish but high as fish canning. Fisheres production system must be viewed as a whole value added system, starting from landing site at fisheries port to fish processing industries and distributed to the consumers. Lemuru from Muncar fishery port are distributed to canning industries, cold storage, flour and fish oil industries. This research aims to (1 describe fish distribution pattern from landing site to industries, (2 determine fish processing cost in industries, (3 determine the economic added value of lemuru as various products. Data collection method are interview with fisher and industries, direct observation and secondary data from research report and scientific publication. Cost in fish processing industries is classified as investment cost, operating cost and overhead cost. The totalcost will becompared to the product price, from which the differenceis theadded value.  Value-added creation also considers the conversion rate between fresh fish products into finished products. Research  shows that, among the fish processing industries under consideration, canning industry has highest added value in the amount of USD 3.5 million/ton of finished product. For the canning industry, every 1 ton of fish can equal be converted to 1,5 ton of canned fish products. Flour and fish oil industry, in the meantime, generates added value of Rp 2.3million/ton. Finally, cold storage industry has lowest added value of 1.8 million/ton of product. Cold storage industry produces frozen fish and has a function for storing fish production in the harvest season.

  16. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) assessment and fatty acids profile in fish most consumed by Cubatao community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: mrcurcho@ipen.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kuniyoshi, Leonardo S.; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT); Baggio, Sueli R., E-mail: sueli@ital.sp.gov.b [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Qualidade de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, providing omega-3 (n-3) the fatty acids that reduce cholesterol levels, and reduce the incidence of heart disease and stroke. The purpose of the present study was to assess the concentration of some micronutrients and also fatty acids profile in muscles of the most consumed fish species from Cubatao coastal region. Cubatao carnivorous fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada) and Menticirrhus americanus (Perna-de-Moca), and planktivorous species Sardinella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se, Zn) in fish muscle were determined by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Fatty acids profiles in these muscle fish samples were performed by gas chromatography. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 23.0% in M. ancylodon to 50.0% in M. liza. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents varied from 10.9% in M. liza 38.4% in S. braziliensis. These fish species presented different proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family and of the n-6 family. Regarding the n-6 family, M. furnieri showed the highest values (13.3%) and M. ancylodon, the lowest ones (4.1%). On the other hand, for the n-3 family, S. braziliensis presented the highest value (31.8%) and M. liza the lowest one (5.7%). Regarding micronutrients content, great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. From the nutritional point of view S. braziliensis is the best choice showing highest content of fatty acid n-3 family and micronutrient concentrations. (author)

  17. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  18. Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

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    Elaine C. da S. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae. However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, gathers in small schools. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactics that occurred in the Ilha Grande Bay and in approximately 61% of feeding tactics in the Sepetiba Bay, suggesting that these areas are important for social learning. This study provides more information about feeding tactics and improves knowledge of the coordinated behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Benéden, 1864.

  19. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  20. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  1. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

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    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  2. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios foi investigada por meio da análise de 98 amostras fecais de animais silvestres capturados em uma área de desmatamento para a construção das barragens de Paraitinga e Biritiba, localizadas nos Municípios de Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis e Biritiba-Mirim, no Estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram obtidas de 46 roedores, 21 marsupiais, 16 sapos, nove morcegos, três primatas e três lagartos. As técnicas de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco, de Kinyoun e a coloração de Gram-Chromotrope foram utilizadas, respectivamente, para a pesquisa de Giardia, de Cryptosporidium e de microsporídios. O total de animais parasitados por um dos protozoários investigados foi de 17,35% (17/98. Cistos de Giardia foram encontrados em amostras fecais de dois pequenos roedores da espécie Coendou villosus (ouriço-cacheiro. Os três animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foram roedores das espécies Akodon montensis, Thaptomys nigrita (ambos conhecidos como ratos do mato e Sciurus aestuans (serelepe ou caxinguelê. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados nas fezes de 12 animais, sendo seis roedores das espécies Oligoryzomys sp.(um, Akodon montensis (três e Coendou villosus (dois, três marsupiais pertencentes às espécies Didelphis aurita (dois e Marmosops incanus (um e três morcegos da espécie Diphylla ecaudata. Este é o primeiro relato de microsporidiose em animais silvestres no Brasil. A presente investigação enfatiza a importância de animais silvestres, particularmente pequenos mamíferos, como potenciais fontes de infecção desses protozoários para outras populações animais, incluindo o homem, em áreas de desmatamento.The occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia was investigated in 98 faecal specimens from wildlife animals, captured in an area of deforestation for the construction of two water reservoirs (Paraitinga and Biritiba, located in the

  3. Estudo eletrorretinográfico de visão cromática Electroretinographic study of chromatic vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara de Almeida Cunha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o traçado eletrorretinográfico no gambá sul-americano (Didelphis aurita obtido com estímulo cromático de comprimento de onda seletivo. O eletrorretinograma é o registro das variações de voltagem nas células retinianas, desencadeadas por estímulo luminoso. O eletrorretinograma representa a atividade elétrica combinada de diferentes células, e sofre variações dependendo da fisiologia retiniana e do método de exame. MÉTODOS: Foram registrados os eletrorretinogramas de seis animais em adaptação ao escuro utilizando filtros cromáticos Kodak Wratten®, e registrada a sensibilidade espectral para comprimentos de onda específicos nas faixas de cores do azul, verde, amarelo, laranja e vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os resultados eletrorretinográficos mais consistentes foram obtidos quando o animal foi estimulado por faixas espectrais seletivas, ao invés de luz branca; e são consistentes com a curva de absorbância das opsinas descritas em fotorreceptores de marsupiais. Estudos prévios sugeriram a tricromacia dos marsupiais por microespectrofotometria de opsinas e imuno-histoquímica de retina. Esse fundamento morfológico não tinha demonstração fisiológica eletrorretinográfica, até este estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O gambá sul-americano tem se mostrado interessante como animal experimental no estudo comparativo da fisiologia visual em mamíferos, especialmente no estudo filogenético da visão cromática. Os marsupiais apresentam um modelo retiniano que superpõe os sistemas fotópico e escotópico; e o gênero Didelphis conserva características encontradas em fósseis do período pleoceno. Portanto, o sistema visual de um marsupial resgata características dos primórdios da evolução dos mamíferos, até o desenvolvimento dos padrões retinianos modernos.PURPOSE: To describe the electroretinogram of the South-American opossum (Didelphis aurita obtained by chromatic stimulus of specific

  4. ITAG: A fine-scale measurement platform to inform organismal response to a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, K.; Shorter, K. A.; Mooney, T. A.; Mann, D.; Wang, A. Z.; Sonnichsen, F. N.

    2016-02-01

    Soft-bodied marine invertebrates comprise a keystone component of ocean ecosystems, however we know little of their behaviors and physiological responses within their natural habitat. Quantifying ocean conditions and measuring an organisms' response to the physical environment is vital to understanding organismal responses to a changing ocean. However, we face technological limitations when attempting to quantify the physical and environmental conditions that organisms encounter at spatial and temporal scales of an individual organism. Here we describe a novel, eco-sensor tag (the ITAG) that has 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis magnetometer, pressure, temperature, and light sensors. Current and future efforts involve miniaturizing and integrating O2 and salinity sensors to the ITAG. The tagging package is designed to be neutrally buoyant, and after a prescribed time, the electronics separate from a weighted base and floats to the surface. Tags were deployed on five jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and eight squid (Loligo forbesi) in laboratory conditions for up to 24 hr. Using concurrent video and tag data, movement signatures for specific behaviors were identified. Based on these laboratory trials, we found that squid activity level changed in response to ambient light conditions, which can inform trade-offs between behavior and energy expenditure in captive and wild animals. The ITAG opens the door for lab and field-based measurements of behavior, physiology, and concurrent environmental parameters that not only inform interactions in a changing ocean, but also provides a novel platform by which characterization of the environment can be conducted at fine spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Jellyfish model for ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Jacob Seth; Benson, Chris; Spangenberg, Dorothy; Lattanzio, Frank; Strasnick, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacologic ototoxicity is well described in the medical literature, yet efficient screening models are lacking. Aurelia aurita ephyrae, transparent jellyfish with identifiable hair cells, could be an effective model. Structural changes readily manifest behaviorally, and hair cells are easily stained and observed. We treated ephyrae with various gentamicin concentrations, evaluated its motility, and quantified its hair cell loss. Baseline pulsing per minute (P), swimming (S), and orientation (O) values were recorded from cultured ephyrae. Ephyrae were transferred into test tubes containing artificial seawater (ASW), gentamicin, or penicillin. P, S, and O were scored at 0, 24, and 48 hours. Ephyrae were formalin fixed, phalloidin stained, and imaged with confocal microscopy, and hair cells were then counted. P was impaired by gentamicin in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas ASW controls maintained baseline P, S, and O values. Impairment of S and O occurred with 3.5 mmol/L gentamicin at 24 hours. For six experiments each using 40 ephyrae, at 24 hours, average P was reduced from 75.2 in ASW to 28.8, 12.3, and 1.9 for 1, 2, and 3.5 mmol/L gentamicin, respectively (p < 0.05 for all cases). Hair cell loss at 24 and 48 hours was significant (32% and 48% reduction compared with control, p < 0.05) and correlated with motility deficits. Deficits from penicillin exposure were not statistically significant. The ephyra model demonstrated functional and histologic gentamicin-mediated impairments, showing promise as a screening tool for ototoxic agents. The changes in ephyra motility after gentamicin exposure correlated significantly with hair cell loss.

  6. Flow structure and transport characteristics of feeding and exchange currents generated by upside-down Cassiopea jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Dollinger, Makani; Hamlet, Christina L; Colin, Sean P; Miller, Laura A

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography, digital particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation. During the rapid contraction phase of the bell, fluid is pulled into a starting vortex ring that translates through the oral arms with peak velocities that can be of the order of 10 cm s(-1). Strong shear flows are also generated across the top of the oral arms throughout the entire pulse cycle. A coherent train of vortex rings is not observed, unlike in the case of swimming oblate medusae such as Aurelia aurita. The phase-averaged flow generated by bell pulsations is similar to a vertical jet, with induced flow velocities averaged over the cycle of the order of 1-10 mm s(-1). This introduces a strong near-horizontal entrainment of the fluid along the substrate and towards the oral arms. Continual flow along the substrate towards the jellyfish is reproduced by numerical simulations that model the oral arms as a porous Brinkman layer of finite thickness. This two-dimensional numerical model does not, however, capture the far-field flow above the medusa, suggesting that either the three-dimensionality or the complex structure of the oral arms helps to direct flow towards the central axis and up and away from the animal.

  7. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura

    2011-09-21

    The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Reswimming velocities and vortex separation patterns for the model prolate agree with those observed in Nemopsis bachei. The forward swimming velocities of the model oblate jellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as the rigidity of the time varying geometry imposed by the idealized model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoles induce metamorphosis in a broad diversity of jellyfish, but not in a crown jelly (Coronatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R Helm

    Full Text Available Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish. Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa, in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa, while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that may coordinate these different forms of metamorphosis, we tested two compounds first identified to induce metamorphosis in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita (indomethacin and 5-methoxy-2-methylindole on a broad diversity of medusozoan polyps. We discovered that indole-containing compounds trigger metamorphosis across a broad diversity of species. All tested discomedusan polyps metamorphosed in the presence of both compounds, including species representatives of several major lineages within the clade (Pelagiidae, Cyaneidae, both clades of Rhizostomeae. In a cubozoan, low levels of 5-methoxy-2-methylindole reliably induced complete and healthy metamorphosis. In contrast, neither compound induced medusa metamorphosis in a coronate scyphozoan, or medusa production in either hydrozoan tested. Our results support the hypothesis that metamorphosis is mediated by a conserved induction pathway within discomedusan scyphozoans, and possibly cubozoans. However, failure of these compounds to induce metamorphosis in a coronate suggests this induction mechanism may have been lost in this clade, or is convergent between Scyphozoa and Cubozoa.

  9. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  10. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in

  11. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  12. Feeding behaviour of the hydromedusa Aequorea vitrina

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    Hans Ulrik RiisgÅrd

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prey-capture mechanism of the hydromedusa Aequorea vitrina was studied by means of laboratory video-microscope observations. In stagnant water A. vitrina remains stationary with its very long (about 4x bell diameter marginal tentacles motionless hanging down in the water, ready for ambush capture of prey organisms that collide with the tentacles. A. vitrina was found to be efficient at capturing brine shrimps (Artemia salina, less efficient at capturing rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, and very inefficient at capturing copepods (Acartia tonsa. The initial hauling up of an extended marginal tentacle with an adhering prey is fast (>10 mm s-1. Both the bell margin and the mouth move towards each other so that the captured prey can be transferred from the tentacle to the elongated mouth-lips to be further transported into the mouth and stomach. It takes about 20 s from when an Artemia prey organism encounters a tentacle until it is transferred to the mouth-lips. The subsequent digestion in the stomach takes about 30 min. When A. vitrina encounters a jellyfish-prey (a small medusa of Aurelia aurita, it starts to swim in order to adhere the relatively big prey to its mouth-lips. Then A. vitrina opens its mouth wide to swallow the captured medusa, a process which takes about 15 to 20 min. The subsequent digestion takes 2 to 3 h. Field observations of undisturbed A. vitrina made by snorkelling in the Limfjord (Denmark revealed that the feeding behaviour was similar to that observed in the laboratory in stagnant water. It is concluded that A. vitrina is an ambush-predator, and not a cruising-predatory medusa as previously suggested.

  13. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Saulo Martins; da Rocha, Surza Lucia Gonçalves; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele da Costa; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan; Perales, Jonas

    2017-07-01

    Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum) serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold), increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin) and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2) from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  14. Screening for target toxins of the antiophidic protein DM64 through a gel-based interactomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-16

    DM64 is a glycosylated protein with antivenom activity isolated from the serum of the opossum Didelphis aurita. It binds non-covalently to myotoxins I (Asp49) and II (Lys49) from Bothrops asper venom and inhibits their myotoxic effect. In this study, an affinity column with immobilized DM64 as bait was used to fish potential target toxins. All ten isolated myotoxins tested were able to effectively bind to the DM64 column. To better access the specificity of the inhibitor, crude venoms from Bothrops (8 species), Crotalus (2 species) and Naja naja atra were submitted to the affinity purification. Venom fractions bound and nonbound to the DM64 column were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Although venom fractions bound to the column were mainly composed of basic PLA2, a few spots corresponding to acidic PLA2 were also observed. Some unexpected protein spots were also identified: C-type lectins and CRISP may represent putative new targets for DM64, whereas the presence of serine peptidases in the venom bound fraction is likely a consequence of nonspecific binding to the column matrix. The present results contribute to better delineate the inhibitory potential of DM64, providing a framework for the development of more specific antivenom therapies. Local tissue damage induced by myotoxic PLA2 remains a serious consequence of snake envenomation, since it is only partially neutralized by traditional antivenom serotherapy. Myotoxin inhibition by highly specific molecules offers great promise in the treatment of snakebites, a health problem largely neglected by governments and pharmaceutical industries. Bioactive compounds such as DM64 can represent a valuable source of scaffolds for drug development in this area. The present study has systematically profiled the binding specificity of DM64 toward a variety of snake venom toxin classes and therefore can lead to a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of this important

  15. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martins Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2 structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold, increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2 from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  16. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

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    Ryuju Kitatani

    Full Text Available A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  17. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Marine microalgae used as food supplements and their implication in preventing cardiovascular diseases

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    Mimouni Virginie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms producing numerous bioactive molecules of interest for health and disease care such as lipids rich in omega-3 fatty acids -as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3- and carotenoids (e.g., β-carotene, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin. It has already been shown that these molecules, individually used, are benefic in the prevention of diseases such as those associated with the cardiovascular risks, but also in some carcinomas. When these molecules are combined, synergistic effects may be observed. Microalgae, as a dietary supplement, can be used to study these synergistic effects in animal models in which dyslipidemia can be induced by a nutrition treatment. Different marine microalgae of interest are studied in this context to determine their potential effect as an alternative source to marine omega-3 rich fish oils, actually widely used for human health. Actually, the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries are developing health research programs involving microalgae, trying to limit the dramatic reduction of fish stocks and the associated pollution in the marine environment. The aim of this review is threefold: (1 to present research on lipids, particularly long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as components of marine microalgae used as food supplements; (2 to present the health benefits of some microalgae or their extracts, in particular in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and (3 to highlight the role of Odontella aurita, a marine microalga rich in EPA used as food supplement with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Are coastal resources of NW Portugal fingerprinting hydrocarbons released from the Prestige accident?; Estan los recursos costeros del NO de Portugal mostrando las huellas especificas de los hidrocarburos derramados por el Prestige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Maria; Micaelo, Cristina; Vale, Carlos [Instituto de Investigacion Agraria y de Pesca IPIMAR, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-03-15

    Seventy-one samples of mussels, sardine, hake, blue whiting and pouting from the NW Portuguese coast, collected between 18 November 2002 and 6 January 2003, were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, individual n-alkanes and major isoprenoids, pristane and phytane. Hydrocarbons (expressed on chrysene equivalents) registered in whole soft tissues of mussels were below 0.5 milligrams g{sup -}1, with a few exceptions (maximum 1.6 milligrams g{sup -}1). Relatively low levels and sporadic enhanced values were also found in fish fillet samples. In spite of this, analyses of individual n-alkanes and major isoprenoids showed that 10-61 % of the samples (according to the species) exhibited these compounds in the proportions of the Prestige fuel signature. Similar diagnostic ratios in biological samples and Prestige fuel and n-alkane composition corroborate the fingerprint hypothesis in coastal resources from NW Portugal. [Spanish] Se analizaron los hidrocarburos totales, n-alcanos individuales e isoprenoides mayores, pristano y fitano, en 71 muestras de mejillones, sardina, merluza, bacaladilla y faneca de la costa NO de Portugal, recolectadas entre el 18 de noviembre de 2002 y el 6 de enero de 2003. Las concentraciones de hidrocarburos (expresadas en equivalentes de criseno) registradas en los tejidos blandos de los mejillones fueron menores a 0.5 miligramos g{sup -}1, salvo algunas excepciones (maximo 1.6 miligramos g{sup -}1). En las muestras de filetes de pescado tambien se encontraron niveles bajos e incrementos esporadicos de hidrocarburos. A pesar de ello, los analisis de n-alcanos individuales e isoprenoides mayores mostraron que entre el 10 y 61 % de las muestras (dependiendo de la especie) tuvieron estos compuestos en las mismas proporciones que la huella especifica del fuel del Prestige. Las razones diagnosticas similares en muestras biologicas y en el fuel del Prestige y la composicion de n-alcanos corroboran la hipotesis de la huella especifica dejada por este

  20. Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı.

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    Doç.Dr. Fatih Başaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı. Bu araştırmada, doğal ortamdan yakalanan dil balığının (Solea solea, kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı incelenmiştir. Dil balıkları, 2007 Mart-Nisan döneminde, İzmir Körfezi’nden trol ve uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanmıştır. 270 adet dil balığının ön adaptasyonu sırasında, ilk beş gün boyunca, karanlık ortamda antibiyotik (100 ppm fruzolidon ilavesi, 60 dak/gün uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kültür şartlarında ilk besleme için, kalamar (Loligo vulgaris, boru kurdu (Diopatra neopolitana, kara midye (Mytilus galloprovincialis, sülünes (Solen marginatus, istiridye (Ostrea edulis, japon şapkası (Patella spp., deniz salyangozu (Monodonta turbinata ve taze sardalya (Sardina pilchardus kullanılmıştır. Dil balıkları 0-2 gün içinde beslenmeye başlamıştır ve boru kurdu, en çok tercih ettikleri tür olmuştur. Bir aylık adaptasyon dönemi sonunda, uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanan dil balıklarının yaşama oranının (%58, trol ile yakalananların yaşama oranından (%29 önemli düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur (p

  1. Toxic metals in tissues of fishes from the Black Sea and associated human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavan, Gabriel; Jitar, Oana; Teodosiu, Carmen; Nicoara, Mircea; Micu, Dragos; Strungaru, Stefan-Adrian

    2017-03-01

    The anthropogenic activities in the Black Sea area are responsible for toxic metal contamination of sea food products. In this study, several toxic metals: cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, and copper were quantified in different tissues (digestive tract, muscle, skeleton, skin) of nine fish species (Neogobius melanostomus, Belone belone, Solea solea, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus, Sardina pilchardus, Engraulis encrasicolus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sprattus sprattus, Scorpaena porcus) by using atomic absorption spectrometer with a high-resolution continuum source and graphite furnace technique (HR-CS GF-AAS), and the risk of fish meat consumption by the young human population was evaluated. These metals are used in high amounts in industries located near the coastline such as shipyard construction and industrial plants. Toxic metal accumulation depends on fish feeding behavior, abiotic conditions, metal chemistry, and animal physiology. For instance, cadmium was measured in the muscle of the investigated species and average values of 0.0008-0.0338 mg kg-1 were obtained. The lowest average value of this metal was measured at benthic species N. melanostomus and the highest at the pelagic predator T. mediterraneus ponticus. Generally, the highest metal concentration was measured in the digestive tract that has the role of biofilter for these contaminants. The risk of contamination is significantly reduced by avoiding the consumption of certain fish tissues (digestive tract and skin for copper and skeleton for nickel). An estimation of the dietary metal intake to young consumers was realized for each of the studied species of fish from Romanian, Bulgarian, and Turkish waters, during the period 2001-2014 in order to evaluate the risks of chronic exposure in time due to metal toxicity. This estimation is important for the prevention of chronic exposure due to metal toxicity. Food exposure to studied metals showed a negative trend for Romania, Turkey, and Bulgaria based

  2. Detection of a diverse marine fish fauna using environmental DNA from seawater samples.

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    Philip Francis Thomsen

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems worldwide are under threat with many fish species and populations suffering from human over-exploitation. This is greatly impacting global biodiversity, economy and human health. Intriguingly, marine fish are largely surveyed using selective and invasive methods, which are mostly limited to commercial species, and restricted to particular areas with favourable conditions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to account for marine fish biodiversity. This eDNA approach has recently been used successfully in freshwater environments, but never in marine settings. We isolate eDNA from ½-litre seawater samples collected in a temperate marine ecosystem in Denmark. Using next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons, we obtain eDNA from 15 different fish species, including both important consumption species, as well as species rarely or never recorded by conventional monitoring. We also detect eDNA from a rare vagrant species in the area; European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. Additionally, we detect four bird species. Records in national databases confirmed the occurrence of all detected species. To investigate the efficiency of the eDNA approach, we compared its performance with 9 methods conventionally used in marine fish surveys. Promisingly, eDNA covered the fish diversity better than or equal to any of the applied conventional methods. Our study demonstrates that even small samples of seawater contain eDNA from a wide range of local fish species. Finally, in order to examine the potential dispersal of eDNA in oceans, we performed an experiment addressing eDNA degradation in seawater, which shows that even small (100-bp eDNA fragments degrades beyond detectability within days. Although further studies are needed to validate the eDNA approach in varying environmental

  3. Temperature and food-mediated variability of European Atlantic sardine recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Susana; Silva, Alexandra; Marques, Vitor; Figueiredo, Ivone; Bryère, Philippe; Mangin, Antoine; Santos, A. Miguel P.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the environmental conditions during larval development on the resulting recruitment strength was investigated for European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at Atlanto-Iberian waters. Satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) data from the previous spawning seasons (January to March/April and October to December of the previous year) were related to recruitment success data in the main recruitment hotspots. Recruitment data was taken from yearly acoustic scientific cruises and from the ICES recruitment index estimated by an age-structured model for the entire stock. A linear discriminant analysis model using SST, Chla, and the abundance of spawners during the spawning season identified years of high and low recruitment for all the recruitment hotspots with an accuracy of ≥79%. In general, high recruitment years were associated with high Chla and low SST, although the most important variables to discriminate between the groups were area-specific. High recruitment years were mostly related to high food availability (Chla), particularly during the last quarter of the previous year. In Western Iberia and in the Gulf of Cadiz, high recruitment years were also associated to lower SST, whereas in the Bay of Biscay, where SST during the winter was generally below the optimal range ≈11-12 °C for sardine larval development, higher recruitment was associated with high SST. For ICES data of the southern European sardine stock, lower SST and higher Chla during the last quarter of the previous year were associated with high recruitment years and SST alone was able to discriminate between the two recruitment groups with 73% accuracy. Although the time-series of available data are still small, these significant relationships are consistent with field and laboratory studies relating larval growth and mortality with main environmental drivers. These relationships should be further investigated in the following years to

  4. RÉGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DE SIETE ESPECIES ÍCTICAS EN EL EMBALSE DE LA HIDROELÉCTRICA URRÁ (CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

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    V.J. Atencio-García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del estudio fue evaluar el régimen alimentario de siete especies de peces que se han establecidoen el embalse de la Hidroeléctrica Urrá (HU. Se analizaron 453 estómagos, distribuidos así: 115 deperico (Tracheolypterus badeli cf, 111 de cacucho (Panaque gibbosus, 108 de yalúa (Cyphocharaxmagdalenae, 89 de mojarra amarilla (Caquetaia kraussii , 11 de moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus, 10 debarbul ( Pimelodus clarias y 9 de doncella ( Ageneoisus pardales . Los contenidos estomacales se evaluaronmediante frecuencia de ocurrencia (FO, frecuencia numérica (FN y el método gravimétrico (G. Sedeterminó la importancia de cada presa mediante el índice de categorización de presa (ICP y lasuperposición de dietas se analizó mediante el Índice de Morosita (IM. La distribución porcentual de loscontenidos estomacales de la yalúa mostró que el 95.5% correspondió al ítem detritus y el restante 4.5%a microlagas (Clorofitas y Bacillariofitas y protozoarios/rotíferos. La dieta del cacucho la conformaron enun 70.9% microalgas (Cianofitas, Clorofitas y Bacilariofitas y protozoarios/rotíferos y el restante 29.1%correspondieron al ítem detritus. Barbul (FO = 50%, FN = 46.2% y perico se alimentaron principalmentede insectos (FO = 73.9%, FN = 86.4%. La mojarra amarilla (FO = 87.1%, FN = 83.3%, doncella(FO = 92.3%, FN = 92.0% y moncholo (FO = 90.9%, FN = 90.9% prefieren peces como cachanita(Roeboides dayi y sardinas ( Astianax sp. Los resultados sugieren que yalúa es detritívoro iliófago, cacuchoes detritívoro, perico y barbul son carnívoros insectívoros y doncella, moncholo y mojarra amarilla soncarnívoros piscívoros.

  5. Mamíferos terrestres de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka’an, Quintana Roo, México

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    Carmen Pozo de la Tijera

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el muestreo de siete localidades y una extensa revisión bibliográfica, se obtuvo la lista de especies de mamíferos terrestres de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka’an estado de Quintana Roo, México. Durante 57 días de campo, se utilizaron trampas Sherman, Tomahawk, redes de niebla y escopetas, se registraron rastros y observaciones directas. Se registraron 70 especies, ocho órdenes, 22 familias y 57 géneros. Se encontraron seis especies como nuevos registros: Marmosa mexicana, Micronycteris microtis, Micronycteris schmidtorum, Eptesicus furinalis, Rhogeessa parvula y Ototylomys phyllotis. Doce especies son catalogadas bajo algún riesgo ecológico según la Norma Oficial Mexicana; trece especies son endémicas a Mesoamérica y una endémica de México. Se presentan cuadros de abundancia relativa, registro por localidades y por tipo de vegetación de cada especie.Based on sampling at seven localities and an extensive bibliographic research, we present a species list of terrestrial mammals of the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. During 57 days of fieldwork we used Sherman and Tomahawk traps, mist nets, rifles, collected data of trails and made direct observations. We recorded 70 species, eight orders, 22 families, and 57 genera. Six new records are added: Marmosa mexicana, Micronycteris microtis, Micronycteris schmidtorum, Eptesicus furinalis, Rhogeessa parvula, and Ototylomys phyllotis. Twelve species are listed as threatened following the Official Mexican Norm: Tamandua mexicana, Micronycteris brachyotis, Lonchorhina aurita, Alouatta pigra, Ateles geoffroyi, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii, Panthera onca, Eira barbara, Potos flavus and Tapirus bairdii. Thirteen species are endemic to Mesoamerica: M. mexicana, T. mexicana, Mormoops megalophylla, Tonatia evotis, Bauerus dubiaquercus, A. pigra, A. geoffroyi, T. bairdii, Sciurus deppei, Sciurus yucatanensis, Heteromys gaumeri

  6. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

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    Wörheide Gert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial (mt genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2. Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp. Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp, whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2 with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp. Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis. In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of

  7. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis

    2013-04-01

    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  8. Distribución del ictioplancton en la Patagonia austral de Chile: potenciales efectos del deshielo de Campos de Hielo Sur Ichthyoplankton distribution in South Patagonia, Chile: potential effects of ice melting from the Southern Ice Field

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    Mauricio F Landaeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante octubre-noviembre de 2009 se realizó un crucero oceanográfico entre 50 y 53°S de Chile austral, en las cercanías del glaciar Campos de Hielo Sur. Las estaciones cercanas al glaciar presentaron baja temperatura (1-3°C y salinidad ( 0,1 ciclos s-1. Los principales taxa del ictioplancton fueron huevos y larvas de sardina fueguina Sprattus fuegensis, pez hacha Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae y merluza austral Merluccius australis. El desove principal de S. fuegensis (~ 8000 huevos 10 m-2 ocurrió en zonas mezcladas de la plataforma continental adyacente, mientras que el desove de M. parvipinnis ocurrió en canales intermedios asociado a valores intermedios de estabilidad (N~0,06 ciclos s-1. Se observó una nula o baja abundancia de huevos y larvas de peces en las cercanías del glaciar, y la abundancia de huevos de M. parvipinnis estuvo relacionada positivamente con la temperatura y salinidad de la columna de agua y negativamente con la estabilidad de la columna de agua. Además, hubo una relación negativa entre la densidad del agua de mar y el diámetro de los huevos de S. fuegensis. La relación entre deshielo e ictioplancton podría tener consecuencias en el transporte advectivo y mortalidad masiva de huevos y larvas de peces y el acople pelágico-bentónico en la Patagonia austral de Chile. Como el cambio climático global ha incrementado los deshielos de glaciares en latitudes altas, y el aumento del ingreso de aguas de baja temperatura y salinidad podría tener consecuencias en el ictioplancton de la Patagonia chilena.In October-November 2009, an oceanographic survey was carried out between 50 and 53°S off southern Chile, near the Southern Ice Field. The stations near the glacier showed low temperatures (1-3°C and salinity ( 0.1 cycles s-1. Main ichthyoplankton taxa were eggs and larvae of southern sprat Sprattus fuegensis, lightfish Maurolicus parvipinnis, Macrouridae, and southern hake Merluccius australis. The main

  9. Ecophysiological behavior of Caquetaia kraussii (Steindachner, 1878 (Pisces: Cichlidae exposed to different temperatures and salinities

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    M.I. Segnini de Bravo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical river sardine, Caquetaia kraussii, captured from La Aguá lagoon (Sucre State, Venezuela were acclimatized for four weeks at 22, 24, 30 and 32ºC and at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 17 ‰ salinity. To evaluate effects of thermal response to acclimatization level, the fish were transferred suddenly from lower temperatures (22 and 24ºC to higher ones (32 and 30ºC respectively. Then thermal resistance time was measured at the lethal temperature of 40.9ºC for 30 days. We considered that acclimatization process completed when resistance time was stabilized at the new temperature regime. For the saline effect, the concentrations of sodium and potassium were measured in the tissues at each treatment: gills, white muscle, gut and heart. The results showed that thermal tolerance increased rapidly in 3 h with a 6ºC rise in temperature (from 24 to 30ºC and in 24 h with a 10ºC rise (22 to 32ºC. With decreasing temperatures, the acclimatization level reached its lowest in 11 days with a 6ºC decreases (from 30 to 24ºC and in 14 days with a 10ºC decrease (32 to 22ºC. Caquetaia kraussii regulates as much sodium as potassium in gills and white muscle tissues at all salinity levels tested; however, gut and heart tissues showed significantly different regulations among salinities examined.La sardina tropical de río, Caquetaia kraussii, capturada en la laguna La Aguá (Estado Sucre, Venezuela fue aclimatada durante cuatro semanas a la temperatura de 22, 24, 30 y 32ºC y a 0, 5, 10, 15 y 17 ‰ de salinidad. Para evaluar los efectos de respuestas térmicas a los niveles de aclimatación, los peces fueron transferidos abruptamente desde las temperaturas bajas (22 y 24ºC hasta las altas (32 y 30ºC respectivamente. Se midió entonces la resistencia térmica a la temperatura letal de 40.9ºC durante 30 días. Se consideró que los peces habían alcanzado completamente su aclimatación cuando se estabilizaba al nuevo régimen de temperatura. Para el efecto

  10. Sondeo ecológico rápido de las comunidades de peces tropicales en un área de explotación minera en Costa Rica

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    Mario Espinoza Mendiola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El impacto de las minerías de oro ha generado una gran preocupación por el deterioro de los hábitats acuáticos y la fragmentación de los sistemas naturales. Las perturbaciones antropogénicas sobre la estructura y heterogeneidad del sistema pueden influir en la estabilidad de las comunidades acuáticas. Sondeos ecológicos rápidos (1996, 2002, 2007 fueron empleados para determinar la estructura, composición y distribución de las comunidades de peces tropicales en varios ríos y quebradas del área de una minería de oro en el Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. Además, la composición de especies y abundancia relativa se relacionó con la estructura del hábitat. Se registró un total de 35 especies, de las cuales la sardina Astyanax aeneus (Characidae y la olomina Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae fueron las especies más abundantes (71%. La mayor riqueza de especies se observó en el Caño Crucitas (s = 19 y la quebrada Minas (s = 18. Se encontró una gran variación en la estructura y composición de las comunidades de peces, principalmente, en el río Infiernillo y Minas (λ = 0.0, F132, 66 = 2.24, p Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica. Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007 were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae were the most abundant fish (71%. The highest species

  11. İzmir İç Körfezi İhtiyoplankton Kompozisyonu.

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    Dilek Türker Çakır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ege Denizi’ndeki en önemli balıkçılık alanlarından biri olan İzmir Körfezi’nde geçmiş yıllarda meydana gelen kirliliğin neden olduğu biyolojik çeşitlilikte olumsuz yönde değişmeler olmuştur. 2001 büyük kanal projesinin devreye girmesi ile meydana gelmiş olumsuz değişimler tersine dönmeye başlamıştır. Bu değişimler üzerine çok çeşitli araştırmalar yapılmış ve halen yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışma “Büyük Kanal Projesinin Aktif Hale Geçirilmesinin İzmir Körfezi Sularında Alt Besinsel Seviyeler Üzerine Etkileri (YDABAG 102Y116” adlı proje kapsamında yürütülmüş olup İzmir İç Körfezi’nde yaşayan balıkların yumurta ve larvalarının tür çeşitliliği, bolluğu, dağılımları ve mortaliteleri araştırılmıştır. İhtiyoplankton örnekleri 19.12.2002-26.12.2003 tarihleri arasında 15’er günlük periyotlarda 3 istasyondan toplanmış olup ağız çapı 51 cm, uzunluğu 2.5 m ve 200 μm göz açıklığında UNESCO-WP2 model plankton kepçesi ile vertikal olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma süresince toplam 9613.8 adet/m2 yumurta, 568.4 adet/m2 larva tespit edilmiştir. Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792, Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758, Diplodus sp., Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758, Callionymus pusillus Delaroche, 1809, Callionymus sp., Gobius niger Linnaeus, 1758, Gobius paganellus Linnaeus, 1758, Arnoglossus sp., Buglossidium luteum (Risso, 1810 türlerinin yumurta ve/veya larvaları tayin edilmiştir. E. encrasicolus türüne ait yumurta, prelarva ve postlarva dominanttır. Bu türün yumurtalarında %12.05 oranında mortalite belirlenmiştir

  12. Fisheries and conflicts in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Silvio Jablonski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the magnitude of domestic and industrial pollution, fishery yield registered in several landing points at Guanabara Bay, between April 2001 and March 2002 was slightly over 19,000 tons, corresponding to a value of US$ 4.8 million. When considered only the fish directed to the food market, the total catch amounted to about 6,300 tons and a value of US$ 3.7 million. Only a few fish species reached expressive densities compatible with commercial fisheries. Among small pelagic fish, Atlantic anchoveta and Brazilian sardinella were the dominant species, while in terms of demersal fish, croakers, mullets and catfishes comprised the main part of the catch. The absence of landing data previous to the spilling of 1.3 million liters of oil in January 2000 led to claims by fishermen representative organizations of values corresponding to about 50 years of fish harvest in the bay. Possibly, a data collection network could be established in a participative way with the main fishermen local associations. The relatively stabilized fisheries in the bay suggested that reasonable inferences could be made, without, necessarily having a complete coverage of all landing points.A despeito da magnitude da poluição de origem doméstica e industrial, a produção de pescado registrado em diferentes pontos de desembarque na Baía de Guanabara, entre abril de 2001 e março de 2002, foi ligeiramente superior a 19.000 t, correspondendo em valor a US$ 4.8 milhões. Quando se considera apenas o pescado direcionado para o mercado fresco, a captura total alcançou cerca de 6.300 t e um valor de US$ 3,7 milhões. Somente algumas poucas espécies alcançam densidades expressivas compatíveis com as pescarias comerciais. Entre os pequenos pelágicos, a sardinha boca-torta e a sardinha verdadeira são as espécies dominantes, enquanto para as demersais, a corvina, a tainha e os bagres perfazem a maior parte das capturas. As pescarias para o caranguejo, nos manguezais, e a

  13. Uma Revisão dos Processos de Interação Oceano-Atmosfera em Regiões de Intenso Gradiente Termal do Oceano Atlântico Sul Baseada em Dados Observacionais

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    Luciano Ponzi Pezzi

    variabilidade climática atmosférica e marinha na costa sul do Brasil impactam na desova e captura da sardinha (Sardinella Brasiliensis, que é um dos mais importantes recursos marinhos renováveis do Brasil. O artigo termina apresentando alguns dos esforços observacionais atuais do Brasil, visando a coleta de dados meteorológicos e marinhos no Oceano Atlântico Equatorial e Sul. Estes esforços visam aumentar a nossa compreensão do acoplamento oceano-atmosfera nas escalas sinóticas e climáticas, bem como o papel do Oceano Atlântico em controlar o calor, momentum e fluxos de dióxido de carbono para a atmosfera.

  14. Ecologia de populações de morcegos cavernícolas em uma região cárstica do sudeste do Brasil

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    Eleonora Trajano

    1984-01-01

    the same caves as D. rotundus, whereas Puripterus horrens and A. caudifer avoid them. Common species showed a «sunset-related» timing of flight activity. The emergence of the majority of the populations begins at dusk, but the activity peak at cave entrance varies in timing and duration. The strictly insectivorous species (Peropterix macrotis, Myotis nigricans and P. horrens and also A. caudifer leave the roost earlier, showing an emergence peak during the crepuscle; for the others, the peak occurs after darkening. A few species, such as D. rotundus and Lonchorhina aurita, emerge only after total darkness. The use of temporary, nocturnal roosts seems to be frequent in the Upper Ribeira, occurring during or after foraging activities; individuals of A. lituratus can use caves as ingesting places. C. perspicillata finishes its feeding activities earlier than the other common species, which indicates a high foraging efficiency. With few exceptions, bats of the Upper Ribeira do not carry their young during foraging. The supply of food for the hematophagous species is represented by small and medium sized domestic animals (poultry and pigs; wild animals may also be significant as prey.

  15. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

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    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements