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Sample records for sarcoptidae influence production

  1. Influences of Product Involvement, Environmental Message and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences of Product Involvement, Environmental Message and Green ... The study employs an empirical research by 2x2x2 between subject factorial design. ... Advertising Appeals, Green Marketing, Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) ...

  2. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  3. Influence of job rotation on employee productivity in Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of job rotation on employee productivity in Federal University libraries ... productivity in library operation and also enhances increase in productivity in a ... The study therefore recommends that University librarians and management of ...

  4. Analysis“aesthetic”influence product design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Product modelling the restraint of aesthetic, the different of the consumer's aesthetic are affecting the exterior of the product, through the paper analyses the aesthetic standards of consumers and the development trend of beauty is determined. The aesthetic vieweffect of product modeling, The porcelain as an example, compared with traditional aesthetics and modern aesthetics, then design different modeling of products.

  5. Marketing Sports Products on Facebook: The Effect of Social Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chew Swee Seng; Leng Ho Keat

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of social network sites in influencing both consumer perception of quality of sports products and consumer intention to purchase sports products...

  6. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    36. Chappell , F. 1961. Economic and Social Importance of Productivity Measurement. Productivity Meaurement Review 27:7-15. Chaumet, J. 1961. How...and A. Sherman . 1980. A Direct Measure of the Relationship Between Human Capital and Productivity. Journal of Human Resources XV(l):67-76. Holt, K

  7. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  8. Measuring and adapting behavior during product interaction to influence affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, M.B.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Keyson, D.V.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes, the way in which we interact with products implicitly communicates how we feel. Based on previous studies on how emotions can be detected and communicated via product interaction, we discuss how an interactive product could influence affect by responding and changing behaviors expressing

  9. The Influence of forest certification on forest product trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Forest certification is considered to be complementary to forest management policies and takes a significant effect on forest product trade. In recent decade, it has been followed with interest and approved by governments and for estry departments in the world. This paper analyzes the influence of forest cert ification on forest product trade in the world, including the interest in certif ication in exporting countries and importing countries, trade flow and business competition, and the demands for Certified Forest Products (CFPs) and also discu sses the influence of forest certification on forest product trade in China.

  10. Interpretation of horizontal well production logs: influence of logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Sarica, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Haci, M. [Drilling Measurements, Inc (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of a production-logging tool on wellbore flow rate and pressure measurements was investigated, focusing on the disturbence caused by the production-logging tool and the coiled tubing on the original flow conditions in the wellbore. The investigation was carried out using an analytical model and single-phase liquid flow was assumed. Results showed that the production-logging tool influenced the measurements as shown by the deviation of the original flow-rate, pressure profiles and low-conductivity wellbores. High production rates increase the effect of the production-logging tool. Recovering or inferring the original flow conditions in the wellbore from the production-logging data is a very complex process which cannot be solved easily. For this reason, the conditions under which the information obtained by production-logging is meaningful is of considerable practical interest. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  11. The influence of sensory product properties on affective and symbolic product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Creating pleasurable products requires understanding of the influence of sensory product properties on affective user experience and symbolic meaning of products. This paper gives an overview of a series of studies, in which we investigated the impact of sensory product properties (color, material,

  12. Observation of static gestures influences speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Jones, Jeffery A

    2008-08-01

    Research investigating 'mirror neurons' has demonstrated the presence of an observation-execution matching system in humans. One hypothesized role for this system might be to aid in action understanding by encoding the underlying intentions of the actor. To investigate this hypothesis, we asked participants to observe photographs of an actor making orofacial gestures (implying verbal or non-verbal acts), and to produce syllables that were compatible or incompatible with the gesture they observed. We predicted that if mirror neurons encode the intentions of an actor, then the pictures implying verbal gestures would affect speech production, whereas the non-verbal gestures would not. Our results showed that the observation of compatible verbal gestures facilitated verbal responses, while incompatible verbal gestures caused interference. Although this compatibility effect did not reach statistical significance when the photographs implied a non-verbal act, responses were faster on average when the gesture implied the use of similar articulators as those involved with the production of the target syllable. Altogether, these behavioral findings compliment previous neuroimaging studies indicating that static pictures portraying gestures activate brain regions associated with an observation-execution matching system.

  13. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert, Juliana; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. CONCLUSION: Results from this review have suggested that at least one...

  14. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  15. When does word frequency influence written production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were of low-frequency. Different measures were obtained: 1 first keystroke latency and 2 keystroke latency of the subsequent letters and duration of the word. Moreover, ERPs locked to the onset of the picture presentation were analysed to explore the temporal course of word frequency in typewriting. The results showed an effect of word frequency for the first keystroke latency but not for the duration of the word or the speed to which letter were typed (interstroke intervals. The electrophysiological results showed the expected ERP frequency effect at posterior sites: amplitudes for low-frequency words were more positive than those for high-frequency words. However, relative to previous evidence in the spoken modality, the frequency effect appeared in a later time-window. These results demonstrate two marked differences in the processing dynamics underpinning typing compared to speaking: First, central processing dynamics between speaking and typing differ already in the manner that words are accessed; second, central processing differences in typing, unlike speaking, do not cascade to peripheral processes involved in response execution.

  16. When does word frequency influence written production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Cristina; Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing) and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution) underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard) the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were of low-frequency. Different measures were obtained: (1) first keystroke latency and (2) keystroke latency of the subsequent letters and duration of the word. Moreover, ERPs locked to the onset of the picture presentation were analyzed to explore the temporal course of word frequency in typewriting. The results showed an effect of word frequency for the first keystroke latency but not for the duration of the word or the speed to which letter were typed (interstroke intervals). The electrophysiological results showed the expected ERP frequency effect at posterior sites: amplitudes for low-frequency words were more positive than those for high-frequency words. However, relative to previous evidence in the spoken modality, the frequency effect appeared in a later time-window. These results demonstrate two marked differences in the processing dynamics underpinning typing compared to speaking: First, central processing dynamics between speaking and typing differ already in the manner that words are accessed; second, central processing differences in typing, unlike speaking, do not cascade to peripheral processes involved in response execution.

  17. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Denise; Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Del-Claro, Kleber

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system.

  18. Variation in Extrafloral Nectary Productivity Influences the Ant Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral nectar is the main food source offered by plants to predatory ants in most land environments. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) to plant defense against herbivores, the influence of EFNs secretory activity pattern on predatory ants remains yet not fully understood. Here, we verified the relation between the extrafloral nectar production of a plant community in Cerrado in different times of the day, and its attractiveness to ants. The extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of seven plant species showed higher productivity overnight. Ant abundance was higher in times of large extrafloral nectar production, however, there was no positive relation between ant richness on plants and EFNs productivity. There was temporal resource partitioning among ant species, and it indicates strong resource competition. The nectar productivity varied among plant species and time of the day, and it influenced the visitation patterns of ants. Therefore, EFNs are a key ant-plant interaction driver in the studied system. PMID:28046069

  19. Influence of consumption on pellets production in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research on pellet production in Austria as well as the influence of consumption on the production are presented. In that sense, the functional relation between pellet production and pellet consumption obtained by modeling method has been given. The basic elements and trends on pellet market are shown and the summary of other factors influencing pellet production in Austria are explained. The choice of Austria as a market to carry out research is due to the fact that Austria is a leader in Europe in pellet production and consumption and its experiences could be significant for the formation of the market and energy policy in Serbia. This adds to the fact that pellet market, as well as the policy in the field of renewable sources of energy (including pellets, in Serbia are still at the very beginning.

  20. Influence of Cellulose Ethers on Hydration Products of Portland Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Baoguo; OU Zhihua; JIAN Shouwei; XU Rulin

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are widely used to mortar formulations, and it is significant to understand the interaction between cellulose ethers and cement pastes. FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis and SEM are used to investigate hydration products in the cement pastes modified by HEMC and HPMC in this article. The results show that the hydration products in modified cement pastes were finally identical with those in the unmodified cement paste, but the major hydration products, such as CH (calcium hydroxide), ettringite and C-S-H, appeared later in the modified cement pastes than in the unmodified cement paste. The cellulose ethers decrease the outer products and increase inner products of C-S-H gels. Compared to unmodified cement pastes, no new products are found in the modified cement pastes in the present experiment. The HEMC and HPMC investigation shows almost the same influence on the hydration products of Portland cement.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Doltu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer. Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of broccoli: the variant with fertilization 150 kg/ha has obtained the highest percentage of inflorescences formed, the average weight/inflorescence largest and superior production compared with other variants. Were obtained direct linear correlations between the doses of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and the production aspects followed (percentage of main inflorescences harvested, average weight/inflorescence, total production, significances of the correlations very high.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  3. Transformed objects: the influence of unruly product design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manavis Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the image of a product becomes more important than the product itself. Unruly design is defined as the methodology of all objects that are designed with the intention to undermine the existing design-paradigm of the functionalists. At the same time, the term surreal object is based on the magical, transformative concept of the juxtaposition of diverse elements usually found in everyday objects. The present paper outlines the general principles of the unruly design and surrealism art movement, together with their influence on styles of the conceptual product design. A number of illustrative case studies are depicted, through an ergonomic approach, in order to ensure an appropriate interface relationship between art and product design. The products’ transformations have been selected in order to stress the idea that using unruly design offers additional advantages in creating concepts from a different point of view. Innovation and unusual product design can create the basis for a complete product design transformation culture.

  4. Metabolic differences in cattle with excitable temperaments can influence productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates, and carcass weight. Three research studies are summarized which indicate the potential influence of temperament on metabolism. In Brahman heifers, (n=12) the 6 most temperamental and 6 mos...

  5. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L; Fontijn-Tekamp, A; van der Bilt, A

    2005-01-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subject

  6. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L; Fontijn-Tekamp, A; van der Bilt, A

    2005-01-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subject

  7. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  8. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    implications - Managers obtain a tool for planning and refining their innovation strategy and actions regarding product development alliances. Originality/value - This research contributes to the presently limited literature on product development alliances, specifically in the food industry context.......Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development...... alliance, with four partners and an interview survey, with 19 key informants in the Danish food industry. Findings - The nature of the differences between the developed framework for product development alliances in the food industry and theory on alliances in general, indeed seem to rest in the chosen...

  9. How Complaining Customers Make Companies Listen and Influence Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta; Varnes, Claus

    2016-01-01

    to become so strong as to alter the Norwegian Coca-Cola Company’s earlier decision to cease production of a product in a certain size. The analysis uses constructs from actor–network theory (ANT) and shows how a single dissatisfied individual was able to become a spokesperson who, through different......The analysis in this paper shows how complaining customers can make companies listen to them by spurring the mobilisation of various actors into a hybrid collective strong enough to influence companies’ product development. Customers as sources of innovation have been analysed previously...... become a lead user, but rather became a hybrid customer who actively tried to mobile others in his desire for a product. The study reports on a process analysis of the means by which the company was induced to reinstate a discontinued product. The analysis is divided into three episodes, each marking...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    OpenAIRE

    Mădălina Doltu; Marian Bogoescu; Dorin Sora

    2013-01-01

    The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer). Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of br...

  11. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-05

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  12. The Influence of runner system on production of injection molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janostik Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study describes the influence of runner system on rheological properties during the injection molding process. Economic effects on the amount of production are discussed as well. Autodesk Moldflow Synergy 2016 (Moldflow was used for the study of the injection process. Three suggestions of the runner system, cold runner system, hot runner system and the combination of cold–hot runner system have been promoted. These three variants underwent the rheological and economic analysis. As a result, recommendations for the application of the runner system for the required amount of production have been suggested

  13. Reading Skill and Exposure to Orthography Influence Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Brentari, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Orthographic experience during the acquisition of novel words may influence production processing in proficient readers. Previous work indicates interactivity among lexical, phonological, and articulatory processing; we hypothesized that experience with orthography can also influence phonological processing. Phonetic accuracy and articulatory stability were measured as adult, proficient readers repeated and read aloud nonwords, presented in auditory or written modalities and with variations in orthographic neighborhood density. Accuracy increased when participants had read the nonwords earlier in the session, but not when they had only heard them. Articulatory stability increased with practice, regardless of whether nonwords were read or heard. Word attack skills, but not reading comprehension, predicted articulatory stability. Findings indicate that kinematic and phonetic accuracy analyses provide insight into how orthography influences implicit language processing.

  14. The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Bent, Tessa; Munson, Benjamin; Bradlow, Ann R.; Bailey, J. Michael

    2004-10-01

    Vowel production in gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB), and heterosexual speakers was examined. Differences in the acoustic characteristics of vowels were found as a function of sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women produced less fronted /u/ and /opena/ than heterosexual women. Gay men produced a more expanded vowel space than heterosexual men. However, the vowels of GLB speakers were not generally shifted toward vowel patterns typical of the opposite sex. These results are inconsistent with the conjecture that innate biological factors have a broadly feminizing influence on the speech of gay men and a broadly masculinizing influence on the speech of lesbian/bisexual women. They are consistent with the idea that innate biological factors influence GLB speech patterns indirectly by causing selective adoption of certain speech patterns characteristic of the opposite sex. .

  15. Systematic Influence of Perceived Grasp Shape on Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Lari; Rantala, Aleksi; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Martti

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that precision and power grip performance is consistently influenced by simultaneous articulation. For example, power grip responses are performed relatively fast with the open-back vowel [a], whereas precision grip responses are performed relatively fast with the close-front vowel [i]. In the present study, the participants were presented with a picture of a hand shaped to the precision or power grip. They were required to pronounce speech sounds according to the front/above perspective of the hand. The results showed that not only the grip performance is affected by simultaneously pronouncing the speech sound but also the production of speech sound can be affected by viewing an image of a grip. The precision grip stimulus triggered relatively rapid production of the front-close vowel [i]. In contrast, the effect related to the power grip stimulus was mostly linked to the vertical dimension of the pronounced vowel since this stimulus triggered relatively rapid production of the back-open vowel [a] and back-mid-open vowel [o] while production of the back-close vowel [u] was not influenced by it. The fact that production of the dorsal consonant [k] or coronal consonant [t] were not influenced by these stimuli suggests that the effect was not associated with a relative front-back tongue shape of the articulation in the absence of changes in any vertical articulatory components. These findings provide evidence for an intimate interaction between certain articulatory gestures and grip types, suggesting that an overlapping visuomotor network operates for planning articulatory gestures and grasp actions.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on lipase production by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M de F; Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Carrondo, M J; Crespo, M T

    1999-02-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, DSMZ 12028 (Deutsch Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), isolated from a Portuguese dry fermented sausage, "chouriço", was found to produce true lipase, producing free fatty acids from triolein (olive oil). This enzymatic activity was found in whole cells, but was negligible in comparison to lipolytic activity in culture supernatant. Therefore, only extracellular activity was studied. The effect of pH, temperature and glucose concentration on extracellular lipase production was studied in continuously stirred tank reactors, the first time this technology has been used to study the production of this enzyme in lactobacilli. Maximum lipase production was achieved at a pH of 5.5 and 30 degrees C and was kept at a significant level over a wide range of dilution rates (0.05-0.4 h-1); the production of lipase was still significant for low pH values, temperature and glucose concentration, conditions that are close to the ones present during chouriço ripening. The effect of glucose concentration was also studied in a batch system. The control of lipase production was found to be related both to glucose concentration in the medium and to the growth rate/dilution rate. Glucose concentration was found to be important for fast lipase production, although it did not influence the maximum lipase activity reached in a batch culture.

  17. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murdoch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual’s health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions towards a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  18. Nutritional Influence on Epigenetic Marks and Effect on Livestock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K; Greenwood, Sabrina; McKay, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition represents one of the greatest environmental determinants of an individual's health. While nutrient quantity and quality impart direct effects, the interaction of nutrition with genetic and epigenetic modifications is often overlooked despite being shown to influence biological variation in mammals. Dissecting complex traits, such as those that are diet or nutrition related, to determine the genetic and epigenetic contributions toward a phenotype can be a formidable process. Epigenetic modifications add another layer of complexity as they do not change the DNA sequence itself but can affect transcription and are important mediators of gene expression and ensuing phenotypic variation. Altered carbohydrate metabolism and rates of fat and protein deposition resulting from diet-induced hypo- or hyper-methylation highlight the capability of nutritional epigenetics to influence livestock commodity quality and quantity. This interaction can yield either products tailored to consumer preference, such as marbling in meat cuts, or potentially increasing productivity and yield both in terms of carcass yield and/or offspring performance. Understanding how these and other desirable phenotypes result from epigenetic mechanisms will facilitate their inducible potential in livestock systems. Here, we discuss the establishment of the epigenome, examples of nutritional mediated alterations of epigenetics and epigenetic effects on livestock production.

  19. Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGannon, Colleen Marie; Fuller, Cynthia Ann; Weiss, Alison Ann

    2010-09-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 is encoded as a late gene product by temperate bacteriophage integrated into the chromosome. Phage late genes, including stx, are silent in the lysogenic state. However, stress signals, including some induced by antibiotics, trigger the phage to enter the lytic cycle, and phage replication and Stx production occur concurrently. In addition to the Stx produced by O157:H7, phage produced by O157:H7 can infect harmless intestinal E. coli and recruit them to produce Shiga toxin. To understand how antibiotics influence Stx production, Stx lysogens were treated with different classes of antibiotics in the presence or absence of phage-sensitive E. coli, and Stx-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was monitored using luciferase-expressing Vero cells. Growth-inhibitory levels of antibiotics suppressed Stx production. Subinhibitory levels of antibiotics that target DNA synthesis, including ciprofloxacin (CIP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, increased Stx production, while antibiotics that target the cell wall, transcription, or translation did not. More Stx was produced when E. coli O157:H7 was incubated in the presence of phage-sensitive E. coli than when grown as a pure culture. Remarkably, very high levels of Stx were detected even when growth of O157:H7 was completely suppressed by CIP. In contrast, azithromycin significantly reduced Stx levels even when O157:H7 viability remained high.

  20. The influence of the image of a product's region of origin on product evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2003-01-01

    In the marketing literature, the influence of a place-of-origin indication on the evaluation of products has been studied with little consideration for the image of the place of origin as a separate construct. Although effects of a place-of-origin indication have been found, it is still unclear what

  1. Influence of Productivity on the Acquisition of Inflectional Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Christensen, René dePont

    Influence of productivity on the acquisition of inflectional markers Studies on acquisition of inflectional morphology often distinguish between ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’ inflection. This distinction originates from studies of English, which is characterized by having one default inflectional...... marker for a grammatical category (e.g. the PL suffix -s) and a minor number of exceptions to this default rule. We find this distinction rather inexpedient since this is not the case for all languages (e.g. Danish, German). In order to address this issue we have developed a scale with three degrees....... Participants: 160 monolingual Danish-speaking children between 3-10 years. Results and conclusion The study shows that PL acquisition is affected by morphophonological category: children produce more correct PL forms of nouns with a Fully Productive PL marker than of nouns with a Semi...

  2. Influence of income on tertiary students acquisition of cellular products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A.P Drotsky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine whether there are any differences between high and low-income group students in their selection of a cellular phone brand or network operator. Design/Methodology/Approach: Four hypotheses are set to determine if there are any significant differences between the two income groups in current decision-making. It is established that there exist no significant difference between high and low-income students in their selection of cellular phones and network operators. The levels of agreement or disagreement on various statements do, however, give an indication of the importance that students place on aspects that they view as important when acquiring a cellular phone or network operator.Findings: In the article, it is established that no significant differences exist between the two income groups. The levels of agreement or disagreement indicate the importance that subscription method, social value, service quality and branding has on student decision-making. Implications: The article provides a better understanding of the influence that income plays in student's decision-making in acquiring cellular products and services. Possible future research in student cellular usage can be guided through the information obtained in this article. Originality/Value: The article provides information to cellular network operators, service providers and cellular phone manufactures regarding the influence of income on students' acquisition of cellular products and services. Information from the article can assist in the establishment of marketing plans for the student market by these role players.

  3. Influence of transesterification reaction temperature on biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@agr.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian government policy has authorized the introduction of biodiesel into the national energy matrix, law no.11.097 of January 13th, 2005. It is necessary, like any new product, to invest in research which is able to cover its entire production chain (planting of oilseeds, vegetable oils extraction and chemical reactions), providing data and relevant information in order to optimize the process and solve critical issues. The objective of this work was to study the effects of temperature on crude sunflower transesterification reaction with ethanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels (25 deg, 32 deg, 47.5 deg, 64 deg and 70 deg C) was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the production suffered the influence of temperature (linear and quadratic effects) and reaction time (linear and quadratic). The generated models did not show significant regression. The model generated was not well suited to the experimental data and the value of the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}=0.52) was low. Consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. (author)

  4. Does the light influence astaxanthin production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, A; Gervasi, T; Melito, M R; Lo Curto, A; Lo Curto, R

    2013-04-01

    Astaxanthin (C40H52O4) is an important natural pigment that has considerable promising applications in human health. Until now, many efforts were made aimed to develop economically sustainable bioprocesses alternative to the chemical synthesis, to satisfy the increasing demand of this ketocarotenoid from feed, food and cosmetic industries. The extraction of natural astaxanthin from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous till now seems to be rather expensive if compared with chemically synthesized astaxanthin. In this article, astaxanthin production by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous under two different conditions was studied: a first effort was made using a conventional reactor while a second using an enlightened one. This research was aimed also to optimise astaxanthin production by testing the influence of the light and of some nutrient sources. From fermentation tests, an astaxanthin yield ranging about 970 µg g(-1) was obtained after fed batch cultivation in the conventional reactor. In the enlightened reactor lower values, about 930 µg g(-1), were found.

  5. Inter- and Intralingual Lexical Influences in Advanced Learners' French L3 Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates lexical inter- and intralingual influences in the oral production of 14 very advanced learners of French L3. Lexical deviances are divided into two main categories: formal influence and meaning-based influence. The results show that, as predicted with respect to advanced learners, meaning-based influence is the most…

  6. The Influence of Product Exposure on Trendiness and Aesthetic Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Mugge, R.; Ye, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers use product attributes (e.g., trendiness) to design aesthetically appealing products. The relationships of physical properties (e.g., shape) of product designs with product attributes and aesthetic appraisal are often considered to be generalizable over product categories and markets. Howe

  7. The Influence of Product Exposure on Trendiness and Aesthetic Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Mugge, R.; Ye, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers use product attributes (e.g., trendiness) to design aesthetically appealing products. The relationships of physical properties (e.g., shape) of product designs with product attributes and aesthetic appraisal are often considered to be generalizable over product categories and markets.

  8. Influences of different substrates on simulated lignite biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Aikuan; Qin Yong; Shao Pei

    2015-01-01

    Using lignite samples, selected from Zhaotong basin, Yunnan province, China, as the parent source, sim-ulating experiments of lignite biogas were conducted with 0.1% methanol, 5 mg/L yeast extract and 0.2 mol/L sodium acetate solutions as the exogenous substance respectively. Variation characteristics of gas production, gas composition, VFA content and activity of coenzyme F420 in the simulated process were analyzed to discuss the influence of different substrates on lignite biogas generation. The results show that 0.1%methanol and 5 mg/L yeast extract solutions increase VFA contents in the biogas gener-ation system (p <0.05) and inhibit coenzyme F420 and methanogen activities significantly, so they decrease both gas amounts (p<0.05) and CH4 contents (p<0.05). 0.2 mol/L sodium acetate solution acti-vates coenzyme F420 and methanogen activities and improves the efficiency of enzymatic reaction, so the gas quantity (p<0.05) and the CH4 content (p<0.01) increase significantly. Therefore, sodium acetate can be one kind of good exogenous substance for the generation of lignite biogenic gas.

  9. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  10. Product personality and its influence on consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product-user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also ca

  11. Product personality and its influence on consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product-user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also ca

  12. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  13. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  14. Infant intralimb coordination and torque production: Influence of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Barbara; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2017-09-07

    The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in leg joint coordination, intersegmental dynamics, and their relation in infants born preterm (PT) during the first months of life. Kicking actions were analyzed of 11 infants born PT at 6 and 15-weeks corrected age (CA) using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics; results were compared to the kicking actions of 10 infants born full-term (FT). Both groups changed from a predominately in-phase coordination at 6-weeks CA to a less in-phase coordination at 15-weeks CA, however, at 6-weeks CA, infants born PT demonstrated less in-phase coordination of their ankle joints with their hip and knee joints. Between groups and across ages, both groups demonstrated consistent net and partitioned joint torque profiles, however, at 6-weeks CA infants born PT demonstrated more complex patterns of torque components. In both groups, less in-phase hip-knee coordination was associated with reduced active knee muscle torque and increased passive knee torques, however, passive knee torques had a greater influence on the kicks of infants born PT at 6-weeks CA. At 6-weeks CA, infants born PT, compared to FT, generated kicks with less in-phase hip-knee coordination, hip excursion, hip angular velocity, and hip muscle torque impulse. By 15-weeks CA, differences resolved in all variables except hip muscle torque impulse. These results highlight a different trajectory of leg joint coordination and torque production for infants born PT compared to FT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of alcohol: oil molar ratio on the production of ethyl esters by enzymatic transesterification of canola oil. ... cosolvent-free reaction system with ethanol addition in three steps showed great potential for ester production. ... Article Metrics.

  16. Do MincerianWage Equations Inform How Schooling Influences Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Growiec, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    substitutability across skill types and ex ante identical workers, we demonstrate that the mechanism of compensating wage differentials renders the Mincerian wage equation uninformative for the human capital production function. Proper identification of the human capital production function should take...

  17. Influence of Machine Exploitation Effectiveness on Furniture Production Quality Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiak-Betlejewska Renata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the company‘s capacity to produce high quality products is the level of machinery operation effectiveness. Companies having modern machinery are characterized by high productivity. To obtain a high quality product, the equipment should be properly used, without any failure, which contributes significantly to the exploitation level increase. The modernity level and the exploitation effectiveness level for chosen machine producing furniture components in relation to the product quality level were analysed in the paper. As a result of the research findings analysis, proposals for corrective actions with regard to machinery maintenance and production processes were presented.

  18. Dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of high-technology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role

  19. Dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of high-technology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role b

  20. Investigating the influence of product perception and geometric features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez Mata, Marta; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2017-01-01

    Research in emotional design and Kansei Engineering has shown that aesthetics play a significant role in the appeal of a product. This paper contributes to establishing a methodology to identify the relationships between perceptions, aesthetic features, desire to own and background of consumers. ...... to the desire to own a product, they have implications for industry, and they offer guidelines to creating attractive products that people want to own....

  1. The influence of the workplace on perceived productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarleveld, M.; De Been, I.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing productivity, stimulating knowledge sharing and satisfying employees. Three objectives which are heard quite often during the design phase of an office. Both latter objectives are often perceived as ways to increasing productivity as well. The Center for People and Buildings (CfPB) in Del

  2. BUILDABILITY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICRO-LEVEL FORMWORK LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF BEAMS IN BUILDING FLOORS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkas, Abdulaziz M

    2011-01-01

    Buildability is one of the most important factors that influence labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough literature examination revealed a dearth of research concerning the effects of buildability on labour productivity of in situ reinforced concrete construction. Beams are major components of building floors, and the objective of this investigation is to explore the buildability factors that influence their micro-level formwork labour productivity. Therefore, a large volume of producti...

  3. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  4. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  5. INFLUENCE OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN ON FOREIGN PRODUCT EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ANASTASIEI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers form their expectations (usually regarding the quality based on the perceived image of a certain country. The original country of origin scale was developed in 1994 by Parameswaran and Pisharodi and had 40 items measuring general country attributes, general product attributes, and specific product attributes (automobile product category. This paper aims to highlight the role of the country of origin in shaping perceptions of the country and the manufactured products.The goal of the present research is to validate the COI scale for the Romanian market, in order to find out if it can be used as it was initially built by its authors or if it requires modifications. The research results led to the decision of keeping 37 items out of 40 and removing 3 items given that they were highly intercorrelated or insignificant.

  6. factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean ... Constraints that affect quantities of beans marketed by farmers include levels of production and .... A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure ...

  7. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  8. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  9. INFLUENCE OF STARTING CULTURES IN HAM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For today, creation of the technologies, allowing lowering the cost price of manufacture of meat products, thus guaranteeing the consumer the same set of quality standards is very important. Due to biotechnology development, working out and introduction of the new technologies focused on an intensification of a complex of difficult biochemical transformations which proceed in meat raw materials by manufacture of sausage products became possible

  10. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    International society has made a commitment to mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into broader socioeconomic development, but an incomplete theoretical basis translates into a lack of practical applications, especially regarding how individual plant productivity changes in response to the overall species loss. In this study, we developed niche–efficiency theory to address two mechanisms behind the effects of biodiversity on individual plant productivity. Supported by empirical evidence a...

  11. Exploring the influence of self-confidence in product sketching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van Pepijn; Eggink, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The development of a student’s skills during design education partly depends on the amount of selfconfidence. Optimizing the speed and level of growth can be done by influencing factors related to self-confidence that students have to cope with throughout their studies. Six main factors can be disti

  12. Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Rowhani, Pedram; Ramankutty, Navin

    2016-01-07

    In recent years, several extreme weather disasters have partially or completely damaged regional crop production. While detailed regional accounts of the effects of extreme weather disasters exist, the global scale effects of droughts, floods and extreme temperature on crop production are yet to be quantified. Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%, whereas our analysis could not identify an effect from floods and extreme cold in the national data. Analysing the underlying processes, we find that production losses due to droughts were associated with a reduction in both harvested area and yields, whereas extreme heat mainly decreased cereal yields. Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts and 8-11% more damage in developed countries than in developing ones. Our findings may help to guide agricultural priorities in international disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

  13. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  14. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars. The influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.R.; Passarinho, P.C.; Gouveia, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal). Unidade de Bioenergia

    2012-10-15

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. (orig.)

  15. Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Ehrnebo, M

    1979-09-01

    The effect of milk products on the gastrointestinal absorption of fluoride from sodium fluoride tablets was studied in five healthy subjects. Two different diets were tested: (1) 250 ml standardized milk (3% fat) and (2) 500 ml of milk, 3 pieces of white bread with cheese and 150 ml of yoghurt. The 100% bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets during fasting was greatly decreased by coadministration of milk products: with Diet 1 the absolute bioavailability calculated from combined plasma and urine data was in the range 50--79% and with Diet 2 it ranged from 50--71%. It is suggested that the decreased bioavailability produced by dairy products should be taken into account when establishing flouride dosage regimens for prophylaxis of caries.

  16. Citizen and consumer influence on future pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Stacey, Julia Rolsted; Poulsen, Louise Vestergaard Skøtt

    2008-01-01

    The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers.......The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers....

  17. Promotional Frames' Influence on Price Perceptions of Two Apparel Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanforth, Nancy; Lennon, Sharron; Shin, Jung Im

    2001-01-01

    A study explored the differences in price perceptions of two apparel products when promotions were framed as either a price discount or a gift-with-purchase. The majority preferred the discount. Results illustrate the importance of promotional framing in forming consumer price perceptions. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/JOW)

  18. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  19. The Influence of Online Teaching on Faculty Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2012-01-01

    Ten faculty members with experience teaching online were interviewed about their motivation for teaching online and the effect of teaching online on their teaching and research productivity. They represented nine different states and 13 different fields, and all were tenured or tenure-track at master's or doctoral institutions. All ten mentioned…

  20. Promotional Frames' Influence on Price Perceptions of Two Apparel Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanforth, Nancy; Lennon, Sharron; Shin, Jung Im

    2001-01-01

    A study explored the differences in price perceptions of two apparel products when promotions were framed as either a price discount or a gift-with-purchase. The majority preferred the discount. Results illustrate the importance of promotional framing in forming consumer price perceptions. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/JOW)

  1. Influence of Seed Coating Formulations on Maize Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effects of four coating formulations on maize production were studied. The results showec that all coating formulations had some effects on improving maize seedlings, strengthening the resistance againt diseases and pests and increasing the yields in dtifferent degrees, especially Paxil which increased the com yield by 12.0%, significantly higher than the control.

  2. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  3. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  4. Produced water challenges : influence of production chemicals on flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Zangaeva, Elmara

    2010-01-01

    Produced water is the largest volume waste from offshore oil and gas exploration and production processes. Water in varying quantities is always produced along with oil, and has to be separated from the oil. The quantity of “produced water” generally increases substantially with the age of the oil field. Produced water handling tactic depends on the composition of produced water, location, quantity and the availability of resources. This thesis describes practical, economical, technologica...

  5. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  6. Allantoin catabolism influences the production of antibiotics in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Laura; Casati, Paula; Licona-Cassani, Cuauhtémoc; Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars K; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Purines are a primary source of carbon and nitrogen in soil; however, their metabolism is poorly understood in Streptomyces. Using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics, and metabolic engineering, we characterized the allantoin pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor. When cells grew in glucose minimal medium with allantoin as the sole nitrogen source, quantitative proteomics identified 38 enzymes upregulated and 28 downregulated. This allowed identifying six new functional enzymes involved in allantoin metabolism in S. coelicolor. From those, using a combination of biochemical and genetic engineering tools, it was found that allantoinase (EC 3.5.2.5) and allantoicase (EC 3.5.3.4) are essential for allantoin metabolism in S. coelicolor. Metabolomics showed that under these growth conditions, there is a significant intracellular accumulation of urea and amino acids, which eventually results in urea and ammonium release into the culture medium. Antibiotic production of a urease mutant strain showed that the catabolism of allantoin, and the subsequent release of ammonium, inhibits antibiotic production. These observations link the antibiotic production impairment with an imbalance in nitrogen metabolism and provide the first evidence of an interaction between purine metabolism and antibiotic biosynthesis.

  7. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernández, C; Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18 L H2 L(-1) d(-1).

  8. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice, T2 (sugar syrup and T3 (inverted sugar. Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up into the honeybee nest and beeswax built area was measured weekly. Total reducing sugar, calorimetry, dry matter and ashes of all feedings were analyzed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to determine differences among averages. The average consumption of inverted sugar was significantly lower than that of other treatments. The highest beeswax production average occurred in the sugar syrup treatment. The highest average of ashes, dry matter and reducing sugar occurred, respectively, in sugar-cane juice, inverted sugar and sugar syrup. Sugar syrup may be an alternative energy source for beeswax production, although sugar-cane juice may be more profitable.

  9. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    OpenAIRE

    Häubl, Gerald; Dellaert, Benedict; Donkers, Bas

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We propose two types of such local behavioral influences that, at each stage of a search process, can manifest themselves both in which of the products inspected up to that point is deemed to be the mos...

  10. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  11. Fields of influence of productivity change in EU intercountry input-output tables, 1970-80

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, JA; Oosterhaven, J; Cuello, FA; Hewings, GJD; Sonis, M

    The potential influence of changes in productivity is explored for each sector in each country on the intercountry Leontief-inverse of the European Union (EU) for two time periods, 1970 and 1980. The methodology employed is a weighted variant of the field of influence of column change; the empirical

  12. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  13. Influence of soil type on half-highbush blueberry productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Tasa

    2012-12-01

    Vaccinium spp. cultivars (five- and six-year-old plants were used in the experiment: ‘Aino’, ‘Alvar’, ‘Arne’, and ‘Northblue’. Environmental conditions exercised a considerable influence on biological processes of half-highbush blueberry, at the same time, a genotype-based variation was observed. Cultivar ‘Northblue’ had a higher yield in mineral soil and ‘Aino’ had the highest yield in peat soil considering the average of two years. The peat soil condition in the harvested peat field provided a better supply of nutrients for blueberry bushes compared to mineral soil and this, in its turn, secured better growth and a higher yield of blueberry bushes.

  14. Influence of completed payment on production profitability of starch potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ginter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland is a formal member of the European Union. New rules of Common Agriculture Policy (CAP, the same as in all countries belonging to the European Union (EU operate on agricultural markets. The accession to the EU is beneficial for Polish starch potato producers due to the higher level of profits from productions and selling starch potatoes. The research showed, that completed payment for producers of starch potatoes is very important and they created the level of profitability of this plant.

  15. Influences on Group Productivity. 2. Factors Inherent in the Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-15

    Eysenck , H.J. Cicero arid the state-trait theory of anxiety: Y,another case of delayed recoo nit ior,. Arnericarn 2_sYc~h_ 1_izt,I1983, O, 1 !4- 115...Productivity. II: Interim Factors Inherent in the Person 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(m) Sheryl Osato, Peter E...WORDS (Continua on reverse aide if neceeaary and Identify by block numlbor) Personality , hetercgeneity, culture, traits, research design, task

  16. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Backhaus, Birte W.; Hoof, van J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors (foo

  17. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  18. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Influence on Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Zaleckas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals play a very significant role in the performance and stability of biogas digesters, which are operated with organic fraction of municipal solid wastes or any other type of organic waste. For this reason this paper tries to evaluate the impact of heavy metals on biogas yield and quality. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and rapeseed cake mixture has been carried out for 14 days. The obtained data show that the greatest negative impact on biogas production was made by zinc additive. Meanwhile, methane content in biogas varied from 64.5 to 70%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2040

  19. Lipid nanocarriers: influence of lipids on product development and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Kamla; Keshri, Lav; Shah, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are on the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery. Owing to their size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility for development of new therapeutics and an alternative system to other colloidal counterparts for drug administration. An important point to be considered in the selection of a lipid for the carrier system is its effect on the properties of the nanocarrier and also its intended use, as different types of lipids differ in their nature. Researchers around the globe have tapped the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in developing formulation(s) that can be administered by various routes such as oral, ocular, parenteral, topical, and pulmonary. Since the start of this millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), lipid drug conjugates (LDCs), and pharmacosomes, has evolved that have the potential to overcome the limitations of SLNs. The current review article presents broad considerations on the influence of various types of lipids on the diverse characteristics of nanocarriers, encompassing their physicochemical, formulation, pharmacokinetic, and cytotoxic aspects.

  20. Experimental determination of the yield of pyrolysis products of polyethene and polypropene. Influence of reaction conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of temperature, residence time, concentration level of reactants and products, polymer type, and composition of the polymer mixture on the product spectra obtained from pyrolysis of polyethene (PE) and polypopene (PP) was determined. In our study the temperature was varied between 650

  1. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  2. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kozlova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  3. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE'S INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF DELICIOUS PRODUCTS FROM BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of time of microwave fluctuations on organoleptic indicators, chemical composition, exit and periods of storage of a meat product is investigated. It is established that the use of microwave technology in the beef delicacy reduces the salting by 3 times, and baking by 1,2 times. The yield of finished products increased by 2 times.

  4. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  5. Influences of Packaging on Consumers’ Choice of Agricultural Products in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuebuka Ebube Wilfred

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on packaging and its influence on consumers’ choice of agricultural products in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. In addition, it also aimed to ascertain the relationship between packaging of agricultural products and their perceived quality. The study population is made up of agro-product consumers in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 165 questionnaires were administered to respondents. Data obtained through questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using simple percentages while the chi-square was used to test the research hypotheses. The major findings of this study were that packaging has a direct relationship both to consumers’ choice of agricultural products and their perception of the quality of such products. Accordingly, the researchers conclude and recommend that improved packaging design for agricultural products is essential in attracting consumers and positively influencing their choice of purchase.

  6. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  7. Influence of the Time Perspective on New Product Development Success Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afrooz M.; Achiche, Sofiane; Hisarciklilar, Onur

    2011-01-01

    as they change depending on where a product is in its lifecycle. The influence of this time perspective on success indicators of new product developments has not been explored very extensively. In this paper, we investigate the success criteria during different phases of the product lifecycle. The goal...... of this research is to determine the appropriate sets of metrics to be used for assessing success during each phase of a product lifecycle. A practical case study was carried out by investigating 28 companies from Canadian and Danish industries. The companies are various industrial sectors. The data collection...... each product lifecycle phase is given....

  8. The Influence of Relational Capital on Product Innovation Performance at Innovative SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrego, Pedro Figueroa; Costa, Ricardo; Fernández, Carlos Fernández-Jardon

    2013-01-01

    The authors build on the intellectual capital and new product development perspectives to study the influence of relational capital on product innovation performance. An empirical research was conducted, using a questionnaire administered to Portuguese innovative SMEs. The results suggest that relational capital does have a positive effect on product innovation performance. In particular, ”Vertical relationships” stands out as the main relational capital element significantly affecting produ...

  9. Influence of Water Potential on gamma-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P; Battut, G

    1989-11-01

    The influence of water potential on gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (a(w)) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for a(w) values between 0.97 and 0.99.

  10. Influence of Water Potential on γ-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P.; Battut, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of water potential on γ-decalactone production by the yeast Sporidiobolus salmonicolor cultivated in a liquid medium was evaluated by gas-chromatographic analysis. Modifications in water potential led to a number of variations in the aroma production. Maximum extracellular production occurred at water activity (aw) with a value of 0.99. Further analyses revealed an important phenomenon of cellular accumulation of aroma for aw values between 0.97 and 0.99. PMID:16348056

  11. Influences Of Product, Price, And Location On Customer Satisfaction Rabbani In Langsa, Aceh

    OpenAIRE

    Amilia, Suri; Rini, Endang Sulistya; Lubis, Arlina Nurbaity

    2016-01-01

    Rabbani is a brand of ins tan hijab, released by Amry Gunawan and Nia Kurnia since 1991. Rabbani product sales decreased due to maximum customer satisfaction and consumers demand has not increased in certain months only. The aim of the research was to know and to analyze influences product; price,and place on customer satisfaction. The theory used in this research was the theory of marketing management which was related to product, price, place, and customer satisfaction. The type...

  12. The Influence of Relational Capital on Product Innovation Performance at Innovative SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrego, Pedro Figueroa; Costa, Ricardo; Fernández, Carlos Fernández-Jardon

    2013-01-01

    The authors build on the intellectual capital and new product development perspectives to study the influence of relational capital on product innovation performance. An empirical research was conducted, using a questionnaire administered to Portuguese innovative SMEs. The results suggest that relational capital does have a positive effect on product innovation performance. In particular, ”Vertical relationships” stands out as the main relational capital element significantly affecting produ...

  13. The influence of the production process on mechanical properties of rubber testing samples

    OpenAIRE

    Škrobák, Adam; STANĚK, Michal; Maňas, David; Ovsík, Martin; Šenkeřík, Vojtěch; Řezníček, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the influence of production technology on mechanical properties of rubber testing samples. In practice, rubber testing samples are cut out from a compression molded sheet, also in case of testing of rubber compounds appointed for injection molding. However, the different way of the preparation of testing samples and the production itself may have a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the final product. Thus the article judges, to what extent the mechanical p...

  14. A New Consumerism: The influence of social technologies on product design

    OpenAIRE

    De Vere, I

    2014-01-01

    Social media has enabled a new style of consumerism. Consumers are no longer passive recipients; instead they are assuming active and participatory roles in product design and production, facilitated by interaction and collaboration in virtual communities. This new participatory culture is blurring the boundaries between the specific roles of designer, consumer and producer, creating entrepreneurial opportunities for designers, and empowering consumers to influence product strategies. Evolvin...

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER RESISTANCE TO INNOVATION: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELATIVE ADVANTAGE, ATTITUDE TOWARDS EXISTING PRODUCT, SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the factors influencing the consumer resistance to innovation. Smartphones used as an innovation in this study. This research was performed by using the self-administered questionnaires to seek the customer behavior and their mindset towards innovation. This research confirmed the gap between the Asian and Western perspective. This research showed the significant positive causal relationship between attitude towards existing product, relative advantage, social influence and consumer resistance to innovation. The choice of research technique and sampling technique reduced the testing boundaries in the research. This research provided to the current body of knowledge as well as in the market. It gives the idea to the marketer and manufacturer to enhance their product features to reduce the consumer resistance to innovation.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER RESISTANCE TO INNOVATION: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELATIVE ADVANTAGE, ATTITUDE TOWARDS EXISTING PRODUCT, SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Abbas; Shahimi Bin Mohtar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the factors influencing the consumer resistance to innovation. Smartphones used as an innovation in this study. This research was performed by using the self-administered questionnaires to seek the customer behavior and their mindset towards innovation. This research confirmed the gap between the Asian and Western perspective. This research showed the significant positive causal relationship between attitude towards existing product, relative advantage,...

  17. Quorum Sensing Influences Burkholderia thailandensis Biofilm Development and Matrix Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Boo Shan; Majerczyk, Charlotte D; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Chandler, Josephine R; Greenberg, E Peter; Parsek, Matthew R

    2016-10-01

    Members of the genus Burkholderia are known to be adept at biofilm formation, which presumably assists in the survival of these organisms in the environment and the host. Biofilm formation has been linked to quorum sensing (QS) in several bacterial species. In this study, we characterized Burkholderia thailandensis biofilm development under flow conditions and sought to determine whether QS contributes to this process. B. thailandensis biofilm formation exhibited an unusual pattern: the cells formed small aggregates and then proceeded to produce mature biofilms characterized by "dome" structures filled with biofilm matrix material. We showed that this process was dependent on QS. B. thailandensis has three acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) QS systems (QS-1, QS-2, and QS-3). An AHL-negative strain produced biofilms consisting of cell aggregates but lacking the matrix-filled dome structures. This phenotype was rescued via exogenous addition of the three AHL signals. Of the three B. thailandensis QS systems, we show that QS-1 is required for proper biofilm development, since a btaR1 mutant, which is defective in QS-1 regulation, forms biofilms without these dome structures. Furthermore, our data show that the wild-type biofilm biomass, as well as the material inside the domes, stains with a fucose-binding lectin. The btaR1 mutant biofilms, however, are negative for fucose staining. This suggests that the QS-1 system regulates the production of a fucose-containing exopolysaccharide in wild-type biofilms. Finally, we present data showing that QS ability during biofilm development produces a biofilm that is resistant to dispersion under stress conditions. The saprophyte Burkholderia thailandensis is a close relative of the pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, which is contracted from its environmental reservoir. Since most bacteria in the environment reside in biofilms, B. thailandensis is an ideal model organism for

  18. The Influence of Organizational Climate on Work Productivity Library Staff at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nurma Hastuti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 Pengaruh iklim organisasi terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Pengaruh struktur terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Pengaruh standar-standar terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran (4 Pengaruh tanggung jawab terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 25 orang tenaga perpustakaan CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 Iklim organisasi memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Struktur memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Standar memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, dan (4 Tanggung jawab memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Iklim organisasi pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran dikategorikan kondusif, namun sebaiknya perpustakaan dapat menciptakan iklim organisasi yang lebih kondusif dan nyaman agar produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan semakin meningkat.   Kata Kunci : Iklim Organisasi, Tenaga Perpustakaan, Produktivitas Kerja   Abstract: This study aims to find out (1 The influence of organizational climate on work productivity of librarian at Padjadjaran University, CISRAL (2 The Influences of structure on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University (3 The influence of standards on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL University of Padjadjaran (4 The influence of responsibility on work productivity librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

  19. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  20. Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Trade Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the indices of RCA and TSC of agricultural products in China,according to China Statistical Yearbook,China Rural Statistical Yearbook and data from database of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations from 1996 to 2009,We select direct influencing factors and indirect influencing factors as reference as series of numbers,regard indices of RCA and TSC as index series of numbers of evaluation,and use grey correlation analysis method to conduct analysis and evaluation on influencing factors of trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products.The results show that due to different index calculation methods,the sequencing results of all factors are not wholly the same.But on the whole,in terms of transformation from cost advantage and price advantage into competition advantage,the ability of direct factors is strong,impacting significantly trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products,while the influencing effect of indirect factors is relatively weak.On the basis of this,we put forward the suggestions in order to improve trade competitiveness of China’s agricultural products as follows:firstly,we should strengthen and perfect agricultural agriculture-support policy;secondly,we should promote foreign merchants’ direct investment level in agriculture;thirdly,we should deepen the processing ability of agricultural products and promote quality of agricultural products;fourthly,we should create good trade environment.

  1. Product formation from thiophene by a mixed bacterial culture. Influence of benzene as growth substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Isabelle Marie; Mosbæk, Hans; Arvin, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The influence of benzene as a growth substrate on the cometabolic conversion of thiophene was investigated in batch systems with microorganisms originating from an creosote contaminated site. Benzene was shown to stimulate the conversion of thiophene with a first-order rate, during the initial...... phase of transformation. The microorganisms were able to transform thiophene in the absence of benzene at a zero-order rate. Thiophene was converted to five oxidation products, regardless of the presence of benzene. Benzene had no influence on the distribution of these oxidation products. The main...

  2. THE ROLE OF ATTITUDE IN MEDIATING CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE INFLUENCE TOWARDS THE PURCHASE INTENTION OF GREEN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Sagung Ayu Wulandari,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the environment has become a main idea for some modern companies in applying the green marketing strategy. Many consumers perceive that a product with natural raw material can give a better benefit both in terms of health issue and environment. The purpose of this study is to find out the role of attitude in mediating consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar.The samples were 110 respondents from all over Denpasar taken with the purposive sampling method and path analysis. The result of the study shows that consumer knowledge has significant and positive influence towards the attitude and purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250. The attitude variable has been proven to be able to mediate consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar significantly, while the mediation happen is partial, so that the attitude variable functions as a mediator of consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product.

  3. The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Fathonah; Yanki Hartijasti

    2014-01-01

    Workplace personal web usage (WPWU) is an employee’s activity in using internet for non-related task during working hours. It is considered a counterproductive behavior when done excessively because it can interrupt employee’s productivity, but it can increase creativity and eliminate bore- dom when used in a rational amount. The objective of this study was to prove whether perceived organizational injustice had influence on WPWU which affected work productivity. A total of 222 respondents wo...

  4. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

    OpenAIRE

    BOHNENBERGER,JULIANA E.; LUCIANE O. CROSSETTI

    2014-01-01

    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another...

  5. Influence of nonmartensitic transformation products on mechanical properties of tempered martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J M; Lankford, W T

    1952-01-01

    The influence of nonmartensitic transformations products on the mechanical properties of tempered martensite is presented for samples of a SAE 4340 steel, partially isothermally transformed to specific high-temperature transformation products and quenched and tempered to hardness values of from 25 to 40 Rockwell c. The effects of upper bainite in amounts of 1,5, 10, 20 and 50 percent, of 5 percent ferrite, and of 5 percent pearlite on the tensile, impact, and fatigue properties are evaluated. (author)

  6. Hydrogen production in anaerobic reactors during shock loads--influence of formate production and H2 kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolapalli, R K; Stuckey, D C

    2001-05-01

    In this article the role of hydrogen as a process monitoring tool in methanogenic systems was studied by considering the influence of several key system parameters. Hydrogen production was found to be influenced mainly by the inocula's source pH, and varied only slightly with external pH and HCO3- levels. When an inoculum adapted to above neutral conditions (pH > 7) was shocked, reducing equivalents were selectively channelled through formate, while high hydrogen production was noticed with acidically (pH production of hydrogen or formate during shock loads was not strongly associated with microbial morphology (granules or flocs) as high electron fluxes were possible through either during acidogenesis. Shock load experiments in continuous reactors revealed that neither hydrogen nor formate accumulated to any significant degree, nevertheless digester recovery took a long time due to the slow kinetics of volatile fatty acid degradation. Selective formate production under neutral pH environments, coupled with high hydrogenotrophic activity, was found to be responsible for the dampened hydrogen response during the early phases of gradually shocked systems (step change). Based on these results it appears that the role of hydrogen as a process monitoring tool has been overemphasised in the literature.

  7. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions, as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via mentioned sites (acting as intermediaries in online sales channel, and anticipated satisfaction from choice made by consumer. Also indirect influence of users’ opinions about product and sellers on mentioned constructs has been researched. Study on effective sample of 456 young consumers with data collected through CAWI questionnaire confirmed reliability and validity of measurement scales. Path model estimated via PLS-SEM confirmed most hypotheses settled, particularly confirming strong positive relationships between cognitive trust (mostly in competence on affective trust, and later on purchase intention and choice satisfaction. Product and sellers reviews were partially mediating some of those relationships.

  8. The influence of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on pragmatic language production in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lier, Sam; Batens, Katja; Santens, Patrick; Van Roost, Dirk; Van Herreweghe, Mieke; De Letter, Miet

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on the comprehension of pragmatic language in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been the focus of studies, its impact on production, however, has yet to be elucidated. (1) Investigating the inf luence of DBS STN on pragmatic language production in spontaneous speech by comparing different stimulation conditions and (2) evaluating the effect of asymmetric dopaminergic denervation. This paper included 18 patients with advanced idiopathic PD with STN DBS. [Ten PD patients with predominantly left hemispheric dopamine denervation (PD-left) and eight PD patients with predominantly right-hemispheric dopamine denervation (PD-right).] The pragmatic components 'communicative functions' and 'conversational skills' were evaluated by analysing the spontaneous language production in four stimulation conditions. STN stimulation did not appear to influence the pragmatic production skills. Only when asymmetric dopamine depletion was taken into account the parameter 'giving an explanation' interaction was detectable. STN DBS appears to have some influence on the production of pragmatic language depending on asymmetric dopaminergic denervation. Suggestions are made for further research of pragmatic production in Parkinson's disease.

  9. The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-05-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration.

  10. Influence of retrieval mode on effects of production: Evidence for costs in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Study modality (visual, auditory) of words as well as production mode (reading aloud, writing down) have been shown to influence the production effect (PE). When study words are presented visually, reading them aloud yields superior memory. However, when the same study words are presented aurally, writing them down leads to superior memory. Missing in PE studies is the variable of retrieval mode (written, aloud), which was addressed in the present study. In a pair of experiments, we manipulated the 3 variables-study modality, production mode, and retrieval mode-in a factorial fashion. With visual study, aloud production mode (vocalizing) was found to be superior to written production, in both retrieval modes (written and aloud). However, the difference between the productions was significantly smaller in the aloud retrieval mode relative to the written retrieval mode. With auditory study, written production mode was superior to aloud production mode, in the written as well as in the aloud retrieval modes. Here, the difference between the productions was significantly smaller in the written relative to the aloud retrieval mode. In other words, the difference between productions was smaller for the retrieval mode that matched the superior production. We interpret these findings using a retrieval-cost account. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Synergistic dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous influences lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Patel, Alok; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    The study synergistically optimized nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for attainment of maximum lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima. Nitrogen and phosphorous limited cells (N(L)P(L)) showed maximum lipid productivity (49.1±0.41mg/L/d), 1.47 folds higher than control. Nitrogen depletion resulted in reduced cell size with large sized lipid droplets encompassing most of the intracellular space while discrete lipid bodies were observed under nitrogen sufficiency. Synergistic N/P starvations showed more prominent effect on photosynthetic pigments as to individual deprivations. Phosphorous deficiency along with N starvation exhibited 17.12% decline in carbohydrate while no change in nitrogen sufficient cells were recorded. The optimum N(L)P(L) concentration showed balance between biomass and lipid by maintaining intermediate cell size, pigments, carbohydrate and proteins. FAME profile showed C14-C18 carbon chains in N(L)P(L) cells with biodiesel properties comparable to plant oil methyl esters. Hence, synergistic N/P limitation was effective for enhancing lipid productivity with reduced consumption of nutrients.

  12. The influence of ERP implementation on the division of power at the production-sales interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Boonstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that demonstrates the influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation on the power and interests of actors at the production-sales interface, and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach - An empirical in-depth long

  13. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  14. The Influence of Product Aesthetics and User State in Usability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Sonderegger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    An empirical study examined the effects of two influencing factors in usability tests on user performance and usability ratings. Product aesthetics (high vs. low) as the main independent factor and prior usage event (positive vs. negative) as a subsidiary independent factor were varied in a between-participants design. 60 participants took part in…

  15. Exploring the influence of design culture on ICT healthcare product and service design for rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Kandachar, P.V.; Freudenthal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design culture is usually considered as one of the important aspects that influence designers’ decisions and actions, especially in Design for Base of the Pyramid projects including ICT Healthcare Product Design in Rural China (IHDRC). There are two research questions in this issue: what are the cul

  16. The influence of deformation on the product performance of pre-coated packaging steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in various countries have led to the development of new types of polymer coated packaging steel. These materials behave differently in production and end use and are therefore subject of extensive studies. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of deformation of

  17. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We

  18. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Handwriting Production: Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Current models of writing do not sufficiently address the complex relationship between the 2 transcription skills: spelling and handwriting. For children with dyslexia and beginning writers, it is conceivable that spelling ability will influence rate of handwriting production. Our aim in this study was to examine execution speed and temporal…

  19. Pigment-Dispersing Factor Modulates Pheromone Production in Clock Cells that Influence Mating in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupp, Joshua J.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Wong, Amy; Choi, Charles; Nitabach, Michael N.; Levine, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cues contribute to the circadian entrainment of physiological and behavioral rhythms. These cues supplement the influence of daily and seasonal cycles in light and temperature. In Drosophila, the social environment modulates circadian mechanisms that regulate sex pheromone production and mati

  20. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We pr

  1. The influence of ERP implementation on the division of power at the production-sales interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Boonstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a model that demonstrates the influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation on the power and interests of actors at the production-sales interface, and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach - An empirical in-depth

  2. The influence of deformation on the product performance of pre-coated packaging steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in various countries have led to the development of new types of polymer coated packaging steel. These materials behave differently in production and end use and are therefore subject of extensive studies. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of deformation of

  3. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  4. The Influence of Socio-Cultural Background and Product Value in Usability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee mac...

  5. Climatic influences on litterfall production in a forested savannah in Prata – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Siqueira

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of climate on litterfall production, for a year, in a small fragment of forested savannah, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twenty collectors (0.25 m2 arranged in a row were used. The total litter production was 7.5 t.ha-1.year-1, comprising leaves, branches and fertile structures as the fractions. The leaf fraction contributed 67% of the annual litter input. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r indicated the influence of the climatic variables precipitation and mean and minimum temperature in the accumulation of this fraction. The analysis also resulted in a significant r value between branches and average wind velocity, while the fertile structure fraction was influenced by rainfall and average maximum and minimum temperature. Vegetation characteristics may have interfered with the results. Phytosociological and nutrient cycling studies should be conducted to test the proposed hypothesis.

  6. Cross-Functional Influence in New Product Development: An Exploratory Study of Marketing and R...D Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kwaku Atuahene-Gima; Felicitas Evangelista

    2000-01-01

    Previous research in new product development (NPD) has focused on the participation of marketing and R...D personnel, but little attention has been paid to their influence. This study examined the effects of marketing's and R...D's influence and participation on new product performance and the differential effects of personal, new product, and organizational factors on their influence in the NPD process as seen from each other's perspective. The results suggest that marketing's and R...D's se...

  7. The influence of white seabream ( Diplodus sargus) production on macrobenthic colonization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cúrdia, João; Moura, Ana; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís

    2007-05-01

    The present work evaluates the influence of fish production on macrobenthic colonization over large areas (approximately 700 m 2), where the colonizing populations are not nearby the disturbed area. Sampling was undertaken within newly created aquaculture earthen ponds under two contrasting conditions: white seabream ( Diplodus sargus) production and no production (control). Macrobenthic and geochemical samples were collected 7, 23, 54, 93 and 180 days after filling the earthen ponds with seawater pumped from a water reservoir for the first time. The water reservoir was also sampled, and is used as a reference for the colonizing populations. Macrobenthic colonization rate in the ponds was low, probably due to the isolation of the disturbed habitat, to the large size of the defaunated area, and possibly to geochemical constraints. Initial colonization was by insect larvae (mainly chironomids), the bivalves Cerastoderma spp., the polychaetes Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Hydrodoides elegans, and nemerteneans. The number of species was similar in control and production ponds, even though under production higher total abundance values were observed. Although well represented in the water reservoir, the amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa was only observed within the new ponds after 6 months. Preliminary results suggest that macrobenthic colonization patterns were influenced by fish production, as assemblages were significantly different among ponds. Higher food availability due to fish production may explain the results obtained, but ecological reasons, such as predation, may also contribute for shaping the macrobenthic communities.

  8. BUILDABILITY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MICRO-LEVEL FORMWORK LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF BEAMS IN BUILDING FLOORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M. Jarkas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildability is one of the most important factors that influence labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough literature examination revealed a dearth of research concerning the effects of buildability on labour productivity of in situ reinforced concrete construction. Beams are major components of building floors, and the objective of this investigation is to explore the buildability factors that influence their micro-level formwork labour productivity. Therefore, a large volume of productivity data was collected and analysed using a categorical interaction-regression method. As a result, the main and interaction effects of beam repetition, size, intersections and span geometry were determined. The obtained results indicate that the investigated factors significantly influence the forming operation labour efficiency and substantiate the importance of applying design rationalisation, standardisation and repetition concepts to the design stage of construction projects. The findings satisfy the explored activity buildability knowledge gap, which can be used to provide designers with feedback on how well their designs consider the buildability principle requirements, as well as their decision consequences on the forming operation productivity.

  9. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol and acet......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...... and acetate. A. oryzae did not grow on galactose as the sole carbon source, but galactose was co-metabolized together with glucose. Relative to that on low glucose concentration (below 10 mg/l), productivity was found to be higher during growth on maltose and maltodextrins, whereas it was lower during growth...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON MARKETING PROGRAMS FOR NEW PRODUCTS LAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CĂPĂȚÎNĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze the influence of culture on marketing programs for new products launch. Despite the special attention that literature confers to new products, the tactical side represented by marketing program which operationalize the new product launch, it is strongly neglected. Thus, considering the actual trends toward international markets and the existing gap in literature, the paper sections will treat the culture components in relation with marketing program activities developed for a new product launch. The contribution of this paper at scientific progress is accomplished by providing detailed descriptions of changes occurred in marketing programs in cultural diversity context; it is a preamble for a field which need new developments, theories and knowledge. In terms of conclusions, marketing program on international market is expected to be a good predictor of new product success, and at the same time, a useful approach to optimize the allocation of marketing effort.

  11. Influence of temperature on production of lactic acid from kitchen garbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪群慧; 徐忠; 孟令辉; 孙晓红; 王旭明

    2003-01-01

    The production of lactic acid from kitchen garbage, the precursor for production of biodegradableplastics is described in detail. The influence of temperature on the lactic acid concentration, sugar concentra-tion, and decrement of garbage were evaluated through experiments. Fermentation were carried out in an incu-bator at 5, 25, 37 and 50 ℃. The latic acid produced was maximum at initial pH 6.0 and 37 ℃ , i.e. 38 g/Lwith a yield of 0.23 g/gVS. It is concluded from the experimental results that temperature has quite a consider-able effect on the production of lactic acid; lactic acid concentration increases with temperature until 37 ℃ ,and production rate of lactic acid drops at 50 ℃; the optimal fermentation is 37 ℃. This study shows that pro-duction of lactic acid from kitchen garbage is feasible and reduction of garbage can be realized.

  12. Substrate quality and nutrient availability influence CO2 production from tropical peat decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swails, E.; Jaye, D.; Verchot, L. V.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Wahyuni, N. S.; Borchard, N.; Lawrence, D.

    2015-12-01

    In Indonesia, peatlands are a major and growing source of greenhouse gas emissions due to increasing pressure from oil palm and pulp wood plantations. We are using a combination of field measures, laboratory experiments, and remote sensing to investigate relationships among land use, climatic factors and biogeochemical controls, and their influence on trace gas fluxes from tropical peat soils. Analysis of soils collected from peat sites on two major islands indicated substantial variation in peat substrate quality and nutrient content among land uses and geographic location. We conducted laboratory incubations to test the influence of substrate quality and nutrient availability on CO2 production from peat decomposition. Differences in peat characteristics attributable to land use change were tested by comparison of forest and oil palm peat samples collected from the same peat dome in Kalimantan. Regional differences in peat characteristics were tested by comparison of samples from Sumatra with samples from Kalimantan. We conducted additional experiments to test the influence of N and P availability and labile carbon on CO2 production. Under moisture conditions typical of oil palm plantations, CO2 production was higher from peat forest samples than from oil palm samples. CO2 production from Sumatra and Kalimantan oil palm samples was not different, despite apparent differences in nutrient content of these soils. N and P treatments representative of fertilizer application rates raised CO2 production from forest samples but not oil palm samples. Labile carbon treatments raised CO2 production in all samples. Our results suggest that decomposition of peat forest soils is nutrient limited, while substrate quality controls decomposition of oil palm soils post-conversion. Though fertilizer application could accelerate peat decomposition initially, fertilizer application may not influence long-term CO2 emissions from oil palm on peat.

  13. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  14. Influence of External Nitrogen on Nitrogenase Enzyme Activity and Auxin Production in Herbaspirillum seropedicae (Z78).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tan Tzy; Pin, Ui Li; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    The production of nitrogenase enzyme and auxins by free living diazotrophs has the potential to influence the growth of host plants. In this study, diazotrophs were grown in the presence of various concentrations of nitogen (N) to determine the optimal concentration of N for microbial growth stimulation, promotion of gaseous N (N2) fixation, and phytohormone production. Therefore, we investigate whether different levels of N supplied to Herbaspirillum seropedicae (Z78) have significant effects on nitrogenase activity and auxin production. The highest nitrogenase activity and the lowest auxin production of H. seropedicae (Z78) were both recorded at 0 gL(-1) of NH4Cl. Higher levels of external N caused a significant decrease in the nitrogenase activity and an increased production of auxins. In a subsequent test, two different inoculum sizes of Z78 (10(6) and 10(12) cfu/ml) were used to study the effect of different percentages of acetylene on nitrogenase activity of the inoculum via the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). The results showed that the optimal amount of acetylene required for nitrogenase enzyme activity was 5% for the 10(6) cfu/ml inoculum, whereas the higher inoculum size (10(12) cfu/ml) required at least 10% of acetylene for optimal nitrogenase activity. These findings provide a clearer understanding of the effects of N levels on diazotrophic nitrogenase activity and auxin production, which are important factors influencing plant growth.

  15. Major genes and QTL influencing wool production and quality: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvis Ian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The opportunity exists to utilise our knowledge of major genes that influence the economically important traits in wool sheep. Genes with Mendelian inheritance have been identified for many important traits in wool sheep. Of particular importance are genes influencing pigmentation, wool quality and the keratin proteins, the latter of which are important for the morphology of the wool fibre. Gene mapping studies have identified some chromosomal regions associated with variation in wool quality and production traits. The challenge now is to build on this knowledge base in a cost-effective way to deliver molecular tools that facilitate enhanced genetic improvement programs for wool sheep.

  16. Evaluation on the Influencing Factors of Agricultural Land Productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Huang-Huai Plain as an example,evaluation index system is established from four aspects,including the resources condition,the social and economic condition,the agricultural science and technology condition,and the disaster resistant and sustainable production condition.Correlation coefficient method and expert consultation method are used to determine the weight of evaluation index.After the standardization of extreme value,weighted sum method and multiple regression method are adopted to evaluate the influencing factors of agricultural land productivity in Huang-Huai Plain,China.Evaluation result shows that agricultural science and technology condition has a lower contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Resources condition has a higher contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain than that to Henan Province.Both the social and economic condition and the disaster control and sustainable production condition show relatively small contribution rate to the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.It can be concluded that the main factors affecting the productivity of Huang-Huai Plain are the backward agricultural science and technology level,the poor farmland quality and the farmland infrastructure.Based on this,relevant suggestions are put forward to improve the farmland productivity of Huang-Huai Plain.

  17. Environmental influences on CO sub 2 uptake by agaves, CAM plants with high productivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    Agaves have long been utilized for their leaf fiber and for beverage production. As first reported in 1968 for Agave americana, they are Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants, for which stomatal opening and CO{sub 2} uptake occur primarily at night when the lower temperatures greatly reduce water loss. More recently, the influences of rainfall, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation on CO{sub 2} uptake by agaves have been determined and incorporated into an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Nutrient effects on CO{sub 2} uptake and growth can be quantified by a Nutrient Index, which multiples EPI to account for soil element effects. Because of CAM, agaves can have high productivities in regions of moderate annual rainfall, and because of EPI, such productivity can be predicted, which augurs well for the increased future cultivation of agaves.

  18. The influence of theobromine on angiogenic activity and proangiogenic cytokines production of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, E; Sommer, E; Sokolnicka, I; Gawrychowski, K; Roszkowska-Purska, K; Janik, P; Skopinska-Rózewska, E

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis formation. Adenosine is one of the most potent stimulator of neovascularisation. The aim of present study was to determine if theobromine, adenosine receptor antagonist, influences angiogenic activity and proangiogenic cytokines production. Theobromine caused significant inhibition of angiogenic activity of ovarian cancer cells. In in vivo and in vitro cultures theobromine diminished vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was not altered by the examined drug. These findings suggest that theobromine might be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis induced by ovarian cancer cells and its mechanism of action is related to inhibition of VEGF production.

  19. Evaluation of experimental factors that influence the application and discrimination capability of the product consistency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.; Piepel, G.F.

    1991-06-01

    It is desirable to have a means of monitoring possible changes in waste glass durability during protection so that the product remains within acceptable limits. A leach test called the Product Consistency test (PCT) was developed by Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) as such a production test for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report examines some of the experimental factors that may be used in the PCT that could influence test precision and its ability to function as intended. An experiment was performed to investigate the effects (on pH and elemental releases of Al, Fe, K, Na, Si, B, Li, and Mn) of modifications to the test conditions of the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The experiment was replicated three times; each replicate involved leach testing two glasses with each of 24 different sets of PCT conditions. 6 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  20. Influence of Customer Quality Perception on the Effectiveness of Commercial Stimuli for Electronic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Morgado, Álvaro; González-Benito, Óscar; Martos-Partal, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality, and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers' quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality-linked to the brand-and intrinsic quality-related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i) cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name) is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii) different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe's largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due to the use of a brand name

  1. Influence of customer quality perception on the effectiveness of commercial stimuli for electronic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro eGarrido-Morgado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers’ quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality –linked to the brand– and intrinsic quality –related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe’s largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due

  2. Influence of Customer Quality Perception on the Effectiveness of Commercial Stimuli for Electronic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Morgado, Álvaro; González-Benito, Óscar; Martos-Partal, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Creating and maintaining customer loyalty are strategic requirements for modern business. In the current competitive context, product quality, and brand experience are crucial in building and maintaining customer loyalty. Consumer loyalty, which may be classified into cognitive loyalty and affective loyalty, is related to customers' quality perception. Cue utilization theory distinguishes two dimensions for perceived quality, extrinsic quality—linked to the brand—and intrinsic quality—related with internal product characteristics. We propose that (i) cognitive loyalty is more influenced by intrinsic product quality whereas extrinsic product quality (brand name) is more salient for affective loyalty and, (ii) different commercial stimuli have a differential effectiveness on intrinsic and extrinsic perceived quality. In fact, in this study, we analyze how perceived quality dimensions may influence the effectiveness of two different commercial stimuli: displays and advertising flyers. While displays work within the point of sale under time-constrained conditions where consumers are more likely to use heuristics to simplify their decisions, advertising flyers work outside of the point of sale under low time-constrained conditions, and therefore favor a more reasoned purchase decision where systematic processing will be more likely. We analyze the role of quality perception in determining the effectiveness of both these commercial stimuli for selling products that induce high purchase involvement and perceived risk. The empirical analysis focuses on computer products sold by one of Europe's largest computer retailers and it combines scanner, observational, and survey data. The results show that both dimensions of quality perceptions moderate the influence of displays and advertising flyers on sales, but their impact is different on each commercial stimuli. Extrinsic quality perception increases to a greater extent the effect of displays due to the use of a brand

  3. Studying the influence of workplace design on productivity of bank clerks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace design is one of the factors that can influence comfort, performance, productivity and the health status of employees. The effects of this factor on human’s productivity and performance are studied in the domain of ergonomics. The impact of workplace design on workers’ productivity and performance can be determined by investigation of the quality of the design. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of workplace design on productivity of the bank clerks. Material and Method: Samples in this cross-sectional study were comprised of 150 employees of 22 different branches of a bank in Tehran city. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire related to the effects of workplace design on employees’ productivity, developed by Hameed and colleagues. Correlation and regression statistical tests were used in order to analyze data. Result: According to the results, the mean (±SD for age and job tenure of participants were 37.2(±6 and 13(±7 years, respectively. Of the surveyed demographic features, a significant relationship was observed between age and scores belonging to the temperature and furniture (P-value<0.05. In addition, there was a significant association between employees’ productivity and the noise (P-value=0.044 and spatial arrangement of environment (P-value=0.048. Conclusion: Overall, appropriate and high quality design of work environment can improve productivity of bank clerks. In other words, employees’ productivity can be enhanced by comfortable and ergonomic design of working environment and also by considering their needs.

  4. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.

  5. Procedure for quantifiable assessment of nutritional parameters influencing nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapati, S; O'Sullivan, D J

    1998-08-27

    A modified rapid plate assay procedure was developed, that allowed quantifiable measurement of nisin production by Lactococcus lactis growing directly on agar media. Using this direct plate assay, several nutritional parameters were assessed for their influence on nisin production (as distinct from their influence on growth) by L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 growing on standard M17 based media over 3 and 6 h incubation periods. Glucose was found to be the optimal carbon source tested, with glycerol having the greatest suppressive effect. The addition of salts suppressed nisin production on a per cell basis, except MnCl2. This direct plate method proved to be a good pilot assay for rapidly and quantifiably investigating the initial effects of different parameters on nisin production by L. lactis, prior to conducting more intensive broth batch culture assays. The data obtained in this study indicate that certain nutritional parameters can impose a repressive effect on nisin production. Elucidation of how these parameters control the amount of nisin produced will provide further insight into the regulation of nisin biosynthesis in L. lactis.

  6. Ecophysiological variables influencing Aleppo pine seed and cone production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Abdelaziz; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-04-01

    The most interesting factors associated with seed and cone production of Aleppo pine were largely reviewed to identify broad patterns and potential effectiveness of reforestation efforts and planning. Aleppo pine cone production and seed yields are relatively variable, with differences between spatial and temporal influences. These differences are considered, mainly between (i) year, (ii) stand characteristics and (iii) individual tree measurements. Annual variability among populations was recorded for cone production per tree, based on influencing factors such as genetic characteristics, wetness, nutrient availability, insect pests and disease. In addition, some factors may affect Aleppo pine tree growth directly but may be affecting seed and cone production indirectly. Therefore, reduced stand density results in less competition among Aleppo pine trees and accompanying understory flora, which subsequently increases the stem diameter and other tree dimensions, including seed production. This review suggests that reforestation planning, particularly thinning, will result in improved tree morphology that will increase Aleppo pine seed and cone crops. Wildfire intensity and stand conditions such as light and soil nutrient status are also examined.

  7. Nutrition labels influence value computation of food products in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Hu, Yang; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity is high in most industrialized nations, and therefore, it is crucial to understand contextual factors underlying food choice. Nutrition labels are public policy interventions designed to adequately inform consumers about nutritional value and overall healthiness of food products. The present study examines how different nutrition labels, namely a purely information-based label (guideline daily amount, GDA) and a more explicit traffic light (TL) label, influence product valuation and choice in a functional MRI setting. Thirty-five healthy participants across different BMIs were instructed to valuate healthy and unhealthy food products in combination with one of the two labels and to state their willingness to pay (WTP) for the product. The labeling methods significantly influenced participants' WTP. Red TL signaling activated parts of the left inferior frontal gyrus/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in self-control in food choice. This region, in the case of red signaling, and the posterior cingulate cortex, in the case of green signaling, showed increased coupling to the valuation system in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our results suggest that explicitly directing attention toward nutritional values using salient nutrition labels triggers neurobiological processes that resemble those utilized by successful dieters choosing healthier products. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Influence of media and temperature on bacteriocin production by Bacillus cereus 8A during batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizani, D; Brandelli, A

    2004-08-01

    Cerein 8A is a bacteriocin produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus cereus 8A, isolated from native woodlands of Brazil. The influence of temperature and media on the growth of B. cereus 8A and the production of this bacteriocin was studied during batch cultivation. Maximum activity was detected by cultivation in brain/heart infusion broth, reaching 3200 activity units ml(-1). Bacteriocin was also produced in peptone, MRS, Mueller-Hinton and nutrient broth, while no activity was observed during cultivation in thioglycollate or tryptic soy broth. Temperature had a strong influence on bacteriocin production, which was higher at 30 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. An important decrease in bacteriocin activity was observed at 37 degrees C. The relationship between growth and specific production rates, as a function of the temperature, showed different kinetics of production and there were several peaks in the specific production rates during growth. Bacteriocin was produced at the stationary phase, indicating it is synthesized as a secondary metabolite.

  9. Husbandry factors and health conditions influencing the productivity of French rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huneau-Salaün

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 productivity data from 95 kindling to finishing rabbit farms in France were analysed to identify rearing factors and health conditions that influenced their productivity. Farm productivity, expressed on a yearly basis, was described with 4 productivity indices: doe fertility and prolificacy, viability of young rabbits in the nest and mortality during the fattening period. The productivity data were obtained with the technical support of the farm and expressed in a standardised way. The average numerical productivity observed in the sample of farms was 50.9 rabbits produced per doe and per year (CI95% [49.6-52.2]. The husbandry management and health conditions were described based on a questionnaire filled out during an interview with the farmer and a farm visit. Explanatory data were organised into meaningful blocks relative to biosecurity measures, del using a Partiamaternity management, the sanitary context and the farm structure. The relationship between the 4 thematic blocks and the productivity indices was studied in a single mol Least Squares (PLS regression model. Fertility (81.0%, CI95% [80.0-82.0] and viability of young at nest (85.1%, CI95% [85.0-85.3] and mortality rate during fattening: 7.2%, CI95% [6.4-7.9] were significantly associated with common factors relative to maternity management and the health context whereas prolificacy (9.7 live kits per parturition, CI95% [9.5-9.9] was mostly influenced by a specific set of variables pertaining to those 2 blocks. Farm structure and biosecurity measures had a limited impact on fertility and on kit viability before weaning. The health conditions of the doe herd and the fattening rabbits were found to be significantly associated with several productivity indexes, but their impacts on productivity were as high as the impact of the other blocks. Genetic strain of the females, doe replacement strategy and nursing and weaning practices appeared to significantly influence reproductive

  10. Influence of lignin on biochemical methane potential of biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, J M; Sommer, S G; Møller, H B

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of biomass is of great importance in assessing biodegradability as well as predicting biogas yield for biogas production. Since the current BMP determination methods are costly and time-consuming, innovative techniques for predicting BMP are needed. The objective...... of this study was to examine the influence of fibrous fractions of biomass on BMP to develop an economical and easy-to-use predicting model of BMP, and hence the biodegradability of organic materials for biogas production. The model was developed either for energy crops or for animal manures, or as a combined...

  11. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h.

  12. The influence of sonority on the production of words ending in -ed by Brazilian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Delatorre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of sonority on the production of vowel epenthesis in verbs ending in -ed by Brazilian learners of English. Participants were twenty-six upper-intermediate Brazilian EFL learners who read and audio-recorded ten paragraphs containing 91 verbs ending in ed. The results demonstrated that sonority influenced mispronunciations since the least sonorous obstruents preceding -ed induced more vowel epenthesis than the more sonorous sonorants, which in turn induced more epenthesis than vowels in the same position. The results also demonstrated that within the class of obstruents, affricates preceding -ed induced more epenthesis than stops, which induced more epenthesis than fricatives, and that, within the class of sonorants, nasals induced more epenthesis than liquids. These results suggest that markedness in terms of sonority affects the production of vowel epenthesis in words ending in -ed.

  13. The influence of sonority on the production of words ending in -ed by Brazilian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Delatorre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2008n55p83 This study investigated the influence of sonority on the production of vowel epenthesis in verbs ending in -ed by Brazilian learners of English. Participants were twenty-six upper-intermediate Brazilian EFL learners who read and audio-recorded ten paragraphs containing 91 verbs ending in ed. The results demonstrated that sonority influenced mispronunciations since the least sonorous obstruents preceding -ed induced more vowel epenthesis than the more sonorous sonorants, which in turn induced more epenthesis than vowels in the same position. The results also demonstrated that within the class of obstruents, affricates preceding -ed induced more epenthesis than stops, which induced more epenthesis than fricatives, and that, within the class of sonorants, nasals induced more epenthesis than liquids. These results suggest that markedness in terms of sonority affects the production of vowel epenthesis in words ending in -ed.

  14. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages: a systematic review of experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which could affect both pro- and anti-inflammatory abilities of these cells.A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Toxline in June 2013, last updated 3rd of August 2014. Criteria used to select studies were described and published beforehand online on Prospero (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies.Results from this review have suggested that at least one phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-α production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human monocytes/macrophages as well as more in vivo studies are needed to confirm or dispute these findings.

  15. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  16. Influence of atmospheric rivers on vegetation productivity and fire patterns in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Dettinger, Michael; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    In the southwestern U.S., the meteorological phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs) has gained increasing attention due to its strong connections to floods, snowpacks, and water supplies in the West Coast states. Relatively less is known about the ecological implications of ARs, particularly in the interior Southwest, where AR storms are less common. To address this gap, we compared a chronology of AR landfalls on the west coast between 1989 and 2011 and between 25°N and 42.5°N to annual metrics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an indicator of vegetation productivity) and daily resolution precipitation data to assess influences of AR-fed winter precipitation on vegetation productivity across the southwestern U.S. We mapped correlations between winter AR precipitation during landfalling ARs and (1) annual maximum NDVI and (2) area burned by large wildfires summarized by ecoregion during the same year as the landfalls and during the following year. Interannual variations of AR precipitation strongly influenced both NDVI and area burned by wildfire in some dryland ecoregions. The influence of ARs on dryland vegetation varied significantly depending on the latitude of landfall, with those ARs making landfall below 35°N latitude more strongly influencing these systems, and with effects observed as far as 1300 km from the landfall location. As climatologists' understanding of the synoptic patterns associated with the occurrence of ARs continues to evolve, an increased understanding of how AR landfalls, in aggregate, influence vegetation productivity and associated wildfire activity in dryland ecosystems may provide opportunities to better predict ecological responses to climate and climate change.

  17. How Culture Influences Consumer Loyalty towards Cosmetic Products A Comparison of UK and Taiwanese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsin-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Culture is one of the most important factors affecting the marketing department to shape their strategy. This is particularly true when facing global marketing. This project is aimed at examining how the culture influences brand loyalty towards cosmetic products by comparing consumer behaviours of UK and Taiwanese consumers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted in order to collect data. By applying a qualitative approach, this project provides an insight of the cultural factors infl...

  18. Influence of the pad printing plate‘ printing element depth on the quality of the printed product

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Živko; Dedijer, Sandra; Pál, Magdolna; Cigula, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in mass printing is repeatability and stability of the ink transfer from the printing plate onto the printing substrate. The pad printing is characterised by indirect ink transfer from a gravure printing plate. Beside area of the printing elements, on the pad printing plate one should take into account their depth as it is a factor which directly influences the printing ink quantity, i.e. overall quality of the printed product. The photopolymer pad printing...

  19. Medium composition influence on Biotin and Riboflavin production by newly isolated Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Tiemi Suzuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins as Biotin and Riboflavin are required by living organisms, not only for growth but also for metabolite production, and the feed market classifies them as growth promoters. Since Brazil will soon be one of the world's biggest animal protein producers, feed production is a large consumer of vitamins and micronutrients. The industry requires 10 mg riboflavin/0.2 mg biotin per kilogram of feed; a ratio of 40 ~ 50:1. Although few studies have been conducted specifically on riboflavin production using factorial design and surface response method as an optimization strategy, it is a common practice in biotechnology with many research reports available. However, there are no reports on the use of statistical design for biotin production. This study set out to evaluate medium composition influence on biotin and riboflavin production using a statistical design. There are no studies relating biotin and riboflavin production by Candida sp LEB 130. In this preliminary study to improve the simultaneous production of biotin and riboflavin, the maximum riboflavin/biotin ratio of 8.3 µg/mL was achieved with medium component concentrations of: sucrose 30 g/L, KH2PO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 1 g/L and ZnSO4 0.5mL/L.

  20. Investigation of factors influencing production of the monocyclic carotenoid torulene in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyung Cheon; Mijts, Benjamin N; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2004-10-01

    Factors influencing production of the monocyclic carotenoid torulene in recombinant Escherichia coli were investigated by modulating enzyme expression level, culture conditions, and engineering of the isoprenoid precursor pathway. The gene dosage of in vitro evolved lycopene cyclase crtY2 significantly changed the carotenoid profile. A culture temperature of 28 degrees C showed better production of torulene than 37 degrees C while initial culture pH had no significant effect on torulene production. Glucose-containing LB, 2xYT, TB and MR media significantly repressed the production of torulene, and the other carotenoids lycopene, tetradehydrolycopene, and beta-carotene, in E. coli. In contrast, glycerol-containing LB, 2xYT, TB, and MR media enhanced torulene production. Overexpression of dxs, dxr, idi and/or ispA, individually and combinatorially, enhanced torulene production up to 3.1-3.3 fold. High torulene production was observed in a high dissolved oxygen level bioreactor in TB and MR media containing glycerol. Lycopene was efficiently converted into torulene during aerobic cultures, indicating that the engineered torulene synthesis pathway is well coordinated, and maintains the functionality and integrity of the carotenogenic enzyme complex.

  1. Influence of pH on fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Lyberatos, Gerasimos [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori st., GR 26500 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, GR 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The present study focused on the influence of pH on the fermentative hydrogen production from the sugars of sweet sorghum extract, in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor. The reactor was operated at a Hydraulic Retention Time of 12 h and a pH range of 3.5-6.5. The maximum hydrogen production rate and yield were obtained at pH 5.3 and were 1752 {+-} 54 mL H{sub 2}/d or 3.50 {+-} 0.07 L H{sub 2}/L reactor/d and 0.93 {+-} 0.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose consumed or 10.51 L H{sub 2}/kg sweet sorghum, respectively. The main metabolic product at this pH value was butyric acid. The hydrogen productivity and yield were still at high levels for the pH range of 5.3-4.7, suggesting a pH value of 4.7 as optimum for hydrogen production from an economical point of view, since the energy demand for chemicals is lower at this pH. At this pH range, the dominant fermentation product was butyric acid but when the pH culture sharply decreased to 3.5, hydrogen evolution ceased and the dominant metabolic products were lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  2. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  3. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  4. Influence of Production System, Sex and Litter Size on Growth Rates in Turcana Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat production has become the main source of income in the Romanian sheep farming industry, representing over 66% of the total returns. Turcana breed represents over 70% of the national flock, and 92% of the sheep bred in western Romania. However, meat production potential and growth rates of the breed are low, and thus strategies to improve performance of the Turcana lambs need to be identified. Aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that sex and litter size have on the growth rates of lambs from Turcana breed under extensive and semi-intensive production systems. Weaning weight was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by the production system, with lambs reared extensively registering a average body weights of 18.23±0.094 kg at the age of 90 days, while the semi-intensively reared lambs registered an average weight of 20.19±0.082 kg. It was concluded that all three factors taken into study significantly influence growth rates in Turcana lambs and that weight of the lamb(s at the age of 28 days should be included as a selection trait within the Turcana breed genetic improvement plan.

  5. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho; Mariana Souza De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts...

  6. Influence of Cartoon Media Characters on Children's Attention to and Preference for Food and Beverage Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Andrew D; Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-02-01

    Over-consuming unhealthful foods and beverages contributes to pediatric obesity and associated diseases. Food marketing influences children's food preferences, choices, and intake. To examine whether adding licensed media characters to healthful food/beverage packages increases children's attention to and preference for these products. We hypothesized that children prefer less- (vs more-) healthful foods, and pay greater attention to and preferentially select products with (vs without) media characters regardless of nutritional quality. We also hypothesized that children prefer more-healthful products when characters are present over less-healthful products without characters. On a computer, participants viewed food/beverage pairs of more-healthful and less-healthful versions of similar products. The same products were shown with and without licensed characters on the packaging. An eye-tracking camera monitored participant gaze, and participants chose which product they preferred from each of 60 pairs. Six- to 9-year-old children (n=149; mean age=7.36, standard deviation=1.12) recruited from the Twin Cities, MN, area in 2012-2013. Visual attention and product choice. Attention to products was compared using paired-samples t tests, and product choice was analyzed with single-sample t tests. Analyses of variance were conducted to test for interaction effects of specific characters and child sex and age. Children paid more attention to products with characters and preferred less-healthful products. Contrary to our prediction, children chose products without characters approximately 62% of the time. Children's choices significantly differed based on age, sex, and the specific cartoon character displayed, with characters in this study being preferred by younger boys. Results suggest that putting licensed media characters on more-healthful food/beverage products might not encourage all children to make healthier food choices, but could increase selection of healthy foods

  7. Influence of multiple bioprocess parameters on production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh Sooch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the influence of multiple bioprocess parameters for the maximum production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5. The culture reached the stationary phase of growth after 36h of incubation when the maximum lipase production was obtained at flask level. The different media components such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources, trace elements and process parameters such as the pH of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, agitation/stationary conditions, etc. were optimized at flask level and at bioreactor level. The maximum enzyme production of 298 IU/mL was obtained with the use of simple medium with pH 6.5 containing glucose (1 %, w/v, peptone (3 %, w/v and KCl (0.05 %, w/v after 30h of incubation at 37°C under agitation (200 rpm conditions with 0.75 vvm of air supply.

  8. When product diversification influences life cycle impact assessment: A case study of canned anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-03-01

    The anchovy canning industry is one of the most important economic resources of the Cantabria region in Spain. However, environmental, economic and social problems over the past years have forced companies to apply marketing strategies, develop product diversification, create new products and introduce them in new "green markets". Launching Cantabrian canned anchovies into more sustainable markets requires measuring the environmental performance using Product Category Rules (PCRs) and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). EPDs and PCRS include the environmental profile of a range of similar products, such as all of the available canned anchovy products. The great variety of anchovy canned products depends on three process variables: the origin of the anchovy (Cantabria, Argentina and Chile or Peru), the type of oil (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) and the packaging (aluminum, tinplate, glass and plastic). This work aims to assess the environmental impact from cradle to grave of canned anchovies in oil using the life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). Moreover, the paper evaluates the influence of the above-mentioned three product variables in the LCA results. The results show that out of all of the alternatives, Chilean and Peruvian anchovies have the highest environmental burdens due to the transportation by ship. The production of anchovies in sunflower oil is a less environmentally friendly oil process due to the low yield per hectare of sunflower cultivation. Finally, the use of aluminum as the packaging material has the largest environmental impact out of almost all of the impact categories. Moreover, because the LCA results can be significantly affected by the allocation procedure, a sensitivity analysis comparing system expansion, mass and economic allocation is performed. In this case, the system expansion approach presents the highest environmental impacts followed by the mass allocation.

  9. Influence of extrusion-cooking parameters on some quality aspects of precooked pasta-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, A; Mościcki, L

    2009-06-01

    The present article aims to evaluate some quality parameters and texture characteristics of precooked wheat pasta-like products. Using the methods for pasta and instant noodles the tested parameters were water absorption, starch gelatinization degree, cooking losses, and hardness. The texture profile was characterized using Zwick apparatus by cutting test with the head speed of 10 mm/min and expressed as hardness and firmness of hydrated products. SEM pictures were used to illustrate the internal structure of dry and cooked pasta-like products. Dough moisture content and process conditions influenced all tested quality parameters of the pasta-like products processed on a modified single screw extrusion-cooker TS-45 with L: D = 16: 1. Good organoleptical quality (notes higher than 4 in a 5-point scale) and firm texture were observed for common wheat flour pasta processed at 30% m.c. Hardness and firmness of hydrated products lowered with a longer hydration time in hot water. The firmest texture and low stickiness was observed for products with a highest starch gelatinization degree.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress.

  11. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  12. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of the influence of water on hydrolyzed product formation during the feruloylation of vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruloylated vegetable oil is a valuable green bioproduct that has several cosmeceutical applications associated with its inherent anti-oxidant and UV-absorption properties. Hydrolyzed vegetable oil by-products can influence product quality and consistency. The formation of by-products by residual w...

  14. Primary production dynamics in a pristine groundwater influenced coastal lagoon of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Israel; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

    2006-06-01

    Dzilam lagoon is a shallow (0.6 m mean depth) ecosystem with 9.4 km 2 surface area, located in the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, and connected to the Gulf of Mexico through a permanent inlet. Freshwater input is possible through numerous sinkholes distributed throughout the lagoon, which also represent a continuous source of nitrate and silicate. The low anthropogenic influence has maintained a pristine condition in Dzilam lagoon, manifested in a spatial heterogeneity of water quality and primary production strongly related to the environmental fluctuations. To determine the annual variability of primary production and identify the factors controlling it, 12 monthly samplings were undertaken at six stations, from September 1998 to August 1999. Thus, physical-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients concentrations, chlorophyll- a, phytoplankton production and seagrass biomass were measured. The water residence time in Dzilam lagoon is higher during dry season due to the significant evaporation rate, and shorter in rainy season because of increase in precipitation and volume of groundwater discharge. The multivariate analysis results suggest that the salinity gradient, changes in aquatic vegetation biomass, and the remineralized nutrients in sediments constitute key processes depicting the water quality and net primary production in Dzilam lagoon. Furthermore, the biogeochemical benthic processes, combined with a longer stay of phytoplankton cells within the lagoon, enhanced primary production in the water column during dry season, as opposite as rainy period, when the inferior water residence time yielded lower production values. The seagrasses ( Halodule wrightii and Ruppia maritima) showed the highest biomass (110.5 g dw/m 2/d) in dry season, while the lowest recordings were observed during cold fronts, with a salient belowground contribution (rhizomes and roots). Seagrasses and phytoplankton participation to the total primary production in Dzilam lagoon

  15. Thermal conductivity as influenced by the temperature and apparent viscosity of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, B J; Pereira, C G; Lago, A M T; Gonçalves, C S; Giarola, T M O; Abreu, L R; Resende, J V

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to evaluate the rheological behavior and thermal conductivity of dairy products, composed of the same chemical components but with different formulations, as a function of temperature. Subsequently, thermal conductivity was related to the apparent viscosity of yogurt, fermented dairy beverage, and fermented milk. Thermal conductivity measures and rheological tests were performed at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C using linear probe heating and an oscillatory rheometer with concentric cylinder geometry, respectively. The results were compared with those calculated using the parallel, series, and Maxwell-Eucken models as a function of temperature, and the discrepancies in the results are discussed. Linear equations were fitted to evaluate the influence of temperature on the thermal conductivity of the dairy products. The rheological behavior, specifically apparent viscosity versus shear rate, was influenced by temperature. Herschel-Bulkley, power law, and Newton's law models were used to fit the experimental data. The Herschel-Bulkley model best described the adjustments for yogurt, the power law model did so for fermented dairy beverages, and Newton's law model did so for fermented milk and was then used to determine the rheological parameters. Fermented milk showed a Newtonian trend, whereas yogurt and fermented dairy beverage were shear thinning. Apparent viscosity was correlated with temperature by the Arrhenius equation. The formulation influenced the effective thermal conductivity. The relationship between the 2 properties was established by fixing the temperature and expressing conductivity as a function of apparent viscosity. Thermal conductivity increased with viscosity and decreased with increasing temperature.

  16. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  17. Influence of macrofaunal assemblages and environmental heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in experimental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Kirstie E; Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Raffaelli, David G; White, Piran C L; Paterson, David M

    2007-10-22

    Despite the complexity of natural systems, heterogeneity caused by the fragmentation of habitats has seldom been considered when investigating ecosystem processes. Empirical approaches that have included the influence of heterogeneity tend to be biased towards terrestrial habitats; yet marine systems offer opportunities by virtue of their relative ease of manipulation, rapid response times and the well-understood effects of macrofauna on sediment processes. Here, the influence of heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in synthetic estuarine assemblages is examined. Heterogeneity was created by enriching patches of sediment with detrital algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis) to provide a source of allochthonous organic matter. A gradient of species density for four numerically dominant intertidal macrofauna (Hediste diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica) was constructed, and microphytobenthic biomass at the sediment surface was measured. Statistical analysis using generalized least squares regression indicated that heterogeneity within our system was a significant driving factor that interacted with macrofaunal density and species identity. Microphytobenthic biomass was highest in enriched patches, suggesting that nutrients were obtained locally from the sediment-water interface and not from the water column. Our findings demonstrate that organic enrichment can cause the development of heterogeneity which influences infaunal bioturbation and consequent nutrient generation, a driver of microphytobenthic production.

  18. Influence of temperature on hydrogen production from bread mill wastewater by sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, G.L.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.Y.; Sun, Z.J. [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environmental Sciences; Tang, Q.Q. [Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China). Medical School

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) energy has been touted as a sustainable and clean energy source that can solve environmental problems such as acid rain, greenhouse gases and transboundary pollution. While most hydrogen is currently produced from nonrenewable sources such as oil, natural gas, and coal, these processes are energy-intensive and costly. The biological production of hydrogen using fermentative bacteria is an environmentally friendly and energy-saving process which has recently attracted much attention as an effective way of converting biomass into H{sub 2}. Waste-based H{sub 2} production processes mainly include wastewater from paper mills, municipal solid waste, rice winery wastewater, and food wastewater from cafeterias. This study investigated the use of bread mill wastewater for biological production of hydrogen due to its high production potential. Annual bread production in China is estimated to be over 1.5 million tons, producing 10 m{sup 3} of wastewater per ton of bread. The wastewater has high chemical oxygen demand and carbohydrate concentrations and is therefore suitable for anaerobic treatment processes. This study evaluated the effect of temperature on H{sub 2} production from bread mill wastewater by sewage sludge in lab-scale experiments. H{sub 2} production, the distribution of volatile fatty acids and the lag-phase time were influenced by temperature. H{sub 2} production and H{sub 2} yield increased with increasing temperature. The optimal temperature for H{sub 2} production was 50 degrees C. Butyrate, acetate and alcohol were the main by-products of H{sub 2} fermentation. According to 16S rDNA analysis, the dominant microflora was Clostridium, but the microbial species varied with temperature. The activation energy for H{sub 2} production was estimated to be 92 kJ per mol for bread mill wastewater. It was concluded that bread mill wastewater could potentially serve as a substrate for H{sub 2} production. This research provides a means of

  19. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower contributes significantly to meeting the world's energy demand, accounting for at least 16% of total electrical output. Its role as a mature and cost competitive renewable energy source is expected to become increasingly important as the world transits to a low-carbon economy. A key component of hydropower production is runoff, which is highly dependent on precipitation and other climate variables. As such, it becomes critical to understand how the drivers of climate variability impact hydropower production. One globally-important driver is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). While it is known that ENSO influences hydrological processes, the potential value of its associated teleconnection in design related tasks has yet to be explored at the global scale. Our work seeks to characterize the impact of ENSO on global hydropower production so as to quantify the potential for increased production brought about by incorporating climate information within reservoir operating models. We study over 1,500 hydropower reservoirs - representing more than half the world's hydropower capacity. A historical monthly reservoir inflow time series is assigned to each reservoir from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. Reservoir operating rules are designed using stochastic dynamic programming, and storage dynamics are simulated to assess performance under the climate conditions of the 20th century. Results show that hydropower reservoirs in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and Eastern China are strongly influenced by ENSO episodes. Statistically significant lag correlations between ENSO indicators and hydropower production demonstrate predictive skill with lead times up to several months. Our work highlights the potential for using these indicators to increase the contribution of existing hydropower plants to global energy supplies.

  20. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  1. Influence of environmental factors on woody biomass productivity in the central Great Plains, U. S. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, W.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Division of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the productivity of short-rotation tree plantations. Sixteen sites representing a wide range of ecological zones in the central Great Plains were planted to six rapid-growing, coppicing, deciduous tree species: black locust, catalpa, cottonwood, honeylocust, silver maple, and Siberian elm. Environmental factors were tested for their relationship to biomass yield. Climate and geographic location greatly influenced biomass, whereas site and soil factors were poorly related. Other factors affecting productivity were days between summer storms of at least 6.4 mm and frost-free days. Survival was high, and third-year yields of 3-5 Mg ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1], based upon nondestructive measurements, were common. Tree growth was adversely affected in the drier zones. Tree species greatly influenced yield. Many hold promise for energy production in the central plains area of the United States. Black locust grew best, except on very sandy alluvial soil and in the 500-mm precipitation zone in the west. Silver maple grew well on silty soils, whereas cottonwood produced outstanding yields on sandy alluvial soil in the eastern, 1000-mm precipitation belt. Siberian elm grew well on many sites across the test area. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of some biotechnological parameters influencing the Pleurotus ostreatus biomass production by submerged cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenţiu-Bogdan HORINCAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The submerged culture of mushrooms represents a future for biotechnological processes at industrial level, in order to obtain biomass with economical value (food and ingredients, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Pleurotus ostreatus is well known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the most important biotechnological parameters that have influence on the biomass production of P. ostreatus, by cultivation in submerged conditions. Applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design, the significant parameters influencing the P. ostreatus biomass production were found to be the concentration of dextrose and yeast extract and time of cultivation. The best results in terms of maximising the biomass production (25.71 g·L-1 were obtained when the “+1” level of each independent variables was used in the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA exhibited a high correlation coefficient (R2 value of 0.9908, which certifies that the mathematical model was relevant for the biotechnological process.

  3. Influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Teodoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid (CA production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated. In batch experiments, CA maximum concentration (Cp max ranged randomly from 430 to 560 mg.L-1, with a maximum increase of 10% in relation to the control run, without ornithine. However, the maximum volumetric productivity of CA (Pp max of 13.7 mg.L-1.h-1 was obtained with 0.66 g.L-1 of ornithine, 44.2% higher than the Pp max in the control run. In fed-batch experiments, Cp max varied within the narrow range from 1.254 to 1.405 g.L-1, 2.5 times higher than that obtained in the control run. The presence of ornithine increased the Pp max, although it influenced only slightly the Cp max. Concerning glycerol, the highest CA production of 1.6 g.L-1 was obtained in the fed-batch with glycerol and ornithine (180 and 3.7 g.L−1 in a 10-L bioreactor, showing a positive effect of ornithine and glycerol, in the proper proportion (48.6:1, on CA biosynthesis.

  4. Early goal-directed top-down influences in the production of speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof eStrijkers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was recently reported that the conscious intention to produce speech affects the speed with which lexical information is retrieved upon presentation of an object (Strijkers, Holcomb & Costa, under review. The goal of the present study was to elaborate further on the role of these top-down influences in language production. In an ERP setting participants were required to overtly name pictures and words in one block of trials, while categorizing the same stimuli in another block of trials. The ERPs elicited by the naming task started to diverge very early on (~ 170 ms from those elicited by the non-verbal semantic categorization task. Interestingly, these early ERP differences related to task intentionality were identical for pictures and words. From these results we conclude that (a in line with Strijkers and colleagues (under review, goal-directed processes play a crucial role very early on in speech production, and (b these task-driven top-down influences function at least in a domain-general manner by modulating those networks which are always relevant for the production of language, irrespective of which cortical pathways are triggered by the input.

  5. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  6. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on global hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jia Yi; Turner, Sean W. D.; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strongly influences the global climate system, affecting hydrology in many of the world’s river basins. This raises the prospect of ENSO-driven variability in global and regional hydroelectric power generation. Here we study these effects by generating time series of power production for 1593 hydropower dams, which collectively represent more than half of the world’s existing installed hydropower capacity. The time series are generated by forcing a detailed dam model with monthly-resolution, 20th century inflows—the model includes plant specifications, storage dynamics and realistic operating schemes, and runs irrespectively of the dam construction year. More than one third of simulated dams exhibit statistically significant annual energy production anomalies in at least one of the two ENSO phases of El Niño and La Niña. For most dams, the variability of relative anomalies in power production tends to be less than that of the forcing inflows—a consequence of dam design specifications, namely maximum turbine release rate and reservoir storage, which allows inflows to accumulate for power generation in subsequent dry years. Production is affected most prominently in Northwest United States, South America, Central America, the Iberian Peninsula, Southeast Asia and Southeast Australia. When aggregated globally, positive and negative energy production anomalies effectively cancel each other out, resulting in a weak and statistically insignificant net global anomaly for both ENSO phases.

  7. Influence of water activity, temperature and time on mycotoxins production on barley rootlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J M M; Cavaglieri, L R; Fraga, M E; Direito, G M; Dalcero, A M; Rosa, C A R

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ochratoxin (OT) and aflatoxin (AF) production by three strains of Aspergillus spp. under different water activities, temperature and incubation time on barley rootlets (BR). Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus flavus were able to produce mycotoxins on BR. Aspergillus ochraceus produced ochratoxin A (OTA) at 0.80 water activity (a(w)), at 25 and 30 degrees C as optimal environmental conditions. The OTA production varies at different incubation days depending on a(w). Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) accumulation was obtained at 25 degrees C, at 0.80 and 0.95 a(w), after 14 and 21 incubation days respectively. Temperature was a critical factor influencing OTA and AFB(1) production. This study demonstrates that BR support OTA and AFB(1) production at relatively low water activity (0.80 a(w)) and high temperatures (25-30 degrees C). The study of ecophysiological parameters and their interactions would determine the prevailing environmental factors, which enhance the mycotoxin production on BR used as animal feed.

  8. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra L; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. AIM: This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant's sentence production was also examined. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions-semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state

  9. Networking in Meat Production Systems: The Influence of Cooperative Structures on Farmers’ Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Deimel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  Against the background of increasing competitive pressures and growing requirements with regard to food quality and safety, the significance of network-wide collaboration in food production has been pointed out in recent years. With this in mind, it is the objective of this paper to analyse pig farmers’ network participation in general and to explore whether cooperative structures in food supply chains influence the type as well as the quality of farmers’ network relations. Our results show that cooperative structures influence pig fattening farmers’ network participation concerning relationship quality with slaughterhouses as well as farmers’ choice of network partners for information exchange and consultancy. Furthermore, the results show that farmers delivering to cooperatively owned processors evaluate the relationship with their slaughterhouses significantly better than farmers dealing with private slaughterhouses. The results provide cooperatives with starting points for developing attractive services for farmers and improving their relationships with their suppliers.

  10. How do Analogizing and Mental Simulation Influence Team Dynamics in Innovative Product Design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casakin, Hernan; Ball, Linden J.; Christensen, Bo T.;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain further insight into how analogical reasoning and mental simulation, two cognitive strategies, influence team dynamics in innovative product design. A particular emphasis was placed on exploring the association between these two strategies and team cohesion...... and team collaboration. Analogies were coded for “analogical distance” (i.e., within domain or between domain) and “analogical purpose” (i.e., problem identification, function finding, solution generation, and explanation). The results indicated that the presence of either analogizing or mental simulation...... was related to team cohesion and team collaboration, with mental simulation having an especially marked association with team collaboration. Within-domain analogizing was found to enhance team collaboration, but it did not influence team cohesion. Furthermore, all types of analogical purpose showed a similar...

  11. The influence of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on children's production of newly learned words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Lori; Goffman, Lisa

    A word learning paradigm was used to teach children novel words that varied in phonotactic probability and neighborhood density. The effects of frequency and density on speech production were examined when phonetic forms were non-referential (i.e., when no referent was attached) and when phonetic forms were referential (i.e., when a referent was attached through fast mapping). Two methods of analysis were included: (1) kinematic variability of speech movement patterning; and (2) measures of segmental accuracy. Results showed that phonotactic frequency influenced the stability of movement patterning whereas neighborhood density influenced phoneme accuracy. Motor learning was observed in both non-referential and referential novel words. Forms with low phonotactic probability and low neighborhood density showed a word learning effect when a referent was assigned during fast mapping. These results elaborate on and specify the nature of interactivity observed across lexical, phonological, and articulatory domains.

  12. [The influence of schools of scientific and classical administration on the scientific production of Brazilian nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M A

    1993-04-01

    This paper traces the influence of F. W. Taylor and H. Fayol in the scientific output of brazilian nursing from 1930 to 1980. The scientific output of brazilian nursing is reviewed, looking for work based upon the Scientific and Classical Schools of Administration. The author executes a bibliographic survey based upon two periodicals: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem and Revista Paulista de Hospitais. A total of 68 articles were selected and studied. Findings have shown that Taylor/Fayol had and still have an important influence on the theoretic foundation of nursing output. The central theme of the texts centers upon "Studies on the Organization of Hospital Nursing Services", and "Time and Motion Studies concerning Nursing Techniques and Activities:. The central preoccupation in these texts refers to productivity and rationality of work, regardless of the fact that the organization of health and nursing work is a human task, referring to the satisfaction of health needs.

  13. Influence of solids retention time on continuous H{sub 2} production using membrane bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies,16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8506 (Japan); Li, Yu-You [Department of Environmental Science, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8579 (Japan); Noike, Tatsuya [Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences and Humanities, Nihon University 12-5, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 8251 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of solids retention time (SRT) on continuous H{sub 2} production in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated using mixed mesophilic microflora. The bioreactor was continuously operated at the four SRTs of 2, 4, 12.5 and 90 d on a glucose medium under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h and the mesophilic condition of 35 C {+-} 0.5. Stable biogas production with H{sub 2} content of 50.8%-60% was achieved at SRTs ranging from 2 to 12.5 d. No methane gas was observed in monitoring the experimental conditions. The H{sub 2} production increased from 17.62 to 26.1 l-H{sub 2}/d when the SRT increased from 2 to 12.5 d, but decreased to 9.1 l-H{sub 2}/d at the 90 d SRT. The best H{sub 2} yield, 1.19 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose, was observed at the SRT of 2 d and the highest H{sub 2} production rate, 5.8 l-H{sub 2}/l/d, was obtained at the SRT of 12.5 d. Stable H{sub 2} production was achieved by maintaining the SRT in the range of 2 - 12.5 d, regardless of the fermentative pathway related to higher lactate production. The decrease in H{sub 2} yield was observed at long SRTs due to the low volatile suspended solids/total suspended solids (VSS/TSS) as well as the high extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations. These results suggest that the SRT is the key factor enabling sustainable H{sub 2} fermentation in MBR, and that an SLR value of around 1.6 kg-DOC/kg-VSS/d might be the specific condition for achieving optimum H{sub 2} production. (author)

  14. Influence of Light Intensity on Growth and Pigment Production by Monascus ruber in Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Rose Marie Meinicke; Müller, Bruna Luíse; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Vendruscolo, Francielo; de Oliveira, Debora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-07-01

    To reduce environmental problems caused by glycerine accumulation and to make the production of biodiesel more profitable, crude glycerin without treatment was used as substrate for obtaining higher value-added bioproducts. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces pigments, particularly red ones, which are used for coloring foods (rice wine and meat products). The interest in developing pigments from natural sources is increasing due to the restriction of using synthetic dyes. The effects of temperature, pH, microorganism morphology, aeration, nitrogen source, and substrates have been studied in the cultivation of M. ruber. In this work, it was observed that light intensity is also an important factor that should be considered for understanding the metabolism of the fungus. In M. ruber cultivation, inhibition of growth and pigment production was observed in Petri dishes and blaffed flasks exposed to direct illumination. Growth and pigment production were higher in Petri dishes and flasks exposed to red light and in the absence of light. Radial growth rate of M. ruber in plates in darkness was 1.50 mm day(-1) and in plates exposed to direct illumination was 0.59 mm day(-1). Maximum production of red pigments (8.32 UA) and biomass (8.82 g L(-1)) were obtained in baffled flasks covered with red film and 7.17 UA of red pigments, and 7.40 g L(-1) of biomass was obtained in flasks incubated in darkness. Under conditions of 1248 lux of luminance, the maximum pigment production was 4.48 UA, with production of 6.94 g L(-1) of biomass, indicating that the fungus has photoreceptors which influence the physiological responses.

  15. MICROCLIMATIC INFLUENCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF PIGS WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Margeta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare productivity traits of two pig genotypes fattened in two different ways, on deep litter and in a conventional way (flat deck, and to determine whether there was microclimatic influence on the productivity traits of fattening pigs. The research was carried out on 57 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups by their housing. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line, and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. Pigs were fed ad libitum with isocaloric and isoprotein diets. During the whole experiment, temperature, air moisture, air circulation speed and the content of NH3 and CO2 were measured in pens. No statistically significant differences were recorded with respect to temperature, air moisture, air circulation speed and content of carbon dioxide (CO2 and ammonia (NH3 in the air in pens with deep litter and without it (P>0.05. Pigs housed without deep litter had statistically highly significant (P<0.01 higher final weights than pigs kept on deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain as a terminal breed, kept in pens without deep litter, had statistically significantly higher (P<0.05 average daily gains than pigs of the same genotype kept on deep litter. In the finishing phase of fattening, group of pigs being kept in pens without deep litter had statistically higher average daily gains than pigs kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The way of fattening had statistically highly significant (P<0.001 influence on live weight of pigs in the first, second and fourth fattening phase. Average daily gains in the starting two fattening phases were significantly influenced by the way of fattening. Its influence was very highly significant (P<0.01 in the finishing phase of fattening. Noticeable effect of the genotype was determined only for live weights in the second phase of fattening. Genotype influence was not

  16. Investigating the influence of production conditions on the energy distribution between the solid, liquid and gaseous products of slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Kyle; Masek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Slow pyrolysis is a well established technology for converting biomass into a more stable form of carbon (biochar) while also producing energy rich by-products of bio-oil and syngas. Biochar is the porous, carbonaceous material produced by thermo-chemical treatment of organic materials in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar can be incorporated into soils to improve soil fertility, reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as provide long term storage of carbon or alternatively it can also provide additional energy to a pyrolysis system through combustion. Biochar production conditions have a significant influence on the yield as well as physiochemical and functional properties of the final pyrolysis products, resulting in a selection process aimed towards either agricultural benefits and carbon mitigation or heat/energy generation. This work aimed to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and gas flow rate on the product energy distribution as well as the physical, chemical and soil functional properties of biochar, in order to optimise conditions best suited to maximise both energy value and agronomic benefit. Biochar samples were produced from wood pellets (WP) and straw pellets (SP) at two temperatures (350 and 650oC), with three residence times (10, 20 and 40 minutes) and three carrier gas flow rates (0, 0.3 and 0.6 L min-1). The energy balance of the system was determined through the calorimetric analysis of biochar and bio-oil, while the higher heating value for the syngas was calculated from the gas composition measured via mass spectroscopy. Biochar was also analysed for the physiochemical properties of proximate analysis and ultimate analysis as well as the functional property of environmentally stable carbon (C) content. As expected the yield of biochar decreased with increasing temperature resulting in elevated yields of liquid and gas fractions. Increased temperature also resulted in higher values of fixed C, total C, stable C and

  17. A Discussion on Evolution of Microstructures and Influence Factors during Continuous Rolling of Compact Strip Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo DONG; Yonglin KANG; Hao YU

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of microsturctures and influence factors of ultrathin hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) techniques were investigated. The steel blocking samples of CSP six-passes were obtained, and microstructures at the different positions of workpiece for each pass were studied. At the same time, an explicit finite element technique was used to reveal the continuous rolling process. By combining experiment results with simulation analysis, the effects of plastic strain, temperature, precipitation and interval time on evolution and refinement of crystal grains have been investigated. The results are useful for the development of high strength hot strips.

  18. Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyali Das; Anuradda Ganesh [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Energy Systems Engineering; Pramod Wangikar [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the studies made on the vacuum pyrolysis of deashed sugarcane bagasse, on the pyrolysis products. The present work is with an objective to understand the change in the quantity and quality of the oil fraction obtained from pyrolysis, upon pretreatment for deashing of original biomass. Ash, in the entrained char is believed to be catalysing the polymerization reaction in the oils and thereby increases the viscosity. Three different pre- treatment processes used for deashing are water leaching, mild acid treatment with HCl and mild acid treatment with HF. The study indicates the remarkable influence of pretreatment process for deashing, by enhancing the total energy distribution in oil fraction of the pyrolysis products. This is attributed to selective removal of ash elements along with removal of extractives and hemicellulose in different proportions. However, it was found that the pre- treatments do not improve the stability of oil. The water leachate, as expected, showed potential of making ethanol via fermentation. (author)

  19. Influence of fermentation by-products on the purification of ethanol from water using pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovau, S; Gaykawad, S; Straathof, A J J; Van der Bruggen, B

    2011-01-01

    Pervaporation is claimed to be a promising separation technique for the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths during bio-ethanol production. In this study, influence of fermentation by-products on the purification of ethanol from water during hydrophobic pervaporation was investigated. Sugars and salts were found to increase the membrane performance. Reason for this was a change in vapor/liquid equilibrium. 2,3-butanediol decreased the ethanol flux and selectivity factor, while glycerol exhibited no effect. This was explained by a strong sorption of butanediol into PDMS and no sorption of glycerol. Due to the presence of carboxylic acids, hydrophobicity degree of the Pervap 4060 membrane decreased, which resulted in an irreversible increase in water flux and decrease in separation performance. These observations suggested the presence of silicalite-based fillers in the membrane. When the pH was raised to a value above the dissociation constant, no changes in hydrophobicity degree and membrane performance were found.

  20. Influences of environmental factors on bacterial extracellular polymeric substances production in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.

  1. The influence of temperature on ozone production under varying NOx conditions - a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jane; Mar, Kathleen A.; Ojha, Narendra; Butler, Tim M.

    2016-09-01

    Surface ozone is a secondary air pollutant produced during the atmospheric photochemical degradation of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Temperature directly influences ozone production through speeding up the rates of chemical reactions and increasing the emissions of VOCs, such as isoprene, from vegetation. In this study, we used an idealised box model with different chemical mechanisms (Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3.2; Common Representative Intermediates, CRIv2; Model for OZone and Related Chemical Tracers, MOZART-4; Regional Acid Deposition Model, RADM2; Carbon Bond Mechanism, CB05) to examine the non-linear relationship between ozone, NOx and temperature, and we compared this to previous observational studies. Under high-NOx conditions, an increase in ozone from 20 to 40 °C of up to 20 ppbv was due to faster reaction rates, while increased isoprene emissions added up to a further 11 ppbv of ozone. The largest inter-mechanism differences were obtained at high temperatures and high-NOx emissions. CB05 and RADM2 simulated more NOx-sensitive chemistry than MCMv3.2, CRIv2 and MOZART-4, which could lead to different mitigation strategies being proposed depending on the chemical mechanism. The increased oxidation rate of emitted VOC with temperature controlled the rate of Ox production; the net influence of peroxy nitrates increased net Ox production per molecule of emitted VOC oxidised. The rate of increase in ozone mixing ratios with temperature from our box model simulations was about half the rate of increase in ozone with temperature observed over central Europe or simulated by a regional chemistry transport model. Modifying the box model set-up to approximate stagnant meteorological conditions increased the rate of increase of ozone with temperature as the accumulation of oxidants enhanced ozone production through the increased production of peroxy radicals from the secondary degradation of

  2. [Pain and workplace. Sociodemographic variables influence in therapeutic response and labor productivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; López-González, Á A; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; Terradillos García, M J; Aguilar Jiménez, E

    2016-09-01

    Pain is a major cause of medical consultation. The complexity of managing it is due to its long duration and intensity, and it sometimes requires a combination of multiple drugs. The objective of this study is to assess the use of drugs for pain in workers, the clinical response obtained, its influence on estimating work productivity, its relationship to sociodemographic variables, and the type of drug used. A cross-sectional study on 1,080 workers, aged 18-65 years, during periodic surveys to monitor their health in companies in the service sector in Spain. Treatments used, clinical efficacy, influence on work productivity and sociodemographic variables (age, gender) are evaluated. The Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire, validated for Spain, was used to assess pain, and the SPSS(®) 20.0 package for the statistical analysis. NSAIDs and simple analgesics have higher percentages of improvement in pain (P=.032 and P<.0001, respectively). Men respond better to NSAIDs, and women to simple analgesics. Improved productivity is higher in men than in women (P=.042). No significant differences were observed for age, pain improvement or productivity, except in those over 55 years. The analgesic prescription pain conditions must consider the age and gender of the patient, as well as the type of drug. The choice of drug should be based on the aetiology and aspects unrelated to the clinical variables, such as sociodemographic, work or psychosocial. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional supplement products: does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in sales of nutritional supplement globally can be attributed, in part, to aggressive marketing by manufacturers, rather than because the nutritional supplements have become more effective. Furthermore, the accuracy of the labelling often goes unchallenged. Therefore, any effects of the supplement, may be due to contaminants or adulterants in these products not reflected on the label. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine how consumers of nutritional supplements acquired information to assist their decision-making processes, when purchasing a product. The study was approved by the University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of seven, closed and open-ended questions. The participants were asked to respond to the questions according to a defined list of statements. A total of 259 participants completed and returned questionnaires. The data and processing of the returned questionnaires was captured using Windows-based Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 SP 1 (Excel © 1985–2003 Microsoft Corporation). Statistica Version 10 (copyright © Stat Soft, Inc. 1984–2011) was used to calculate the descriptive statistics. Results The main finding of the study was that nearly 70% of the respondents who purchased supplements were strongly influenced by container label information that stipulated that the nutritional supplement product is free of banned substances. The second finding was that just over 50% of the respondents attached importance to the quality of the nutritional supplement product information on the container label. The third finding was that about 40% of the respondents were strongly influenced by the ingredients on the labels when they purchased nutritional supplements. Conclusion This study, (i) identifies short-comings in current labelling information practices, (ii) provides opportunities to improve label and non-label information and

  4. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided.

  5. Characterization of surface dielectric barrier discharge influenced by intermediate frequency for ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A.; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi; Osawa, Naoki; Wedaa, Hassan; Otani, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the intermediate frequency (1-10 kHz) of the sinusoidal driving voltage on the characteristics of a developed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD)-based reactor having spikes on its discharge electrode. Moreover, its influence on the production of ozone and nitrogen oxide byproducts is evaluated. The results show that SDBD is operated in the filamentary mode at all the frequencies. Nevertheless, the pulses of the discharge current at high frequencies are much denser and have higher amplitudes than those at low frequencies. The analysis of the power consumed in the reactor shows that a small portion of the input power is dissipated in the dielectric material of SDBD source, whereas the major part of the power is consumed in the plasma discharge. The results of the ozone production show that higher frequencies have a slightly adverse effect on the ozone production at relatively high energy density values, where the ozone concentration is slightly decreased when the frequency is increased at the same energy density. The temperature of the discharge channels and gas is not a crucial factor for the decomposition of ozone in this reactor, while the results of the measurements of nitrogen oxides characteristics indicate that the formation of NO and NO2 has a significant adverse effect on the production efficiency of ozone due to their oxidation to another nitrogen oxides and their catalytic effect.

  6. The influence of recombinant production on the immunologic behavior of birch pollen isoallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions towards the birch major pollen allergen Bet v 1 are among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the Northern hemisphere. Natural Bet v 1 is composed of a complex mixture of different isoforms. Detailed analysis of recombinant Bet v 1 isoforms revealed striking differences in immunologic as well as allergenic properties of the molecules, leading to a classification of Bet v 1 isoforms into high, medium, and low IgE binding proteins. Especially low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms have been described as ideal candidates for desensitizing allergic patients with allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT. Since diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases are highly dependent on recombinant proteins, continuous improvement of protein production is an absolute necessity. METHODOLOGY: Therefore, two different methods for recombinant production of a low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoform were applied; one based on published protocols, the other by implementing latest innovations in protein production. Both batches of Bet v 1.0401 were extensively characterized by an array of physicochemical as well as immunological methods to compare protein primary structure, purity, quantity, folding, aggregation state, thermal stability, and antibody binding capacity. CONCLUSION: The experiments demonstrated that IgE antibody binding properties of recombinant isoallergens can be significantly influenced by the production method directly affecting possible clinical applications of the molecules.

  7. Studies on influence of natural biowastes on cellulase production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmayi, M Usha; Poda, Sudhakar; Vijayalakshmi, M; Krishna, P V

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of natural biowaste substrates such as banana peel powder and coir powder at varying environmental parameters of pH (4-9) and temperature (20-50 degrees C) on the cellulase enzyme production by Aspergillus niger. The cellulase enzyme production was analyzed by measuring the amount of glucose liberated in IU ml(-1) by using the dinitrosalicylic acid assay method. The substrates were pretreated with 1% NaOH (alkaline treatment) and autoclaved. The maximum activity of the enzyme was assayed at varying pH with temperatures being constant and varying temperatures with pH being constant. The highest activity of the enzyme at varying pH was recorded at pH 6 for banana peel powder (0.068 +/- 0.002 IU ml) and coir powder (0.049 +/- 0.002 IU ml(-1)) and the maximum activity of the enzyme at varying temperature was recorded at 35 degrees C for both banana peel powder (0.072 +/- 0.001 IU ml(-1)) and coir powder (0.046 +/- 0.003 IU ml(-1)). At varying temperatures and pH the high level of enzyme production was obtained at 35 degrees C and pH 6 by using both the substrates, respectively. However among the two substrates used for the production of cellulases by Aspergillus niger banana peel powder showed maximum enzymatic activity than coir powder as substrate.

  8. MEASURING THE INFLUENCE OF THE J-CURVE EFFECT ON TRADE IN ROMANIAN FOREST PRODUCTS

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    Gabriela TUTUEANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic effect of the Romanian exchange rate  indices on bilateral trade of Romanian forest products namely fibreboard, particle   board and pulp for paper. Special attention is given to investigate the J-curve hypothesis: whether the trade  balance  for   Romanian   forest   products benefits   from a decline in the  value  of  Romanian Leu (RON. We adopted the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach   to cointegration to estimate the annual bilateral trade data of Romanian forest products  from  1991 to  2013 with various  countries  in the  world. We found  no evidence  of the J-curve  phenomenon for  the  trade in Romanian forest products. The  long-run   analysis   showed the exchange rate  to  be insignificant  in  influencing   the  trade   balance  of  Romanian forest products. This  implies  that  there  are  no changes  in the  trade   balance  for fibreboard, particle board and pulp for paper trade, regardless of whether the Romanian   exchange rate depreciates or appreciates. However, income variables were found to be important factors in determining Romanian trade, only in pulp for paper products.

  9. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables.

  10. The influence of spelling ability on handwriting production: children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2014-09-01

    Current models of writing do not sufficiently address the complex relationship between the 2 transcription skills: spelling and handwriting. For children with dyslexia and beginning writers, it is conceivable that spelling ability will influence rate of handwriting production. Our aim in this study was to examine execution speed and temporal characteristics of handwriting when completing sentence-copying tasks that are free from composing demands and to determine the predictive value of spelling, pausing, and motor skill on handwriting production. Thirty-one children with dyslexia (Mage = 9 years 4 months) were compared with age-matched and spelling-ability matched children (Mage = 6 years 6 months). A digital writing tablet and Eye and Pen software were used to analyze handwriting. Children with dyslexia were able to execute handwriting at the same speed as the age-matched peers. However, they wrote less overall and paused more frequently while writing, especially within words. Combined spelling ability and within-word pausing accounted for over 76% of the variance in handwriting production of children with dyslexia, demonstrating that productivity relies on spelling capabilities. Motor skill did not significantly predict any additional variance in handwriting production. Reading ability predicted performance of the age-matched group, and pausing predicted performance for the spelling-ability group. The findings from the digital writing tablet highlight the interactive relationship between the transcription skills and how, if spelling is not fully automatized, it can constrain the rate of handwriting production. Practical implications are also addressed, emphasizing the need for more consideration to be given to what common handwriting tasks are assessing as a whole.

  11. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

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    Liem Djin G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour. Two conditions were designed: 1 a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2 a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption.

  12. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

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    Yongshun Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products. Results from TG and DTG analyses indicated that UF resin used in wood-based panels accelerated the degradation rate of wood-based panels at lower temperature; however the resin inhibited the degradation of wood-based panels over the later stage at higher temperatures. Compared with solid wood, the higher intensity and earlier releasing time of HNCO and NH3 in wood board revealed that the release of nitric gases is mainly due to the presence of UF resin, especially between 180 °C and 320 °C. Mass loss of hydrogen is significantly inhibited by UF resin, and nitrogen is quite stable in the char. The influence of UF resin on pyrolysis liquids of wood-based panels is mainly on nitrogen compounds and ketones rather than aldehydes and esters, which is probably due to the chemical reactions of UF resin with lignin constituent in wood.

  13. Ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the influence of automation and information-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Being concerned with the environmental impact of electrical consumer products, this article examines possibilities of influencing ecological user performance through design features. Furthermore, it looks at the relationship of user characteristics and ecological performance. The impact of level of automation and type of control labelling on ecological user performance was examined in a lab-based experimental scenario with 36 users. In addition to performance indicators, a range of user variables (e.g., self-reported domestic behaviour, environmental knowledge and attitude) was measured to assess their influence on user behaviour. The results showed that low-level automation improved ecological performance whereas no such positive effect was observed for enhanced display-control labelling. Furthermore, the results suggested that the user's mental model of ecological performance was rather limited. No relationship was found between environmental knowledge, attitude and performance. The findings pointed at the strong prevalence of habits in the domestic domain. The implications of the results for designers of consumer products are discussed.

  14. The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

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    Nur Fathonah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Workplace personal web usage (WPWU is an employee’s activity in using internet for non-related task during working hours. It is considered a counterproductive behavior when done excessively because it can interrupt employee’s productivity, but it can increase creativity and eliminate bore- dom when used in a rational amount. The objective of this study was to prove whether perceived organizational injustice had influence on WPWU which affected work productivity. A total of 222 respondents working in various industries were gathered through web-survey. By using multino- mial logistic regression analysis, this study found that high level use of internet for unrelated jobs between 2 to 4 hours a day was influenced by respondents’ perception of not getting fair treatment and incentive for being good performer, which then caused them to perform very low completion of tasks. There were two contrasting views regarding this result; organizations considered it as deviant behavior because it reduced employees’ performance whereas employees regarded it as just short breaks to get rid of stress. Hence, this finding suggested that companies should redesign its internet policies to accommodate “Work-Life Blend”; blending work and personal lives, as a consequence of cultural shift in the era of globalization and new technologies.

  15. The Influence of Varieties and Planting Systems on the Peach Tree Growth, Productivity and NPK Uptake

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    Traian G. MATEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the effect of two organo-mineral fertilizers: root fertilizer C011 and foliar fertilizer 411 bio-ionic liquids, on some vegetative and productive features of five new peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] varieties introduced in Romania: ‘Earlirich’, ‘Royal Estate’, ‘Rubirich’, ‘October Star’ and ‘Late Luka’, grafted on GF 677 rootstock. The experimental plot located on a reddish preluvosol, have been established in 2008 with four planting systems: Tatura trellis, V planting system, Sibari Y and Vertical axe with different nutrition area/tree. Fertilization was applied on the beggining of June and August, 2010 and 2011 on the soil, locally on the tree rows (C011 and by foliar spraying (411. Trees vegetative growth was compared at the end of the vegetation period by number of fruit buds per unit trunk surface section (CM/TSS with significant differences between types of crowns and the biggest values for ‘Rubirich’; the total shoots length with significant differences between varieties. The influence of fertilization on trees productivity was apreciated by analyzing the yield and some typical productivy indexes. The studied parameters including the NPK uptake, have been significantly influenced by the variety 3.39% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2010 and 2.75% Nt at ‘Rubirich’ in 2011 in Tatura trellis planting system.

  16. Nitrogen fertilization of the host plant influences production and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea secondary inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abro, Manzoor Ali; Lecompte, François; Bryone, Florian; Nicot, Philippe C

    2013-03-01

    The influence of nitrogen (N) nutrition on a plant's susceptibility to Botrytis spp. and other pathogens is well documented. However, little is known of possible effects on sporulation of the pathogen on diseased tissue and on the pathogenicity of resulting secondary inoculum. To address this question, sporulation by two strains of Botrytis cinerea was quantified on tomato plants produced under different N irrigation regimes with inputs of NO(3)- at 0.5 to 45 mmol liter(-1) (mM). Sporulation decreased significantly (P fertilization up to NO(3)- at 15 to 30 mM. The secondary inoculum was collected and used to inoculate pruning wounds on tomato plants produced under a standard fertilization regime. Pathogenicity of the spores was significantly influenced by the nutritional status of their production substrate. Disease severity was highest with spores produced on plants with very low or very high N fertilization (NO(3)- at 0.5 or 30 mM). It was lowest for inoculum from plants with moderate levels of N fertilization. These results suggest that it may be possible to find an optimum level of N fertilization to reduce the production of secondary inoculum and its pathogenicity to tomato.

  17. Customer familiarity with new industrial product technology and its influence on adoption: The case of De Beers diamond extraction equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabbie, A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the influence of industry customers familiarity with new technology on their decisions when purchasing discontinuous industrial products. This was done in the context where the supplier and customer organisations are entities in the same company. Even in this favourable context, continuous products remained successful despite a better solution being available. Literature on this close type of relationship is sparse, mostly because information on such internal processes is generally regarded as competitive. The case investigated was the DebTech division of De Beers, and their experience with products that they design and manufacture for the global diamond mining industry. Product developer and customer data from applicable projects was analysed, and interviews and observations were conducted. The results indicate that familiarity with the product technology favourably influences perceptions of newness, safety, and the ease of integration of a product. Familiarity increases customers propensity to recommend and purchase new-technology products.

  18. Productivity and species richness in longleaf pine woodlands: resource-disturbance influences across an edaphic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, L K; Giencke, L M; Taylor, R S; Boring, L R; Staudhammer, C L; Mitchell, R J

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the complex feedback mechanisms that regulate a positive relationship between species richness and productivity in a longleaf pine-wiregrass woodland. Across a natural soil moisture gradient spanning wet-mesic to xeric conditions, two large scale manipulations over a 10-yr period were used to determine how limiting resources and fire regulate plant species diversity and productivity at multiple scales. A fully factorial experiment was used to examine productivity and species richness responses to N and water additions. A separate experiment examined standing crop and richness responses to N addition in the presence and absence of fire. Specifically, these manipulations addressed the following questions: (1) How do N and water addition influence annual aboveground net primary productivity of the midstory/overstory and ground cover? (2) How do species richness responses to resource manipulations vary with scale and among functional groups of ground cover species? (3) How does standing crop (including overstory, understory/midstory, and ground cover components) differ between frequently burned and fire excluded plots after a decade without fire? (4) What is the role of fire in regulating species richness responses to N addition? This long-term study across a soil moisture gradient provides empirical evidence that species richness and productivity in longleaf pine woodlands are strongly regulated by soil moisture. After a decade of treatment, there was an overall species richness decline with N addition, an increase in richness of some functional groups with irrigation, and a substantial decline in species richness with fire exclusion. Changes in species richness in response to treatments were scale-dependent, occurring primarily at small scales (≤10 m(2) ). Further, with fire exclusion, standing crop of ground cover decreased with N addition and non-pine understory/midstory increased in wet-mesic sites. Non-pine understory/midstory standing crop

  19. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  20. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

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    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  1. Degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine: Efficiency, influencing factors, and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi; Liu, Weili; Liu, Yulei

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the degradation of atrazine by the combination of UV and chlorine (UV/chlorine) due to the formation of radicals during chlorine photolysis was systematically investigated in terms of efficiency, factors that influence the degradation kinetics, as well as oxidation products. It was found that the degradation efficiency of atrazine was enhanced by UV/chlorine compared to UV or chlorine alone. The degradation efficiency of atrazine was favorable at a lower pH, but was inhibited in the presence of natural organic matters. Meanwhile, the initial chlorine dosage, alkalinity, and chloride barely influenced the degradation efficiency under neutral pH conditions. The degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine was inhibited in real waters (i.e., surface water and ground water) compared to in deionized water but was still more effective than UV alone. The oxidation products of atrazine resulting from de-alkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, alkylic-hydroxylation, alkylic-oxidation, alkylic-hydroxylation-dehydration, deamination-hydroxylation, and dechlorination-hydrogenation in UV/chlorine process were detected, which were slightly different from those formed in UV/H2O2 (commonly used UV-based advanced oxidation process). Particularly, the yields of three primary transformation products (desethyl-atrazine (DEA), desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEIA)) were comparatively quantified in these two processes. The different trend of them formed in UV/chlorine system (DEA:DIA≈4) compared to that formed in UV/H2O2 system (DEA:DIA≈1) could be ascribed to the different reaction reactivities and mechanisms between HO• and Cl• with atrazine.

  2. Influence of the nitrogen source on Saccharomyces cerevisiae anaerobic growth and product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, E; Larsson, C; Lidén, G; Niklasson, C; Gustafsson, L

    1996-09-01

    To prevent the loss of raw material in ethanol production by anaerobic yeast cultures, glycerol formation has to be reduced. In theory, this may be done by providing the yeast with amino acids, since the de novo cell synthesis of amino acids from glucose and ammonia gives rise to a surplus of NADH, which has to be reoxidized by the formation of glycerol. An industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated in batch cultures with different nitrogen sources, i.e., ammonium salt, glutamic acid, and a mixture of amino acids, with 20 g of glucose per liter as the carbon and energy source. The effects of the nitrogen source on metabolite formation, growth, and cell composition were measured. The glycerol yields obtained with glutamic acid (0.17 mol/mol of glucose) or with the mixture of amino acids (0.10 mol/mol) as a nitrogen source were clearly lower than those for ammonium-grown cultures (0.21 mol/mol). In addition, the ethanol yield increased for growth on both glutamic acid (by 9%) and the mixture of amino acids (by 14%). Glutamic acid has a large influence on the formation of products; the production of, for example, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and acetic acid, increased compared with their production with the other nitrogen sources. Cultures grown on amino acids have a higher specific growth rate (0.52 h-1) than cultures of both ammonium-grown (0.45 h-1) and glutamic acid-grown (0.33 h-1) cells. Although the product yields differed, similar compositions of the cells were attained. The NADH produced in the amino acid, RNA, and extracellular metabolite syntheses was calculated together with the corresponding glycerol formation. The lower-range values of the theoretically calculated yields of glycerol were in good agreement with the experimental yields, which may indicate that the regulation of metabolism succeeds in the most efficient balancing of the redox potential.

  3. A model of the ocean iron cycle and its influence on biological production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Parekh, P.; Follows, M.

    2003-04-01

    Biological productivity in large regions of the ocean, specifically high nutrient, low chlorophyll regions, is limited by the deficit in iron relative to other nutrients. We have developed a parameterization of the iron cycle of the world's oceans which attempts to explicitly represent the processes by which this deficit in iron occurs. We have implemented this parameterization in the context of the MIT three dimensional global ocean model and examined the consequences for nutrient distributions, new production and primary production. The iron model parameterizes the mechanisms of scavenging of iron onto sinking particles and complexation with an organic ligand and is driven by specified aeolian flux patterns. First, using an idealized representation of export production, limited by light, phosphate and iron, the model reproduces the broad features of the observed ocean phosphate and iron distributions. We replace the simplified export parameterization with an explicit, but highly idealized, ecosystem model. The model represents a simplified food web with two phytoplankton size classes and a single grazer. The base currency for this model is phosphorus, but the larger phytoplankton class (i.e. diatoms) is also limited by silica. Both classes are limited by the availability of iron. The results of this model are also generally consistent with the observed patterns of phosphate and iron. In addition, the model captures the broad features of the distributions and cycles of silica, chlorophyll and primary production. We will also explore the sensitivities of this model to the forcing fields (e.g. aeolian iron flux) and parameter choices of the ecosystem model. This model represents a step towards the explicit representation of the ocean iron cycle, and its biogeochemical influences, in global biogeochemical models.

  4. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  5. Influence of printing speed on production of embossing tools using FDM 3D printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Žarko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing of the embossing tools customary implies use of metals such as zinc, magnesium, copper, and brass. In the case of short run lengths, a conventional manufacturing process and the material itself represent a significant cost, not only in the terms of material costs and the need for using complex technological systems which are necessary for their production, but also in the terms of the production time. Alternatively, 3D printing can be used for manufacturing similar embossing tools with major savings in production time and costs. However, due to properties of materials used in the 3D printing technology, expected results of embossing by 3D printed tools cannot be identical to metal ones. This problem is emphasized in the case of long run lengths and high accuracy requirement for embossed elements. The objective of this paper is primarily focused on investigating the influence of the printing speed on reproduction quality of the embossing tools printed with FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling technology. The obtained results confirmed that printing speed as a process parameter affects the reproduction quality of the embossing tools printed with FDM technology: in the case of deposition rate of 90 mm/s was noted the poorest dimensional accuracy in relation to the 3D model, which is more emphasised in case of circular and square elements. Elements printed with the highest printing speed have a greater dimensional accuracy, but with evident cracks on the surface.

  6. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A–F by Penicillium crustosum

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    Svetlana A. Kalinina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A–F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A–F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A–F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination.

  7. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A-F by Penicillium crustosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Svetlana A; Jagels, Annika; Cramer, Benedikt; Geisen, Rolf; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A-F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A-F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A-F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination.

  8. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenberger, Juliana E; Crossetti, Luciane O

    2014-09-01

    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate). The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control) and 37°C for eight days (n=3). Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform) method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  9. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA E. BOHNENBERGER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate. The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control and 37°C for eight days (n=3. Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  10. SOUND EFFECTS INFLUENCE ON THE OPERATOR’S ORGANISM IN PRODUCTION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayda A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a brief survey of noise effects on human’s organism in production conditions, including noise effects on operators of machines and technical devices. It is well known, that any biological organism exists in balance with its environment. However, noise effects being stress factors knock the operator of machines and technical devices out of the working rhythm and cause different kinds of health disorders such as blood pressure increase, fatigue, disorders of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract and the like. All this may lead to accident situations, reduction of labor productivity and quality of work. Frequently health disorders start with hearing impairment which leads to disorientation in the threedimension space and malfunction. It is because the hearing apparatus as biological system provides the organism with sensory information and ensures selfpreservation. In the noise conditions, these characteristics are conflict: on one hand, the hearing organ should possess high enabling capability to receive positive signals, and on the other hand, in order to adapt to the sound hearing and sensitivity will decrease. The duration of noise exposure and the number of years spent under influence of the noise are also of great importance. Thus, it is obvious that control of the noise and prevention of harmful effects of the noise on machine operators are important components of production process in the agrarian sector

  11. Design features of offshore oil production platforms influence their susceptibility to biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Davidova, Irene A; Nunn, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Souquet, Pierre J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-01

    Offshore oil-producing platforms are designed for efficient and cost-effective separation of oil from water. However, design features and operating practices may create conditions that promote the proliferation and spread of biocorrosive microorganisms. The microbial communities and their potential for metal corrosion were characterized for three oil production platforms that varied in their oil-water separation processes, fluid recycling practices, and history of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and numbers of total bacteria, archaea, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were estimated by qPCR. The rates of (35)S sulfate reduction assay (SRA) were measured as a proxy for metal biocorrosion potential. A variety of microorganisms common to oil production facilities were found, but distinct communities were associated with the design of the platform and varied with different locations in the processing stream. Stagnant, lower temperature (oil separation train, thus promoting distribution of biocorrosive microorganisms. These findings tell us that tracking microbial sulfate-reducing activity and community composition on off-shore oil production platforms can be used to identify operational practices that inadvertently promote the proliferation, distribution, and activity of biocorrosive microorganisms.

  12. The influence of pomegranate by-product and punicalagins on selected groups of human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Ramnani, Priya; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Muntha, Kesava R; Gibson, Glenn R; Ferreira, Daneel

    2010-06-15

    We have examined the gut bacterial metabolism of pomegranate by-product (POMx) and major pomegranate polyphenols, punicalagins, using pH-controlled, stirred, batch culture fermentation systems reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of POMx or punicalagins with faecal bacteria resulted in formation of the dibenzopyranone-type urolithins. The time course profile confirmed the tetrahydroxylated urolithin D as the first product of microbial transformation, followed by compounds with decreasing number of phenolic hydroxy groups: the trihydroxy analogue urolithin C and dihydroxylated urolithin A. POMx exposure enhanced the growth of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., without influencing the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and the C. histolyticum group. In addition, POMx increased concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) viz. acetate, propionate and butyrate in the fermentation medium. Punicalagins did not affect the growth of bacteria or production of SCFA. The results suggest that POMx oligomers, composed of gallic acid, ellagic acid and glucose units, may account for the enhanced growth of probiotic bacteria.

  13. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  14. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  15. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Metabolically Improved Exopolysaccharide Production by Streptococcus thermophilus and Its Influence on the Rheological Properties of Fermented Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin; Waak, Elisabet; Svensson, Ulla; Rådström, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Altered levels of enzymes in the central carbon metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus increased the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production 3.3 times over that of the parent strain. The influence of enhanced EPS production on the rheological properties of fermented milk is described for engineered strains of S. thermophilus which produce different levels of EPSs.

  17. The influence of information about organic production and fair trade on preferences for and perception of pineapple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.; Mojet, J.; Lyon, D.; Sefa-Dedeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of information about organic production and fair trade on hedonic and analytic judgments of pineapple was studied in British (n = 44) and Dutch (n = 51) subjects. The subjects received pineapple pieces of three regularly grown varieties, in which information about organic production an

  18. Analysis of Factors Influencing Comprehensive Productivity of Agriculture in Henan Province on the Basis of Grey Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data from Henan Statistical Yearbook from 2002 to 2008, from production capital, production conditions, labour inputs and financial support, this paper selects 11 variables influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province. Through calculation and analysis of grey correlation of variables and comprehensive productivity of agriculture, this paper determines the impact of different variables on comprehensive productivity of agriculture. The results show that the agricultural capital has become the most important factor influencing comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province, while the impact of production conditions, labour inputs and financial support on comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province diminishes in turn. Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote the sustainable development of comprehensive productivity of agriculture in Henan Province as follows: strengthen agricultural financial system building, and ensure agricultural production expenditure; scientifically arrange allocation of agricultural resources, and improve agricultural production conditions; carry out training of agricultural skills, and elevate the quality of agricultural labour forces; increase financial expenditure for agricultural production, and optimize financial expenditure structure.

  19. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja; Milanova, Krasimira;

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention...... is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very...

  20. Influence of Iron on Production of the Antibacterial Compound Tropodithietic Acid and Its Noninhibitory Analog in Phaeobacter inhibens

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alvise, Paul W.; Phippen, Christopher B. W.; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Tropodithietic acid (TDA) is an antibacterial compound produced by some Phaeobacter and Ruegeria spp. of the Roseobacter clade. TDA production is studied in marine broth or agar since antibacterial activity in other media is not observed. The purpose of this study was to determine how TDA production is influenced by substrate components. High concentrations of ferric citrate, as present in marine broth, or other iron sources were required for production of antibacterially active TDA. However,...

  1. Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskiewicz Wanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health workers (CHWs are increasingly recognized as a critical link in improving access to services and achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Given the financial and human resources constraints in developing countries, CHWs are expected to do more without necessarily receiving the needed support to do their jobs well. How much can be expected of CHWs before work overload and reduced organizational support negatively affect their productivity, the quality of services, and in turn the effectiveness of the community-based programmes that rely on them? This article presents policy-makers and programme managers with key considerations for a model to improve the work environment as an important approach to increase CHW productivity and, ultimately, the effectiveness of community-based strategies. Methods A desk review of selective published and unpublished articles and reports on CHW programs in developing countries was conducted to analyse and organize findings on the elements that influence CHW productivity. The search was not exhaustive but rather was meant to gather information on general themes that run through the various documents to generate perspectives on the issue and provide evidence on which to formulate ideas. After an initial search for key terminology related to CHW productivity, a snowball technique was used where a reference in one article led to the discovery of additional documents and reports. Results CHW productivity is determined in large part by the conditions under which they work. Attention to the provision of an enabling work environment for CHWs is essential for achieving high levels of productivity. We present a model in which the work environment encompasses four essential elements—workload, supportive supervision, supplies and equipment, and respect from the community and the health system—that affect the productivity of CHWs. We propose that when CHWs have a

  2. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented....... In this fungus, pigmented spores are viable and unpigmented spores are inviable. These results show that while both parents influence all these traits, maternal influence is strongest on both fertility and mortality traits until the spores are physiologically independent of the maternal cytoplasm......., Hall, & Kowbel 2011). Precise genetic distances between mating pairs were calculated to control for the effects of crossing distance on offspring production. We performed reciprocal crosses of all 121 strain pairings and collected data on perithecial production, ascospore (sexual spore) production...

  3. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  5. [Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) influence on endogenic melatonin production during the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of vitamin B6 in the process of melatonin biosynthesis. 30 laboratory white rats were divided into two groups - experimental and control groups. The animals in the first group were treated with vitamin B6 injection. Every other day at 22 00, melatonin concentration was defined by means of ELISA. The experiment has lasted for two months. At the end of the experiment, the plasma level of melatonin increased by 35,95% in the first group of animals in comparison with the second control group. It is found that, B6 vitamin injections strengthens melatonin biosynthesis; consequently strengthening of melatonin biosynthesis influences positive therapeutic effects,; one of the reasons for pathological processes, developed in organism on the background of B6 vitamin deficiency, is reduction of endogen melatonin production.

  6. A DFIG wind turbine ride-through system. Influence on the energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, A.; Lundberg, S.; Thiringer, T.

    2005-07-01

    The influence of a voltage sag ride-through system on the energy production of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is investigated. Using simulations, a candidate ride-through system based on insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules with high current rating and with the option of having antiparallel thyristors, which can quickly disconnect the stator of the DFIG from the grid, is developed. It has been found that, by increasing the current rating of the converter IGBTs, the losses of the converter can be reduced. However, if antiparallel thyristors have to be connected between the stator and the grid in order to achieve a fast disconnection of the stator circuit, the overall losses of the total system increase instead. Copyright

  7. [Influence of personal attitude of the manager on antibiotic use in pig production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, J; Kaufmann, G; Hirsiger, P; Kümmerlen, D; Arnold, C; Spring, P; Sidler, X

    2015-12-01

    The attitude as well as the expertise of a person affect the behavior and actions in daily life. To investigate the influence of attitude and knowledge of pig producers on the use of antibiotics in farms, 220 Swiss pig producers were questioned on health awareness, attitude towards sustainable production, risk behavior, intrinsic motivation and knowledge about antibiotics and resistance development. In addition, the strategy of antibiotic use (therapeutic or prophylactic) and the business practice (single or group therapy) for the amount of antibiotics on one hand and for the risk of antibiotic resistance development on the other hand, were determined in a personal interview. Farmers using antibiotics only therapeutically had a better business practice. A direct link between the personal attitude and the antibiotic use or a higher risk of development of antibiotic resistance was not found in this investigation.

  8. Influence of a superconducting lead on orbital entanglement production in chaotic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Perez, Sergio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Novaes, Marcel, E-mail: sergio.rodriguez@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-10-15

    We study orbital entanglement production in a chaotic cavity connected to four single-channel normal metal leads and one superconducting lead, assuming the presence of time-reversal symmetry and within a random matrix theory approach. The scattered state of two incident electrons is written as the superposition of several two-outgoing quasi-particle components, four of which are orbitally entangled in a left-right bipartition. We calculate numerically the mean value of the squared norm of each entangled component, as functions of the number of channels in the superconducting lead. Its behavior is explained as resulting from the proximity effect. We also study statistically the amount of entanglement carried by each pair of outgoing quasi-particles. When the influence of the superconductor is more intense, the device works as an entangler of electron-hole pairs, and the average entanglement is found to be considerably larger than that obtained without the superconducting lead. (author)

  9. The influence of capitalism on the production of knowledge in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Monica Motta; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Costa, Maria Arminda da Silva Mendes Carneiro da; Martins, Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva; Lino, Murielk Motta

    2017-06-26

    To understand the capitalist influence over the production of nursing knowledge according to Brazilian and Portuguese researchers. Descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative research, with 17 research nurses selected using the snowball technique. Data were collected from October 2011 to November 2012 in Brazil and Portugal, by means of semi-structured interviews. We analysed the content of the interviews and produced inferences based in the theoretical assumptions of Gaston Bachelard and the notion of an epistemological obstacle. The results were organised into three categories: Blocks to creativity/innovation and the practice of repetition; Overestimation of the quantitative; and Resistance to rupture. It is necessary to create new ways of assessing scientific literature from a qualitative perspective that allows room for creativity, professional development, and critical and reflective thinking. Solidarity is perceived as an alternative to overcoming the problems caused by the capitalist way of producing knowledge.

  10. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  11. Specific protein regions influence substrate specificity and product length in polyunsaturated fatty acid condensing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinten, Patricia L; Hoffman, Travis; Bauer, Jörg; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-05-11

    We describe a condensing enzyme from Pythium irregulare (PirELO) that shows highest activity on the 18-carbon, Delta-6 desaturated fatty acids, stearidonic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. However, this enzyme is also capable of elongating a number of other fatty acids including the 20-carbon, Delta-5 desaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. Surprisingly, a Phytophthora infestans condensing enzyme (PinELO) with very high homology to PirELO did not show activity with 20-carbon fatty acids. A series of chimeric proteins for these two enzymes were constructed to investigate the influence of different regions on substrate and product length. The substitution of a region from near the center of PirELO into PinELO resulted in an enzyme having EPA-elongating activity similar to that of PirELO. Only eight amino acids differed between the two proteins in this region; however, substitution of the same region from PinELO into PirELO produced a protein which was almost inactive. The addition of a small region from near the N-terminus of PinELO was sufficient to restore activity with GLA, indicating that amino acids from these two regions interact to determine protein structure or function. Predicted topology models for PirELO and PinELO placed the two regions described here near the luminal-proximal ends of the first and fourth/fifth transmembrane helixes, at the opposite end of the condensing enzyme from four conserved regions thought to form a catalytic ring. Thus, protein characteristics determined by specific luminal-proximal regions of fatty acid condensing enzymes have a major influence on substrate specificity and final product length.

  12. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  13. INFLUENCE OF REACTION TEMPERATURE AND REACTION TIME ON PRODUCT FROM HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF BIOMASS RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaphong Kongpanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is facing with problems associated with biomass residue such as palm oil residues (oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches, shells and fibers. Biomass is promising source for the production of an array of energy-related produts including, liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals electricity and other materials. Therefore, the use of biomass for energy is not still fully utilization due to the high moisture content, lower heating value of the energy unit or low bulk density and the problems withtar. While Thailand has high potential because the reisa lot of biomass that has not been utilizedfor example biomass residues from palm oil industry. About 2 million tons of empty fruit bunches in Thailand have great potential. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand, the largest crude palm oil producer in the world. This amount will continue increase with the rapid growth in the Thailand palm oil industry. Therefore, a better method to manage such biomass residues is highly desired. One of the potential ways for alternative utilization of biomass is thermo-chemical process. Hydrothermal treatment is a process for making a homogenizinged, carbon rich and energy-dense solid fuel, called hydrochar. The objective of the study was to identify the effect of reaction temperature and reaction time for hydrothermal treatment of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB. Influence of temperature 100°C, 150°C and 200°C for 30 to 90 min and active biogas process on 1.00-15.538 bars, within 1,000 mL stainless steel 316 batch-type reactor with a stirrer and there is an automatic temperature controller. Results showed that the highest chemical and physical properties of hydrochar product was achieved when operated on 200°C for 90 min. Maximum heating value was found that 5678 cal/g for EFB9. The result showed that the chemical and physical properties increased progressively with higher temperature. The results was

  14. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    centrifugel reactor (PCR) at 475, 525, 575, and 625 °C. Maxima of both organic oil yield of 41 wt % on a dry ash free feedstock basis (daf) and a sludge oil energy recovery of 50% were obtained at 575 °C. The water-insoluble fraction, molecular-weight distribution, higher heating value (HHV), and thermal......Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... behaviors of sludge oils were found to be considerably influenced by the applied pyrolysis temperatures. The sludge oil properties obtained at the optimal temperature of 575 °C were a HHV of 25.5 MJ/kg, a water-insoluble fraction of 18.7 wt %, a viscosity of 43.6 mPa s at 40 °C, a mean molecular weight...

  15. Seasonal influence on the essential oil production of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez

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    Lúcio de Paula Amaral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Nectandra megapotamica. Fresh young (YL and old leaves (OL obtained from three trees in each season (Nov/2010 to Sep/2011 collected in Santa Maria-RS were hydrodistilled in triplicate. The chemical composition was determined by the gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the yield on dry basis was evaluated by two-way ANOVA (seasons, development stage. Spring (Sp and summer (Su showed higher average incomes (0.45 and 0.33%, which occurred when flowering, fruiting, and growth of YL and senescence of OL took place, while autumn (Au presented the lowest yield (0.25% during the rustification of OL. The highest yield was obtained for the YL in Sp (0.59% and the lowest for the OL in Au (0.21%. The major constituents of the EO were independent from the season and were identified as α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and limonene. Seasonality and phenology influenced the production of EO probably due to morphological and metabolic alterations in the leaves as well as due to the needs of the tree, such as attraction and/or protection.

  16. A model for analyzing influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Eriksson

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available A model for long-term analysis of the influence of timber production on lichens for reindeer grazing (Cladina, Alectoria, Bryoria spp and others in Sweden is presented. The annual production of and demand for lichens are estimated and compared. Production of these lichens is presumed to set the upper limit for the reindeer population. Reindeer graze on both ground and tree lichens, which both must be accessible in sufficient amounts and at the right times of the year if reindeer husbandry is to succeed without supplementary feeding. The model is based mainly on existing data, and uses are estimations from the National Forest Survey and the Hugin system for calculation of longterm potential cut (Bengtsson, 1981. Geographically the study is limited to Vasterbotten and Norrbotten, the northernmost counties in Sweden, where most reindeer husbandry in Sweden is located, and where reindeer grazing takes place over almost the whole area. The calculations cover a period of one hundred years from 1980, and are based on a timber production programme which relies more on «multiple use» than the current Swedish forest policy (Bengtsson, 1986. The annual production of ground lichens is calculated by multiplying the area covered with ground lichens by their increment as estimated from their rate of biomass increase, which in turn depends on site factors and age of the stand. The estimation of the area is based on data from the National Forest Survey. Sample plots with ground lichens are assumed to maintain lichens during the whole hundred year period. Areas with stands that have been thinned within ten years and stands younger than 20 years are excluded due to logging residues from thinnings and packed snow. Some of the remaining area cannot practically be utilized for reindeer grazing. Representatives of three communities of reindeer herders classified 212 plots from the National Forest Survey with ground lichens and assessed that 3/4 of the plots can be

  17. Investigation on the reactions influencing biomass air and air/steam gasification for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S.; Bragado, D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Extremadura, 06071 (Spain); Calderon, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, University of Extremadura, 06071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Hydrogen could be the energy carrier of the next world scene provided that its production, transportation and storage are solved. In this work the production of an hydrogen-rich gas by air/steam and air gasification of olive oil waste was investigated. The study was carried out in a laboratory reactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range of 700 - 900 C using a steam/biomass ratio of 1.2 w/w. The influence of the catalysts ZnCl{sub 2} and dolomite was also studied at 800 and 900 C. The solid, energy and carbon yield (%), gas molar composition and high heating value of the gas (kJ NL{sup -} {sup 1}), were determined for all cases and the differences between the gasification process with and without steam were established. Also, this work studies the different equilibria taking place, their predominance in each process and how the variables considered affect the final gas hydrogen concentration. The results obtained suggest that the operating conditions were optimized at 900 C in steam gasification (a hydrogen molar fraction of 0.70 was obtained at a residence time of 7 min). The use of both catalysts resulted positive at 800 C, especially in the case of ZnCl{sub 2} (attaining a H{sub 2} molar fraction of 0.69 at a residence time of 5 min). (author)

  18. Influence of the use of rice bran extract as a source of nutrients on xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Acosta Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion using 2.5 or 10% (v/v rice bran extract was performed to verify the influence of this source of nutrients on Candida guilliermondii metabolism. Semisynthetic medium (SM and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate detoxified with ion-exchange resins (HIE or with alteration in pH combined with adsorption onto activated charcoal (HAC were fermented in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30 ºC and 200 rpm for 72 hours. Activated charcoal supplemented with 2.5% (v/v rice bran extract was fermented by C. guilliermondii in a MULTIGEN stirred tank reactor using pH 5.0 and 22.9/hour oxygen transfer volumetric coefficient. Higher values of xylitol productivity (0.70, 0.71, and 0.62 g.Lh-1 and xylose-to-xylitol conversion yield (0.71, 0.69, and 0.63 g.g-1 were obtained with 2.5% (v/v rice bran in semisynthetic medium, ion-exchange resins, and activated charcoal, respectively. Moreover, during batch fermentation, the xylitol volumetric productivity and fermentation efficiency values obtained were 0.53 g.Lh-1 and 61.1%, respectively.

  19. Influence of plasmogenes on the productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmogenes are largely located in mitochondria or plastids and they can influence the inheritance of many plant characteristics. This phenomenon is called cytoplasmic inheritance and can be detected on the basis of the expression of a trait in progeny F1 obtained from single and reciprocal crosses. The aim of this study was to examine the cytoplasmic inheritance of in vitro productivity of morphogenesis in three genotypes of Fragaria x ananassa Duch., i.e. the cultivars 'Dukat', 'Teresa' and the breeding clone no. 590. Single and reciprocal crosses were done according to Griffi ng's method 3. The value of general combining ability (GCA indicated cv. 'Teresa' as the best maternal component for crossing and 'Dukat' as the worst. The negative reciprocal cross effects (rij revealed the cytoplasmic inheritance for cv. 'Dukat' as maternal form and positive rij for the breeding clone no. 590 indicated the nuclear inheritance of morphogenetic ability. Cv. 'Teresa', as maternal component, showed nuclear inheritance of that trait in crossing with cv. 'Dukat' and with 590 cytoplasmic inheritance. The productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry depended on the parental combination and the direction of crossing.

  20. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  1. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  2. Bioactive Compounds of Blueberries: Post-Harvest Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Łysiak, Grzegorz

    2015-08-10

    Blueberries, besides having commonly-recognized taste properties, are also a valuable source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. For several decades, blueberries have gained in popularity all over the world, and recent years have seen not only an increase in fresh consumption, but also in the importance of blueberries for the processing industry. Blueberry processing mostly consists of freezing and juicing. Recently, more attention has been drawn to dewatering and drying, which are promising areas for developing novel blueberry products. Processing affects each biologically-active compound in a different way, and it is still unknown what changes those compounds undergo at the molecular level after the application of different processing technologies. This work presents the most recent state of knowledge about the pre-treatment and processing methods applied to blueberries and their influence on the content of biologically-active compounds. The presentation of methods is preceded by a brief overview of the characteristics of the blueberry species, a description of the chemical composition of the fruit and a short note about the main growing areas, production volumes and the management of fruit crops.

  3. Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanaprakasam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost of biodiesel produced from virgin vegetable oil through transesterification is higher than that of fossil fuel, because of high raw material cost. To minimize the biofuel cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. Catalysts used in this process are usually acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in biodiesel production is limited. In most cases, NaOH is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reaction rate. In the case of waste cooking oil containing high percentage of free fatty acid, alkaline catalyst reacts with free fatty acid and forms soap by saponification reaction. Also, it reduces the biodiesel conversions. In order to reduce the level of fatty acid content, waste cooking oil is pretreated with acid catalyst to undergo esterification reaction, which also requires high operating conditions. In this review paper, various parameters influencing the process of biofuel production such as reaction rate, catalyst concentration, temperature, stirrer speed, catalyst type, alcohol used, alcohol to oil ratio, free fatty acid content, and water content have been summarized.

  4. Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly influences atherogenic risk and cytokine-induced oxidant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Corey M; Pompilius, Melissa; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis. However, no studies have determined whether altered mitochondrial oxidant production directly influences atherogenic susceptibility and response in primary cells to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We undertook this study to determine whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic lesion development associated with CVD risk factor exposure and endothelial cell response to TNF-α. We assessed atherosclerotic lesion formation, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage in male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice with normal and decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2; apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-), respectively) exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or filtered air. Atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial damage were significantly higher in apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) controls. Furthermore, experiments with small interfering RNA in endothelial cells revealed that decreased SOD2 activity increased TNF-α-mediated cellular oxidant levels compared with controls. Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic factors, increasing disease susceptibility.

  5. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  6. The influence of the irradiation regime upon mycotoxins production under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralová, M; Patzeltová, N; Havlík, F

    1987-01-01

    The paper handles the problem of the inactivation of the toxinogenic strain Aspergillus flavus following the application of gamma radiation to wheat. The amount of the applied dose and of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation upon the inhibition of mycelium growth and toxin production were defined. The aflatoxin B1 was determined by extracting in chloroform and developed on Silufol R within the choroform; aceton system. The applied doses of gamma radiation (3-30 kGy) have show that the absorbed dose does not inhibit aflatoxin production. By combining the action of gamma radiation with humidity of the wheat (humidity 13-15%; 25% irradiation 6 kGy) an inactivation was reached. With the help of toxicologico-genetical tests (the Dominant Lethal Mutations Test, the Three Generations Test) the influence was traced of contaminated, irradiated substrates upon the health of experimental animals. It follows from the results obtained that in long-term feeding with contaminated wheat irradiated by gamma rays no positive mutagenic activity has been recorded. It allows to presume that wheat of humidity of 25% contaminated by a weakly toxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus irradiated by a dose of 6 kGy, and wheat of a humidity of 13-15%, contaminated by a strongly toxinogenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, irradiated by a dose of 6 kGy, are no genetic risk for white rats.

  7. [Influence of amaranth on the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus niger NRRL 3112].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, D D; Lorda, G; Balatti, A P

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the amaranth seed meal and the aeration conditions on the alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3112 were studied. The assays of selection of culture medium were carried out in a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 2.5 cm stroke. The aeration conditions were studied in a mechanically stirred fermentor New Brunswick type. A concentration of alpha-amylase of 2750 U.Dun/ml was achieved at 120 h with a dry weight of 8.0 g/l, using a base medium with 5.0 g/l Amaranthus cruentus seed meal. In the experiment performed in a New Brunswick fermentor, the highest value was 2806 U.Dun/ml. This result was obtained after 120 h, operating at 300 rpm and an airflow of 1 l/l. min. in a limited dissolved oxygen concentration. It was determined that the increase in the agitation rate was not favorable to the enzyme production, despite that an increase was verified in the dissolved oxygen. The morphology of the microorganism, in long and ramified hyphae, was the critical factor to obtain higher levels of alpha-amylase.

  8. Influence of suspension stability on wet grinding for production of mineral nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Sakthivel; Venkatesan V. Krishnan; Pitchumani

    2008-01-01

    Grinding behavior of nanoparticles in an attritor mill and the minimum achievable particle size are strongly influenced by the suspension stability. In the present work, suspension stability (i.e. (-potential) of nanoparticles was studied by measuring pH as a function of grinding time in the wet milling process. It was found that after a certain time in an attritor mill, there is no further size reduction and the average product particle size increases monotonically. One of the reasons is that the production of submicron particles leads to more particle-particle interactions and consequently pH of the suspension decreases with grinding time. Usually pH value is related to suspension stability and it can be enhanced by addition of NaOH solution. The maximum negative (-potential of -51.2 mV was obtained at pH of 12 for silica. The higher the (-potential with the same polarity, higher will be the electrostatic repulsion between the particles. Hence, the maximum electrostatic repulsion force was maintained by the adjustment of pH value in wet milling. The experiments were conducted at different pH conditions which were maintained constant throughout the experiments and nanosized particles were obtained consequently.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL COMFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE INDICES OF THE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SUMANSCHII

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were held at the quail’s farm „Annotation invest - agro” r. Hâncesti. As a studied material there was used the Japanese bread of quails, kept in six leveled cages, each cage is divided horizontal in half, in that way that in each part there are 35 quails. For the aim achieving there were formed four groups: the first is the control group, and the other three are experimental groups. There was fixed one psychrometer for each group to determine the temperature and the humidity level. There was established the eggs production every day from each group separately. The eggs weight has been determined once in a month, using the electric scales. The egg's index and the egg's shell thickness have been determined by the sliding. The held experiments showed the real influence of the technological factors of the temperature and the humidity of the air on the productive and reproductive indices of the quails grown in conditions of Republic of Moldova.

  10. Influence of temperature on biomass production of clones of Atriplex halimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessena, Leonarda; Mulas, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    A very effective tool to combat desertification is revegetation. Promising species for this purpose are the evergreen shrubs of the genus Atriplex. The objective of the research was to study the growing responses of Atriplex halimus under different thermal regimes and to evaluate the biomass accumulation of selected clones. The test was carried out in four sites of Sardinia Island (Italy) characterized by different latitude, altitude and air temperature trends along the year. In every site, potted plants of five clones of A. halimus were compared for biomass production as measured by linear growth of plants (central axis and secondary shoots), as well as by dry weight of leaves, shoots and roots per plant. Correlations between sums of hour-degrees under or above the thresholds of critical air temperatures, comprised between 0 and 35 °C, and the plant growth indicators were analysed. Differences among the five clones, with regard to the influence of low temperatures on plant growth and on the biomass production were evaluated. Among five tested clones, GIO1 and SAN3 resulted more sensitive to low temperatures. Clones MAR1, PAL1 and FAN3 resulted less sensitive to low temperatures and in the site characterized by the lowest minimum temperatures also have shown greater adaptability and thus biomass growth in the observed period. The clone PAL1 showed a lower shoot/root biomass ratio as adaptation to cold temperature, and the clone FAN3, the opposite behaviour and a general preference to temperate thermal regimes.

  11. Analysis of variables that influence microbiological quality in fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Sobota Šalamon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research variables which influence microbiological quality in fresh cheese productionwith respect to yeasts and moulds were analyzed. Since yeasts and moulds do not survive the process of pasteurization their isolation in the final product is a result of their supplemental contamination during fermentation and whey drainage. Following variables were monitored: total number of aerobicmesophilic bacteria AMB in rinsing water, total number of yeasts and moulds in rinsing water, total number of AMB in pasteurized milk, total number of AMB in air and total number of yeasts and mouldsin air. These variables were analysed by methods of descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and the method of artificial intelligence - decision tree. By the method of principal component analysis it is shown that the greatest impact on the quality of the final product have variables connected to microbiological cleanness of air. The method of decision tree has resulted in determination of new internal standards for total number of AMB and yeasts and moulds in the air.

  12. The influence of oxygen supply on the production of acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Mastroeni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oxygen supply rate on the growth and the production of both ethanol and acetaldehyde by the aerotolerant fermentative bacterium Z. mobilis is discussed in this work. The results showed similar values of cell mass yield (0.043 g/g for the five different levels of initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K La studied. The maximum specific growth rate (µx,m. under anaerobic conditions was higher than those found in aerated runs. Anaerobic cultivation resulted in the best ethanol yield (0.38 g/g. For initial K La values of 62, 94, and 118 h-1, ethanol yields were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.09 g/g, respectively, whereas for K La of 30 h-1, an intermediate value (0.24 g/g was achieved. Under anaerobiosis, no acetaldehyde was produced. With initial K La values of 62, 94, and 118 h-1, acetaldehyde yields were similar (0.12 to 0.17 g/g, and for K La of 30 h-1 only 0.07 gram of acetaldehyde was formed per gram of glucose. Although increasing values for the maximal specific acetaldehyde formation rate were calculated as K La was increased, our results showed that the presence of an excess of dissolved oxygen throughout fermentation is enough to provide appropriate conditions for the production of acetaldehyde by Z. mobilis.

  13. Influence of Psychological Factors on Product Development. Lessons from Aerospace and other Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, E. S.

    2002-10-01

    Product development is a major determinant of quality and cost as companies throughout the world struggle to optimize product development processes. Engineering tasks are usually implicitly assumed to be a primarily technical activity, but in reality they feature numerous nontechnical factors as well. This book focuses on the interrelationships of social, technical, and organizational aspects of the product development process. Cases observed in industry and research laboratories are presented and interpreted based on the socio-technical system approach (Emery / Trist) of examining the reciprocal relationship between the technical and the social subsystems. This book is primarily intended for engineering and quality professionals who want to know the limitations of current methods used in product development, to examine the so-called soft factors by means of grounded studies of their effect on R&D performance, not only to acknowledge the influence of soft factors but to actively consider their potential to improve the work environment. Academic researchers of the topic will also find many references and material for advanced courses on project and quality management. In addition to numerous cases from the aerospace industry, its general solution concepts are generalizable to other industries in which the high degree of product complexity necessitates effective interaction among different disciplines. The historical evaluation is neither intended for introductory purposes nor to propose a return to the past, but as a survey of the relevant factors to be applied in present and future projects. The author holds a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronautica, Brazil, as well as a PhD in Administration Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. He draws on profound academic research as well as a wealth of practical experience in avionics, telecommunications, systems control, and the space industry

  14. Influence of anomalous subarctic water intrusion on phytoplankton production off Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Carreón, T. L.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Durazo, R.; De la Cruz-Orozco, M. E.; Norzagaray-Campos, M.; Solana-Arellano, E.

    2015-01-01

    The southern region of the California Current (CC) off Baja California represents a transitional environment, with the influence of low temperature and less saline CC water during spring and summer, and warm and salty tropical and subtropical conditions through the end of summer and autumn. From 2002 to 2006, an anomalous subarctic water (SAW) intrusion generated changes in the epipelagic ecosystem dynamics, affecting phytoplankton biomass and primary production. The goal of the present work is to show the effects of the SAW intrusion off Baja California in the phytoplankton production during the two contrasting years 2002 and 2005. Our results show that the minimum water salinity was associated with density levels of 24.6-25.5 kg m-3 in 2002 and 24.3-25.2 kg m-3 in 2005, indicating that the anomalous SAW intrusion was more pronounced in 2005. In 2005, the mean chlorophyll concentration was low (1.0 mg m-3 in some months. CHL values were significantly different between the north and south zone and among months (p<0.01). The mean values of the photosynthetic parameters (maximum light utilization coefficient (αB) and maximum photosynthesis rate (PBm)) were one order of magnitude higher in 2005 compared to 2002 (p<0.01). The primary production estimated by the Herman and Platt model and the Carr model was very different in 2002 (mean values of 907 and 143 mgC m-2 d-1 respectively), but similar in 2005 (750 and 1006 mgC m-2 d-1 respectively). The differences between models may be due to the diverse chlorophyll data used in the singular models (in situ vs. satellite-derived), and to the weight of the phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters in each algorithm. We conclude that for the present data set the Herman and Platt model is more suitable. To assess the relative importance of physical variables, as well as bio-optical and physiological parameters in primary production, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA). There was an apparent separation between the

  15. A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolo, Lisa; Monteiro, Mario A.; Agellon, Al; Viswanathan, V. K.; Vedantam, Gayatri

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a diarrheagenic pathogen associated with significant mortality and morbidity. While its glucosylating toxins are primary virulence determinants, there is increasing appreciation of important roles for non-toxin factors in C. difficile pathogenesis. Cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs) influence the virulence of various pathogens. Five C. difficile CWGs, including PSII, have been structurally characterized, but their biosynthesis and significance in C. difficile infection is unknown. We explored the contribution of a conserved CWG locus to C. difficile cell-surface integrity and virulence. Attempts at disrupting multiple genes in the locus, including one encoding a predicted CWG exporter mviN, were unsuccessful, suggesting essentiality of the respective gene products. However, antisense RNA-mediated mviN downregulation resulted in slight morphology defects, retarded growth, and decreased surface PSII deposition. Two other genes, lcpA and lcpB, with putative roles in CWG anchoring, could be disrupted by insertional inactivation. lcpA- and lcpB- mutants had distinct phenotypes, implying non-redundant roles for the respective proteins. The lcpB- mutant was defective in surface PSII deposition and shedding, and exhibited a remodeled cell surface characterized by elongated and helical morphology, aberrantly-localized cell septae, and an altered surface-anchored protein profile. Both lcpA- and lcpB- strains also displayed heightened virulence in a hamster model of C. difficile disease. We propose that gene products of the C. difficile CWG locus are essential, that they direct the production/assembly of key antigenic surface polysaccharides, and thereby have complex roles in virulence. PMID:27741317

  16. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature and Production Conditions on Switchgrass Biochar for Use as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Joy Ashworth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochars form recalcitrant carbon and increase water and nutrient retention in soils; however, the magnitude is contingent upon production conditions and thermo-chemical conversion processes. Herein we aim at (i characterizing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.-biochar morphology, (ii estimating water-holding capacity under increasing ratios of char: soil; and, (iii determining nutrient profile variation as a function of pyrolysis conversion methodologies (i.e. continuous, auger pyrolysis system versus batch pyrolysis systems for terminal use as a soil amendment. Auger system chars produced at 600°C had the greatest lignin portion by weight among the biochars produced from the continuous system. On the other hand, a batch pyrolysis system (400 °C – 3h yielded biochar with 73.10% lignin (12 fold increases, indicating higher recalcitrance, whereas lower production temperatures (400 °C yielded greater hemicellulose (i.e. greater mineralization promoting substrate. Under both pyrolysis methods, increasing biochar soil application rates resulted in linear decreases in bulk density (g cm-3. Increases in auger-char (400 °C applications increased soil water-holding capacities; however, application rates of >2 Mt ha-1 are required. Pyrolysis batch chars did not influence water-holding abilities (P>0.05. Biochar macro and micronutrients increased, as the pyrolysis temperature increased in the auger system from 400 to 600 °C, and the residence time increased in the batch pyrolysis system from 1 to 3 h. Conversely, nitrogen levels tended to decrease under the two previously mentioned conditions. Consequently, not all chars are inherently equal, in that varying operation systems, residence times, and production conditions greatly affect uses as a soil amendment and overall rate of efficacy.

  17. A Clostridium difficile Cell Wall Glycopolymer Locus Influences Bacterial Shape, Polysaccharide Production and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a diarrheagenic pathogen associated with significant mortality and morbidity. While its glucosylating toxins are primary virulence determinants, there is increasing appreciation of important roles for non-toxin factors in C. difficile pathogenesis. Cell wall glycopolymers (CWGs influence the virulence of various pathogens. Five C. difficile CWGs, including PSII, have been structurally characterized, but their biosynthesis and significance in C. difficile infection is unknown. We explored the contribution of a conserved CWG locus to C. difficile cell-surface integrity and virulence. Attempts at disrupting multiple genes in the locus, including one encoding a predicted CWG exporter mviN, were unsuccessful, suggesting essentiality of the respective gene products. However, antisense RNA-mediated mviN downregulation resulted in slight morphology defects, retarded growth, and decreased surface PSII deposition. Two other genes, lcpA and lcpB, with putative roles in CWG anchoring, could be disrupted by insertional inactivation. lcpA- and lcpB- mutants had distinct phenotypes, implying non-redundant roles for the respective proteins. The lcpB- mutant was defective in surface PSII deposition and shedding, and exhibited a remodeled cell surface characterized by elongated and helical morphology, aberrantly-localized cell septae, and an altered surface-anchored protein profile. Both lcpA- and lcpB- strains also displayed heightened virulence in a hamster model of C. difficile disease. We propose that gene products of the C. difficile CWG locus are essential, that they direct the production/assembly of key antigenic surface polysaccharides, and thereby have complex roles in virulence.

  18. Influencing factors and degradation products of antipyrine chlorination in water with free chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiquan Cai; Liqiu Zhang; Fei Qi; Li Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its low cost,free chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants for wastewater and drinking water treatment.However,the formation of disinfection byproducts has been found to occur after free chlorine disinfection in recent decades.Antipyrine (ANT),an anti-inflammatory analgesic,has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment.In this work.the removal efficiency of ANT by free chlorine oxidation in ultrapure water was investigated with batch experiments.The influencing factors on the removal of ANT were explored at initial concentrations of ANT from 0.04 to 0.64 mg/L,free chlorine dosage from 0.30 to 1.31 mg/L,and pH from 1.5 to 9.0.The main degradation products were identified by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that ANT reacted rapidly with free chlorine in ultrapure water systems and up to 90.6% removal efficiency of ANT was achieved after 25 sec (initial free chlorine 1 mg/L,ANT 0.5 mg/L,pH 7.0).Higher oxidant dosage,lower ANT initial concentration and low pH favor the ANT removal.The main degradation product in ANT chlorination was a monochlorine substitution product (4-chloro-l,2-dihydro1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one),which can be further chlorinated by free chlorine.In addition,the total organic carbon result indicated that ANT is difficult to be mineralized using chlorine.

  19. Influencing factors and degradation products of antipyrine chlorination in water with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meiquan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Feng, Li

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its low cost, free chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants for wastewater and drinking water treatment. However, the formation of disinfection byproducts has been found to occur after free chlorine disinfection in recent decades. Antipyrine (ANT), an anti-inflammatory analgesic, has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In this work, the removal efficiency of ANT by free chlorine oxidation in ultrapure water was investigated with batch experiments. The influencing factors on the removal of ANT were explored at initial concentrations of ANT from 0.04 to 0.64 mg/L, free chlorine dosage from 0.30 to 1.31 mg/L, and pH from 1.5 to 9.0. The main degradation products were identified by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that ANT reacted rapidly with free chlorine in ultrapure water systems and up to 90.6% removal efficiency of ANT was achieved after 25 sec (initial free chlorine 1 mg/L, ANT 0.5 mg/L, pH 7.0). Higher oxidant dosage, lower ANT initial concentration and low pH favor the ANT removal. The main degradation product in ANT chlorination was a monochlorine substitution product (4-chloro-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one), which can be further chlorinated by free chlorine. In addition, the total organic carbon result indicated that ANT is difficult to be mineralized using chlorine.

  20. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed.

  1. INFLUENCE OF HONEYBEE QUEENS ORIGIN TO THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CARNIOLAN BEES (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J POKLUKAR

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Total amount of 4.355 records of honeybee colonies production characteristics was estimated on the 251 bee yards in Slovenia from 1993 to 2001. Queens were produced on 29 queen producing yards. The average lsmeans of honey yields increased by 0,41 kg a year. The swarming behaviour and the defensive behaviour of bees increased as well by - 0,091 points, and –0,038 points respectively. According to the last two years records, the honey yields of bee colonies were significantly influenced by the drone gene pool at queen production yards. The swarming behaviour was in contrary more influenced by the queen mothers on queen production yards. The defensive behaviour of bee colonies and the daily varroa mite fall were not significantly influenced by parents.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  3. When are net effects gross products? : The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Postmes, T; Lea, M; Wolbert, A

    2002-01-01

    The rush to judgment about the social effects of the new communications media has branded them as positive and negative in equal measure. Alienation from "real world" relationships coupled with a lack of social regulation within the medium is balanced by liberation from the influences, inequalities,

  4. When are net effects gross products? : The power of influence and the influence of power in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Postmes, T; Lea, M; Wolbert, A

    2002-01-01

    The rush to judgment about the social effects of the new communications media has branded them as positive and negative in equal measure. Alienation from "real world" relationships coupled with a lack of social regulation within the medium is balanced by liberation from the influences, inequalities,

  5. The regulation of interferon production by aspirin, other inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase pathway and agents influencing calcium channel flux.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Interferon is a family of potent antiviral agents which can activate macrophages, enhance cell surface markers, or influence antibody production. Three major types of human interferon are known to exist and have been designated interferons alpha, beta, and gamma. Because of its unique antiviral properties and its ability to influence the immune response, interferon has long been considered a potential therapeutic intervention in the treatment of infections and possibly neoplastic diseases. Tw...

  6. Environmental factors influencing trace house gas production in permafrost-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Josefine; Knoblauch, Christian; Böhme, Luisa; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    The permafrost-carbon feedback has been identified as a major feedback mechanism to climate change. Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in the active layer and thawing permafrost is an important source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Decomposability and potential CO2 and CH4 production are connected to the quality of SOM. SOM quality varies with vegetation composition, soil type, and soil depth. The regulating factors affecting SOM decomposition in permafrost landscapes are not well understood. Here, we incubated permafrost-affected soils from a polygonal tundra landscape in the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, to examine the influence of soil depth, oxygen availability, incubation temperature, and fresh organic matter addition on trace gas production. CO2 production was always highest in topsoil (0 - 10 cm). Subsoil (10 - 50 cm) and permafrost (50 - 90 cm) carbon did not differ significantly in their decomposability. Under anaerobic conditions, less SOM was decomposed than under aerobic conditions. However, in the absence of oxygen, CH4 can also be formed, which has a substantially higher warming potential than CO2. But, within the four-month incubation period (approximate period of thaw), methanogenesis played only a minor role with CH4 contributing 1-30% to the total anaerobic carbon release. Temperature and fresh organic matter addition had a positive effect on SOM decomposition. Across a temperature gradient (1, 4, 8°C) aerobic decomposition in topsoil was less sensitive to temperature than in subsoil or permafrost. The addition of labile plant organic matter (13C-labelled Carex aquatilis, a dominant species in the region) significantly increased overall CO2 production across different depths and temperatures. Partitioning the total amount of CO2 in samples amended with Carex material into SOM-derived CO2 and Carex-derived CO2, however, revealed that most of the additional CO2 could be assigned to the organic carbon from the amendment

  7. The influence of operational constraints in the production strategy definition; Influencia de restricoes operacionais na definicao da estrategia de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Tasso C.B. de; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Production strategies definition, applied to petroleum fields, must consider physical, operational and economic constraints. It is common to consider only the reservoir conditions on the optimization processes, simplifying, many times, the process by not taking into account the operational constraints due to production facilities. There are two main reasons: considering the operational constraints makes the process much complex and it is assumed that this simplification can affect the economic indicators but dos not affect significantly the optimization process (number e location of wells, for example). The capacity of a production unit can be limited by many constrains such as: maximum liquid rate, capacity of water and gas treatment, gas compression, water or gas injection, number of wells, etc. In this work, we show that these limitations have a direct influence in the oil production and consequently in the economic indicators and they can cause significant impact at production strategy definition, influencing the number of production and injection wells, their locations and their operational conditions. We presented an example of an offshore field with a limitation on the liquid rate. Production strategies were selected with and without constraints in order to observe the differences in the technical and economic indicators, such as NPV (Net Present Value), production and injection of fluids and the number and location of the production and injection wells. It was possible to observe yet that the amount and location of the wells were significantly affected by the restriction. (author)

  8. Influence of increasing doses nitrogen on physical and productive characteristics winter barley cultivar kristal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Saša

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the investigation of the influence of mineral fertilizers on some physical, physiological and productive characteristics of the barley cv. Kristal, it has been investigated the influence of the increasing doses of nitrogen (0.100,120,140 kg/ha, while the content of P2 O5 and K2O was constant, that is, P2 O5-60 kg/ha, K2 O - 40 kg/ha. The germination energy and germinating ability greatly depend on mineral nourishment and are rather significantly great in relation to the control variant. The germination energy and germinating ability are greatest, 91.4 % and 94.5 %, at fertilizing with 100 kg/ha of nitrogen, while the least are 74.3 % and 75 % in the variant without fertilizing. There are no significant differences in the germination energy and germinating ability among the variants of fertilization. The content of proteins is the greatest in the variants with 120 kg/ha of nitrogen, amounting 15.20 %, while the least is in the non-fertilized variant, amounting 14 %. AU variants of fertilization show rather significantly great content of proteins in relation to the control one. The increased content of proteins in barley in the third and fourth variant in relation to the second one for 8 % and 2 %, points to the fact that increasing the aspect of the needs of brewing beer industry. The greatest yield of 5 400 kg/ha has been achieved at fertilizing with 140 kg/ha of nitrogen. The increased amount of nitrogen for 40%, and the decreased yield for 5 % at increasing nitrogen for 20 % in relation to the variant of fertilization with 100 kg/ha of nitrogen, points to the fact that the fertilization beyond the optimal doses of nitrogen is not economically justified. .

  9. The Influence of Pyrogenic, Biogenic and Anthropogenic Emissions on Ozone Production Downwind from Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Douglas; Palmer, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Boreal forest fires emit pollutants that can have a strong influence on downwind surface ozone concentrations, with potential implications for exceeding air quality regulations. The influence of the mixing of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emissions on ozone is not well understood. Using the nested 0.5° latitude x 0.667° longitude GEOS-Chem chemical transport model we track biomass burning plumes in North America. We identify the changes in key chemical reactions within these plumes as well as the sensitivity of ozone to the different emission sources. We illustrate the importance of this method using a case study of a multi-day forest fire during the BORTAS aircraft campaign over eastern Canada during summer 2011. We focus on emissions from the fire on the 17th of July and follow the plume for eight days. After the initial 24 hours of pyrogenic emissions the main source of VOCs is biogenic with increasing emissions from anthropogenic sources including outflow from Quebec City and Newfoundland. Using a Lagrangian framework, we show that the ozone production efficiency (OPE) of this plume decreases steadily as it moves away from the fire but increases rapidly as the plume reaches the east coast of Canada. Using a Eulerian framework we show that ozone mixing ratios of a east coast receptor region increase by approximately 15% even though the ozone tendency of the regional air mass is negative, which we find is due to the arrival of ozone precursors in the plume. We also consider the contribution of anthropogenic outflow over Nova Scotia that originates from the eastern seaboard of the United States to the local chemistry. Using these sensitivity model runs we generate a chemical reaction narrative for the plume trajectory that helps to understand the attribution of observed ozone variations.

  10. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  11. Influence of fluid dynamics on anaerobic digestion of food waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Cunsheng; Huo, Shuhao

    2016-08-17

    To enhance the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic process, the influences of fluid dynamics on the performance of anaerobic digestion and sludge granulation were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Four different propeller speeds (20, 60, 100, 140 r/min) were adopted for anaerobic digestion of food waste in a 30 L continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Experimental results indicated that the methane yield increased with increasing the propeller speed within the experimental range. Results from CFD simulation and sludge granulation showed that the optimum propeller speed for anaerobic digestion was 100 r/min. Lower propeller speed (20 r/min) inhibited mass transfer and resulted in the failure of anaerobic digestion, while higher propeller speed (140 r/min) would lead to higher energy loss and system instability. Under this condition, anaerobic digestion could work effectively with higher efficiency of mass transfer which facilitated sludge granulation and biogas production. The corresponding mean liquid velocity and shear strain rate were 0.082 m/s and 10.48 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, compact granular sludge could be formed, with lower energy consumption. CFD was successfully used to study the influence of fluid dynamics on the anaerobic digestion process. The key parameters of the optimum mixing condition for anaerobic digestion of food waste in a 30 L CSTR including liquid velocity and shear strain rate were obtained using CFD, which were of paramount significance for the scale-up of the bioreactor. This study provided a new way for the optimization and scale-up of the anaerobic digestion process in CSTR based on the fluid dynamics analysis.

  12. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy influences offspring wool production and wool follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolski, J D; Luther, J S; Neville, T L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2011-11-01

    The effects of maternal nutrition on offspring wool production (quality and quantity) were evaluated. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial design. Selenium treatment [adequate Se (ASe, 9.5 μg/kg of BW) vs. high Se (HSe, 81.8 μg/kg of BW)] was initiated at breeding, and maternal nutritional intake [control (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted (60% of CON) vs. overfed (140% of CON)] was initiated at d 50 of gestation. Lamb birth weight was recorded at delivery, and all lambs were placed on the same diet immediately after birth to determine the effects of prenatal nutrition on postnatal wool production and follicle development. At 180 ± 2.2 d of age, lambs were necropsied and pelt weights were recorded. Wool samples were collected from the side and britch areas, whereas skin samples were collected from the side of each lamb only. Although Se status did not influence side staple length in males, female lambs born from ewes on the ASe treatment had a shorter staple length (P nutritional intake and Se status did not influence (P ≥ 0.23) wool characteristics on the britch. However, at the britch, wool from female lambs had a reduced comfort factor (P = 0.01) and a greater (P = 0.02) fiber diameter compared with wool from male lambs. Maternal Se supplementation, maternal nutritional plane, sex of the offspring, or their interactions had no effect (P > 0.13) on primary (29.10 ± 1.40/100 µm(2)) and secondary (529.84 ± 21.57/100 µm(2)) wool follicle numbers. Lambs from ASe ewes had a greater (P = 0.03) secondary:primary wool follicle ratio compared with lambs from HSe ewes (20.93 vs. 18.01 ± 1.00). Despite similar postnatal diets, wool quality was affected by maternal Se status and the maternal nutritional plane.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  14. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  15. Influence of Media in the Choice of Oral Hygiene Products Used Among the Population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaranjani, Anitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Narayan, Rajeshree Rangari; Rajendran, Sathish; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2015-10-01

    To assess the factors influencing the awareness and practice of oral hygiene among the local population Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the choice and practice of oral hygiene products among the population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Data was collected by means of a self administered structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey. One thousand two hundred and nine subjects, with an age range of 15 to 70 years, who visited the Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai were selected for investigation. The data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0. The frequency of distribution and percentages were calculated. The results of the study showed that tooth brush (98.5%) and toothpaste (98%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and around 84.6% of the population brushed once daily. Information from the media (59.4%) and decay prevention (49.7%) were the major factors that influenced the choice of toothpaste among the study population. The major factor which influenced the choice of oral hygiene products was based on information obtained from advertisements and other sources. There is a need for the dental professionals to be aware of the ever-increasing development and marketing of oral hygiene products from various databases. Hence, the education of people regarding the importance of oral hygiene maintenance, proper selection of oral hygiene products is essential.

  16. Influence of in ovo injection of L-arginine on productive and physiological performance of quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Al–Hayani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of inoculation of different levels of L–arginine into eggs of 0-day-old quail embryos. On 0 day of incubation, 480 eggs (120 for each treatment group were injected with 0% arginine (C group; 1% arginine (T1; 2% arginine (T2; or 3% arginine (T3. After hatching, 336 quail chicks (84 chicks produced from each in ovo injection treatment were placed in an experimental quail house and distributed into 4 treatment groups of 3 replicates each with 16 quail chicks for each replicate. Traits determined in this study were hatchability rate, initial body weight (7 days of age, final body weight (42 days old, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, proportional weights of carcass, breast, legs, back bone, wings, neck, abdominal fat, liver, heart, and gizzard, blood serum glucose, protein, cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides, calcium and phosphorus and Results revealed that in ovo injection with different levels of L–arginine on 0 day of incubation resulted in significant increase (P≤0.05 in hatchability rate, initial body weight, final body weight, feed conversion ratio and serum glucose, protein, total protein, calcium, phosphorus and proportional weights of carcass, breast, legs, liver, heart, and gizzard and significant decrease (P≤0.05 in serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and proportional weight of back bone, wings and abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inoculation of different levels of L–arginine into eggs of 0–day–old quail embryos especially at the levels of 2% and 3% resulted in significant improvement in productive and physiological performance of quail. Hence in ovo injection with L–arginine could be used as a beneficial tool for enhance productive performance of quail.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF RURAL AND URBAN CONSUMERS OF SELECT PERSONAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS IN COIMBATORE REGION, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Arun, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers on select personal hygiene products in the Coimbatore region of Tamilnadu. It examines the factors influencing consumer behaviour in respect to purchase of personal hygiene products identified by the researcher based on the data collected from the rural and urban consumers. The study has used a 5 point Likert type scale for measuring the reasons for buying a particular purchase format, rank preferences on factors influencin...

  18. Influence of Product Perception and Quality Label Valuation on Consumer Decision. The Case of Beef in Italy and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Figueroa, Ramo; Sanchez Garcia, Mercedes; Rosa, Franco

    2005-01-01

    The consumer perception of the relation between food and health is increased his importance. This situation generates business opportunities, when his effect is positive (for example "functional food"), or limitations or reductions in the markets (for example "food with risk perception"). This paper trait to present the relation between consumer perception of 1) intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes and 2) the influenced aspects on the label valuation on the product confidence and consum...

  19. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of the Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrients in the Culture and Production ofbiosurfactants by MicroalgaSpirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Fernandes De Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients in the culture and production of biosurfactants by Spirulina platensis LEB 52,Spirulina platensisParacas and Spirulina sp. LEB 18. For this, experiments were performed using Full Factorial Design 22 to evaluate the influence of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity in the cultures, as well as in production biosurfactant by extracts derived from microalgae through surface tension measurements. The Spirulina platensis LEB 52 provided higher biomass production when compared with the Spirulina platensis LEB 52 andSpirulina platensisParacas, but the phosphorus and nitrogen variables showed no significant influence on the maximum biomass concentration and maximum productivity. The resultds showed that Spirulina sp. LEB 18 was more favorable for the production of biosurfactants in relation to the others strains, because it presented an extract with a surface tension measurement of 31.2 mN.m-1 in a culture performed with higher concentrations of nitrogen (412 mg.L-1 and without the addition of phosphorus.

  1. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth and Phenolic Compounds Production in Photosynthetic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Comotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (pure anatase and 15% N doped anatase on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Arthrospira platensis was investigated. Results showed that pure anatase can lead to a significant growth inhibition of C. vulgaris and A. platensis (17.0 and 74.1%, resp., while for H. pluvialis the nanoparticles do not cause a significant inhibition. Since in these stress conditions photosynthetic microorganisms can produce antioxidant compounds in order to prevent cell damages, we evaluated the polyphenols content either inside the cells or released in the medium. Although results did not show a significant difference in C. vulgaris, the phenolic concentrations of two other microorganisms were statistically affected by the presence of titanium dioxide. In particular, 15% N doped anatase resulted in a higher production of extracellular antioxidant compounds, reaching the concentration of 65.2 and 68.0 mg gDB-1 for H. pluvialis and A. platensis, respectively.

  2. The Influence of Segregation Phenomena on Quality of Product in Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The segregation phenomena and formation of agglomerate have the basic influence on structure of the final product. The aim of this workis analyzing the phenomena of segregation in semi-solid extrusion process, using several kind of substitute materials, which can simulate the thixotrophic fluid behavior and displacement of solid particles. The experimental researches are made to investigation of segregation in the near-wall layers and the formation of agglomerate. Especially, the distribution of the solid particles at the end of extrusion process have been taken into consideration. Theoretical criteria describe the critical value of the energy liberated at the surfaces by the action of forces depends on the temperature, the pressure, the yield stress and the physical state and degree of intimacy of the contacting surfaces. The theory has been tested experimentally using a silicon polymer as a substitute material. Experimental stand with a Plexiglass die was prepared, such that the velocity fields at the surfaces could be observed and measured during plastic flow, allowing the empirical coefficients in the mathematical formulation to be estimated. On the basis of the theory and experiment an optimal die chamber was designed for a die with a complex shape.

  3. Influence of Process Parameters on the Production of Metabolites in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation (SSF involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free water. This low moisture content makes the SSF different from submerged fermentation. Unlike the situation in submerged fermentation there is no systematic study guiding the design and operation of large scale SSF with propercontrols. The understanding and modeling of microbial growth kinetics and transport phenomena play important roles in the SSF. The design of bioreactors from tray type to stirred tank is discussed. The packed bed, rotating drum, rocking drum, fluidized bed and stirred tank reactors are used in SSF with and without modifications. The parameters like pH, temperature, agitation and aeration also need to be controlled. There is a large gradient of temperature throughout thetrays. By manipulating the nitrogen source requirement, the pH of the system is generally controlled. The different factors that control the agitation and aeration in the SSF are discussed. Finally the advantages and disadvantages of SSF compared to submerged fermentation were mentioned. Moreover, such understanding is very much required in the design, scale up and process control in SSF. This paper deals with the influence of environmental parameters such as airflow rate, temperature, pH, substrate concentration and other physico-chemical parameters on the production of specific metabolites.

  4. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  5. Influence of the supersymmetric bottom sector on Higgs production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Franziska

    2009-05-15

    This thesis introduces the concept of Supersymmetry in chapter 2. The parts relevant for our purposes of a phenomenological model of SUSY (MSSM) are presented in chapter 3. The regularization and renormalization with an emphasis on our calculations will be described in chapter 4. In chapter 5 the method of asymptotic expansions that is applied to the two-loop calculations performed in the context of this thesis is explained. After these introductory chapters, chapter 6 presents results for the lightest scalar and pseudoscalar MSSM Higgs bosons decaying into two photons. In particular, the results for the partial decay widths of the photonic Higgs decay are investigated in terms of analytic expressions for the leading terms in certain mass hierarchies and in terms of numerical graphs. We especially investigate the influence of top quarks and their superpartners vs. bottom quarks and their superpartners on the amplitude and the decay rate. The second main part of the results is presented in chapter 7. Those are the NLO-SQCD corrections to the production of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons in the gluon fusion process. Here, the bottom quarks and their superpartners have been included into the calculations as well. The thesis concludes with a summary and a short outlook. (orig.)

  6. Influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and glucobrassicin degradation products in sauerkraut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, Kalpana; Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Meske, Diana; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Heller, Knut J; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out on the influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and their degradation products from fresh raw cabbage, throughout fermentation at 20 °C and storage at 4 °C. Glucosinolates were degraded dramatically between Day 2 and 5 of fermentation and by Day 7 there was no detectable amount of glucosinolates left. Fermentation led to formation of potential bioactive compounds ascorbigen (13.0 μmol/100 g FW) and indole-3-carbinol (4.52 μmol/100g FW) with their higher concentrations from Day 5 to Day 9. However, during storage indole-3-carbinol slowly degraded to 0.68 μmol/100 g FW, while ascorbigen was relatively stable from Week 4 until Week 8 at 6.78 μmol/100 g FW. In contrast, the content of indole-3-acetonitrile decreased rapidly during fermentation from 3.6 to 0.14 μmol/100 g FW. The results imply a maximum of health beneficial compounds after fermentation (7-9 days) in contrast to raw cabbage or stored sauerkraut.

  7. Algae harvesting for biofuel production: influences of UV irradiation and polyethylenimine (PEI) coating on bacterial biocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakpe, Michael; Ge, Shijian; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xuezhi; Kobylarz, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    There is a pressing need to develop efficient and sustainable separation technologies to harvest algae for biofuel production. In this work, two bacterial species (Escherichia coli and Rhodococus sp.) were used as biocoagulants to harvest Chlorella zofingiensis and Scenedesmus dimorphus. The influences of UV irradiation and polyethylenimine (PEI)-coating on the algal harvesting efficiency were investigated. Results showed that the UV irradiation could slightly enhance bacteria-algae biocoagulation and algal harvesting efficiency. In contrast, the PEI-coated E. coli cells noticeably increased the harvesting efficiencies from 23% to 83% for S. dimorphus when compared to uncoated E. coli cells. Based on the soft-particle Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, an energy barrier existed between uncoated E. coli cells and algal cells, whereas the PEI coating on E. coli cells eliminated the energy barrier, thereby the biocoagulation was significantly improved. Overall, this work presented groundwork toward the potential use of bacterial biomass for algal harvesting from water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Beede, D K; Thatcher, W W; Israel, L A; Wilcox, C J

    1982-11-01

    Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with reduced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold stress has little effect on reproduction; in contrast, heat stress reduces libido, fertility, and embryonic survival in cattle. Heat stress in late gestation reduces fetal growth and alters endocrine status of the dam. Carryover effects of heat stress during late gestation on postpartum lactation and reproduction also are detectable. Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in roughage intake and rumination. Decreases in roughage intake contribute to decreased volatile fatty acid production and may contribute to alteration in ratio of acetate/propionate. Rumen pH also declines during thermal stress. Electrolyte concentrations, in particular sodium and potassium, also are reduced in rumen fluid of heat stressed cattle. The decrease in sodium and potassium are related to increases in loss of urinary sodium and loss of skin potassium as well as decline in plasma aldosterone and increase in plasma prolactin. Reduction in thyroxine, growth hormone, and glucocorticoid concentrations in chronically heat stressed cattle appear to be related to decreases in basal metabolism.

  9. Critical Influences on Carbon Balances and Production in the Man-made Montado Savanna of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J.; Tenhunen, J.; Dinh, N. Q.; Reichstein, M.; Ribeiro, N.

    2005-12-01

    The "montado savanna" of Portugal provides ecosystem services in the form of cork from Quercus suber trees and understory forage for grazing animals. The production system is controlled directly by physical factors along regional climate and hydrological gradients as well as by human influences on fire, grazing and tree population dynamics (planting and plowing for fire control). We present an analysis of carbon and water exchange at montado savanna sites that is based on long-term eddy covariance measurements, ecophysiological field studies and process-based modelling. A pixel-oriented model set up for spatial simulations, estimates gas fluxes between vegetation and the atmosphere separately for the tree and understory compartments (subsequently combining these), allows for herbage growth and LAI development, and predicts physiological gas exchange restrictions (stomatal regulation) and herb dieback in response to reduced water availability over annual courses. Model validation has been carried out via comparisons with eddy covariance observations at the MITRA II site in Evora, Portugal. Ground level observations of ecosystem structure (LAI and tree cover), aerial photography, Landsat images, and MODIS remotely sensed data are utilized to apply the modelling and to estimate fluxes at landscape, regional and continental scales (Mediterranean basin) for similar vegetation. Potential links to tree growth models and socio-economic models are discussed.

  10. Influence of gas-phase reactions on the product yields obtained in the pyrolysis of polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Nicolella, C.; Rovatti, M. [Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo G.B. Bonino

    1997-02-01

    The amount of plastic wastes is growing year after year, and the fraction of plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW) and in refuse-derived fuels (RDF) is progressively increasing. Pyrolysis and gasification processes appear to be promising routes for the upgrading of solid wastes to more usable and energy dense materials such as gas fuel and/or fuel oil or to high-value feedstocks for the chemical industry. The characterization of the product fractions obtained from the pyrolysis of polyethylene (PE) in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor was performed. The experimental system allowed quantitative information to be obtained on the global tar, char, and gas yields. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures ranging between 500 and 800 C. The influence of the residence times in the reactor of the primary volatiles generated by the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The secondary reactivity of the tar originated from PE pyrolysis was examined. A lumped-parameters approach was used in order to evaluate the global kinetic parameters for the gas-phase tar-cracking process. PE tars resulted to be more refractory to thermal decomposition than those obtained in the pyrolysis of biomass and lignocellulosic materials, but more reactive than tars obtained in the pyrolysis of coal.

  11. TMS reveals a direct influence of spinal projections from human SMAp on precise force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal (CS) system plays an important role in fine motor control, especially in precision grip tasks. Although the primary motor cortex (M1) is the main source of the CS projections, other projections have been found, especially from the supplementary motor area proper (SMAp). To study the characteristics of these CS projections from SMAp, we compared muscle responses of an intrinsic hand muscle (FDI) evoked by stimulation of human M1 and SMAp during an isometric static low-force control task. Subjects were instructed to maintain a small cursor on a target force curve by applying a pressure with their right precision grip on a force sensor. Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate either left M1 or left SMAp with equal induced electric field values at the defined cortical targets. The results show that the SMAp stimulation evokes reproducible muscle responses with similar latencies and amplitudes as M1 stimulation, and with a clear and significant shorter silent period. These results suggest that (i) CS projections from human SMAp are as rapid and efficient as those from M1, (ii) CS projections from SMAp are directly involved in control of the excitability of spinal motoneurons and (iii) SMAp has a different intracortical inhibitory circuitry. We conclude that human SMAp and M1 both have direct influence on force production during fine manual motor tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Study of the Influence of Key Process Parameters on Furfural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fele Žilnik, Ljudmila; Grilc, Viktor; Mirt, Ivan; Cerovečki, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of key process variables on the furfural formation from leached chestnut-wood chips in a pressurized reactor. Effect of temperature, pressure, type and concentration of the catalyst solution, the steam flow rate or stripping module, the moisture content of the wood particles and geometric characteristics such as size and type of the reactor, particle size and bed height were considered systematically. One stage process was only taken into consideration. Lab-scale and pilot-scale studies were performed. The results of the non-catalysed laboratory experiments were compared with an actual non-catalysed (auto-catalysed) industrial process and with experiments on the pilot scale, the latter with 28% higher furfural yield compared to the others. Application of sulphuric acid as catalyst, in an amount of 0.03-0.05 g (H2SO4 100%)/g d.m. (dry material), enables a higher production of furfural at lower temperature and pressure of steam in a shorter reaction time. Pilot scale catalysed experiments have revealed very good performance for furfural formation under less severe operating conditions, with a maximum furfural yield as much as 88% of the theoretical value.

  14. Influence of sound-conditioning on noise-induced susceptibility of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2015-07-01

    Cochlear damage caused by loud sounds can be attenuated by "sound-conditioning" methods. The amount of adaptation for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured in alert rabbits previously predicted an ear's susceptibility to a subsequent noise exposure. The present study investigated if sound-conditioning influenced the robustness of such DPOAE adaptation, and if such conditioning elicited more protection by increasing the amount of DPOAE adaptation. Toward this end, rabbits were divided into two study groups: (1) experimental animals exposed to a sound-conditioning protocol, and (2) unconditioned control animals. After base-line measures, all rabbits were exposed to an overstimulation paradigm consisting of an octave band noise, and then re-assessed 3 weeks post-exposure to determine permanent changes in DPOAEs. A major result was that prior sound-conditioning protected reductions in DPOAE levels by an average of 10-15 dB. However, DPOAE adaptation decreased with sound-conditioning, so that such conditioning was no longer related to noise-induced reductions in DPOAEs. Together, these findings suggest that sound-conditioning affected neural pathways other than those that likely mediate DPOAE adaptation (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent and/or middle-ear muscle reflexes).

  15. INFLUENCE OF AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE TO DEVELOPMENT OF DECARBONIZATION IN PRODUCTION OF ROLLED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARUSOV E. V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and current state of the problem. Common and undesirable defects in microstructures include surface decarburization which compromises the quality of HC wire rods hot-wound into coils (coil rod and performance of products made there from. Resistance of metal to alternating loads is determined by the depth of the decarburized layer, i.e. actual difference between surface microstructure and base metal structure. As we know [1, 2], for decarburization process to occur on the metal surface when heated in a furnace, the gaseous atmosphere shall not produce a very strong oxidizing effect. If the rate of oxidation is higher than that of carbon diffusion in steel, it enhances scale build-up whereby oxygen can oxidize both carbon and iron. Although decarburized layer is mostly deemed to be detrimental, it has been argued that decarburization of wire rod surface can be advantageous to useful qualities of wire rods. Soft decarburized surface ensures improved flextural (bending or torsional (twisting dictility of metal resulting from low sensitivity to stress concentration factors, high resistance to crack propagation and higher corrosion resistance [3]. Compressive residual stresses occurring in a decarburized skin improve the fatigue life and increase the durability of steel-wire ropes [4]. Wire rods with more pronounced surface decarburization are less likely to form the hardened structures (martensite in drawing operations due to surface cracking and cupping of the martensitic layer. However, in the process of cold drawing whereby metal is deformed by pulling wire rods through a serious of drawing dies (monolithic system, maximum stresses develop on the surface of rolled products[3–5]. Therefore uniform distribution of structure on the surface and in the boundary layers is essential. This means that minimum and uniform depth of decarburization on the metal surface is a prerequisite for the production of high-quality HC rolled stock [3–7

  16. Symbolic Meaning Integration in Design and its Influence on Product and Brand Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompay, van Thomas; Pruyn, Ad; Tieke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous research and theorizing in product design and consumer psychology testifies to the importance of congruence among symbolic meanings connoted through elements in visual communications such as advertisements, product appearance, and product packaging. However, understanding of the processes w

  17. Influence of consumption experiences on customers' satisfaction: an empirical study on fresh farm products in Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chuncheng; Zhang Juntao; Li Chongguang

    2007-01-01

    Which factors influence customers' satisfaction? Which way or path does each factor influence and decide customers' satisfaction? These problems are the focuses of the research on customers' satisfaction.This paper analyzes the survey data from some customers in the fresh farm food supermarket of Wuhan City with factor analysis method,multiple linear regression method,etc.The analysis results reveal that: 1) the consumption experiences decide customers ' satisfaction degree through influencing the customers' expectation and the perceived performance,namely the consumption experiences is the important factor which decides customers' satisfaction; 2) the consumption experiences that influence customers' satisfaction is a multi-dimensional construct,including such four dimensions as product consumption experience,service experience,shopping convenience experience,supermarket environment experience; furthermore,the degree that different consumption experiences influence customers' satisfaction is diverse,and the product consumption experiences are the most important factor.This paper is of realistic significance to a certain extent to enrich the theoretical research on customers' satisfaction and promote the practice of agricultural product marketing.

  18. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  19. The influence of body mass index on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, S.; Trajceska, L.; van Oeveren, W.; Smit, A. J.; Dzekova, P.; Stegmayr, B.; Sikole, A.; Rakhorst, G.; Graaff, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of skin autofluorescence (AF) at a given moment is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF is a measure of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of nutrition

  20. Second Language Perception and Production of English Regular Past Tense: L1 Influence in Phonology and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the influence from first language (L1) phonology and morphosyntax on second language (L2) production and perception of English regular past tense morphology. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.…

  1. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  2. INFLUENCE OF OSCILLATORY IMPACT ON MOVEMENT IN LIQUID AND GRINDING OF WOOD PULP USED FOR PACKAGING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates an influence of oscillatory impacts on wood pulp grinding which is used for packaging production.It has been established that plate oscillatory impact promotes better quality of the obtained paper sheet made of grind plant fiber.

  3. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  4. Plant species richness, identity and productivity differentially influence key groups of microbes in grassland soils of contrasting fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Quirk, H.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of microbes in soil is thought to be strongly influenced by plant productivity rather than by plant species richness per se. However, whether this holds true for different microbial groups and under different soil conditions is unresolved. We tested how plant species richness, identity

  5. Plant species richness, identity and productivity differentially influence key groups of microbes in grassland soils of contrasting fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Quirk, H.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of microbes in soil is thought to be strongly influenced by plant productivity rather than by plant species richness per se. However, whether this holds true for different microbial groups and under different soil conditions is unresolved. We tested how plant species richness, identity

  6. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  7. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  8. The Influence of New Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption: Increasing Student Comprehension with the "Bidding for Buyers" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The five characteristics that influence new product rate of adoption are routinely covered in the Principles of Marketing course. Any particular marketing concept such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability may not capture interest or engagement among students who take the course as a graduation…

  9. The influence of body mass index on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, S.; Trajceska, L.; van Oeveren, W.; Smit, A. J.; Dzekova, P.; Stegmayr, B.; Sikole, A.; Rakhorst, G.; Graaff, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of skin autofluorescence (AF) at a given moment is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF is a measure of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of nutrition

  10. Outdoor pilot-scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana: influence of culture parameters and lipid production rates in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, A; González-López, C V; Acién, F G; Molina-Grima, E

    2014-10-01

    This work studied outdoor pilot scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana in tubular photobioreactors. The growth and biomass composition of the strain were studied under different culture strategies: continuous-mode (varying nutrient supply and dilution rate) and two-stage cultures aiming lipid enhancement. Besides, parameters such as irradiance, specific nitrate input and dilution rate were used to obtain models predicting growth, lipid and fatty acids production rates. The range of optimum dilution rate was 0.31-0.351/day with maximum biomass, lipid and fatty acids productivities of 590, 110 and 66.8 mg/l day, respectively. Nitrate limitation led to an increase in lipid and fatty acids contents (from 20.5% to 38.0% and from 16.9% to 23.5%, respectively). Two-stage culture strategy provided similar fatty acids productivities (56.4 mg/l day) but the neutral lipids content was doubled.

  11. Influence of Cultivation and Cropping Systems on Production of Soil Sediment on Agricultural Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poposka, Hristina; Mukaetov, Dusko

    2017-04-01

    Soil conservation practices and in particular soil tillage and crop cultivation patterns are becoming an important issue in agricultural production. Combating soil erosion and diminishing its negative impact on agricultural soil imposes as a matter of vital interest which gained even greater significance, in a pronounced negative impact of climate change. Main objective of the three-year research and monitoring program was to evaluate the effects of the easy-to-use adaptive measures on intensity of soil erosion, and soil properties considering to be of crucial importance on run-off velocity and sediment loss, like: soil structure stability, soil infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil moisture conservation. The influence of soil tillage practices and different cropping systems on soil intensity and sediment loss, has been monitored on specially designed soil erosion fields with standard dimensions (20m length x 4m. width), on a sloppy terrain (12% slope). The experimental field is located on heavily textured Chromic cambisol on saprolite. This is the predominant soil type on the sloppy terrains in the country, usually under intensive agricultural activities Soil texture and physical characteristics were thoroughly investigated in order to determine the base soil conditions. The influence of downslope and contour ploughing on quantity of eroded sediment has been monitored in three consecutive years. The eroded sediment has been collected periodically on a weekly base and after intensive rainfalls. The intensity of soil erosion under most widespread cropping systems in the country, like: a) cereals as a monoculture, b) crop rotation, and c) perennial grass, was monitored as well. The collected sediment was examined in order to determine the quantity of soil organic matter and nutrient loss (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Soil chemical properties are examined after each vegetative season in order to quantify the effect of tillage and cropping systems on

  12. Influence of product innovations on financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this article is to determine possible effect of product innovations on the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The pilot research has been realized on the statistical sample of 100 companies which were categorized into three basic groups; service companies, trade companies, and production companies. As the measure of innovation effect, the authors applied the deviation of production power, i.e. the ration of EBIT to assets, of a business entity from the industry average while the industry average of production power was selected especially in order to reduce the influence of the economy cycles. In the three categories of companies, different effects of product innovations have been observed. In the service companies and trade companies, the positive effect is limited because of potential simplicity of imitation by competitors. More positive effect of product innovations has been observed in production companies which can protect the products or production processes better then service companies or trade companies where the product innovations are mostly connected with extension of extension of services portfolio offered. For the conclusion, the authors provide suppositions and designs for their future research in this problem of innovations’ effectiveness measurement.

  13. The Influence of Ecological and Conventional Plant Production Systems on Soil Microbial Quality under Hops (Humulus lupulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Oszust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about microorganisms—activity and diversity under hop production is still limited. We assumed that, different systems of hop production (within the same soil and climatic conditions significantly influence on the composition of soil microbial populations and its functional activity (metabolic potential. Therefore, we compared a set of soil microbial properties in the field experiment of two hop production systems (a ecological based on the use of probiotic preparations and organic fertilization (b conventional—with the use of chemical pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Soil analyses included following microbial properties: The total number microorganisms, a bunch of soil enzyme activities, the catabolic potential was also assessed following Biolog EcoPlates®. Moreover, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA was characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP of PCR ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit (amoA gene products. Conventional and ecological systems of hop production were able to affect soil microbial state in different seasonal manner. Favorable effect on soil microbial activity met under ecological, was more probably due to livestock-based manure and fermented plant extracts application. No negative influence on conventional hopyard soil was revealed. Both type of production fulfilled fertilizing demands. Under ecological production it was due to livestock-based manure fertilizers and fermented plant extracts application.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Influence Factors on Distribution Efficiency of Agricultural Products: A Case Study using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeping Chu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence factors on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. Distribution efficiency of agricultural product directly reflects the efficiency of agricultural distribution system. The output and cost in the process of agricultural distribution can be accessed by distribution efficiency. Much work has been done to measured distribution efficiency by single indicator but little work has been done to investigate the multiply indicators and their impacts on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. Hence, for the first time, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been used to assess the influence of multiply indicators on the distribution efficiency of agricultural products. A case study using the historical data has been carried out. The empirical analysis results show that the level of informatization and logistics infrastructure greatly influence the distribution efficiency of agricultural products while the Logistics transportation and the professional level of labors do not promote the efficiency of agricultural distribution system. Hence, useful suggestions could be proposed to provide theoretical reference for the construction of robust and efficient agricultural distribution system.

  15. The Influence of Chemical Fertilizers over the Conent and Production of Rapeseed Oil under Mures County Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the experts are paying a higher attention to the agricultural plants, whose seeds are characterized by a high fat content, this mainly having as a purpose to respect the obligations that our country has through EU Directive 2003/30/EG. Thus in Mures County have been experimented on different spring rape crops, fertilized with different doses of chemical fertilizers, aiming at their influence on seed oil content and hence oil production per unit area. Research has revealed that the cultivated varieties of rapeseed (Heros, Bolero, Amica had an oil content of between 46.1%(N60P0K0 and 48.4%(N90P90K90 and organic production of oil is influenced more than seed production, averaged over the three years of research, being the highest(815.3 kg, fertilization with N90P90K90(54.7% increase.

  16. Influences of three-dimensional printing to product innovation design thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Ling; Wang Xu; Guo Ping

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand of individuation brings new challenges to traditional product design. This paper studies and analyzes three-dimensional print technology promotes the future development of product innovation design. The advantages of 3D printing equipment can help creative products enterprises shorten product manufacturing period and make them powerful in competition.

  17. Influences of three-dimensional printing to product innovation design thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of individuation brings new challenges to traditional product design. This paper studies and analyzes three-dimensional print technology promotes the future development of product innovation design. The advantages of 3D printing equipment can help creative products enterprises shorten product manufacturing period and make them powerful in competition.

  18. Production model in the conditions of unstable demand taking into account the influence of trading infrastructure: Ergodicity and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrosova, N. K.; Shananin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    A production model with allowance for a working capital deficit and a restricted maximum possible sales volume is proposed and analyzed. The study is motivated by an attempt to analyze the problems of functioning of low competitive macroeconomic structures. The model is formalized in the form of a Bellman equation, for which a closed-form solution is found. The stochastic process of product stock variations is proved to be ergodic and its final probability distribution is found. Expressions for the average production load and the average product stock are found by analyzing the stochastic process. A system of model equations relating the model variables to official statistical parameters is derived. The model is identified using data from the Fiat and KAMAZ companies. The influence of the credit interest rate on the firm market value assessment and the production load level are analyzed using comparative statics methods.

  19. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  20. Influence of rapeseed meal on productivity and health of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjecić, Z; Grbesa, D; Muzic, S; Curić, S; Rupić, V; Liker, B; Dikić, Marija; Antunović, B; Zupanić, D

    2002-01-01

    Research was focussed on investigating the influence of different quantities (0, 10, 20 and 30%) of rapeseed meal (RM), 00-cultivar Silvia on production results, as well as on the morphological and pathohistological changes in the internal organs of chicks during the course of the experiment, measured on the 21st and 42nd days of the 42-day experiment. The experiment involved 120 chicks divided into four groups: a control group (C) and three experimental groups (E1-3). It was found that chicks in Groups C, E1 and E2 realised significantly (P days, but following the finisher diet Group E3 had a significantly (P < 0.05) lighter gizzard. Compared with birds in Group C, those in Groups E2-3 had significantly heavier (P < 0.05) unevacuated intestines when fed the starter diet, and those in Groups E1-2 showed a similar result when fed the finisher diet. Chicks in Group E3 had a significantly lower grill weight than those in Groups C, E1 and E2, both in the first half of the experiment and at the end. The starter diet did not result in any differences in the quantity of abdominal fat among groups, but following the finisher diet Groups E2-3 showed significantly less abdominal fat in comparison to Groups C and E1 (P < 0.05). Group C showed a significantly higher carcass yield than Groups E1-3 (P < 0.05) in the first half of the experiment and at the end. Groups E1-3 manifested a slight to medium hypertrophy of thyroid epithelial tissue as well as slight thymus hypertrophy and slight atrophy of the cloacal bursa follicles.

  1. Influence of Climate, Variety and Production Process on Tocopherols, Plastochromanol-8 and Pigments in Flaxseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Škevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the influence of genotype, environmental conditions and processing methods after maturation and harvesting of four varieties of flaxseed (Altess, Biltstar, Niagara and Oliwin on the levels of tocochromanols, carotenoids and chlorophyll in flaxseed oil. Samples were produced by cold pressing of dry seeds and seeds heated for 30 min at 60 °C. Temperature, sunshine and rainfall were primary environmental conditions included. Grand mean of mass fraction of γ-tocopherol was (522±29, of plastochromanol-8 (305±2 and total tocochromanols (831±3 mg per kg of oil. The highest levels of these compounds and strongest antioxidant activity were found in cold-pressed oil of Biltstar variety. During seed maturation, levels of γ-tocopherol and plastochromanol-8 increased with average temperature and total sunshine and decreased with total rainfall. Fifth week after flowering was identified as the maturation period with best climate conditions to achieve optimal tocochromanol content. Grand mean of mass fraction of carotenoids expressed as β-carotene was (1.83±0.01 and of chlorophyll expressed as pheophytin a (0.43±0.10 mg per kg of oil. Altess variety had the highest levels of pigments. Antioxidant activity decreased with the increase of chlorophyll, while correlations with carotenoids were not determined. Generally, oil obtained by cold pressing had higher levels of tocochromanols and lower levels of pigments but similar antioxidant activity to the oil after seed conditioning. The results of this study contribute to identifying the flaxseed variety that is the best for oil production with the highest antioxidant activity and nutritive value, and provide better understanding of tocochromanol biosynthesis depending on different climate conditions.

  2. Cliff-nesting seabirds influence production and sediment chemistry of lakes situated above their colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, K E; Michelutti, N; Coleman, K; Grooms, C; Blais, J M; Kimpe, L E; Gilchrist, G; Mallory, M; Smol, J P

    2017-01-15

    Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we assess the degree to which seabird nutrients and metals have been delivered to coastal lakes near Hudson Strait (Nunavut, Canada) over the past century. Three lakes located at a higher elevation and increasing distance from a thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) colony (~400,000 breeding pairs) were sampled for surface water chemistry. In addition, algal assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and metal/metalloids were analyzed in four dated sediment cores. Elevated nutrients and major ions, as well as an enriched δ(15)N signature in the sediment cores, were measured in the lake lakes >1km from the seabird colony. In contrast, similar oligotrophic and benthic diatom assemblages were identified in all three lakes, suggesting that diatoms were not influenced by enhanced nutrient inputs in this Arctic environment. Chemical tracers (e.g., total mercury) and algal assemblages in the lake near the colony suggest climate warming since ~1950 was the most likely driver of limnological changes, but this effect was muted in the more distant lakes. These pronounced changes in the seabird-impacted lake suggest that, with warming air temperatures and diminished lake ice cover, longer growing seasons may allow for aquatic organisms to more fully exploit the seabird nutrient subsidies.

  3. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  4. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P; Fiori, Pier L

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host.

  5. Factors That Influence Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production: A Case of Small Holder Sorghum Producers in Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaline Chepng’etich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the rural households in Kenya depend on agriculture as a source of food and livelihood. Agricultural productivity has been declining due to many factors resulting in increased food insecurity in the country. Consequently, there is a renewed interest in promoting drought-tolerant crops such as sorghum which thrives in the arid and semiarid lands of the developing world. However, performance of sorghum production among the smallholder farmers has still remained low. This study was thus carried out to identify factors that influence technical efficiency of sorghum production among smallholder farmers in Machakos and Makindu districts of the lower eastern Kenya. Collected data on farm and farmer characteristics were analysed by use of descriptive statistics and Tobit model. Result highlights show that technical efficiency was influenced positively by formal education level of the household, experience in sorghum farming, membership in farmers associations, use of hired labour, production advice, and use of manure. Surprisingly household size, meant to enhance labour, had a negative influence. To increase technical efficiency, efforts should focus on improving information flows on agronomic practices. Farmers should also be encouraged to form and actively participate in various farmers associations, which enhance learning and pooling of labour resources, hence improving technical efficiency.

  6. The influence of winter convection on primary production: A parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosse, Fabian; Lindemann, Christian; Pätch, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    convection cells capture living phytoplankton cells and recurrently expose them to sunlight. This study presents a parameterisation alled ‘phytoconvection’which focusses on the influence of convection on primary production. This parameterisationwas implemented into a three-dimensional physical–biogeochemical...... model and applied to the Northwestern European Continental Shelf and areas of the adjacent Northeast Atlantic. The simulation was compared to a ‘conventional’ parameterisation with respect to its influence on phytoplankton concentrations during the annual cycle and its effect on the carbon cycle...

  7. Seed production and recruitment in primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests: Influence of regional climate and years after cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D. Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Harvesting proposals (e.g. variable retention for Nothofagus pumilio forests are based on canopy opening, to increase recruitment and enhance seedling growth, by modifying light and soil moisture. Seed production and seedling recruitment will define the success of harvesting, where remnant forest structure are the main influence factors, as well as biotic and abiotic factors. The objective was to analyse seed production, seedling recruitment and recruitment efficiency in primary and harvested forests through variable retention along the first 10 years after harvesting, as well as the influence of regional climate. Area of study: The study were conducted in a pure Nothofagus pumilio forest located in central Tierra del Fuego (54°18’ S, 67°49’ W, where harvested stands with variable retention and unmanaged forests were sampled in long-term permanent plots. Material and methods: Data of forest regeneration plots were used (n = 72 (2007 a 2014, and forest structure and seed production (2006 a 2013 were also measured. Regional climate was characterised for these years from satellite images (Sea Surface Temperature and climate re-analysis models (rainfall and temperature of land surface. Main results: Harvesting modified forest structure; however, aggregated retention maintained some characteristics of the primary unmanaged forests. These changes influenced seed production and recruitment. Seed production and recruitment were related to crown cover and the amount of seed production; however, recruitment efficiency was not affected by harvesting. The studied variables significantly changed along the years after harvesting. Seed production and recruitment were also related to regional climate factors, where it was possible to explain their variations through temperature (e.g. summer temperature and rainfall (e.g. winter rainfall for the different retention types in harvested forests and the primary forests. Research highlights

  8. Influence of Different Container Closure Systems and Capping Process Parameters on Product Quality and Container Closure Integrity (CCI) in GMP Drug Product Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Huwyler, Joerg; Eder, Juergen; Fritsch, Kamila; Posset, Tobias; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Capping equipment used in good manufacturing practice manufacturing features different designs and a variety of adjustable process parameters. The overall capping result is a complex interplay of the different capping process parameters and is insufficiently described in literature. It remains poorly studied how the different capping equipment designs and capping equipment process parameters (e.g., pre-compression force, capping plate height, turntable rotating speed) contribute to the final residual seal force of a sealed container closure system and its relation to container closure integrity and other drug product quality parameters. Stopper compression measured by computer tomography correlated to residual seal force measurements.In our studies, we used different container closure system configurations from different good manufacturing practice drug product fill & finish facilities to investigate the influence of differences in primary packaging, that is, vial size and rubber stopper design on the capping process and the capped drug product. In addition, we compared two large-scale good manufacturing practice manufacturing capping equipment and different capping equipment settings and their impact on product quality and integrity, as determined by residual seal force.The capping plate to plunger distance had a major influence on the obtained residual seal force values of a sealed vial, whereas the capping pre-compression force and the turntable rotation speed showed only a minor influence on the residual seal force of a sealed vial. Capping process parameters could not easily be transferred from capping equipment of different manufacturers. However, the residual seal force tester did provide a valuable tool to compare capping performance of different capping equipment. No vial showed any leakage greater than 10(-8)mbar L/s as measured by a helium mass spectrometry system, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted in the residual seal force range

  9. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...... in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  10. The green entrepreneur's challenge: the influence of environmental ambition in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berchicci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies dealing with environmental issues in New Product Development have made significant progress explaining how firms can develop greener new products that succeed in the market and Environmental New Product Development (ENPD) has become a wide-spread practice within an increasing number of firms

  11. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Technical Barriers on Information Product Exports Based on the Fuzzy AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuyingWu; NaLi

    2004-01-01

    To the actual situation of TBT impacting information product and according to the concept of the triangular fuzzy number, this paper forms the fuzzy matrix of factors of impacting export of information product, then uses the fuzzy AHP to analyze and rate factors. We put forward suggestions on how to keep away and surpass the technical barriers to trade in the information product enterprises.

  12. Further studies of oxidation processes on filter surfaces: Evidence for oxidation products and the influence of time in service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    understanding of such processes. The measured ratio of downstream to upstream submicron particle concentrations increased when ozone was added to air passing through samples from loaded particle filters. Such an observation is consistent with low volatility oxidation products desorbing from the filter......The sensory pollutants emitted by loaded ventilation filters are assumed to include products formed via oxidation of organics associated with captured particles. In this study, experiments were performed that used either particle production or ozone removal as probes to further improve our...... efficiencies than an identical filter not protected from ozone during the same 9 weeks of service filtering the same air. This result indicates that a filter's exposure history subsequently influences the quantity of oxidation products generated when ozone-containing air flows through it. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd...

  13. Influence of non-economic factors in the use of personal care products: the case of male Peruvian consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Regalado Pezúa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the supply of male personal care products and services has increased considerably on a global scale. In the case of the Peruvian market, this phenomenon is still incipient despite a favorable economic outlook that has boosted the consumption in different categories. This research identifies factors that influence the consumption decision of this kind of products for the male segment. To do this, the authors used the Theory of Planned Behavior of Ajzen. The results show that male consumers´ perception of his environment (subjective norm restrains the intention of consumption of personal care products, even though the male consumer has a positive attitude toward using of these products. These factors would reflect the existence of deeply rooted taboos in Peruvian culture, based on a traditional view of man.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT QUALITY , PRICE PERCEPTION AND BRAND IMAGE ON SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY HOLCIM CONCRETE READYMIX IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Budiastari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find a picture of the effect of product quality , price perception and brand image on satisfaction and customer loyalty ready mix concrete in Jakarta . This research is a quantitative study with descriptive and causal methods undertaken at Holcim Beton in 2013 with a sample of 100 customers in Jakarta and its surrounding the industrial and commercial segments project . Data collection by questionnaire respondents and analyzed using path analysis with SPSS version 20.0. The results of the study concluded that ( 1 product quality does not effect to customer satisfaction ( 2 Perception price positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, ( 3 Brand Image does not have an influence on customer satisfaction, ( 4 all independent variables , quality of products , Perception price and a positive brand image and significant consequences for the dependent variable Customer satisfaction, with the value of determination of 50%, while 50% are influenced by other variables ( 5 Product Quality and significant effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 6 Perceived Price does not effect on loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 7 brand image have effect and siginikan loyalty through customer satisfaction, ( 8 Dependent variable of product quality , price perception and brand image together and significant effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction, with value of determination of 77.4 %, and 22.6 % are influenced by other factors. The findings recommend that Holcim aims to improve product quality , perceived price and brand image to increase loyalty through customer satisfaction . It is also recommended to Holcim for increase of services and information to customers in order for increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  15. Influence of pH and temperature on alunite dissolution rates and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Patricia; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is one of the main elements in most mining-affected environments, where it may influence the mobility of other elements and play a key role on pH buffering. Moreover, high concentrations of Al can have severe effects on ecosystems and humans; Al intake, for example, has been implicated in neurological pathologies (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; Flaten, 2001). The behaviour of Al in mining-affected environments is commonly determined, at least partially, by the dissolution of Al sulphate minerals and particularly by the dissolution of alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), which is one of the most important and ubiquitous Al sulphates in mining-affected environments (Nordstrom, 2011). The presence of alunite has been described in other acid sulphate environments, including some soils (Prietzel & Hirsch, 1998) and on the surface of Mars (Swayze et al., 2008). Despite the important role of alunite, its dissolution rates and products, and their controlling factors under conditions similar to those found in these environments, remain largely unknown. In this work, batch dissolution experiments have been carried out in order to shed light on the rates, products and controlling factors of alunite dissolution under different pH conditions (between 3 and 8) and temperatures (between 279 and 313K) similar to those encountered in natural systems. The obtained initial dissolution rates using synthetic alunite, based on the evolution of K concentrations, are between 10-9.7 and 10-10.9 mol-m-2-s-1, with the lowest rates obtained at around pH 4.8, and increases in the rates recorded with both increases and decreases in pH. Increases of temperature in the studied range also cause increases in the dissolution rates. The dissolution of alunite dissolution is incongruent, as has been reported for jarosite (isostructural with alunite) by Welch et al. (2008). Compared with the stoichiometric ratio in the bulk alunite (Al/K=3), K tends to be released to the solution preferentially over Al

  16. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was shown to be inferior to ammonia as a nitrogen source. A mixture of ammonia and complex nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract or casein hydrolysate, was better than with ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Even a low concentration of casein hydrolysate (0.05 g l(-1)) resulted in a 35% increase......The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate...

  17. Modelling the influence of changing climate in present and future marine eutrophication impacts from spring barley production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate concentration and runoff are site-specific and driven by climatic factors and crop management. As such, nitrate emissions may increase in the future due to climate change, affecting the marine eutrophication mechanism. In this context, and considering the case of spring barley production...... of different normalisation references when comparing future Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) scenarios with current production systems. A parameterised characterisation model was developed to gauge the influence of future climatic-driven pressures on the marine eutrophication impact pathway. Spatial differentiation...

  18. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...... investigated. The paper reviews brand-centric and consumer-centric research and identifies twelve brand variables that may influence the relationship potential of consumer product brands. A research agenda is suggested and a number of issues that needs to be resolved before empirical research can be carried...... out are discussed. The paper concludes by speculating on possible outcomes in future empirical studies and it is suggested that multiple brand variables will have to be employed to evaluate the relationship potential of brands....

  19. The influence of winter convection on primary production: a parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    CERN Document Server

    Große, Fabian; Pätsch, Johannes; Backhaus, Jan O

    2014-01-01

    In the recent past observational and modelling studies have shown that the vertical displacement of water parcels, and therefore, phytoplankton particles in regions of deep-reaching convection plays a key role in late winter/early spring primary production. The underlying mechanism describes how convection cells capture living phytoplankton cells and recurrently expose them to sunlight. This study presents a parameterisation called `phytoconvection' which focuses on the influence of convection on primary production. This parameterisation was implemented into a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model and applied to the Northwestern European Continental Shelf and areas of the adjacent Northeast Atlantic. The simulation was compared to a `conventional' parameterisation with respect to its influence on phytoplankton concentrations during the annual cycle and its effect on the carbon cycle. The simulation using the new parameterisation showed good agreement with observation data recorded during winter, whe...

  20. The influence of the pentose's pathway of the Clostridium Acetobutylicum on the production of butanol: Insights from mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rafael Ferreira; da Silva, Fabrício Alves Barbosa; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ramos; Caffarena, Ernesto Raul

    2016-12-01

    This work is a pilot study for further analysis of the organism Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and the influences of the Pentose's Pathway on the parasite Clostridium acetobutylicum, already cataloged in the database of OptFlux program. We used the approach parcimonius Flux Balance Analysis (pFBA) to simulate the wild type organism and the mutant with an inhibition of the R_01056 reaction in pentose's pathway. Results showed a reduction of approximately 1/3 of the biomass and 2/3 of the butanol production. This reduction shows the direct influence of the Pentose's Pathway on the primary production of metabolites and the biomass generation from the Clostridium metabolites. This information prompted us to build in the future an SBML parameter file to represent the flow of T.cruzi pathways, which will be essential for the development of new drugs against.

  1. Analysis and modelling of predation on biofilm activated sludge process: Influence on microbial distribution, sludge production and nutrient dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-11-01

    The influence of predation on the biofilm activated sludge (BAS) process is studied using a unified model that incorporates hydrolysis and predation phenomena into the two stages of the BAS system: moving bed biofilm reactor pre-treatment (bacterial-predator stage) and activated sludge (predator stage). The unified model adequately describes the experimental results obtained in a cellulose and viscose full-scale wastewater plant and has been used to evaluate the role and contribution of predator microorganisms towards removal of COD, nutrient requirements, sludge production and microbial distribution. The results indicate that predation is the main factor responsible for the reduction of both nutrient requirements and sludge production. Furthermore, increasing the sludge retention time (SRT) does not influence the total biomass content in the AS reactor of a BAS process in two different industrial wastewater treatments.

  2. Analyzing the Influence of Customers’ Perception of Marketing Mix on Brand Equity: The Case of Razavi Nutritive Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Doaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since enhancement of the suitable and competitive position through consumer loyalty is of high importance, in this paper, brand equity as an effective element in achieving the mentioned position has been studied. Analysis of data has been done using structural equation modeling and PLS software. Statistical population includes customers of Razavi Nutritive Products in the city of Mashhad, and non random sampling has been used. The questionnaire developed by Chen (2007 has been used for data collection. Findings imply that the customer’s perception of marketing mix has positive and meaningful influence on brand equity; also its indirect influence has been ratified via features of purchase. Respectively, offering products with better prices, good image, widespread advertising and on time distribution in stores lead to better customer perception of brand equity, which in turn results in increase of frequency and amount of purchase and improvement of brand equity.

  3. Analyzing the Influence of Customers’ Perception of Marketing Mix on Brand Equity: The Case of Razavi Nutritive Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Doaei

    2011-09-01

    Since enhancement of the suitable and competitive position through consumer loyalty is of high importance, in this paper, brand equity as an effective element in achieving the mentioned position has been studied. Analysis of data has been done using structural equation modeling and PLS software. Statistical population includes customers of Razavi Nutritive Products in the city of Mashhad, and non random sampling has been used. The questionnaire developed by Chen (2007 has been used for data collection. Findings imply that the customer’s perception of marketing mix has positive and meaningful influence on brand equity also its indirect influence has been ratified via features of purchase. Respectively, offering products with better prices, good image, widespread advertising and on time distribution in stores lead to better customer perception of brand equity, which in turn results in increase of frequency and amount of purchase and improvement of brand equity.

  4. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed.

  5. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina. Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU. Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45% when compared with control (44.9% as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N when compared with control (2.304 N, and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta.

  6. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Interactions in New Product Development: how the nature of the NPD process influences interaction between teams and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2013-01-01

    Effective interaction across organisational boundaries is a critical success factor in new product development (NPD). However, few studies have investigated how different mechanisms enable effective interaction across organisational and particularly hierarchical boundaries. This study explores how...... the formality of the NPD process influences the nature of interactions across different organisational boundaries and specifically identifies interaction mechanisms used across hierarchical boundaries. Cross-sectional interviews were conducted in nine firms. Findings highlight that in firms with a formalised...

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR RELATING TO THE PURCHASE OF HONEY PART 2. PRODUCT QUALITY AND PACKAGING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Roman; Ewa Popiela-Pleban; Maria Kozak; Katarzyna Roman

    2013-01-01

    .... The second aim was to determine the importance of the aesthetic factors of honey and its packaging in the process of influencing consumer behavior related to the purchase of honey. As many as 78...

  9. Forage choice in pasturelands: influence on cattle foraging behavior and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined if trinary combinations of plants led to complementary relationships that influenced animal behavior and performance over combinations of lower diversity (monocultures). Grazing bouts, behavioral levels of activity, blood urea nitrogen, chemical composition of feces, body weight, and h...

  10. Influence of microwave heating on biogas production from Sida hermaphrodita silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the effects on biogas production of suspended sludge versus a combination of suspended sludge and immobilized biomass, and microwave versus convection heating. Biogas production was the highest in the hybrid bioreactor heated by microwaves (385L/kg VS) and also the most stable, as shown by the FOS/TAC ratio and pH. Regardless of the type of heating, biogas production was 8% higher with immobilized biomass than without. Although the lag phase of biogas production was shorter with microwave heating than without, the log phase was longer, and biogas production in the microwave heated bioreactors took about twice as long (ca. 40days) to plateau as in the conventionally heated bioreactors. These differences in the profile of biogas production are likely due to the athermal effects of microwave irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of colours on the purchase decision making process when developing sustainable products

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Jurič; Dijana Vuković; Branka Šuput

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times human beings have been surrounded by colours and their influences on every aspect of their daily life. Consciously or subconsciously they have used colours to communicate with each other, to project the image of themselves to the others or in order to decorate their environment, to feed themselves and to produce the general feeling of comfort. The aim was to carry out consumer behaviour research on a random sample of 200 respondents about the influence of colours on the de...

  12. Influence of high osmotic pressure on sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Alessandra Vignoli; Marcia Luciana Cazetta; Rui Sérgio Santos Silva; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the variation on the sorbitol production in relation to the concentration of sugars, (metabolizable or not) and the cultivation time. A full factorial design was used considering the factors such as sucrose and maltose concentration and cultivation time. The addition of sugars caused increases on the sorbitol production up to the concentration of 300g/L however, decreases on the sorbitol production were observed when the concentration reached val...

  13. Actuality and Influencing Factors of Integrated Production Capacity of Foodstuff in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hui-qiu; Zhang De-hua

    2012-01-01

    Heilongjiang Province is an important marketable grain depot in China. Since the reform and opening up, Heilongjiang Province production capacity of foodstuff is increasingly growing into a new level. This paper started with the actuality of Heilongjiang Province integrated production capacity of foodstuff, and analyzed its major factors empirically through the mathematical model, then proposed some measures to enhance Heilongjiang Province production capacity of foodstuff which ensured China foodstuff security

  14. Influence of productivity on the stability of real and model ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.C. (Univ. of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO (United States)); Ruiter, P.C. de (DLO-Institute for Soil Fertility Research, Groningen (Netherlands)); Hunt, H.W. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

    1993-08-13

    The lengths of food chains within ecosystems have been thought to be limited either by the productivity of the ecosystem or by the resilience of that ecosystem after perturbation. Models based on ecological energetics that follow the form of Lotka-Volterra equations and equations that include material (detritus) recycling show that productivity and resilience are inextricably interrelated. The models were initialized with data from 5- to 10-year studies of actual soil food webs. Estimates indicate that most ecological production worldwide is from ecosystems that are themselves sufficiently productive to recover from minor perturbations.

  15. Influence of Deferred Grazing on Vegetation Dynamics and Livestock Productivity in an Andean Pastoral System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lita P. Buttolph; D. Layne Coppock

    2004-01-01

    1. Management recommendations intended to reduce rangeland degradation and increase livestock productivity often assume equilibrium conditions wherein vegetation and herbivore dynamics are tightly coupled...

  16. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  17. Fermentative Hydrogen Production: Influence of Application of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria on Mass and Energy Balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foglia, D.; Wukovits, W.; Friedl, A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of biomass residues and second generation biomasses is a possible way to enable a sustainable production of hydrogen. The HYVOLUTION-project investigates the production of hydrogen by a 2-stage fermentation process of biomass. It consists of a dark fermentation step of sugars to produce

  18. Influence of operating parameters on product size obtained from an EVT No. 35 test mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthwick, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The broad objective is to undertake fundamental studies into the milling and drying of brown coal to obtain sufficient understanding of the processes involved to enable existing and proposed mill designs to be assessed and improved. The objective of the work reported here is to determine the effect of operating parameters and product moisture content on product size in a small scale EVT mill.

  19. Fermentative Hydrogen Production: Influence of Application of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria on Mass and Energy Balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foglia, D.; Wukovits, W.; Friedl, A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of biomass residues and second generation biomasses is a possible way to enable a sustainable production of hydrogen. The HYVOLUTION-project investigates the production of hydrogen by a 2-stage fermentation process of biomass. It consists of a dark fermentation step of sugars to produce

  20. The commoditization of consumer electronics products and its influence on packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional purpose of packaging for consumer electronics (CE) products was to get them in one piece from the factory to the consumers home. It was purely focused on the physical distribution. In that time, buying a CE product could be considered a major family investment. However, times have ch

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASING DECISIONS FOR TRADITIONAL AND REGIONAL PRODUCTS AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE PODKARPACIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the factors determining the choice of traditional and regional products by Podkarpacie residents. The surveyed consumers found the quality as the most important trait that encourages the purchase of traditional and regional products. The price has an important impact on decision in terms of purchase.

  2. Fast pyrolysis of biomass : an experimental study on mechanisms influencing yield and composition of the products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil originating from biomass has the potential to replace ‘crude fossil oil’ and to produce fuels and chemicals in a more sustainable way. The favorable perspective of fast pyrolysis as biomass pre-treatment step is directly related to the production of a liquid as main product and the sig

  3. The molecular organisation in starch based products : the influence of polyols used as a plasticisers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Angela Leonarda Maria

    2002-01-01

    Ageing causes retrogradation or recrystallisation of starch, which leads to staling of food products and embrittlement of non-food starch products. Some plasticisers are known to reduce retrogradation, but it is not clear how. In chapter 1, an overview is given of the present knowledge of starch. I

  4. Total Factor Evaluation and Influencing Factor Analysis about Arable Land Productivity In Kaifeng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongying HUANG; Liutao LIANG

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses DEA and Malmquist index to analyze the changes in arable land productivity in Kaifeng City during 2003- 2012.The results show that during 2003- 2011,Kaifeng’s arable land productivity was inefficient in DEA-terms,indicating that the production resources were not rationally used; in 2012,Kaifeng’s arable land productivity was efficient in DEA-terms,indicating that the ratio of input to output in 2012 was optimal; with the lapse of time,the Malmquist total factor productivity showed a trend of " increase-decrease-increase-decrease-increase",and the average technical efficiency was greater than 1,indicating that the agricultural production technology continues to advance. Using Tobit model,we analyze the factors that affect arable land productivity,and results show that the number of large and medium tractors and policy dummy variable have a significantly positive impact,while grain sown area has a significantly negative impact. Therefore,in order to improve arable land productivity in Kaifeng City,it is necessary to adhere to long-term stable agricultural support policy,improve the technological level of new agricultural modernization,increase investment in agricultural science and technology,and expand the sown area of cash crops.

  5. The molecular organisation in starch based products : the influence of polyols used as a plasticisers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Angela Leonarda Maria

    2001-01-01

    Ageing causes retrogradation or recrystallisation of starch, which leads to staling of food products and embrittlement of non-food starch products. Some plasticisers are known to reduce retrogradation, but it is not clear how. In chapter 1, an overview is given of the present knowledge of starch. I

  6. Variables Influencing Food Perception Reviewed for Consumer-Oriented Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Gaasbeek, T.; Dagevos, H.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer wishes have to be translated into product characteristics to implement consumer-oriented product development. Before this step can be made, insight in food-related behavior and perception of consumers is necessary to make the right, useful, and successful translation. Food choice behavior a

  7. Variables Influencing Food Perception Reviewed for Consumer-Oriented Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Gaasbeek, T.; Dagevos, H.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer wishes have to be translated into product characteristics to implement consumer-oriented product development. Before this step can be made, insight in food-related behavior and perception of consumers is necessary to make the right, useful, and successful translation. Food choice behavior

  8. Variables Influencing Food Perception Reviewed for Consumer-Oriented Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Gaasbeek, T.; Dagevos, H.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer wishes have to be translated into product characteristics to implement consumer-oriented product development. Before this step can be made, insight in food-related behavior and perception of consumers is necessary to make the right, useful, and successful translation. Food choice behavior a

  9. The commoditization of consumer electronics products and its influence on packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional purpose of packaging for consumer electronics (CE) products was to get them in one piece from the factory to the consumers home. It was purely focused on the physical distribution. In that time, buying a CE product could be considered a major family investment. However, times have

  10. Influence of social connectedness and autonomy on aesthetic pleasure for product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    to feel connected to and autonomous from their ‘type of people’ and when product designs do they are aesthetically pleasing. From an evolutionary perspective, product designs provide aesthetic pleasure because they help direct beneficial behavior. We argue that people can fulfill their evolutionary

  11. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  12. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris.

  13. The influence of productivity and width of littoral zone on the trophic position of a large-bodied omnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroth, Patrik; Holmqvist, Niklas; Nyström, Per; Berglund, Olof; Larsson, Per; Granéli, Wilhelm

    2008-06-01

    Omnivory is common in many food webs. Omnivores in different habitats can potentially change their feeding behaviour and alter their trophic position and role according to habitat conditions. Here we examine the trophic level and diet of the omnivorous signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in gradients of trophic status and lake size, both of which have been previously suggested to affect trophic position of predators separately or combined as productive space. We found the trophic position of omnivorous crayfish to be positively correlated with lake trophic status, but found no evidence for any influence of lake size or productive space on crayfish trophic position. The higher trophic position of crayfish in eutrophic lakes was largely caused by a shift in crayfish diet and not by an increase in trophic links in basal parts of the food web. Hence, our results support the "productivity hypothesis," suggesting that food chains can be longer in more productive systems. Furthermore, stable isotope data indicated that larger crayfish are more predatory than smaller crayfish in lakes with wider littoral zones. Wider littoral zones promoted the development of intrapopulation differences in trophic position whereas narrow littoral zones did not. Hence, differences in habitat quality between and within lakes seem to influence the trophic positions of omnivorous crayfish.

  14. Does the Country-of-Origin (COO) of food products influence consumer evaluations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssohoidis, G.

    2009-01-01

    toward measuring consumers' ethnocentric tendency as antecedent to the appearance of the COO effect and examining the level at which the latter is activated (product or attribute-specific). In this respect, consumer attitude (dis)similarities toward product types are analysed with exploratory......The present study attempts to assess the impact of the COO effect on the evaluation of specific food products by Greek consumers. This issue has been examined exhaustively in the international literature albeit there are very few studies concerning food products. A particular effort is geared...... and confirmatory factor analyses. Data were collected though personal interviews with a sample of 274 respondents, which compared two food products of Greek origin (ham and yellow cheese) to their counterparts from Italy and the Netherlands. Results indicate that respondents exhibit a marginally ethnocentric...

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  16. Influence of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on enterotoxin production, membrane permeability and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia

    2010-02-28

    This study evaluated the influence of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. on the enterotoxin production, membrane permeability and cell surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. The suppression of enterotoxin production occurred totally in the broth added with the essential oil at subinhibitory concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 microL/mL). Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material and potassium ions occurred immediately after addition of the essential oil at 0.6 and 1.2 microL/mL and followed up to 120 min. Electron microscopy of essential oil-treated cells revealed the formation of roles in the cell surfaces and loss of cytoplasm material. According to these results, O. vulgare essential oil could be rationally applied in food products both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to suppress the synthesis of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  17. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of carbon and nitrogen source on production of volatile fragrance and flavour metabolites by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethins, Loughlin; Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Aslı; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Yuceer, Yonca; Morrissey, John P

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus produces a range of volatile molecules with applications as fragrances or flavours. The purpose of this study was to establish how nutritional conditions influence the production of these metabolites. Four strains were grown on synthetic media, using a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and volatile metabolites analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The nitrogen source had pronounced effects on metabolite production: levels of the fusel alcohols 2-phenylethanol and isoamyl alcohol were highest when yeast extract was the nitrogen source, and ammonium had a strong repressing effect on production of 2-phenylethyl acetate. In contrast, the nitrogen source did not affect production of isoamyl acetate or ethyl acetate, indicating that more than one alcohol acetyl transferase activity is present in K. marxianus. Production of all acetate esters was low when cells were growing on lactose (as opposed to glucose or fructose), with a lower intracellular pool of acetyl CoA being one explanation for this observation. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis of the known yeast alcohol acetyl transferases ATF1 and ATF2 suggests that the ancestral protein Atf2p may not be involved in synthesis of volatile acetate esters in K. marxianus, and raises interesting questions as to what other genes encode this activity in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Identification of all the genes involved in ester synthesis will be important for development of the K. marxianus platform for flavour and fragrance production.

  19. Influence of plant productivity over variability of soil respiration: a multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel Yuste, J.

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the role of plant photosynthetic activity on the variations in soil respiration (SR), SR data obtained from manual sampling and automatic soil respiration chambers placed on eddy flux towers sites were used. Plant photosynthetic activity was represented as Gross Primary Production (GPP), calculated from the half hourly continuous measurements of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE). The role of plant photosynthetic activity over the variation in SR was investigated at different time-scales: data averaged hourly, daily and weekly were used to study the photosynthetic effect on SR dial variations (Hourly data), 15 days variations (Daily averages), monthly variations (daily and weekly averages) and seasonal variations (weekly data). Our results confirm the important role of plant photosynthetic activity on the variations of SR at each of the mentioned time-scales. The effect of photosynthetic activity on SR was high on hourly time-scale (dial variations of SR). At half of the studied ecosystems GPP was the best single predictor of dial variations of SR. However at most of the studied sites the combination of soil temperature and GPP was the best predictor of dial variations in SR. The effect of aboveground productivity over dial variations of SR lagged on the range of 5 to 15 hours, depending on the ecosystem. At daily to monthly time scale variations of SR were in general better explained with the combination of temperature and moisture variations. However, ‘jumps' in average weekly SR during the growing season yielded anomaly high values of Q10, in some cases above 1000, which probably reflects synoptic changes in photosynthates translocation from plant activity. Finally, although seasonal changes of SR were in general very well explained by temperature and soil moisture, seasonality of SR was better correlated to seasonality of GPP than to seasonality of soil temperature and/or soil moisture. Therefore the magnitude of the seasonal variation in SR was in

  20. Influence of medium components on elastase production using crude sources by Bacillus sp. EL31410

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国庆; 陈启和; 张丽; 刘小杰

    2003-01-01

    A newly isolated strain EL31410, producing elastase (E.C3.4.4.7) with high elastolytic activity was identified as Bacillus sp. In the medium optimization, it was found that wheat bran and soybean flour hydrosate were the best crude carbon and nitrogen source for enzyme production, respectively. Addition of corn steep flour can affect the bacterium growth and elastase production. A fractional factorial design was applied to study the main factors that affect the enzyme production, and central composite experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model for the effect of wheat bran and soybean flour hydrosate on elastase production. The experimental results showed that wheat bran had positive effect but soybean flour hydrosate had negative effect, on enzyme production. An initial concentration of 3.4%(w/v) wheat bran and 9.4%(v/v) soybean flour hydrosate were found to be optimal for enzyme production in batch culture. The time course of elastase production in the optimized medium composition was also described.

  1. Influence of HEK293 metabolism on the production of viral vectors and vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiot, Emma; Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Shen, Chun Fang; Kamen, Amine

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian cell cultures are increasingly used for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals including viral vectors and vaccines. HEK293 is the predominant cell line used for the transient expression of recombinant proteins and a well-established system for the production of viral vectors. Understanding metabolic requirements for high productivity in HEK293 cells remains an important area of investigation. Many authors have presented approaches for increased productivity through optimization of cellular metabolism from two distinct perspectives. One is a non-targeted approach, which is directed to improving feeding strategies by addition of exhausted or critical substrates and eventually removal of toxic metabolites. Alternatively, a targeted approach has attempted to identify specific targets for optimization through better understanding of the cellular metabolism under different operating conditions. This review will present both approaches and their successes with regards to improvement of viral production in HEK293 cells outlining the key relations between HEK293 cell metabolism and viral vector productivity. Also, we will summarize the current knowledge on HEK293 metabolism indicating remaining issues to address and problems to resolve to maximize the productivity of viral vectors in HEK293 cells.

  2. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  3. Influence of medium components on elastase production using crude sources by Bacillus sp.EL31410

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国庆; 陈启和; 张丽; 刘小杰

    2003-01-01

    A newly isolated strain EL31410,producing elastase(E.C3.4.4.7) with high elastolytic activity was identified as Bacillus sp.In the medium optimization,it was found that wheat bran and soybean flour hydrosate were the best crude carbon ad nitrogen source for enzyme production,respectively.Addition of com steep flour can affect the bacterium growth and elastase production.A fractional factorial design was ap-plied to study the main factors that affect the enzyme production,and central composite experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model for the effect of wheat bran and soybean flour hydrosate on elastase production.The experimental results showed that wheat bran had positive cffect but soybean flour hydrosate had negative effect,on enzyme production.An initial concentration of 3.4%(w/v) wheat bran and 9.4%(v/v) soybean flour hydrosate were found to be optimal for enzyme produc-tion in batch culture.The time course of elastase production in the optimized medium composition was also de-scribed.

  4. The influence of gamma radiation and substrate on mycotoxin production by Fusarium culmorum IMI 309344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, K. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Damoglou, A.P.; Patterson, M.F. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    Mycotoxin production (deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyl deoxynivalenol (A DON) and zearalenone) by Fusarium culmorum inoculated on to maize (heat sterilized, irradiation sterilized and non-sterile) and irradiated to 1 kGy or 3 kGy, or unirradiated, was investigated over a period of time. Lowest mycotoxin production was observed on non-sterile maize which may be due to the presence of a competitive microflora on non-sterile maize. In general, mycotoxin production was higher on heat-sterilized grain as compared to irradiation-sterilized maize. It was suggested that this pattern of mycotoxin production was possibly caused by changes in the grain brought about by autoclaving, which favoured mycotoxin production and possibly induced changes in irradiation-sterilized maize which inhibited mycotoxin production. On sterile maize, there was no significant difference in DON production by unirradiated, 1 kGy and 3 kGy irradiated cultures up to 56 d of incubation; between days 56 and 77 of incubation, DON production increased rapidly with largest increases occurring in irradiated (1 kGy and 3 kGy) cultures. On non-sterile grain, neither DON nor A DON were detected in unirradiated cultures of F. culmorum but were detected in cultures irradiated to 1 kGy and 3 kGy. In practice grain should be stored under conditions of temperature and moisture content which prevent fungal growth. However, in this study, the grain was stored under conditions that were approaching ideal for growth of the test organism. The results highlight that irradiation disinfestation of grain must be combined with good grain handling practices so that excessive mycotoxin production can be prevented during storage. (Author).

  5. [The influence of madness in the literary production of Gerard de Nerval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Bustamante C, M Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Gerard de Nerval was a French writer, poet and essayist, precursor of surrealism that used for the first time this word in literature and influenced many modern writers. Since the age of 32, Nerval had recurrent psychotic episodes mixed with a severe depression, leading to many hospitalizations, and finally to his death. This mental disease clearly influenced his works and provided originality to his prose and poetry. However no clear explanation has ever been given to his mental disorder. We analyzed the clinical data available from his own works and the opinion of his close friends and postulate the hypothesis that Nerval had a mood disorder.

  6. Does the Country-of-Origin (COO) of food products influence consumer evaluations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssohoidis, G.

    2009-01-01

    toward measuring consumers' ethnocentric tendency as antecedent to the appearance of the COO effect and examining the level at which the latter is activated (product or attribute-specific). In this respect, consumer attitude (dis)similarities toward product types are analysed with exploratory...... and confirmatory factor analyses. Data were collected though personal interviews with a sample of 274 respondents, which compared two food products of Greek origin (ham and yellow cheese) to their counterparts from Italy and the Netherlands. Results indicate that respondents exhibit a marginally ethnocentric...

  7. Influence of processing on total and extractable mineral content of products prepared from potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Poonam; Sehgal, Salil

    2011-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) flour developed was used for preparing doughnuts, sevian, cutlet, kofta and vadi along with defatted soy (Glycine max) flour and corn (Zea mays) flour. Frying and fermentation were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed due to their compositional differences. Processing did not affect on total mineral content. Processing increased (p mineral availability. Processed products had lower amount of anti nutrients as compared to raw counterparts and thus, higher mineral availability.

  8. 水对氢氟酸生产工艺的影响分析%Analysis on the Influence of Water in Hydrofluoric Acid Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪明基

    2012-01-01

    氢氟酸生产过程中,水对生产影响极大,文章结合生产实例介绍了氟化氢生产过程中水的来源,分析了各种来源水对氢氟酸生产的影响。%In HF acid production process, the influence of water on the production is very great. Based on production practice, this text presents sources of water in HF production and analyses the influence of different sources of water on HF acid production.

  9. Influence of smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ content in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ciecierska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAHs content in four groups of meat products industrially and traditionally smoked was determined. Methodology applied for the study included fat’s extraction, PAHs isolation using GPC and consequently qualitative-quantitative compound’s determination by HPLC-FLD/DAD. Mostly traditional method of smoking affected the higher total PAHs contamination. For all products smoked using both methods it was proved that internal parts had a significantly lower total PAHs contamination as well as each individual PAH content than exteriors of the same products. Irrespectively of smoking method applied, benso[a]pyrene’s content was much lower than maximum tolerable limit of 5 μg•kg-1, which was set for smoked meat products in Commision Regulation (EC No. 208/2005.

  10. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  11. PUMPKIN CAKE AND SLUDGE INFLUENCE ON CHICKEN-BROILERS MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  12. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact.

  13. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Éva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Background Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is s...

  14. The influence of reactive side products in electrocatalytic reactions: methanol oxidation as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Robert; Schnaidt, Johannes; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2013-11-11

    The role and impact of follow-up processes involving reactive side products in an electrocatalytic reaction is demonstrated for the electrooxidation of methanol at a Pt electrode. By using combined in situ infrared spectroscopy and online mass spectrometry and employing isotope-labeling techniques, it is shown that even small amounts of the incomplete oxidation products formaldehyde and formic acid have pronounced effects on the reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Growing Substrate Composition Influences Growth, Productivity and Quality of Organic Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana Bhat; Mohammed Albaho; Majda Suleiman; Binson Thomas; Preetha George; Sasini Isath Ali

    2013-01-01

    Organic food production, a dynamic and rapidly growing global activity is still new to Kuwait. Therefore, investigations were conducted during 2006-09 to develop package of cultivation practices for producing organic greenhouse vegetables under Kuwait’s environmental conditions. One of the objectives of these investigations was to select a suitable growing substrate for organic greenhouse vegetable production. A number of combinations of vermicompost, cocopeat, sphagnum peatmoss, perlite, far...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF INCREASING RELIABILITY OF BELT CONVEYORS UPON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF LIGNITE QUARRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-MIHAI NIȚESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present belt conveyors have an important role in the mines of lignite quarries because they contribute decisively to achieving an optimum production. From this point of view the management of mines should be constantly preoccupied with ensuring, in optimal conditions, the operation of these elements of fixed capital and, if it is necessary they should maintain constant reliability. In this context, this paper has as theme the relation between the reliability of conveyors and the productivity within lignite quarries.

  17. Influence of anthropogenic aerosol deposition on the relationship between oceanic productivity and warming

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Boucher, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Gehlen, Marion; Peñuelas, Josep; Éthé, Christian; Hauglustaine, Didier; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Zhou, Feng; TAO, SHU

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Satellite data and models suggest that oceanic productivity is reduced in response to less nutrient supply under warming. In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols provide nutrients and exert a fertilizing effect, but its contribution to evolution of oceanic productivity is unknown. We simulate the response of oceanic biogeochemistry to anthropogenic aerosols deposition under varying climate from 1850 to 2010. We find a positive response of observed chlorophyll to deposition...

  18. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing

  19. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machines with a volume of 50 l were us

  20. Inhibition of glycosaminoglycan incorporation influences collagen network formation during cartilage matrix production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Koevoet, W.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Groot, J. de; Vanosch, G.J.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    To understand cartilage degenerative diseases and improve repair procedures, we investigate the influence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on cartilage matrix biochemistry and functionality. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured in alginate beads with(out) para-nitrophenyl-beta-d-xyloside (PNPX) t

  1. Prosodic influences on consonant production in Dutch: Effects of prosodic boundaries, phrasal accent and lexical stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, T.; McQueen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic influences on phonetic realizations of four Dutch consonants (/t d s z/) were examined. Sentences were constructed containing these consonants in word-initial position; the factors lexical stress, phrasal accent and prosodic boundary were manipulated between sentences. Eleven Dutch speakers

  2. Factors Influencing F/OSS Cloud Computing Software Product Success: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, D. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing introduces a new business operational model that allows an organization to shift information technology consumption from traditional capital expenditure to operational expenditure. This shift introduces challenges from both the adoption and creation vantage. This study evaluates factors that influence Free/Open Source Software…

  3. Influences of external factors on the energy conversion and productivity of Scenedesmus sp. in mass culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments about the influence of external factors on the energy conversion in mass cultures of Scenedesmus are described in this thesis. Several types of culture vessels were used in the laboratory as well as in the open. Demonstration models of Miele washing machine

  4. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  5. Cross-Linguistic Influence: Its Impact on L2 English Collocation Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoocharoensil, Supakorn

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated the influence of learners' mother tongue on their acquisition of English collocations. Having drawn the linguistic data from two groups of Thai EFL learners differing in English proficiency level, the researcher found that the native language (L1) plays a significant role in the participants' collocation learning…

  6. Factors Influencing F/OSS Cloud Computing Software Product Success: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, D. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing introduces a new business operational model that allows an organization to shift information technology consumption from traditional capital expenditure to operational expenditure. This shift introduces challenges from both the adoption and creation vantage. This study evaluates factors that influence Free/Open Source Software…

  7. Biosorption Of Heavy Metals From Mining Influenced Water Onto Chitin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from mine sites poses a major environmental concern due to its impact on water contamination caused by low pH and the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals. Chitorem SC-20® (raw crushed crab shells containing 40% w/w C...

  8. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  9. Influence of the initial acidification step on biogas production and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnena, Ilze; Dimanta, Ilze; Gruduls, Arturs; Kleperis, Janis; Elferts, Didzis; Nikolajeva, Vizma

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of initial acidification of feedstock consisting of different components on biogas production and composition. Feedstock containing different agricultural wastes, biomass, and microorganisms was collected from five full-scale biogas plants. Two continuously stirred tank reactors were used. The fermentation temperature was 37 °C. The pH value was adjusted to 6.0 in the first reactor at the beginning of the experiment, and an initial pH value of 7.0 was implemented after 48 H. The second reactor was used as a control reactor with a constant pH of 7.0. The experiment lasted a total of 7 days. In the reactors, the gas phase was dominated by CH4 , CO2 , and N2 . The results showed that acidification increased biogas and carbon dioxide production in five cases, increased methane production and reduced nitrogen production in four cases, and reduced methane content in biogas in four of five cases. Only feedstock composed of 74% of different manures and 26% of plant material reduced the production of methane and increased the production of nitrogen after acidification. Other feedstock contained 47% to 96% plant material. An initial pH value of 6 could be recommended for mesophilic single-phase methanogenesis with a prevalence of plant material. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Screening factors influencing the production of astaxanthin from freshwater and marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Ibnu Rasid, Elda Nurafnie; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-02-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment found in several aquatic organisms, is responsible for the red colour of salmon, trout and crustaceans. In this study, astaxanthin production from freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. was investigated. Cell growth and astaxanthin production were determined spectrophotometrically at 620 and 480 nm, respectively. Astaxanthin was extracted using acetone and measured subsequent to biomass removal. Aerated conditions favoured astaxanthin production in C. sorokiniana, whereas Tetraselmis sp. was best cultured under unaerated conditions. C. sorokiniana produced more astaxanthin with the highest yield reached at 7.83 mg/l in 6.0 mM in nitrate containing medium compared to Tetraselmis sp. which recorded the highest yield of only 1.96 mg/l in 1.5 mM nitrate containing medium. Production in C. sorokiniana started at the early exponential phase, indicating that astaxanthin may be a growth-associated product in this microalga. Further optimization of astaxanthin production was performed using C. sorokiniana through a 2(3) full factorial experimental design, and a yield of 8.39 mg/l was achieved. Overall, the study has shown that both microalgae are capable of producing astaxanthin. Additionally, this research has highlighted C. sorokiniana as a potential astaxanthin producer that could serve as a natural astaxanthin source in the current market.

  11. The Analysis Influence of Elements the Processing on Quality of Products

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    J. Sitko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Present productive systems demand cooperating very much elements of complicated processing whose a superior target is the obtainment of the article about established functional proprieties. To important links of the productive system they belong the boundary strip other: the quality of raw materials, the technical state and the efficiency of productive devices , the choice and the organization of the processing and difficult to prognosing, so called the human factor. On the job one presented the initial analysis of connected problems with the preparation and the realization of the processing in the foundry of cast iron. Became introduced manner of administering resources of materials which to the state the complex connection of the row elements technological, such as: the analysis the quantity of orders and time-limits deliveries, qualifying the quantity of elements the given productive party , time-limits of beginning of the production and the manner of working of the warehouse- economy farm. The special attention became turned on analysing problem of storing productive materials.

  12. Microbial abundance and community composition influence production performance in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Peike; Wu, Yunqiang; Tian, Huimei; Dai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yansen; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhang, Hongzuo; Pan, Xiaoxuan; Dong, Hanping; Ma, Ting

    2014-05-06

    Enhanced oil recovery using indigenous microorganisms has been successfully applied in the petroleum industry, but the role of microorganisms remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between microbial population dynamics and oil production performance during a water flooding process coupled with nutrient injection in a low-temperature petroleum reservoir. Samples were collected monthly over a two-year period. The microbial composition of samples was determined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Our results indicated that the microbial community structure in each production well microhabitat was dramatically altered during flooding with eutrophic water. As well as an increase in the density of microorganisms, biosurfactant producers, such as Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, and Rhizobium, were detected in abundance. Furthermore, the density of these microorganisms was closely related to the incremental oil production. Oil emulsification and changes in the fluid-production profile were also observed. In addition, we found that microbial community structure was strongly correlated with environmental factors, such as water content and total nitrogen. These results suggest that injected nutrients increase the abundance of microorganisms, particularly biosurfactant producers. These bacteria and their metabolic products subsequently emulsify oil and alter fluid-production profiles to enhance oil recovery.

  13. Influence of Thermal and Bacterial Pretreatment of Microalgae on Biogas Production in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Beti; Marinšek Logar, Romana; Panjičko, Mario; Fanedl, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae biomass has a great potential in search for new alternative energy sources. They can be used as a substrate for the biogas production in anaerobic digestion. When using microalgae, the efficiency of this process is hampered due to the resistant cell wall. In order to accelerate the hydrolysis of cell wall and increase the efficiency of biogas production we applied two different pretreatments - biological and thermal under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. During biological pretreatment we incubated microalgae with anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5T. In thermal pretreatment we incubated microalgae at 90 °C. We also tested a combined thermal and biological pretreatment in which we incubated P. xylanivorans Mz5T with thermally pretreated microalgae. Thermal pretreatment in mesophilic and thermophilic process has increased methane production by 21% and 6%, respectively. Biological pretreatment of microalgae has increased methane production by 13%, but only under thermophilic conditions (pretreatment under mesophilic conditions showed no effect on methane production). Thermal-biological pretreatment increased methane production by 12% under thermophilic conditions and by 6% under mesophilic conditions.

  14. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

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    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  15. The influence of iron concentration on biohydrogen production from organic waste via anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, M R; Sbaffoni, S; Tuccinardi, L

    2014-01-01

    Different micronutrients are essential for bacterial fermentative metabolism. In particular, some metallic ions, like iron, are able to affect the biological H₂production. In this study, batch tests were carried out in stirred reactors to investigate the effects of Fe²⁺ concentration on fermentative H₂production from two different organic fractions of waste: source-separated organic waste (OW) from a composting plant including organic fraction of municipal solid waste and food waste (FW) from a refectory. Iron supplementation at 1000 mg/L caused twofold increment in the cumulative H₂production from OW (922 mL) compared with the control (without iron doping). The highest H₂production (1736 mL) from FW occurred when Fe²⁺ concentration was equal to 50 mg/L. In addition, the process production from OW was modelled through the modified Gompertz equation. For FW, a translated Gompertz equation was used by the authors, because the initial lag-time for H₂production from FW was almost negligible.

  16. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  17. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Hauffe, Torsten; Pizarro, Valeria; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean), abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn) and gross production (Pg) of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos) at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1), and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, respectively). At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef communities is

  18. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvin Eidens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean, abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn and gross production (Pg of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area h−1, respectively. At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef

  19. Benthic primary production in an upwelling-influenced coral reef, Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidens, Corvin; Bayraktarov, Elisa; Hauffe, Torsten; Pizarro, Valeria; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In Tayrona National Natural Park (Colombian Caribbean), abiotic factors such as light intensity, water temperature, and nutrient availability are subjected to high temporal variability due to seasonal coastal upwelling. These factors are the major drivers controlling coral reef primary production as one of the key ecosystem services. This offers the opportunity to assess the effects of abiotic factors on reef productivity. We therefore quantified primary net (Pn ) and gross production (Pg ) of the dominant local primary producers (scleractinian corals, macroalgae, algal turfs, crustose coralline algae, and microphytobenthos) at a water current/wave-exposed and-sheltered site in an exemplary bay of Tayrona National Natural Park. A series of short-term incubations was conducted to quantify O2 fluxes of the different primary producers during non-upwelling and the upwelling event 2011/2012, and generalized linear models were used to analyze group-specific O2 production, their contribution to benthic O2 fluxes, and total daily benthic O2 production. At the organism level, scleractinian corals showed highest Pn and Pg rates during non-upwelling (16 and 19 mmol O2 m(-2) specimen area h(-1)), and corals and algal turfs dominated the primary production during upwelling (12 and 19 mmol O2 m(-2) specimen area h(-1), respectively). At the ecosystem level, corals contributed most to total Pn and Pg during non-upwelling, while during upwelling, corals contributed most to Pn and Pg only at the exposed site and macroalgae at the sheltered site, respectively. Despite the significant spatial and temporal differences in individual productivity of the investigated groups and their different contribution to reef productivity, differences for daily ecosystem productivity were only present for Pg at exposed with higher O2 fluxes during non-upwelling compared to upwelling. Our findings therefore indicate that total benthic primary productivity of local autotrophic reef communities is

  20. Influences of Fly Ash on Concrete Product's Properties and Environmental Impact Reduction

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    Thipsuree Kornboonraksa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study effects of incorporating fly ash into concrete products. Scope of this study were (1 hazard identification of fly ash (2 study on standard testing of various concrete products and (3 study on environmental impact assessment of concrete products mixed with fly ash. Various types of fly ash namely A, B, C and D were sampling from different power plants. Hazard identification of fly ash was analyzed in terms of total threshold limit concentration (TTLC and soluble threshold limit concentration (STLC. It was found that concentrations of chromium, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc, copper and arsenic passed the criteria of notification of the ministry of industry regarding disposal of wastes or unusable materials B.E. 2548 (2005 in appendix-2.Three types of concrete products namely brick road, concrete block and ready mixed concrete were studied. Fly ash was used as cementitious materials to replace Portland cement at 10% and 30% mixture. Concrete products with proportion of fly ash showed lower compressive strengths during 28 days of curing times. However, increase of curing times showed higher compressive strengths for all types of concrete products. ANOVA analysis showed that different fly ash proportion and curing times had a significant effect on compressive strength. The method of CML2 baseline 2000, SimaPro 7.3 was used in environmental impact assessment. The functional unit was set up through working area of 1 m3. It was found that concrete products mixed with fly ash showed lower environmental impact compared to concrete products without fly ash. Increasing proportion of fly ash showed decreased environmental impact. From ANOVA analysis, there was no significant effect of fly ash types on environmental impact reduction for all types of concrete products. However, % fly ash mixture showed significant effect on environmental impact reduction especially in terms of global warming. Decrease in global warming (GW

  1. Influence of auxins and sucrose in monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid production by Uncaria tomentosa cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Palencia, Gabriela R; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Monroy, Mario; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2005-01-01

    Growth and alkaloid production in Uncaria tomentosa cell suspension cultures were studied in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 10 microM kinetin, and 58 mM sucrose for maintenance and with 10 microM indole-3-acetic acid, 10 microM kinetin, and 58 mM sucrose for production. A U. tomentosa pale Uth-3 cell line, cultured in the production medium, showed a reduced lag phase and a specific growth rate (mu) of 0.27 day(-1), while cells growing in the maintenance medium showed mu = 0.20 day(-1). U. tomentosa cells growing in the production medium produced monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA) in amounts of 10.2 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW). The chemical profile of MOA produced by in vitro cell cultures was similar to that found in the plant. After 10 subcultures, maximum MOA production decreased to 2.0 +/- 0.7 microg g(-1) DW, while tryptamine alkaloids (TA) were produced with a maximum of 6.2 +/- 0.4 microg g(-1) DW. The increase of initial sucrose concentration up to 145 mM in the production medium enhanced the cell biomass by 3.2-fold (from 10.2 +/- 0.1 to 32.8 +/- 1.1 g DW L(-1)), reduced mu from 0.27 to 0.23 day(-1), and provoked a substantial accumulation of TA (23.1 +/- 4.7 microg g(-1) DW). A high sucrose concentration stimulated MOA production in the maintenance medium (2.7 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) DW), even in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  2. English vowel production by native Mandarin speakers: Influences of AoA, LoR, education, perception, and orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.

  3. The influence of biofilm formation on electricity production from tempe wastewater using tubular membraneless microbial fuel cell reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Nathania Dwi Karina; Arbianti, Rita; Utami, Tania Surya

    2017-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology can be potentially developed as an alternative energy source since it can convert various substrates from renewable sources into electricity using bacteria as biocatalyst. Tempe wastewater as MFC substrate gives advantages in tempe wastewater treatment and reducing the purchasing cost of bacteria. Currently, the applications of MFCs are still limited due to the relatively low electricity production, so many studies have been conducted to improve the electricity production by MFC. This study focused on investigating the influence of biofilm formation time and the use of macromolecule as additional substrate towards electricity production from MFC system with tubular membranless reactor and tempe wastewater as substrate. This study suggested that biofilm formation on anode could improve the electricity production up to 10-folds while the use of glucose as substrate addition reduce the electricity production up to 60%. The biggest electricity output was obtained from the experiment of biofilm formation for 14 days with EPS content in biofilm 0,13 mg/cm2 where the maximum voltage and power density produced was respectively 34,81 mV and 0,26 mW/m2.

  4. REGULAR USE OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN CHILDREN: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Saygitov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis of randomized controlled trials, studying influence of milk and diary products (yoghurt, cheese, including fortified with calcium ones, on bone mineral density (BMD in children. It was shown that addition of such products to the dietary intake of children and adolescents in 9–24 months leads to additional increase of BMD. This property expressed in fortified foods more then in milk in usual (habitual quantity. In conditions of optimal nutrition, while physiological needs of child's organism in calcium is provided owing to regular use of diary products, a necessity of addition of complementary doses of this macro element to the dietary intake is not proved. Besides, the data from controlled studies showed that adherence of children to some diary products (fortified cheese, for example, is inadequately low. Use of milk, including aromatized one, and yoghurt, allows considerable increasing of compliance. It's important for forming of wholesome nutritive preferences and habits in children.Key words: children, milk, diary products, calcium, bone mineral density.

  5. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

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    W. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human lands uses (e.g., agricultural and urban areas strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. Increased background denitrification rate would result in increased N2O production rate. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  6. Influence of Ferrous sulphate on growth and alpha-a Amylase production for Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222

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    Shalini Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stringent government regulations and increasing public awareness is forcing chemical industries to incorporate environment friendly products and processes. Biotechnological applications, in industries, thus, hold great future. Microorganisms and their metabolites/enzymes provide a number of eminent-economic as well as environment friendly solutions for such industries. Amylases are one of the most important industrial enzymes. Commercial production of amylases requires selection of the best of production conditions. This study evaluates the influence of varying concentration of Ferrous sulphate (Fe2+ on microbial growth and amylase production for Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222. Ferrous sulphate enhanced growth (concentration of 100mg/L by 1.83%, compared to the control. In contrast, it decreased amylase activity at all concentrations tested. As the concentration of ferrous sulphate increased, the amylase activity decreased. Amylases are metalloenzymes and the inhibition in amylase activity observed in the presence of ferrous ions may be due to competition between the exogenous cation and the protein associated cation, resulting in reduced metalloenzyme activity. Further studies will aim to evaluate the effect of different ferrous salts and different forms of iron on amylase production by Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222.

  7. Influence of by-product feeds and tallow on lactation performance of Holstein cows during two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, H G; Spain, J N; Ellersieck, M R

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of fibrous by-product feeds and tallow on lactation performance and ruminal fermentation. Diets were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial of low and high NDF with or without added tallow. Corn and soybean meal were replaced with corn gluten feed, soyhulls, wheat middlings, and high moisture, whole ear corn. Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in two seasonal replicates of a randomized block design. Addition of tallow decreased intake of the low fiber diet, but not the high fiber diet, during winter. Intake was unaffected by diet during summer. Dietary NDF percentage did not change DMI. Milk production was unaffected by addition of tallow but was more persistent for cows fed low fiber diets. Tallow reduced milk protein percentage but did not change milk fat percentage. Fibrous feeds did not influence milk composition. Four fistulated cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Fibrous by-product feeds decreased total VFA concentration. Acetate to propionate ratio increased when tallow was added to high fiber diets but decreased when tallow was added to low fiber diets. Tallow and fibrous by-product feeds can be used to support milk production.

  8. Sustrates and nutrient solutions for obtaining pipper seedlings and its influences on the production in crops protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairely Sarduy Díaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the productive success in the production of the pepper (Capsicum annum L. in protected crop is necessary to guarantee the quality of the seedlings. For that the objective of this investigation was to evaluate mixtures with crowd + coconut fiber and worm humus as substrates and three nutritious solutions for the production of seedlings of pepper and its later influence on the production. In the nursery phase an assay in a design totally randomized was used in factorial arrangement 32, being the factors, substrate and nutritious solution where variables of growth and development were evaluated, in 25 seedlings for treatment. In the experiment in field phase was given pursuit to the plants coming from the nine treatments of the nursery phase in a design at random blocks with four replicas, where components of the yield were evaluated in 10 plants by parcel and the yield in the total parcel. The data were processed by means of a variance analysis using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The employment of worm humus with the nutritious solution B and the humus with the crowd and coconut plus the application of the nutritious solutions A and B allows obtaining pepper seedlings with the established quality. These combinations stand out in the production phase for the percentage of flourishing plants, mass of the fruits and the yield, for that the employment of these substrates, constitute new alternatives for this technology.

  9. Consolida regalis Gray seed production as influenced by the habitat and crop plant in the western Podlasie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Skrajna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in 2007–2009 in the Western Podlasie region to examine the seed production potential of Consolida regalis under different habitat conditions. Consolida regalis populations from 15 sites representing the habitat amplitude of this species were examined. Thirty morphologically different plants were sampled from each habitat and soil samples were taken to determine soil contents of available phosphorus (P, potassium (K and magnesium (Mg as well as pH. The results were statistically analysed. The seed production potential of the species studied was most strongly correlated with soil contents of magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P and soil pH. By contrast, the kind of crop plant and its cover were insignificant. Of the plant characteristics, plant height and traits associated with inflorescence structure had a significant influence on seed production potential. The populations with the greatest seed production potential produced an average of 1287 and 965 se- eds per plant. These populations were associated with the most fertile sites (good wheat soil complex where the differences in seed production potential resulted from the nutrient contents and soil pH. By contrast, the least seeds were produced by plants growing on poor and acidic light soils. The average seed number per plant ranged from 42 to 83. Low concentrations of the nutrients examined were determined, with the soil content of magnesium being very low.

  10. Influence of the carbon and nitrogen sources on keratinase production by Myrothecium verrucaria in submerged and solid state cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Gioppo, Nereida Mello Rosa; Moreira-Gasparin, Fabiana G; Costa, Andréa M; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

    2009-05-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria is a nondermatophytic filamentous fungus able to grow and to produce keratinase in submerged (93.0 +/- 19 U/ml) and solid state (98.8 +/- 7.9 U/ml) cultures in which poultry feather powder (PFP) is the only substrate. The purpose of the present work was to verify how different carbon and nitrogen sources can influence the production of keratinase by this fungus. Addition of carbohydrates, such as glucose and sucrose, caused only slight improvements in keratinase production, but the addition of starch caused a significant improvement (135.0 +/- 25 U/ml). The highest levels of keratinase activity, however, were obtained by supplementing the PFP cultures with cassava bagasse, 168.0 +/- 28 U/ml and 189.0 +/- 26 U/ml in submerged and solid state cultures, respectively. Contrarily, the supplementation of PFP medium with organic or inorganic nitrogen sources, such as casein, soy bean protein, gelatin, ammonium nitrate and alanine, decreased the production of keratinase in both types of cultures (around 20 U/ml), showing that the production of keratinase by M. verrucaria is repressed by nitrogen sources. The results obtained in this work suggest that the association of the two residues PFP plus cassava bagasse could be an excellent option as a cheap culture medium for the production of keratinase in submerged and solid state cultures.

  11. Influence of feeding conditions on clavulanic acid production in fed-batch cultivation with medium containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Juliana C; Baptista-Neto, Alvaro; Cruz-Hernández, Isara L; Hokka, Carlos O; Badino, Alberto C

    2006-09-01

    First, the effect of different levels of nitrogen source on clavulanic acid (CA) production was evaluated in batch cultivations utilizing complex culture medium containing glycerol and three different levels of soy protein isolate (SPI). Cellular growth, evaluated in terms of the rheological parameter K, was highest with a SPI concentration of 30 g.L(-1) (4.42 g.L(-1) N total). However, the highest production of CA (380 mg.L(-1)) was obtained when an intermediate concentration of 20 g.L(-1) of SPI (2.95 g.L(-1) total N) was used. To address this, the influences of volumetric flow rate (F) and glycerol concentration in the complex feed medium (Cs(F)) in fed-batch cultivations were investigated. The best experimental condition for CA production was F=0.01 L.h(-1) and Cs(F)=120 g.L(-1), and under these conditions maximum CA production was practically twice that obtained in the batch cultivation. A single empirical equation was proposed to relate maximum CA production with F and Cs(F) in fed-batch experiments.

  12. Influence of nonnative and native ungulate biomass and seasonal precipitation on vegetation production in a Great Basin ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Ransom, Jason I.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Mask, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of equid grazers in semiarid ecosystems of the American West have been considered disproportionate to the influence of native ungulates in these systems because of equids' large body size, hoof shape, and short history on the landscape relative to native ungulates. Tools that can analyze the degree of influence of various ungulate herbivores in an ecosystem and separate effects of ungulates from effects of other variables (climate, anthropomorphic disturbances) can be useful to managers in determining the location of nonnative herbivore impacts and assessing the effect of management actions targeted at different ungulate populations. We used remotely sensed data to determine the influence of native and nonnative ungulates and climate on vegetation productivity at wildlife refuges in Oregon and Nevada. Our findings indicate that ungulate biomass density, particularly equid biomass density, and precipitation in winter and spring had the greatest influence on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. Our results concur with those of other researchers, who found that drought exacerbated the impacts of ungulate herbivores in arid systems.

  13. Factors influencing the use of selected inputs in yam production in Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djana Babatima Mignouna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, yam can be an important crop to reduce poverty and hunger if Research and Development measures identify and properly engage its key production factors for enhanced outputs and better income. Data from 1400 households in Ghana and Nigeria were collected in a multistage random sampling survey (and complementary data from 76 farm family fields with a structured questionnaire and qualitative interview questions. The results showed that yam is produced mainly with crude inputs/technologies to reduce high dependence on labour, seed production and control of pests and diseases. Yam is produced widely with purchased inputs including seed yam and hired labour; chemical fertiliser, herbicide and pesticides are less often used. Analyses of determinants of use of purchased inputs reveal three serious impediments to expansion in yam production: the increasing scarcity and high cost of hired labour, shortage of suitable land and poor farm roads. As employment opportunities for unskilled labour in urban centres are presently expanding, increased yam production will be hard to achieve without labour-saving inputs for at least some of the production tasks, especially seedbed preparation and weeding, and without improvement in infrastructure.

  14. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process.

  15. DIGITAL MARKETING AND ITS INFLUENCES ON THE PERCEPTION REGARDING PRODUCT VALUES AND LUXURY BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN RAZVAN JOANTA (RUSAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the world of deluxe products had been accessible only to an exclusive and selected public. There had been created an impression that it was impossible for an outsider to gain access to this world. Specialists in the field of deluxe products had created almost Utopian worlds, where clients could enjoy the quality, history and legacy of deluxe products. In our day and age, more and more researchers are trying to explain and find the determining factors in the consumption of certain products and services in the premium group. In the context of social, political and economic changes that took place recently, deluxe products have kept an important trait: their salience for social recognition. Marketing strategies have also changed recently to a great extent. From small family businesses or local entrepreneurs, deluxe brands have expanded rapidly at a global level, but at the same time they maintained the most important functions and traits: excellent quality, impeccable service, history a.s.o.

  16. Influence of Crystal Allomorph and Crystallinity on the Products and Behavior of Cellulose during Fast Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Mittal, Ashutosh; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Budhi, Sridhar; Thompson, Logan; Iisa, Kristiina; Nimlos, Mark R.; Donohoe, Bryon S.

    2016-09-06

    Cellulose is the primary biopolymer responsible for maintaining the structural and mechanical integrity of cell walls and, during the fast pyrolysis of biomass, may be restricting cell wall expansion and inhibiting phase transitions that would otherwise facilitate efficient escape of pyrolysis products. Here, we test whether modifications in two physical properties of cellulose, its crystalline allomorph and degree of crystallinity, alter its performance during fast pyrolysis. We show that both crystal allomorph and relative crystallinity of cellulose impact the slate of primary products produced by fast pyrolysis. For both cellulose-I and cellulose-II, changes in crystallinity dramatically impact the fast pyrolysis product portfolio. In both cases, only the most highly crystalline samples produced vapors dominated by levoglucosan. Cellulose-III, on the other hand, produces largely the same slate of products regardless of its relative crystallinity and produced as much or more levoglucosan at all crystallinity levels compared to cellulose-I or II. In addition to changes in products, the different cellulose allomorphs affected the viscoelastic properties of cellulose during rapid heating. Real-time hot-stage pyrolysis was used to visualize the transition of the solid material through a molten phase and particle shrinkage. SEM analysis of the chars revealed additional differences in viscoelastic properties and molten phase behavior impacted by cellulose crystallinity and allomorph. Regardless of relative crystallinity, the cellulose-III samples displayed the most obvious evidence of having transitioned through a molten phase.

  17. Influence of intraspecific variability and abiotic factors on mycotoxin production in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kévin; Hymery, Nolwenn; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Puel, Sylvie; Puel, Olivier; Rigalma, Karim; Gaydou, Vincent; Coton, Emmanuel; Mounier, Jérôme

    2015-12-23

    Penicillium roqueforti has the ability to produce secondary metabolites, including roquefortine C (ROQC) and mycophenolic acid (MPA). In a previous study, the presence of these mycotoxins, alone or in co-occurrence, has been reported in blue-veined cheese. A high variability of mycotoxin content has also been observed, although the majority of samples exhibited relatively low concentrations. The observed variability raises the question of the factors impacting ROQC and MPA production. In this context, the mycotoxigenic potential of 96 P. roqueforti strains (biotic factor) and the effect of some abiotic factors (pH, temperature, NaCl and O2 contents, and C/N ratio) on mycotoxin production were evaluated. A high intraspecific diversity, established via genotypic (RAPD) and phenotypic (FTIR) approaches, was observed. It was associated with mycotoxigenic potential variability and may thus explain part of the observed variability in mycotoxin content of blue-veined cheese. Moreover, a significant decrease of ROQC and MPA production was observed for conditions (temperature, C/N ratio, O2 and NaCl concentrations) encountered during cheese-making compared with optimal growth conditions. The results also highlighted that there was no significant effect of addition of ROQC amino-acid precursor on the production of both mycotoxins whereas a pH increase from 4.5 to 6.5 slightly reduced MPA but not ROQC production.

  18. Wind Speed during Migration Influences the Survival, Timing of Breeding, and Productivity of a Neotropical Migrant, Setophaga petechia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Anna; Rock, Christine A.; Quinlan, Sam P.; Martin, Michaela; Green, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the annual cycle, migratory bird populations can be impacted by environmental conditions in regions separated by thousands of kilometers. We examine how climatic conditions during discrete periods of the annual cycle influence the demography of a nearctic-neotropical migrant population of yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia), that breed in western Canada and overwinter in Mexico. We demonstrate that wind conditions during spring migration are the best predictor of apparent annual adult survival, male arrival date, female clutch initiation date and, via these timing effects, annual productivity. We find little evidence that conditions during the wintering period influence breeding phenology and apparent annual survival. Our study emphasizes the importance of climatic conditions experienced by migrants during the migratory period and indicates that geography may play a role in which period most strongly impacts migrant populations. PMID:24828427

  19. Wind speed during migration influences the survival, timing of breeding, and productivity of a neotropical migrant, Setophaga petechia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Drake

    Full Text Available Over the course of the annual cycle, migratory bird populations can be impacted by environmental conditions in regions separated by thousands of kilometers. We examine how climatic conditions during discrete periods of the annual cycle influence the demography of a nearctic-neotropical migrant population of yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia, that breed in western Canada and overwinter in Mexico. We demonstrate that wind conditions during spring migration are the best predictor of apparent annual adult survival, male arrival date, female clutch initiation date and, via these timing effects, annual productivity. We find little evidence that conditions during the wintering period influence breeding phenology and apparent annual survival. Our study emphasizes the importance of climatic conditions experienced by migrants during the migratory period and indicates that geography may play a role in which period most strongly impacts migrant populations.

  20. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished...... chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in the operational decision making processes related to chocolate production. In recent years many...... studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify...

  1. The nature and origins of ambient language influence on infant vocal production and early words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; de Boysson-Bardies, B

    1994-01-01

    Phonological structure may be seen as emerging in ontogeny from the combined effects of performance constraints rooted in the neuromotor and perceptual systems, individual lexical development and the influence of the particular ambient language. We review here the nature and origins of the earliest ambient language influences. Global effects within the first year of life include both (1) loss of early appearing phonetic gestures not supported by the ambient language and (2) positive effects, reflecting infant attention to prosody and to cues available in the visual as well as the auditory modality. In the course of early lexical development more specific effects become manifest as individual children pursue less common phonetic paths to which the ambient language provides 'sufficient exposure'.

  2. RESEARCH AND SIMULATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THREE-AXIAL COMPACTION ON POWDER METALLURGIC PRODUCT PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.G. Wang; Y.C. Wu; M.H. Jiao; T. Xie; J.W. Yu; Y.G. Yin

    2008-01-01

    The warm powder compaction process is simulated by the finite element analysis software, MSC/MARC. The thermal mechanically coupled analysis method is applied on the basis of the updated Lagrangian Method, to simulate the warm powder compaction process. The warm powder compaction process is simulated, and the influence of friction condition and pressing styles are researched on the density of powder green and the mechanics behavior at certain temperature. The results indicate that for cylindrical compacts, with the improvement of the friction condition, the uniformity of distribution of green relative density is largely improved, the pressing force and stress decrease, and the nonconforming pressing processes influence the distribution of green density to some degree. The status of stress distribution of the process that punches firstly press and die finally press is different from the other three processes, and presents the figure of 'flume'.

  3. Influence of Via Stacking for High Density of Consumer Electronics Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Tohru; Hase, Tomohiro

    The stacked via technology becomes to be one of key technologies for the achievement of high density packaging as of today, however, it could not be said that the influence of via stacking has been understood sufficiently. The influence of one to five stacked VIA technologies are studied with the parameter of stress and strain on the view point of reliability, comparing the condition that these vias are located directly on the RFP (Resin Filled PTH (Pin Through Hole)), and the other condition that these are located left and right with some distance from RFP. The maximum is happened at the smallest neck of via, and it is recommended that the via stacking is designed with some distance from RFP. The guideline as to the optimized design of the substrate that has the stacked via is provided.

  4. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  5. Engineering Synechocystis PCC6803 for hydrogen production: influence on the tolerance to oxidative and sugar stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ortega-Ramos

    Full Text Available In the prospect of engineering cyanobacteria for the biological photoproduction of hydrogen, we have studied the hydrogen production machine in the model unicellular strain Synechocystis PCC6803 through gene deletion, and overexpression (constitutive or controlled by the growth temperature. We demonstrate that the hydrogenase-encoding hoxEFUYH operon is dispensable to standard photoautotrophic growth in absence of stress, and it operates in cell defense against oxidative (H₂O₂ and sugar (glucose and glycerol stresses. Furthermore, we showed that the simultaneous over-production of the proteins HoxEFUYH and HypABCDE (assembly of hydrogenase, combined to an increase in nickel availability, led to an approximately 20-fold increase in the level of active hydrogenase. These novel results and mutants have major implications for those interested in hydrogenase, hydrogen production and redox metabolism, and their connections with environmental conditions.

  6. Key factors influencing the potential of catch crops for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Fernández-Varela, Raquel; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-08-01

    Catch crops are grown in crop rotation primarily for soil stabilization. The excess biomass of catch crops was investigated for its potential as feedstock for biogas production. Ten variables affecting catch crop growth and methane potential were evaluated. Field trials and methane potential were studied for 14 different catch crops species, with 19 samples harvested in 2010 and 36 harvested in 2011. Principal component analysis was applied to the data to identify the variables characterizing the potential for the different catch crops species for methane production. Two principal components explained up to 84.6% and 71.6% of the total variation for 2010 and 2011 samples, respectively. Specific methane yield, climate conditions (rainfall and temperature) and total nitrogen in the biomass were the variables classifying the different catch crops. Catch crops in the Brassicaceae and Graminaceae botanical families showed the highest methane yield. This study demonstrates the importance of the crop species when choosing a suitable catch crop for biogas production.

  7. Do production patterns influence the processing of speech in prelinguistic infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2011-12-01

    The headturn preference procedure was used to test 18 infants on their response to three different passages chosen to reflect their individual production patterns. The passages contained nonwords with consonants in one of three categories: (a) often produced by that infant ('own'), (b) rarely produced by that infant but common at that age ('other'), and (c) not generally produced by infants. Infants who had a single 'own' consonant showed no significant preference for either 'own' (a) or 'other' (b) passages. In contrast, infants' with two 'own' consonants exhibited greater attention to 'other' passages (b). Both groups attended equally to the passage featuring consonants rarely produced by infants of that age (c). An analysis of a sample of the infant-directed speech ruled out the mothers' speech as a source of the infant preferences. The production-based shift to a focus on the 'other' passage suggests that nascent production abilities combine with emergent perceptual experience to facilitate word learning.

  8. Influence of Information Product Quality on Informing Users: A Web Portal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Web portals have been used as information products to deliver personalized, feature-rich, and flexible information needs to Internet users. However, all portals are not equal. Most of them have relatively a small number of visitors, while a few capture the majority of surfers. This study seeks to uncover the factors that contribute the perceived quality of a general portal. Based on 21 factors derived from an extensive literature review on Information Product Quality (IPQ, web usage, and media use, an experimental study was conducted to identify the factors that are perceived by web portal users as most relevant. The literature categorizes quality factors of an information product in three dimensions: information, physical, and service. This experiment suggests a different clustering of factors: Content relevancy, Communication interactiveness, Information currency, and Instant gratification. The findings in this study will help developers find a more customer-oriented approach to developing high-traffic portals.

  9. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  10. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  11. Marketing through instagram influencers: impact of number of followers and product divergence on brand attitude

    OpenAIRE

    De Veirman, Marijke; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2016-01-01

    Findings from two experiments show that Instagram influencers with high numbers of followers are considered more likeable, mostly because they are considered more popular. Important, only in limited cases, perceptions of popularity due to the influencer’s number of followers, lead to perceptions of opinion leadership. Furthermore, one should also take into account number of followees, as very low numbers of followees might negatively impact popular influencers’ likeability. Also, cooperating ...

  12. Influence of oral administration of Salix babylonica extract on milk production and composition in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah Z.M. Salem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×3 Latin Square design was used to evaluate effects of 0, 150 and 300 mL of Salix babylonica (SB extract mixed into the diet on daily milk production and composition in cows. Three Brown Swiss dairy cows (420±30.3 kg body weight, at late lactation (220±25.1 d in milk, were fed a diet with a restricted amount of concentrate and oat hay ad libitum twice daily in equal amounts. The SB extract was mixed daily with a small amount of concentrate and fed to the cows. In vitro gas production of the diet fed to the cows was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL SB/g DM. Intake of oat hay was increased (P<0.05 by 11.5% with the SB addition at 150 mL/d. Milk production was also increased with extract addition at 150 or 300 mL/d by about 13.3 and 8.9% respectively, compared with control. Milk fat was lower (P<0.05 with SB addition, while milk protein and lactose were not affected by the extract addition. Milk efficiency was improved (P<0.05 with extract addition versus control. In vitro gas production of the diet increased (P<0.05 dramatically with increasing levels of extract addition with a short lag time and high rate of gas production per hour vs control. Addition of SB extract at 150 mL/d improved milk production by 13.3%, while it decreased its fat content and improved milk efficiency.

  13. Influence of carcass weight on instrumental and sensory lamb meat quality in intensive production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, C; Santolaria, M P; María, G; Osorio, M; Sierra, I

    1996-01-01

    The influence of carcass weight (CW) on instrumental and sensory meat quality traits was studied in Rasa Aragonesa lamb carcasses. Forty-six intact male lamb carcasses were divided into three groups: 8.07 (S.D. 0.36) kg (A); 10.22 (S.D. 0.79) kg (B) and 13.42 (S.D. 1.36) kg (C). Results indicate that CW significantly influenced instrumental measurements in all the traits considered, except for waterholding capacity. The weight increase produced higher pH, haem pigment and redness (a (∗)) and lower lightness. Shear values were higher (p ≤ 0.01) in group B. Sensory traits were not influenced by CW with the exception of juiciness. This parameter increased in the order A-B-C, and the subjective colour estimation was darker in groups B and C. The results show that it is possible to produce heavier or lighter lamb carcasses than traditional lamb (Ternasco de Aragón, group B), without significant losses in meat quality. This fact could give flexibility to a system permitting the slaughter weight to be adjusted to variations in seasonal prices.

  14. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W; Brownlie, Jeremy C

    2015-07-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

  15. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact...... determine their environmental impact. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...

  17. When the reaper becomes a salesman: The influence of terror management on product preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Bommel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates how consumer choice is affected by Terror Management Theory’s proposition of Mortality Salience increasing one’s cultural worldview defense and self-esteem striving. The study builds empirically upon prior theorizing by Arndt, Solomon, Kasser and Sheldon (2004. During an experiment, we manipulated Mortality Salience and measured product preferences for conspicuousness and familiarity. Participants primed with death were more likely to choose conspicuous products, corroborating previous research of mortality salience raising materialistic tendencies. In addition, participants showed a tendency to prefer familiar brands. These results are in line with the Terror Management Theory framework.

  18. Influence of halogen salts on the production of the ochratoxins by aspergillus ochraceus wilh

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stander, MA

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available production of bromo ochratoxin B by South African and Australian isolates of A. ochraceus Wilh.and the effects of potassium bromide, potassium fluoride, potassium chloride, and potassium iodide on the dynamics of production of ochratoxins. In addition, a... Durum wheat (2.1 kg) at 25 ?C for 14 days on a rotary shaker in 25 Erlenmeyer 500 mL flasks. The wheat was soaked with chloroform/methanol (1:1, 200 mL per flask containing 80 g of wheat) and left at ca. 20 ?C for 12 h. This was subsequently homogenized...

  19. Influence of different liquid-drop-based bindings on lighter mass fragments and entropy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rohit; Shivani; Gautam, Sakshi [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2016-04-15

    We study the production of lighter fragments and associated phenomena within the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method is used to identify the pre-clusters. The final stable fragments were identified by imposing binding energy criteria on the fragments formed using the MST method. The effect of different binding energy criteria was investigated by employing various liquid-drop-based binding energy formulae. Though light clusters show significant effect of different binding energies, their associated phenomenon, i.e. entropy production is insensitive towards different binding energy criteria. (orig.)

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on productivity parameters of chicken fed mycotoxin-contaminated corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simas, Monica M.S., E-mail: monicamssimas@yahoo.com.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Albuquerque, Ricardo, E-mail: ricalbuq@usp.b [Nutrition and Animal Production Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225 Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Carlos A., E-mail: carlosaf@usp.b [Food Science Department, College of Food Science, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga, Sao Paulo 13695-900 (Brazil); Rottinghaus, George E., E-mail: rottinghausg@missouri.ed [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 1600 East Rollins, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Microbiology Department, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate productivity parameters and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed irradiated corn contaminated with mycotoxins. For this purpose, 180 one-day-old male chicks were divided into nine treatments and fed for 42 days. The results indicated that irradiation of corn with 5 kGy improved the productivity parameters studied. Therefore, gamma radiation may become an alternative for the control of the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on broiler chickens, which cause marked economic losses for rural producers.