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Sample records for sarcomere length sl

  1. The relationship between shear force, compression, collagen characteristics, desmin degradation and sarcomere length in lamb biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identity the relationships between known variants of tenderness (collagen content (total and soluble), desmin degradation and sarcomere length) and shear force and compression in the biceps femoris aged for 14days from 112 mixed sex lambs. Desmin degradation was related to compression (P<0.05) such that as desmin degradation increased compression decreased. Sarcomere length (SL) was related to shear force (P<0.05), such that as SL increased shear force declined. Shear force was also related to compression (P<0.05), and soluble collagen (P<0.05), with male lambs producing higher shear force values than females (4.4±1.72N: P<0.05) when adjusted for compression, sarcomere length and soluble collagen. The findings from this experiment indicate that the known variants (soluble collagen, sarcomere length and desmin degradation) are related to shear force and compression in ovine biceps femoris.

  2. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntosh Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  3. Human soleus sarcomere lengths measured using in vivo microendoscopy at two ankle flexion angles.

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    Chen, Xuefeng; Delp, Scott L

    2016-12-08

    The forces generated by the soleus muscle play an important role in standing and locomotion. The lengths of the sarcomeres of the soleus affect its force-generating capacity, yet it is unknown how sarcomere lengths in the soleus change as a function of ankle flexion angle. In this study, we used microendoscopy to measure resting sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion and 20° dorsiflexion in 7 healthy individuals. Mean sarcomere lengths at 10° plantarflexion were 2.84±0.09µm (mean±S.E.M.), near the optimal length for sarcomere force generation. Sarcomere lengths were 3.43±0.09µm at 20° dorsiflexion, indicating that they were longer than optimal length when the ankle was in dorsiflexion and the muscle was inactive. Our results indicate a smaller sarcomere length difference between two ankle flexion angles compared to estimates from musculoskeletal models and suggest why these models frequently underestimate the force-generating capacity of the soleus.

  4. Polarization gating enables sarcomere length measurements by laser diffraction in fibrotic muscle

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    Young, Kevin W.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomere length is a key parameter commonly measured in muscle physiology since it dictates striated muscle active force. Laser diffraction (LD)-based measurements of sarcomere length are time-efficient and sample a greater number of sarcomeres compared with traditional microscopy-based techniques. However, a limitation to LD techniques is that signal quality is severely degraded by scattering events as photons propagate through tissue. Consequently, sarcomere length measurements are unattainable when the number of scattering events is sufficiently large in muscle tissue with a high scattering probability. This occurs in fibrotic skeletal muscle seen in muscular dystrophies and secondary to tissue trauma, thus eliminating the use of LD to study these skeletal muscle ailments. Here, we utilize polarization gating to extract diffracted signals that are buried in noise created by scattering. Importantly, we demonstrate that polarization-gated laser diffraction (PGLD) enables sarcomere length measurements in muscles from chronically immobilized mice hind limbs; these muscles have a substantial increase of intramuscular connective tissue that scatter light and disable sarcomere length measurements by traditional LD. Further, we compare PGLD sarcomere lengths to those measured by bright field (BF) and confocal microscopy as positive controls and reveal a significant bias of BF but not of confocal microscopy.

  5. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric tension development in frog skeletal muscle.

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    Cleworth, D R; Edman, K A

    1972-12-01

    1. Changes in sarcomere length during isometric contraction of isolated semitendinosus muscle fibres from the frog were studied using laser diffraction techniques. Movements of the first-order diffraction line relative to the zero-order reference were recorded from a screen on continuously moving film. Sarcomere length changes of 50 A could be resolved in this way.2. Following a latent period of approximately 12 msec after the stimulus of a single skeletal muscle fibre at 1-2 degrees C, there appeared to be a simultaneous onset of tension development and sarcomere shortening. Provided that the fibre was uniformly excited along its length, different regions shortened together by approximately the same amount. The extent of the shortening was a function of the total compliance of the tendons and tension measuring device.3. During the plateau of a smooth tetanus no fluctuations of first-order line width or zero- to first-order line spacing were detectable at any point examined along the preparation. This finding provides evidence that, in a functionally intact fibre, no synchronous oscillations of the sarcomeres, at least no length changes exceeding 50 A, occur during a fused tetanus. Furthermore, the fact that the first-order line did not increase in width as the preparation went from rest to full activity indicates that contraction proceeds without appreciable change in distribution of sarcomere lengths.4. The sarcomere movements during relaxation differed along the length of the fibre. As the tension declined smoothly, sarcomeres in some parts of the fibre underwent further shortening, while the end sarcomeres near the tendons and in one or two regions in the middle segment of the fibre were further extended. These data indicate that the duration of the mechanical activity differs in different regions along the length of the fibre. The pattern of relaxation, i.e. the behaviour of the sarcomeres in different fibre segments, is unique to any particular fibre.

  6. Sarcomere length organization as a design for cooperative function amongst all lumbar spine muscles.

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    Zwambag, Derek P; Ricketts, T Alexander; Brown, Stephen H M

    2014-09-22

    The functional design of spine muscles in part dictates their role in moving, loading, and stabilizing the lumbar spine. There have been numerous studies that have examined the isolated properties of these individual muscles. Understanding how these muscles interact and work together, necessary for the prediction of muscle function, spine loading, and stability, is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure sarcomere lengths of lumbar muscles in a neutral cadaveric position and predict the sarcomere operating ranges of these muscles throughout full ranges of spine movements. Sarcomere lengths of seven lumbar muscles in each of seven cadaveric donors were measured using laser diffraction. Using published anatomical coordinate data, superior muscle attachment sites were rotated about each intervertebral joint and the total change in muscle length was used to predict sarcomere length operating ranges. The extensor muscles had short sarcomere lengths in a neutral spine posture and there were no statistically significant differences between extensor muscles. The quadratus lumborum was the only muscle with sarcomere lengths that were optimal for force production in a neutral spine position, and the psoas muscles had the longest lengths in this position. During modeled flexion the extensor, quadratus lumborum, and intertransversarii muscles lengthened so that all muscles operated in the approximate same location on the descending limb of the force-length relationship. The intrinsic properties of lumbar muscles are designed to complement each other. The extensor muscles are all designed to produce maximum force in a mid-flexed posture, and all muscles are designed to operate at similar locations of the force-length relationship at full spine flexion.

  7. Variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles.

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    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the extent of variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, and collagen content among pork muscles and the association of those factors with tenderness variation among muscles at 1 d postmortem. Twenty-three white composite barrows were slaughtered and carcasses (66 kg) were chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h. At 1 d postmortem, the longissimus lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and triceps brachii, long head were dissected from one side of each carcass and frozen. Trained sensory panelists evaluated tenderness, amount of connective tissue, juiciness, and pork flavor intensity of grilled (70 degrees C) chops on 8-point scales. Raw chops were used for total collagen content, sarcomere length, and the extent of desmin proteolysis. Tenderness ratings were highest (P muscles were .54 (semimembranosus), .34 (semitendinosus), .36 (triceps branchii), and .17 (biceps femorus). Total collagen was highest (P muscle), followed by triceps branchii (6.0 mg/g) and semitendinosus (5.3 mg/g), and lowest for semimembranosus (4.5 mg/g) and longissimus lumborum (4.1 mg/g). Sarcomere length was longest (P variation in tenderness rating among all samples. Piecewise linear regression was used to account for the interaction of sarcomere length with proteolysis and collagen. This analysis accounted for 72% of the variation in tenderness rating. Variation in collagen, proteolysis, and sarcomere length and the degree of their interaction with one another determine the tenderness of individual muscles.

  8. Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.

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    Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models.

  9. Elastic energy storage and radial forces in the myofilament lattice depend on sarcomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C David Williams

    Full Text Available We most often consider muscle as a motor generating force in the direction of shortening, but less often consider its roles as a spring or a brake. Here we develop a fully three-dimensional spatially explicit model of muscle to isolate the locations of forces and energies that are difficult to separate experimentally. We show the strain energy in the thick and thin filaments is less than one third the strain energy in attached cross-bridges. This result suggests the cross-bridges act as springs, storing energy within muscle in addition to generating the force which powers muscle. Comparing model estimates of energy consumed to elastic energy stored, we show that the ratio of these two properties changes with sarcomere length. The model predicts storage of a greater fraction of energy at short sarcomere lengths, suggesting a mechanism by which muscle function shifts as force production declines, from motor to spring. Additionally, we investigate the force that muscle produces in the radial or transverse direction, orthogonal to the direction of shortening. We confirm prior experimental estimates that place radial forces on the same order of magnitude as axial forces, although we find that radial forces and axial forces vary differently with changes in sarcomere length.

  10. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

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    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computing Average Passive Forces in Sarcomeres in Length-Ramp Simulations.

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    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Passive forces in sarcomeres are mainly related to the giant protein titin. Titin's extensible region consists of spring-like elements acting in series. In skeletal muscles these elements are the PEVK segment, two distinct immunoglobulin (Ig) domain regions (proximal and distal), and a N2A portion. While distal Ig domains are thought to form inextensible end filaments in intact sarcomeres, proximal Ig domains unfold in a force- and time-dependent manner. In length-ramp experiments of single titin strands, sequential unfolding of Ig domains leads to a typical saw-tooth pattern in force-elongation curves which can be simulated by Monte Carlo simulations. In sarcomeres, where more than a thousand titin strands are arranged in parallel, numerous Monte Carlo simulations are required to estimate the resultant force of all titin filaments based on the non-uniform titin elongations. To simplify calculations, the stochastic model of passive forces is often replaced by linear or non-linear deterministic and phenomenological functions. However, new theories of muscle contraction are based on the hypothesized binding of titin to the actin filament upon activation, and thereby on a prominent role of the structural properties of titin. Therefore, these theories necessitate a detailed analysis of titin forces in length-ramp experiments. In our study we present a simple and efficient alternative to Monte Carlo simulations. Based on a structural titin model, we calculate the exact probability distributions of unfolded Ig domains under length-ramp conditions needed for rigorous analysis of expected forces, distribution of unfolding forces, etc. Due to the generality of our model, the approach is applicable to a wide range of stochastic protein unfolding problems.

  12. Force produced after stretch in sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres isolated from skeletal muscles

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    Minozzo, Fábio C.; Baroni, Bruno M.; Correa, José A.; Vaz, Marco A.; Rassier, Dilson E.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate if isolated sarcomeres and half-sarcomeres produce a long-lasting increase in force after a stretch is imposed during activation. Single and half-sarcomeres were isolated from myofibrils using micro-needles, which were also used for force measurements. After full force development, both preparations were stretched by different magnitudes. The sarcomere length (SL) or half-sarcomere length variations (HSL) were extracted by measuring the initial and final distances from the Z-line to the adjacent Z-line or to a region externally adjacent to the M-line of the sarcomere, respectively. Half-sarcomeres generated approximately the same amount of isometric force (29.0 +/- SD 15.5 nN.μm-2) as single sarcomeres (32.1 +/- SD 15.3 nN.μm-2) when activated. In both cases, the steady-state forces after stretch were higher than the forces during isometric contractions at similar conditions. The results suggest that stretch-induced force enhancement is partly caused by proteins within the half-sarcomere.

  13. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, Henk J.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to al

  14. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  15. Minimally Invasive Principles and Technology to Measure Dynamic Skeletal Muscle Sarcomere Length

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Kevin William

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force production results from interaction between actin and myosin protein filaments in repeating units called sarcomeres. Sarcomere force is transmitted through the basement membrane via protein complexes to a network of connective tissue. Connective tissues transmit force to bone. Typically, muscles are characterized in vitro but this may be insufficient because stresses produced in isolated fibers or muscle bundles differ from whole muscle dynamics. Furthermore, comparisons...

  16. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.

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    Smith, Lucas R; Lee, Ki S; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-05-15

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from an upper motoneuron (UMN)lesion in the developing brain. Secondary to the UMNl esion,which causes spasticity, is a pathological response by muscle - namely, contracture. However, the elements within muscle that increase passive mechanical stiffness, and therefore result in contracture, are unknown. Using hamstring muscle biopsies from pediatric patients with CP (n =33) and control (n =19) patients we investigated passive mechanical properties at the protein, cellular, tissue and architectural levels to identify the elements responsible for contracture. Titin isoform, the major load-bearing protein within muscle cells, was unaltered in CP. Correspondingly, the passive mechanics of individual muscle fibres were not altered. However, CP muscle bundles, which include fibres in their constituent ECM, were stiffer than control bundles. This corresponded to an increase in collagen content of CP muscles measured by hydroxyproline assay and observed using immunohistochemistry. In vivo sarcomere length of CP muscle measured during surgery was significantly longer than that predicted for control muscle. The combination of increased tissue stiffness and increased sarcomere length interact to increase stiffness greatly of the contracture tissue in vivo. These findings provide evidence that contracture formation is not the result of stiffening at the cellular level, but stiffening of the ECM with increased collagen and an increase of in vivo sarcomere length leading to higher passive stresses.

  17. Biochemical Activities of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Homology Region 2 Domains of Sarcomere Length Short (SALS) Protein.

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    Tóth, Mónika Ágnes; Majoros, Andrea Kinga; Vig, Andrea Teréz; Migh, Ede; Nyitrai, Miklós; Mihály, József; Bugyi, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster sarcomere length short (SALS) is a recently identified Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain protein involved in skeletal muscle thin filament regulation. SALS was shown to be important for the establishment of the proper length and organization of sarcomeric actin filaments. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of the biochemical activities of the tandem WH2 domains of SALS (SALS-WH2). Our results revealed that SALS-WH2 binds both monomeric and filamentous actin and shifts the monomer-filament equilibrium toward the monomeric actin. In addition, SALS-WH2 can bind to but fails to depolymerize phalloidin- or jasplakinolide-bound actin filaments. These interactions endow SALS-WH2 with the following two major activities in the regulation of actin dynamics: SALS-WH2 sequesters actin monomers into non-polymerizable complexes and enhances actin filament disassembly by severing, which is modulated by tropomyosin. We also show that profilin does not influence the activities of the WH2 domains of SALS in actin dynamics. In conclusion, the tandem WH2 domains of SALS are multifunctional regulators of actin dynamics. Our findings suggest that the activities of the WH2 domains do not reconstitute the presumed biological function of the full-length protein. Consequently, the interactions of the WH2 domains of SALS with actin must be tuned in the cellular context by other modules of the protein and/or sarcomeric components for its proper functioning.

  18. SarcOptiM for ImageJ: high-frequency online sarcomere length computing on stimulated cardiomyocytes.

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    Pasqualin, Côme; Gannier, François; Yu, Angèle; Malécot, Claire O; Bredeloux, Pierre; Maupoil, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Accurate measurement of cardiomyocyte contraction is a critical issue for scientists working on cardiac physiology and physiopathology of diseases implying contraction impairment. Cardiomyocytes contraction can be quantified by measuring sarcomere length, but few tools are available for this, and none is freely distributed. We developed a plug-in (SarcOptiM) for the ImageJ/Fiji image analysis platform developed by the National Institutes of Health. SarcOptiM computes sarcomere length via fast Fourier transform analysis of video frames captured or displayed in ImageJ and thus is not tied to a dedicated video camera. It can work in real time or offline, the latter overcoming rotating motion or displacement-related artifacts. SarcOptiM includes a simulator and video generator of cardiomyocyte contraction. Acquisition parameters, such as pixel size and camera frame rate, were tested with both experimental recordings of rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and synthetic videos. It is freely distributed, and its source code is available. It works under Windows, Mac, or Linux operating systems. The camera speed is the limiting factor, since the algorithm can compute online sarcomere shortening at frame rates >10 kHz. In conclusion, SarcOptiM is a free and validated user-friendly tool for studying cardiomyocyte contraction in all species, including human.

  19. Ca2+-independent alterations in diastolic sarcomere length and relaxation kinetics in a mouse model of lipotoxic diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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    Flagg, Thomas P; Cazorla, Olivier; Remedi, Maria S; Haim, Todd E; Tones, Michael A; Bahinski, Anthony; Numann, Randal E; Kovacs, Attila; Schaffer, Jean E; Nichols, Colin G; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2009-01-02

    Previous studies demonstrated increased fatty acid uptake and metabolism in MHC-FATP transgenic mice that overexpress fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 in the heart under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter. Doppler tissue imaging and hemodynamic measurements revealed diastolic dysfunction, in the absence of changes in systolic function. The experiments here directly test the hypothesis that the diastolic dysfunction in MHC-FATP mice reflects impaired ventricular myocyte contractile function. In vitro imaging of isolated adult MHC-FATP ventricular myocytes revealed that mean diastolic sarcomere length is significantly (P<0.01) shorter than in wild-type (WT) cells (1.79+/-0.01 versus 1.84+/-0.01 microm). In addition, the relaxation rate (dL/dt) is significantly (P<0.05) slower in MHC-FATP than WT myocytes (1.58+/-0.09 versus 1.92+/-0.13 microm/s), whereas both fractional shortening and contraction rates are not different. Application of 40 mmol/L 2,3-butadionemonoxime (a nonspecific ATPase inhibitor that relaxes actin-myosin interactions) increased diastolic sarcomere length in both WT and MHC-FATP myocytes to the same length, suggesting that MHC-FATP myocytes are partially activated at rest. Direct measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) revealed that diastolic [Ca(2+)](i) is unchanged in MHC-FATP myocytes and the rate of calcium removal is unexpectedly faster in MHC-FATP than WT myocytes. Moreover, diastolic sarcomere length in MHC-FATP and WT myocytes was unaffected by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or by buffering of intracellular Ca(2+) with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (100 micromol/L), indicating that elevated intracellular Ca(2+) does not underlie impaired diastolic function in MHC-FATP ventricular myocytes. Functional assessment of skinned myocytes, however, revealed that myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is markedly increased in MHC-FATP, compared with WT, ventricular cells. In addition, biochemical experiments demonstrated

  20. COMPARISON OF SARCOMERE LENGTH FOR TWO TYPES OF MEAT FROM ANIMAL FAMILY SUIDAE – ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENTS CARRIED OUT BY MICROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE

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    Dominika Guzek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the sarcomere length variation in Psoas major muscle in pork and wild boar tenderloin. Microscopic slides were prepared and muscles were evaluated in Nomarski contrast – there were made measurements with the number of 150. Subsequently, sarcomeres length of three different, representative myofibrils were measured for each kind of meat. Values of sarcomere’s lengths of myofibrils ​​were characterized by a normal distribution. The mean length of sarcomere was 3.28 ± 0.23 µm for pork meat and 2.51 ± 0.14 µm for wild boar meat – difference between animals was statistically significant (p = 0.0000. It was stated that sarcomere length for pork meat was dependent on the myofibril. A lower variation in the sarcomere’s length of wild boar meat in comparison with pork meat has been shown. This difference is reflected in tougher wild boar meat texture.

  1. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

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    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  2. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer.

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    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W; Tomiya, Akihito; Lee, Yu Po; Ghofrani, Hossein; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-12-15

    Controlled laboratory and cross-sectional study designs. To determine psoas major (PM) muscle architectural properties, in vivo sarcomere-length operating range, and passive mechanical properties. PM is an important hip flexor but its role in lumbar spine function is not fully understood. Several investigators have detailed the gross anatomy of PM, but comprehensive architectural data and in vivo length-tension and passive mechanical behaviors have not been documented. PM was isolated in 13 cadaver specimens, permitting architectural measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length (Lf), and Lf:muscle length (Lm) ratio. Sarcomere lengths were measured in vivo from intraoperative biopsies taken with the hip joint in flexed and extended positions. Single-fiber and fiber bundle tensile properties and titin molecular weight were then measured from separate biopsies. Architecturally, average PCSA was 18.45 ± 1.32 cm2, average Lf was 12.70 ± 2 cm, and average Lf: Lm was 0.48 ± 0.06. Intraoperative sarcomere length measurements revealed that the muscle operates from 3.18 ± 0.20 μm with hip flexed at 10.7° ± 13.9° to 3.03 ± 0.22 μm with hip flexed at 55.9° ± 21.4°. Passive mechanical data demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the PM muscle fibers was 37.44 ± 9.11 kPa and of fiber bundles was 55.3 ± 11.8 kPa. Analysis of PM architecture demonstrates that its average Lf and passive biomechanical properties resemble those of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. In addition, PM sarcomere lengths were confined to the descending portion of the length-tension curve allowing the muscle to become stronger as the hip is flexed and the spine assumes a forward leaning posture. These findings suggest that the human PM has architectural and physiologic features that support its role as both a flexor of the hip and a dynamic stabilizer of the lumbar spine.

  3. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  4. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure-induced electrical and mechanical alternans and how they are altered by physiological conditions at near-resting heart rates.

  5. Sarcomeric Pattern Formation by Actin Cluster Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells. PMID:22685394

  6. Sarcomeric pattern formation by actin cluster coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Friedrich

    Full Text Available Contractile function of striated muscle cells depends crucially on the almost crystalline order of actin and myosin filaments in myofibrils, but the physical mechanisms that lead to myofibril assembly remains ill-defined. Passive diffusive sorting of actin filaments into sarcomeric order is kinetically impossible, suggesting a pivotal role of active processes in sarcomeric pattern formation. Using a one-dimensional computational model of an initially unstriated actin bundle, we show that actin filament treadmilling in the presence of processive plus-end crosslinking provides a simple and robust mechanism for the polarity sorting of actin filaments as well as for the correct localization of myosin filaments. We propose that the coalescence of crosslinked actin clusters could be key for sarcomeric pattern formation. In our simulations, sarcomere spacing is set by filament length prompting tight length control already at early stages of pattern formation. The proposed mechanism could be generic and apply both to premyofibrils and nascent myofibrils in developing muscle cells as well as possibly to striated stress-fibers in non-muscle cells.

  7. The role of filament length, finite-extensibility and motor force dispersity in stress relaxation and buckling mechanisms in non-sarcomeric active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Andrés; Schieber, Jay D; Indei, Tsutomu

    2015-01-07

    After relaxing some assumptions we apply a single-chain mean-field mathematical model recently introduced [RSC Adv. (2014)] to describe the role of molecular motors in the mechanical properties of active gels. The model allows physics that are not available in models postulated on coarser levels of description. Moreover it proposes a level of description that allows the prediction of observables at time scales too difficult to achieve in multi-chain simulations for realistic filament lengths and densities. We model the semiflexible filaments that compose the active gel as bead-spring chains; molecular motors are accounted for by using a mean-field approach, in which filaments undergo transitions of one motor attachment state depending on the state of the probe filament. The level of description includes the end-to-end distance and attachment state of the filaments, and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The motor-generated forces are drawn from a stationary distribution of motor stall forces. We consider bead-spring chains with multiple beads, explore the effect of finite-extensibility of the strands and incorporate into the model motor force distributions that have been measured experimentally. The model can no longer be solved analytically but is amenable to numerical simulation. This version of the model allows a more quantitative description of buckling dynamics [Lenz et. al. PRL, 2012, 108, 238107] and the dynamic modulus of active gels. The effect of finite extensibility of the filament strands on the dynamic modulus was also found to be in agreement with the microrheology experiments of Mizuno et. al., [Science, 2007, 315, 370-373].

  8. In Vivo Imaging of Human Sarcomere Twitch Dynamics in Individual Motor Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gabriel N; Sinha, Supriyo; Liske, Holly; Chen, Xuefeng; Nguyen, Viet; Delp, Scott L; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2015-12-16

    Motor units comprise a pre-synaptic motor neuron and multiple post-synaptic muscle fibers. Many movement disorders disrupt motor unit contractile dynamics and the structure of sarcomeres, skeletal muscle's contractile units. Despite the motor unit's centrality to neuromuscular physiology, no extant technology can image sarcomere twitch dynamics in live humans. We created a wearable microscope equipped with a microendoscope for minimally invasive observation of sarcomere lengths and contractile dynamics in any major skeletal muscle. By electrically stimulating twitches via the microendoscope and visualizing the sarcomere displacements, we monitored single motor unit contractions in soleus and vastus lateralis muscles of healthy individuals. Control experiments verified that these evoked twitches involved neuromuscular transmission and faithfully reported muscle force generation. In post-stroke patients with spasticity of the biceps brachii, we found involuntary microscopic contractions and sarcomere length abnormalities. The wearable microscope facilitates exploration of many basic and disease-related neuromuscular phenomena never visualized before in live humans.

  9. Sarcomere Dysfunction in Nemaline Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Josine M; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2017-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies (incidence 1:50.000). Hallmark features of NM are skeletal muscle weakness and the presence of nemaline bodies in the muscle fiber. The clinical phenotype of NM patients is quite diverse, ranging from neonatal death to normal lifespan with almost normal motor function. As the respiratory muscles are involved as well, severely affected patients are ventilator-dependent. The mechanisms underlying muscle weakness in NM are currently poorly understood. Therefore, no therapeutic treatment is available yet.Eleven implicated genes have been identified: ten genes encode proteins that are either components of thin filament, or are thought to contribute to stability or turnover of thin filament proteins. The thin filament is a major constituent of the sarcomere, the smallest contractile unit in muscle. It is at this level of contraction - thin-thick filament interaction - where muscle weakness originates in NM patients.This review focusses on how sarcomeric gene mutations directly compromise sarcomere function in NM. Insight into the contribution of sarcomeric dysfunction to muscle weakness in NM, across the genes involved, will direct towards the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

  10. Sarcomere Imaging by Quantum Dots for the Study of Cardiac Muscle Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyu Kobirumaki-Shimozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review the use of quantum dots (QDs for the imaging of sarcomeric movements in cardiac muscle. QDs are fluorescence substances (CdSe that absorb photons and reemit photons at a different wavelength (depending on the size of the particle; they are efficient in generating long-lasting, narrow symmetric emission profiles, and hence useful in various types of imaging studies. Recently, we developed a novel system in which the length of a particular, single sarcomere in cardiomyocytes can be measured at ~30 nm precision. Moreover, our system enables accurate measurement of sarcomere length in the isolated heart. We propose that QDs are the ideal tool for the study of sarcomere dynamics during excitation-contraction coupling in healthy and diseased cardiac muscle.

  11. Sarcomere lengthening and tension drop in the latent period of isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, P; Sten-Knudsen, O

    1976-09-01

    A laser diffraction technique has been developed for registering small changes in sarcomere length. The technique is capable of resolving changes as small as 0.2 A in isolated frog skeletal muscle fibers. The small sarcomere lengthening that accompanies the drop in tension in the latent period of contraction was investigated. We suggest this lengthening be named latency elongation (LE). The LE is present in a completely slack fiber and must, therefore, be caused by a forcible lengthening process. Furthermore, the LE is dependent on the existence of an overlap between thin and tick filaments. The rate of elongation and the time interval between stimulation and maximum elongation may vary along the fiber. The maximum elongation was 3-5 A per sarcomere. At any instant the drop in tension is a product of the sum of sarcomere lengthenings along the fiber and the slope stiffness of the series elasticity. The latency relaxation (LR) could be registered in the sarcomere length range from 2.2 mum to 3.6-3.7 mum. The amplitude went through a sharp maximum at 3.0-3.1 mum. In the sarcomere length range from 2.2 to 2.8 mum the delay from onset to maximum LR was nearly proportional to the distance from the Z-line to the overlap zone. A working hypothesis is presented. It is suggested that the LE is caused by a lengthening of the thin filaments.

  12. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Perkins

    Full Text Available Animal muscles must maintain their function while bearing substantial mechanical loads. How muscles withstand persistent mechanical strain is presently not well understood. The basic unit of muscle is the sarcomere, which is primarily composed of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that cytoskeletal protein turnover is required to maintain muscle function. Using the flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster, we confirmed that the sarcomeric cytoskeleton undergoes turnover throughout adult life. To uncover which cytoskeletal components are required to maintain adult muscle function, we performed an RNAi-mediated knockdown screen targeting the entire fly cytoskeleton and associated proteins. Gene knockdown was restricted to adult flies and muscle function was analyzed with behavioural assays. Here we analyze the results of that screen and characterize the specific muscle maintenance role for several hits. The screen identified 46 genes required for muscle maintenance: 40 of which had no previously known role in this process. Bioinformatic analysis highlighted the structural sarcomeric proteins as a candidate group for further analysis. Detailed confocal and electron microscopic analysis showed that while muscle architecture was maintained after candidate gene knockdown, sarcomere length was disrupted. Specifically, we found that ongoing synthesis and turnover of the key sarcomere structural components Projectin, Myosin and Actin are required to maintain correct sarcomere length and thin filament length. Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.

  14. A mathematical model of muscle containing heterogeneous half-sarcomeres exhibits residual force enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart G; Hatfield, P Chris; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2011-09-01

    A skeletal muscle fiber that is stimulated to contract and then stretched from L₁ to L₂ produces more force after the initial transient decays than if it is stimulated at L₂. This behavior has been well studied experimentally, and is known as residual force enhancement. The underlying mechanism remains controversial. We hypothesized that residual force enhancement could reflect mechanical interactions between heterogeneous half-sarcomeres. To test this hypothesis, we subjected a computational model of interacting heterogeneous half-sarcomeres to the same activation and stretch protocols that produce residual force enhancement in real preparations. Following a transient period of elevated force associated with active stretching, the model predicted a slowly decaying force enhancement lasting >30 seconds after stretch. Enhancement was on the order of 13% above isometric tension at the post-stretch muscle length, which agrees well with experimental measurements. Force enhancement in the model was proportional to stretch magnitude but did not depend strongly on the velocity of stretch, also in agreement with experiments. Even small variability in the strength of half-sarcomeres (2.1% standard deviation, normally distributed) was sufficient to produce a 5% force enhancement over isometric tension. Analysis of the model suggests that heterogeneity in half-sarcomeres leads to residual force enhancement by storing strain energy introduced during active stretch in distributions of bound cross-bridges. Complex interactions between the heterogeneous half-sarcomeres then dissipate this stored energy at a rate much slower than isolated cross-bridges would cycle. Given the variations in half-sarcomere length that have been observed in real muscle preparations and the stochastic variability inherent in all biological systems, half-sarcomere heterogeneity cannot be excluded as a contributing source of residual force enhancement.

  15. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  16. Automated cardiac sarcomere analysis from second harmonic generation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Crispi, Fatima; Torre, Iratxe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Bijnens, Bart H.; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Automatic quantification of cardiac muscle properties in tissue sections might provide important information related to different types of diseases. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging provides a stain-free microscopy approach to image cardiac fibers that, combined with our methodology of the automated measurement of the ultrastructure of muscle fibers, computes a reliable set of quantitative image features (sarcomere length, A-band length, thick-thin interaction length, and fiber orientation). We evaluated the performance of our methodology in computer-generated muscle fibers modeling some artifacts that are present during the image acquisition. Then, we also evaluated it by comparing it to manual measurements in SHG images from cardiac tissue of fetal and adult rabbits. The results showed a good performance of our methodology at high signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. We conclude that our automated measurements enable reliable characterization of cardiac fiber tissues to systematically study cardiac tissue in a wide range of conditions.

  17. Sallimus and the dynamics of sarcomere assembly in Drosophila flight muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Leonard, Kevin; Elliott, Chris; Katzemich, Anja; Bullard, Belinda; Sparrow, John

    2015-06-19

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) can be used as a model for the study of sarcomere assembly. Here we use a transgenic line with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) exon inserted into the Z-disc-proximal portion of sallimus (Sls), also known as Drosophila titin, to observe sarcomere assembly during IFM development. Firstly, we confirm that Sls-GFP can be used in the heterozygote state without an obvious phenotype in IFM and other muscles. We then use Sls-GFP in the IFM to show that sarcomeres grow individually and uniformly throughout the fibre, growing linearly in length and in diameter. Finally, we show that limiting the amounts of Sls in the IFM using RNAi leads to sarcomeres with smaller Z-discs in their core, whilst the thick/thin filament lattice can form peripherally without a Z-disc. Thick filament preparations from those muscles show that although the Z-disc-containing core has thick filaments of a regular length, filaments from the peripheral lattice are longer and asymmetrical around the bare zone. Therefore, the Z-disc and Sls are required for thick filament length specification but not for the assembly of the thin/thick filament lattice.

  18. Sarcomere Length Influences u-calpain Mediated Proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis both influence beef tenderness, but their interacting effects on tenderness are relatively unknown. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for deg...

  19. Omecamtiv Mecarbil Abolishes Length-Mediated Increase in Guinea Pig Cardiac Myofiber Ca(2+) Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, Sampath K; Reda, Sherif M; Chandra, Murali

    2017-08-22

    Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological agent that augments cardiac contractile function by enhancing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Given that interventions that increase myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity have the potential to alter length-dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments, we tested the influence of OM on this fundamental property of the heart. This is significant not only because LDA is prominent in cardiac muscle but also because it contributes to the Frank-Starling law, a mechanism by which the heart increases stroke volume in response to an increase in venous return. We measured steady-state and dynamic contractile indices in detergent-skinned guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) cardiac muscle fibers in the absence and presence of 0.3 and 3.0 μM OM at two different sarcomere lengths (SLs), short SL (1.9 μm) and long SL (2.3 μm). Myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, as measured by pCa50 (-log of [Ca(2+)]free concentration required for half-maximal activation), increased significantly at both short and long SLs in OM-treated fibers when compared to untreated fibers; however, the magnitude of increase in pCa50 was twofold greater at short SL than at long SL. A consequence of this greater increase in pCa50 at short SL was that pCa50 did not increase any further at long SL, suggesting that OM abolished the SL dependency of pCa50. Furthermore, the SL dependency of rate constants of cross-bridge distortion dynamics (c) and force redevelopment (ktr) was abolished in 0.3-μM-OM-treated fibers. The negative impact of OM on the SL dependency of pCa50, c, and ktr was also observed in 3.0-μM-OM-treated fibers, indicating that cooperative mechanisms linked to LDA were altered by the OM-mediated effects on cardiac myofilaments. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breaking sarcomeres by in vitro exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Zacharias; Gödderz, Markus P O; Soroka, Ekaterina; Gödderz, Tobias; Rumyantseva, Anastasia; van der Ven, Peter F M; Hawke, Thomas J; Fürst, Dieter O

    2016-01-25

    Eccentric exercise leads to focal disruptions in the myofibrils, referred to as "lesions". These structures are thought to contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, and to represent areas of mechanical damage and/or remodelling. Lesions have been investigated in human biopsies and animal samples after exercise. However, this approach does not examine the mechanisms behind lesion formation, or their behaviour during contraction. To circumvent this, we used electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to simulate exercise in C2C12 myotubes, combined with live microscopy. EPS application led to the formation of sarcomeric lesions in the myotubes, resembling those seen in exercised mice, increasing in number with the time of application or stimulation intensity. Furthermore, transfection with an EGFP-tagged version of the lesion and Z-disc marker filamin-C allowed us to observe the formation of lesions using live cell imaging. Finally, using the same technique we studied the behaviour of these structures during contraction, and observed them to be passively stretching. This passive behaviour supports the hypothesis that lesions contribute to the post-exercise muscle weakness, protecting against further damage. We conclude that EPS can be reliably used as a model for the induction and study of sarcomeric lesions in myotubes in vitro.

  1. KLHL41 stabilizes skeletal muscle sarcomeres by nonproteolytic ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Martinez, Andres; Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Chen, Beibei; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of muscle function requires assembly of contractile proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Mutations in Kelch-like protein 41 (KLHL41) cause nemaline myopathy, a fatal muscle disorder associated with sarcomere disarray. We generated KLHL41 mutant mice, which display lethal disruption of sarcomeres and aberrant expression of muscle structural and contractile proteins, mimicking the hallmarks of the human disease. We show that KLHL41 is poly-ubiquitinated and acts, at least in part, by preventing aggregation and degradation of Nebulin, an essential component of the sarcomere. Furthermore, inhibition of KLHL41 poly-ubiquitination prevents its stabilization of nebulin, suggesting a unique role for ubiquitination in protein stabilization. These findings provide new insights into the molecular etiology of nemaline myopathy and reveal a mechanism whereby KLHL41 stabilizes sarcomeres and maintains muscle function by acting as a molecular chaperone. Similar mechanisms for protein stabilization likely contribute to the actions of other Kelch proteins. PMID:28826497

  2. 渭河上游流域河长坡降指标SL参数与Hack剖面的新构造意义%Implication of active structure in the upper reaches of Weihe river basin from stream length-gradient index(SL index) and Hack profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉亚鹏; 高红山; 潘保田; 李宗盟; 管东升; 杜功元

    2011-01-01

    基于DEM提取了渭河上游8条支流的Hack剖面、河长坡降指标SL参数以及标准化坡降指标(SL/K),对该区构造活动进行了分析.结果显示该区河流的Hack剖面皆呈上凸形态,表明第四纪以来位于青藏高原东北缘的渭河上游整体上处于构造抬升状态,且抬升速率较快.同时Hack剖面的凸度有所区别,说明该区构造活动存在着区域差异,其中西秦岭北麓和六盘山南段地区的构造活动较为强烈,而北部的黄土高原构造活动相对较弱.SL参数证实了第四纪以来青藏高原东北缘的西秦岭北缘断裂、六盘山东缘断裂和会宁断裂存在构造活动.%The stream length-gradient SL index, Hack profile and gradient index (SL/K) were examined for concavity studies of each profile and analyzed for research into the tectonic activities based on DEM. The morphology of all hack profiles is convex, which show that the main factor causing the landform is tectonic uplifting in the upper reaches of Weihe river basin. However, the tectonic processes are distinguished in different tributaries. The tectonic activities are very strong in the western Qinling and Liupanshan mountain areas and weak in the loess region of the northern study area. SL parameters have also proved the activity of western Qinling fault, Liupanshan eastern fault and Huining fault from quaternary.

  3. On high heels and short muscles: a multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Pok, Jacquelynn M; McWalter, Emily J; Gold, Garry E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-21

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy.

  4. Sarcomere dynamics in single myocardial cells as revealed by high-resolution light diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, A F

    1983-08-01

    A specially designed diffractometer with a high spatial and temporal resolution recorded the diffraction of a laser beam by single enzymatically isolated myocardial cells. The fine structures within the first-order diffraction were resolved and each structure was interpreted as the diffraction from a group of sarcomeres of nearly equal length. During activation of the cell dynamics of each discrete group of sarcomeres was uniform and independent of the other groups. However, a small nonuniform component in the sarcomere dynamics was observed and attributed to the coupling between the shortening tension and the radial stress resulting from the expansion of the myofibrillar cross-section. The time-course of the diffraction fine structures during contractile activity revealed (1) the period of the contraction-relaxation cycle, (2) the latent period, (3) the shortening and relengthening speeds and (4) the variation in the line width and intensity of the fine structure. Measurements showed that the latent period was dependent on the free Ca2+ of the cell's bathing solution while the initial shortening speed was not. The diffraction line width and intensity of the shortening cell were explained by the grating model.

  5. Mechano-chemical Interactions in Cardiac Sarcomere Contraction: A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumens, Joost; Arts, Theo; Delhaas, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a model of cardiac sarcomere contraction to study the calcium-tension relationship in cardiac muscle. Calcium mediates cardiac contraction through its interactions with troponin (Tn) and subsequently tropomyosin molecules. Experimental studies have shown that a slight increase in intracellular calcium concentration leads to a rapid increase in sarcomeric tension. Though it is widely accepted that the rapid increase is not possible without the concept of cooperativity, the mechanism is debated. We use the hypothesis that there exists a base level of cooperativity intrinsic to the thin filament that is boosted by mechanical tension, i.e. a high level of mechanical tension in the thin filament impedes the unbinding of calcium from Tn. To test these hypotheses, we developed a computational model in which a set of three parameters and inputs of calcium concentration and sarcomere length result in output tension. Tension as simulated appeared in good agreement with experimentally measured tension. Our results support the hypothesis that high tension in the thin filament impedes Tn deactivation by increasing the energy required to detach calcium from the Tn. Given this hypothesis, the model predicted that the areas with highest tension, i.e. closest to the Z-disk end of the single overlap region, show the largest concentration of active Tn’s. PMID:27716775

  6. Effects of strain on contractile force and number of sarcomeres in series of Xenopus laevis single muscle fibres during long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, R T; Feenstra, H M; Verheyen, A K; van der Laarse, W J; Huijing, P A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to test whether mechanical strain uniquely regulates muscle fibre atrophy/hypertrophy and adaptation of the number of sarcomeres in series within mature muscle fibres in vitro . Mature single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis illiofibularis muscle were cultured (4-97 days) while kept at negative strain ( approximately 20% below passive slack length, 'short fibres') or at positive strain ( approximately 5% over passive slack length, 'long fibres'). Before and after culture the number of sarcomeres in series was determined using laser diffraction. During culture, twitch and tetanic force characteristics were measured every day. Survival time of long fibres was substantially less than that of short fibres. Of the long fibres 40% died or became inexcitable within 1 week, whereas this did not occur for short fibres. During culture, twitch and tetanic force of all short fibres increased substantially. Regression analysis showed that the post-culture number of sarcomeres in series was not significantly changed compared to the number before culture. It is concluded that culture at negative strain does not result in atrophy or a reduction of the number of sarcomeres in series, even after 97 days. For the long fibres we did not detect any hypertrophy as tetanic force remained stable or decreased slowly, while twitch force varied. Regression analysis of the change of the number of sarcomeres in series as a function of the culture time showed a positive slope ( P=0.054). Two out of four long fibres that were cultured for at least 2 weeks showed an increase in the number of sarcomeres of 4-5%. Compared with in vivo adaptation to mechanical stimuli this is much less than would be expected. The data suggest that strain may not be the only factor that regulates hypertrophy and the number of sarcomeres in series.

  7. Eisenstein series for SL(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUDLA; Stephen; S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives explicit formulas for the Fourier expansion of general Eisenstein series and local Whittaker functions over SL2.They are used to compute both the value and derivatives of these functions at critical points.

  8. Contractile Dysfunction in Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, David H; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotype of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. The development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension and aortic stenosis is usually described as a compensatory mechanism that normalizes wall stress. We suggest that an important abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reduced contractile stress (the force per unit area) generated by myocardial tissue secondary to abnormalities such as cardiomyocyte disarray. In turn, a progressive deterioration in contractile stress provokes worsening hypertrophy and disarray. A maintained or even exaggerated ejection fraction is explained by the increased end-diastolic wall thickness producing augmented thickening. We propose that the nature of the hemodynamic load in an individual with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could determine its phenotype. Hypertensive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are more likely to develop exaggerated concentric hypertrophy; athletic individuals an asymmetric pattern; and inactive individuals a more apical hypertrophy. The development of a left ventricular outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation may be explained by differential regional strain resulting in mitral annular rotation.

  9. Disorder profile of nebulin encodes a vernierlike position sensor for the sliding thin and thick filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chya; Forbes, Jeffrey G; Wang, Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Nebulin is an about 1μm long intrinsically disordered scaffold for the thin filaments of skeletal muscle sarcomere. It is a multifunctional elastic protein that wraps around actin filament, stabilizes thin filaments, and regulates Ca-dependent actomyosin interactions. This study investigates whether the disorder profile of nebulin might encode guidelines for thin and thick filament interactions in the sarcomere of the skeletal muscle. The question was addressed computationally by analyzing the predicted disorder profile of human nebulin (6669 residues, ∼200 actin-binding repeats) by pondr and the periodicity of the A-band stripes (reflecting the locations of myosin-associated proteins) in the electron micrographs of the sarcomere. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, a scale factor for the A-band stripe image data with respect to the nebulin disorder profile was determined to make the thin and thick filaments aligned to have maximum correlation. The empirical mode decomposition method was then applied to identify hidden periodicities in both the nebulin disorder profile and the rescaled A-band data. The decomposition reveals three characteristic length scales (45 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm) that are relevant for correlational analysis. The dynamical cross-correlation analyses with moving windows at various sarcomere lengths depict a vernierlike design for both periodicities, thus enabling nebulin to sense position and fine tune sarcomere overlap. This shows that the disorder profile of scaffolding proteins may encode a guideline for cellular architecture.

  10. Disorder profile of nebulin encodes a vernierlike position sensor for the sliding thin and thick filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chya; Forbes, Jeffrey G.; Wang, Kuan

    2016-06-01

    Nebulin is an about 1 μ m long intrinsically disordered scaffold for the thin filaments of skeletal muscle sarcomere. It is a multifunctional elastic protein that wraps around actin filament, stabilizes thin filaments, and regulates Ca-dependent actomyosin interactions. This study investigates whether the disorder profile of nebulin might encode guidelines for thin and thick filament interactions in the sarcomere of the skeletal muscle. The question was addressed computationally by analyzing the predicted disorder profile of human nebulin (6669 residues, ˜200 actin-binding repeats) by pondr and the periodicity of the A-band stripes (reflecting the locations of myosin-associated proteins) in the electron micrographs of the sarcomere. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, a scale factor for the A-band stripe image data with respect to the nebulin disorder profile was determined to make the thin and thick filaments aligned to have maximum correlation. The empirical mode decomposition method was then applied to identify hidden periodicities in both the nebulin disorder profile and the rescaled A-band data. The decomposition reveals three characteristic length scales (45 nm, 100 nm, and 200 nm) that are relevant for correlational analysis. The dynamical cross-correlation analyses with moving windows at various sarcomere lengths depict a vernierlike design for both periodicities, thus enabling nebulin to sense position and fine tune sarcomere overlap. This shows that the disorder profile of scaffolding proteins may encode a guideline for cellular architecture.

  11. Differential Sarcomere and Electrophysiological Maturation of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiac Myocytes in Monolayer vs. Aggregation-Based Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jeziorowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D or, more recently, on monolayer culture (2D. We performed a direct comparison of the characteristics of the derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs on day 27 ± 2 of differentiation between 3D and 2D differentiation protocols with two different Wnt-inhibitors were compared: IWR1 (inhibitor of Wnt response or IWP2 (inhibitor of Wnt production. We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2 expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D protocols as compared to the 3D protocol. In the three methods, iPSC-CM show sarcomeric structures. However, iPSC-CM generated in 2D protocols constantly displayed larger sarcomere lengths as compared to the 3D protocol. In addition, mRNA and protein analyses reveal higher cTNi to ssTNi ratios in the 2D protocol using IWP2 as compared to both other protocols, indicating a higher sarcomeric maturation. Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

  12. Subtle abnormalities in contractile function are an early manifestation of sarcomere mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens J; Colan, Steven D;

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomere mutations cause both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the steps leading from mutation to disease are not well described. By studying mutation carriers before a clinical diagnosis develops, we characterize the early manifestations of sarcomere ...

  13. Null fields realizations of W{sub 3} from W (sl(4), sl(3)) and W (sl(3/1), sl(3)) algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    It is considered the nonlinear algebras W(sl(4), sl(3)) and W(sl(3/1), sl(3)) and it is found their realizations in terms of currents spanning conformal linearizing algebras. The specific structure of these algebras, allows to construct realizations modulo null fields of the W{sub 3} algebra that lies in the cosets W(sl(4), sl(3))/u(1) and W(sl(3/1), sl(3))/u(1). Such realizations exist for the following values of the W{sub 3} algebra central charge: cw=-30, -40/7, -98/5, -2. The first two values are listed for the first time, whereas for the remaining values the new realizations get in terms of an arbitrary stress tensor and u(1) x sl(2) affine currents.

  14. Guide to requirements SL-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren

    IT developers and consultants often ask for an exemplary requirements specification as a starting point for their specific project. This document is the guide to such a specification, Requirements Template SL-07. The specification itself is a template filled out with a complex example: requirements...

  15. Guide to requirements SL-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren

    IT developers and consultants often ask for an exemplary requirements specification as a starting point for their specific project. This document is the guide to such a specification, Requirements Template SL-07. The specification itself is a template filled out with a complex example: requirements...... for an Electronic Health Record system (EHR)....

  16. Stretch and shortening of skeletal muscles activated along the ascending limb of the force-length relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, Dilson E; Pun, Clara

    2010-01-01

    There is a history dependence of skeletal muscle contraction. When muscles are activated and subsequently stretched, they produce a long lasting force enhancement. When muscles are activated and subsequently shortened, they produce a long-lasting force depression. The purposes of the studies shown in this chapter were (1) to evaluate if force enhancement and force depression are present along the ascending limb of the force-length (FL) relation, (2) to evaluate if the history-dependent properties of force production are associated with sarcomere length (SL) non-uniformity, and (3) to determine the effects of cross-bridge (de)activation on force depression. Isolated myofibrils were activated by either Ca²(+) or MgADP and were subjected to consecutive stretches or shortenings along the ascending limb of the FL relation, separated by periods (approximately 5 s) of isometric contraction. Force after stretch was higher than force after shortening when the contractions were produced at similar SLs. The difference in force could not be explained by SL non-uniformity. After shortening, MgADP activation produced forces that were higher than Ca²(+) activation. Since MgADP induces the formation of strongly bound cross-bridges, the result suggests that force depression following shortening is associated with cross-bridge deactivation.

  17. Diaphragm weakness in pulmonary arterial hypertension: role of sarcomeric dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, E.; Man, F.S. de; Handoko, M.L.; Westerhof, N.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Stienen, G.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that diaphragm muscle weakness is present in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). However, the nature of this diaphragm weakness is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether changes at the sarcomeric level contribute to diaphr

  18. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related cardiac troponin C L29Q mutation alters length-dependent activation and functional effects of phosphomimetic troponin I*.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Y Li

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+ binding properties of the FHC-associated cardiac troponin C (cTnC mutation L29Q were examined in isolated cTnC, troponin complexes, reconstituted thin filament preparations, and skinned cardiomyocytes. While higher Ca(2+ binding affinity was apparent for the L29Q mutant in isolated cTnC, this phenomenon was not observed in the cTn complex. At the level of the thin filament in the presence of phosphomimetic TnI, L29Q cTnC further reduced the Ca(2+ affinity by 27% in the steady-state measurement and increased the Ca(2+ dissociation rate by 20% in the kinetic studies. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that L29Q destabilizes the conformation of cNTnC in the presence of phosphomimetic cTnI and potentially modulates the Ca(2+ sensitivity due to the changes of the opening/closing equilibrium of cNTnC. In the skinned cardiomyocyte preparation, L29Q cTnC increased Ca(2+ sensitivity in a highly sarcomere length (SL-dependent manner. The well-established reduction of Ca(2+ sensitivity by phosphomimetic cTnI was diminished by 68% in the presence of the mutation and it also depressed the SL-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+ sensitivity. This might result from its modified interaction with cTnI which altered the feedback effects of cross-bridges on the L29Q cTnC-cTnI-Tm complex. This study demonstrates that the L29Q mutation alters the contractility and the functional effects of the phosphomimetic cTnI in both thin filament and single skinned cardiomyocytes and importantly that this effect is highly sarcomere length dependent.

  19. Effekter af slægtspleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lajla; Egelund, Tine

    Slægtspleje er en relativt ny anbringelsesform i Danmark, og den anvendes endnu kun i beskedent omfang. Denne rapport sammenligner effekterne af slægtspleje med effekterne af traditionel familiepleje, og den har til formål at danne et vidensgrundlag for den socialpolitiske diskussion om slægtsple...

  20. The nebulette repeat domain is necessary for proper maintenance of tropomyosin with the cardiac sarcomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzo, Jeremy R; Norris, Andrea A; Esham, Michael; Moncman, Carole L

    2008-11-15

    Nebulette is a cardiac-specific isoform of the giant actin-binding protein nebulin. Nebulette, having a mass of approximately 100 kDa, is only predicted to extend 150 nm from the edge of the Z-lines. Overexpression of the nebulette C-terminal linker and/or SH3 domains in chicken cardiomyocytes results in a loss of endogenous nebulette with a concomitant loss of tropomyosin (TPM) and troponin, as well as a shortening of the thin filaments. These data suggest that nebulette's position in the sarcomere is important for the maintenance of TPM, troponin and thin filament length. To evaluate this hypothesis, N-terminal nested truncations tagged with GFP were expressed in chicken cardiomyocytes and the cells were analyzed for the distribution of myofilament proteins. Minimal effects on the myofilaments were observed with N-terminal deletions of up to 10 modules; however, deletion of 15 modules replicated the phenotype observed with expression of the C-terminal fragments. Expression of internal deletions of nebulette verifies that a site between module 10 and 15 is important for TPM maintenance within the sarcomeric lattice. We have additionally isolated TPM cDNAs from a yeast two hybrid (Y2H) analysis. These data indicate the importance of the nebulette-TPM interactions in the maintenance and stability of the thin filaments.

  1. The effect of length on the relationship between tension and intracellular [Ca2+] in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claflin, D R; Morgan, D L; Julian, F J

    1998-04-01

    1. The relationship between tension and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in intact frog skeletal muscle fibres was determined at two fibre lengths, corresponding to mean sarcomere lengths (SL) of 2.2 and 2.9 micron. Tension and [Ca2+]i were recorded during the slow decline of tension following stimulation in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-uptake pump inhibitor. [Ca2+]i was estimated by injecting the K+ salt form of the fluorescent dye fura-2 into the fibres. Experimental temperature was 3.0 C. 2. At a SL of 2.2 micron, where thick and thin filaments fully overlap, the [Ca2+]i corresponding to 50 % tension generation ([Ca2+]50) was 1.09 +/- 0.02 microM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 61 contractions). At a SL of 2.9 micron, where overlap is approximately 50 %, the [Ca2+]50 was significantly lower, 0.69 +/- 0. 02 microM (n = 22 contractions). This is in agreement with previous results from skinned fibres. 3. The relationship between tension and [Ca2+]i was very steep, as reported previously from experiments at a SL of 2.2 micron in which the membrane permeant acetoxymethyl ester form of fura-2 was used. The fall in tension from 90 to 10 % occurred in 0.12 +/- 0.01 pCa units (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 61) for a SL of 2.2 micron and 0.17 +/- 0.01 pCa units (n = 22) for a SL of 2.9 micron, corresponding to Hill coefficients of 15.4 and 10.9, respectively. 4. We conclude that the increase in sensitivity of tension to [Ca2+] that occurs in skinned skeletal muscle fibres upon stretch also occurs in intact fibres, that the steepness of the relation between tension and [Ca2+]i in intact fibres reported previously cannot be attributed to the use of the acetoxymethyl ester form of fura-2 to report [Ca2+]i, and that the steepness decreases as myofilament overlap decreases.

  2. The sarcomeric protein nebulin: another multifunctional giant in charge of muscle strength optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheijm, Coen A C; Granzier, Henk; Labeit, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    The sliding filament model of the sarcomere was developed more than half a century ago. This model, consisting only of thin and thick filaments, has been successful in explaining many, but not all, features of skeletal muscle. Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. Whereas the role of titin rapidly progressed, nebulin's role in muscle structure and function remained long nebulous. An important feature of muscle structure and function that has remained relatively obscure concerns the mechanisms that are involved in regulating thin filament length. Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function as force production is proportional to the amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments. Recent advances, due in part to the generation of nebulin KO models, reveal that nebulin plays an important role in the regulation of thin filament length, most likely by stabilizing F-actin assemblies. Another structural feature of skeletal muscle that has been incompletely understood concerns the mechanisms involved in maintaining Z-disk structure and the regular lateral alignment of adjacent sarcomeres during contraction. Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to these structural roles in support of myofibrillar force generation, nebulin has been also shown to regulate directly muscle contraction at the level of individual crossbridges: cycling kinetics and the calcium sensitivity of force producing crossbridges is enhanced in the presence of nebulin. Thus, these recent data all point to nebulin being important for muscle force optimization. Consequently, muscle weakness as the lead symptom develops in the case of patients with nemaline myopathy that have mutations in the nebulin gene. Here, we discuss these important novel insights into the role of nebulin in skeletal muscle function.

  3. The sarcomeric protein nebulin: another multifunctional giant in charge of muscle strength optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen eOttenheijm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sliding filament model of the sarcomere was developed more than half a century ago. This model, consisting only of thin and thick filaments, has been successful in explaining many, but not all, features of skeletal muscle. Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. Whereas the role of titin rapidly progressed, nebulin’s role in muscle structure and function remained long nebulous. An important feature of muscle structure and function that has remained relatively obscure concerns the mechanisms that are involved in regulating thin filament length. Filament length is an important aspect of muscle function as force production is proportional to the amount of overlap between thick and thin filaments. Recent advances, due in part to the generation of nebulin KO models, reveal that nebulin plays an important role in the regulation of thin filament length, most likely by stabilizing F-actin assemblies. Another structural feature of skeletal muscle that has been incompletely understood concerns the mechanisms involved in maintaining Z-disk structure and the regular lateral alignment of adjacent sarcomeres during contraction. Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to these structural roles in support of myofibrillar force generation, nebulin has been also shown to regulate directly muscle contraction at the level of individual cross bridges: cycling kinetics and the calcium sensitivity of force producing cross-bridges is enhanced in the presence of nebulin. Thus, these recent data all point to nebulin being important for muscle force optimization. Consequently, muscle weakness as the lead symptom develops in the case of patients with nemaline myopathy that have mutations in the nebulin gene. Here, we discuss these important novel insights into the role of nebulin in skeletal muscle

  4. The cross-bridge dynamics is determined by two length-independent kinetics: Implications on muscle economy and Frank-Starling Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiad Pavlov, Daria; Landesberg, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart and the skeletal muscle force-length relationship are not clear. This study tested the effects of sarcomere length (SL) on the average force per cross-bridge and on the rate of cross-bridge cycling in intact rat cardiac trabeculae (n=9). SL was measured by laser diffraction and controlled with a fast servomotor to produce varying initial SLs. Tetanic contractions were induced by addition of cyclopiazonic acid, to maintain a constant activation. Stress decline and redevelopment in response to identical ramp shortenings, starting at various initial SLs, was analyzed. Both stress decline and redevelopment responses revealed two distinct kinetics: a fast and a slower phase. The duration of the rapid phases (4.2 ± 0.1 msec) was SL-independent. The second slower phase depicted a linear dependence of the rate of stress change on the instantaneous stress level. Identical slopes (70.5 ± 1.6 [1/s], p=0.33) were obtained during ramp shortening at all initial SLs, indicating that the force per cross-bridge and cross-bridge cycling kinetics are length-independent. A decrease in the slope at longer SLs was obtained during stress redevelopment, due to internal shortening. The first phase is attributed to rapid changes in the average force per cross-bridge. The second phase is ascribed to both cross-bridge cycling between its strong and weak conformations and to changes in the number of strong cross-bridges. Cross-bridge cycling kinetics and muscle economy are length-independent and the Frank-Starling Law cannot be attributed to changes in the force per cross-bridge or in the single cross-bridge cycling rates.

  5. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Cornelis J; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E

    2015-04-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease.

  6. Dynamic Alterations to α-Actinin Accompanying Sarcomere Disassembly and Reassembly during Cardiomyocyte Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Hughes, Bryan G; Ali, Mohammad A M; Cho, Woo Jung; Lopez, Waleska; Schulz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although mammals are thought to lose their capacity to regenerate heart muscle shortly after birth, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes in mammals are hyperplastic. During proliferation these cells need to selectively disassemble their myofibrils for successful cytokinesis. The mechanism of sarcomere disassembly is, however, not understood. To study this, we performed a series of immunofluorescence studies of multiple sarcomeric proteins in proliferating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlated these observations with biochemical changes at different cell cycle stages. During myocyte mitosis, α-actinin and titin were disassembled as early as prometaphase. α-actinin (representing the sarcomeric Z-disk) disassembly precedes that of titin (M-line), suggesting that titin disassembly occurs secondary to the collapse of the Z-disk. Sarcomere disassembly was concurrent with the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. Inhibitors of several intracellular proteases could not block the disassembly of α-actinin or titin. There was a dramatic increase in both cytosolic (soluble) and sarcomeric α-actinin during mitosis, and cytosolic α-actinin exhibited decreased phosphorylation compared to sarcomeric α-actinin. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) induced the quick reassembly of the sarcomere. Sarcomere dis- and re-assembly in cardiomyocyte mitosis is CDK1-dependent and features dynamic differential post-translational modifications of sarcomeric and cytosolic α-actinin.

  7. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  8. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  9. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  10. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  11. Theoretical Review on Sustainable Leadership (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    binti Zulkiffli Noorul Adharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been identified as one of the factor contributes to construction organisation success. Therefore, leadership has acts as an admixture to the sum of leader’s effort and subordinates teamwork in order to accomplish organisational goals. There are several types of leadership style that have been practiced by leaders in the construction industry, however, there are still several morality issues such as corruptions, mismanagement and spillages occurred among leaders in the industry. Therefore, a new established leadership style such as sustainable leadership (SL is needed to reduce any circumstances that can affect both individual and organisation in the construction industry. SL has been recognised by its holistic approaches, which include sustainability elements into it. Additionally, SL is not just depending on leader’s ability and resolution only, but to maintain the continuously efforts and achieving results are important. The aim of this paper is to explore the theoretical review of sustainable leadership (SL. A literature review on sustainable leadership (SL is gained from journals and books of SL and leadership style in construction industry. The overall intent of this paper is to highlight the values and benefits of SL so that it can be adapted by leaders in construction organisation.

  12. Eickoff SL 300 and SL 500 series - with modern products on present and future markets; Eickhoff SL 300 und SL 500 - mit modernen Baureihen in alten und neuen Maerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, H. [Gebr. Eickhoff Maschinenfabrik mbH, Bochum (Germany). Gewinnungstechnik und Projektierung

    1998-11-12

    With their SL 300 and SL 500 drum shearer loaders, Messers. Eickhof Maschinenfabrik mbH, Bochum, are successful in established as well as new markets. The contribution presents a short market analysis and then lists some particularly successful projects, i.e. in the coal mines Friedrich Heinrich/Rheinland (SL300), New Denmark (SL 30), and Daw Mill (SL 500) and the Beloruskali potassium mines (SL 500 S). [Deutsch] Mit den Walzenladerbaureihen SL 300 und SL 500 bewegt sich die Gebr. Eickhoff Maschinenfabrik mbH, Bochum, erfolgreich in den angestammten, aber auch in neuen Maerkten. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt neben einer kurzen Marktanalyse einige besonders erfolgreiche Projekte auf, so die Einsaetze in den Steinkohlenbergwerken Friedrich Heinrich/Rheinland (SL 300), New Denmark (SL 300) und Daw Mill (SL 500) sowie im Kalibergbau der Beloruskali (SL 500 S). (orig.)

  13. Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, JinJun; Weaver, Amanda; Gerrard, David E.; Yao, Gang

    2006-07-01

    Normal biomechanical and physiological functions of striated muscles are facilitated by the repeating sarcomere units. Light scattering technique has been used in studying single extracted muscle fibers. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted to investigate the possibility of using optical detection to examine sarcomere structure changes in whole muscles. We conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate that optical scattering properties measured in whole muscle are related to changes in sarcomere structure. These results suggest that photon migration technique has a potential for characterizing in vivo tissue ultrastructure changes in whole muscle.

  14. Sarcomere length influences u-calpain mediated proteolysis of troponin-T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle shortening and postmortem proteolysis are well established as mechanisms controlling beef tenderness. Inherent myofibril structure and the extent of overlap between myosin and actin filaments are hypothesized to affect the availability of substrates for degradation by calpains. The objective ...

  15. A Categorification of Quantum sl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Na; WANG Zhi-Xi; WU Ke; YANG Zi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we categorify the algebra Uq(sl2∧) with the same approach as in [A. Lauda, Adv. Math.(2010), arXiv:math. QA/0803.3652; M. Khovanov, Comm. Algebra 11 (2001) 5033]. The algebra (U) = (U)q(sl2∧) is obtained from Uq(sl2∧) by adjoining a collection of orthogonal idempotents 1λ, λ ∈ P, in which P is the weight lattice of Uq(sl2∧).Under such construction the algebra U is decomposed into a direct sum (+) λ∈ P 1λ′U1λ. We set the collection ofλ ∈ P as the objects of the category (u), 1-morphisms from λ to λ′ are given by 1λ′U1λ, and 2-morphisms are constructed by some semilinear form defined on U. Hence we get a 2-category (u) from the algebra Uq(sl2∧).

  16. Stream gradient Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (SL-HCA) for improving the longitudinal profiles metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Piacentini, Daniela; Seta Marta, Della

    2016-04-01

    Many researches successfully focused on stream longitudinal profiles analysis through Stream Length-gradient (SL) index for detecting, at different spatial scales, either tectonic structures or hillslope processes. The analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of SL values, both at a regional and local scale, is often complicated due to the concomitance of different factors generating SL anomalies, including the bedrock composition. The creation of lithologically-filtered SL maps is often problematic in areas where homogeneously surveyed geological maps, with a sufficient resolution are unavailable. Moreover, both the SL map classification and the unbiased anomaly detection are rather difficult. For instance, which is the best threshold to define the anomalous SL values? Further, is there a minimum along-channel extent of anomalous SL values for objectively defining over-steeped segments on long-profiles? This research investigates the relevance and potential of a new approach based on Hotspot and Cluster Analysis of SL values (SL-HCA) for detecting knickzones on long-profiles at a regional scale and for fine-tuning the interpretation of their geological-geomorphological meaning. We developed this procedure within a 2800 km2-wide area located in the mountainous sector of the Northern Apennines of Italy. The Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistic is applied for the SL-HCA approach. The value of SL, calculated starting from a 5x5 m Digital Elevation Model, is used as weighting factor and the Gi∗ index is calculated for each 50 m-long channel segment for the whole fluvial system. The outcomes indicate that high positive Gi∗ values imply the clustering of SL anomalies, thus the occurrence of knickzones on the stream long-profiles. Results show that high and very high Gi* values (i.e. values beyond two standard deviations from the mean) correlate well with the principal knickzones detected with existent lithologically-filtered SL maps. Field checks and remote sensing

  17. Highest weight sl_2-categorifications I: crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Losev, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We define highest weight categorical actions of sl_2 on highest weight categories and show that basically all known examples of categorical sl_2-actions on highest weight categories (including rational and polynomial representations of general linear groups, parabolic categories O of type $A$, categories O for cyclotomic Rational Cherednik algebras) are highest weight in our sense. Our main result is an explicit combinatorial description of (the labels of) the crystal on the set of simple objects. A new application of this is to determining the supports of simple modules over the cyclotomic Rational Cherednik algebras starting from their labels.

  18. An embedding of the universal Askey-Wilson algebra into Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hau-Wen

    2017-09-01

    The Askey-Wilson algebras were used to interpret the algebraic structure hidden in the Racah-Wigner coefficients of the quantum algebra Uq (sl2). In this paper, we display an injection of a universal analog △q of Askey-Wilson algebras into Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) behind the application. Moreover we establish the decomposition rules for 3-fold tensor products of irreducible Verma Uq (sl2)-modules and of finite-dimensional irreducible Uq (sl2)-modules into the direct sums of finite-dimensional irreducible △q-modules. As an application, we derive a formula for the Racah-Wigner coefficients of Uq (sl2).

  19. Tomato SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3 and SlERF.A3, Members of B3 Group of ERF Family, Are Required for Resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lihong; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    The Ethylene-Responsive Factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcriptional factors that play critical roles in plant immunity. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, a typical necrotrophic fungal pathogen, is the serious disease that threatens tomato production worldwide. However, littler is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the immunity to B. cinerea in tomato. In the present study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based functional analyses of 18 members of B3 group (also called Group IX) in tomato ERF family were performed to identify putative ERFs that are involved in disease resistance against B. cinerea. VIGS-based silencing of either SlERF.B1 or SlERF.C2 had lethal effect while silencing of SlERF.A3 (Pit4) significantly suppressed vegetative growth of tomato plants. Importantly, silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 resulted in increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, attenuated the B. cinerea-induced expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signaling responsive defense genes and promoted the B. cinerea-induced H2O2 accumulation. However, silencing of SlERF.A3 also decreased the resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 but silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4 or SlERF.C3 did not affect the resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Expression of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 was induced by B. cinerea and by defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an ethylene precursor). SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3, and SlERF.A3 proteins were found to localize in nucleus of cells and possess transactivation activity in yeasts. These data suggest that SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, and SlERF.C3, three previously uncharacterized ERFs in B3 group, and SlERF.A3, a previously identified ERF with function in immunity to Pst DC3000, play important roles in resistance against B. cinerea in tomato.

  20. Sarcomere lattice geometry influences cooperative myosin binding in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand C W Tanner

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In muscle, force emerges from myosin binding with actin (forming a cross-bridge. This actomyosin binding depends upon myofilament geometry, kinetics of thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and kinetics of cross-bridge cycling. Binding occurs within a compliant network of protein filaments where there is mechanical coupling between myosins along the thick-filament backbone and between actin monomers along the thin filament. Such mechanical coupling precludes using ordinary differential equation models when examining the effects of lattice geometry, kinetics, or compliance on force production. This study uses two stochastically driven, spatially explicit models to predict levels of cross-bridge binding, force, thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and ATP utilization. One model incorporates the 2-to-1 ratio of thin to thick filaments of vertebrate striated muscle (multi-filament model, while the other comprises only one thick and one thin filament (two-filament model. Simulations comparing these models show that the multi-filament predictions of force, fractional cross-bridge binding, and cross-bridge turnover are more consistent with published experimental values. Furthermore, the values predicted by the multi-filament model are greater than those values predicted by the two-filament model. These increases are larger than the relative increase of potential inter-filament interactions in the multi-filament model versus the two-filament model. This amplification of coordinated cross-bridge binding and cycling indicates a mechanism of cooperativity that depends on sarcomere lattice geometry, specifically the ratio and arrangement of myofilaments.

  1. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components.

  2. Overexpression of SlGMEs leads to ascorbate accumulation with enhanced oxidative stress, cold, and salt tolerance in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Liu, Junxia; Zhang, Yuyang; Cai, Xiaofeng; Gong, Pengjuan; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2011-03-01

    GDP-Mannose 3',5'-epimerase (GME; EC 5.1.3.18) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis pathway in higher plants. In this study, two members of the GME gene family were isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Both SlGME genes encode 376 amino acids and share a 92% similarity with each other. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that SlGME1 was constantly expressed in various tissues, whereas SlGME2 was differentially expressed in different tissues. Transient expression of fused SlGME1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and SlGME2-GFP in onion cells revealed the cytoplasmic localisation of the two proteins. Transgenic plants over-expressing SlGME1 and SlGME2 exhibited a significant increase in total ascorbic acid in leaves and red fruits compared with wild-type plants. They also showed enhanced stress tolerance based on less chlorophyll content loss and membrane-lipid peroxidation under methyl viologen (paraquat) stress, higher survival rate under cold stress, and significantly higher seed germination rate, fresh weight, and root length under salt stress. The present study demonstrates that the overexpression of two members of the GME gene family resulted in increased ascorbate accumulation in tomato and improved tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  3. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  4. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  5. An elliptic quantum algebra for sl$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Jimbo, M; Kedem, R; Miwa, T; Yan, H

    1994-01-01

    An elliptic deformation of \\widehat{sl}_2 is proposed. Our presentation of the algebra is based on the relation RLL=LLR^*, where R and R^* are eight-vertex R-matrices with the elliptic moduli chosen differently. In the trigonometric limit, this algebra reduces to a quotient of that proposed by Reshetikhin and Semenov-Tian-Shansky. Conjectures concerning highest weight modules and vertex operators are formulated, and the physical interpretation of R^* is discussed.

  6. Contractile activity is required for Z-disc sarcomere maturation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, Timothy J; Hirst, Elizabeth MA; Zimmerman, Lyle B

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomere structure underpins structural integrity, signaling, and force transmission in the muscle. In embryos of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, muscle contraction begins even while sarcomerogenesis is ongoing. To determine whether contractile activity plays a role in sarcomere formation in vivo, chemical tools were used to block acto-myosin contraction in embryos of the frog X. tropicalis, and Z-disc assembly was characterized in the paralyzed dicky ticker mutant. Confocal and ultrastructure analysis of paralyzed embryos showed delayed Z-disc formation and defects in thick filament organization. These results suggest a previously undescribed role for contractility in sarcomere maturation in vivo. genesis 53:299–307, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845369

  7. Contribution of Post-translational Phosphorylation to Sarcomere-linked Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Westfall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary shifts develop in post-translational phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in multi¬ple animal models of inherited cardiomyopathy. These signaling alterations together with the primary mutation are predicted to contribute to the overall cardiac phenotype. As a result, identification and integration of post-translational myofilament signaling responses are identified as priorities for gaining insights into sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. However, significant questions remain about the nature and contribution of post-translational phosphorylation to structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in animal models and human patients. This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. The discussion focuses primarily on pre-clinical analysis of animal models and defines challenges and future directions in this field.

  8. Echocardiographic strain imaging to assess early and late consequences of sarcomere mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Carlsen, Christian; Thune, Jens Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    preclinical (G+/LVH-), 40 overt (G+/LVH+) subjects with HCM, and 38 mutation (-) normal control relatives. All subjects had normal left ventricular ejection fraction. In preclinical HCM, global and regional peak systolic strain (epsilon(sys)) and longitudinal systolic strain rate were not significantly......BACKGROUND: Genetic testing identifies sarcomere mutation carriers (G+) before clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), allowing characterization of initial disease manifestations. Previous studies demonstrated that impaired relaxation develops before left ventricular hypertrophy...... (LVH). The precise impact of sarcomere mutations on systolic function in early and late disease is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comprehensive echocardiography with strain imaging was performed on 146 genotyped individuals with mutations in 5 sarcomere genes. Contractile parameters were compared in 68...

  9. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  10. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth S

    2009-11-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  11. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Norio, E-mail: noriof@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Cell Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwata, Shin’ichi, E-mail: ishiwata@waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); WASEDA Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABIOS) (Singapore)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of SL3: a stem cell-specific SL RNA from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Ross, Eric J; Jack, Antonia; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a biological phenomenon, common among many metazoan taxa, consisting in the transfer of a short leader sequence from a small SL RNA to the 5' end of a subset of pre-mRNAs. While knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms driving this process has accumulated over the years, the functional consequences of such post-transcriptional event at the organismal level remain unclear. In addition, the fact that functional analyses have been undertaken mainly in trypanosomes and nematodes leaves a somehow fragmented picture of the possible biological significance and evolution of SL trans-splicing in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the spatial expression of SL RNAs in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, with the goal of identifying novel developmental paradigms for the study of trans-splicing in metazoans. Besides the previously identified SL1 and SL2, S. mediterranea expresses a third SL RNA described here as SL3. While, SL1 and SL2 are collectively expressed in a broad range of planarian cell types, SL3 is highly enriched in a subset of the planarian stem cells engaged in regenerative responses. Our findings provide new opportunities to study how trans-splicing may regulate the phenotype of a cell.

  13. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 isopentenyltransferases mediate salt stress response in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Muhovski, Yordan; Hošek, Petr; Hoyerová, Klára; Haisel, Daniel; Procházková, Dagmar; Lutts, Stanley; Motyka, Václav; Hichri, Imène

    2015-03-12

    Cytokinins (CKs) are involved in response to various environmental cues, including salinity. It has been previously reported that enhancing CK contents improved salt stress tolerance in tomato. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK metabolism and signaling under salt stress conditions remain to be deciphered. Two tomato isopentenyltransferases, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4, were characterized in tomato and Arabidopsis. Both proteins displayed isopentenyltransferase (IPT) activity in vitro, while their encoding genes exhibited different spatio-temporal expression patterns during tomato plant development. SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were affected by the endogenous CK status, tightly connected with CKs feedback regulation, as revealed by hormonal treatements. In response to salt stress, SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 were strongly repressed in tomato roots, and differently affected in young and old leaves. SlIPT3 overexpression in tomato resulted in high accumulation of different CK metabolites, following modifications of CK biosynthesis-, signaling- and degradation-gene expression. In addition, 35S::SlIPT3 tomato plants displayed improved tolerance to salinity consecutive to photosynthetic pigments and K(+)/Na(+) ratio retention. Involvement of SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 in salt stress response was also observed in Arabidopsis ipt3 knock-out complemented plants, through maintenance of CK homeostasis. SlIPT3 and SlIPT4 are functional IPTs encoded by differently expressed genes, distinctively taking part in the salinity response. The substantial participation of SlIPT3 in CK metabolism during salt stress has been determined in 35S::SlIPT3 tomato transformants, where enhancement of CKs accumulation significantly improved plant tolerance to salinity, underlining the importance of this phytohormone in stress response.

  14. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J;

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully...

  15. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully ch...

  16. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  17. NMII forms a contractile transcellular sarcomeric network to regulate apical cell junctions and tissue geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Seham; Fujita, Tomoki; Millis, Bryan A; Kozin, Elliott; Ma, Xuefei; Kawamoto, Sachiyo; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Kachar, Bechara

    2013-04-22

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is thought to be the master integrator of force within epithelial apical junctions, mediating epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tensional homeostasis. Mutations in NMII are associated with a number of diseases due to failures in cell-cell adhesion. However, the organization and the precise mechanism by which NMII generates and responds to tension along the intercellular junctional line are still not known. We discovered that periodic assemblies of bipolar NMII filaments interlace with perijunctional actin and α-actinin to form a continuous belt of muscle-like sarcomeric units (∼400-600 nm) around each epithelial cell. Remarkably, the sarcomeres of adjacent cells are precisely paired across the junctional line, forming an integrated, transcellular contractile network. The contraction/relaxation of paired sarcomeres concomitantly impacts changes in apical cell shape and tissue geometry. We show differential distribution of NMII isoforms across heterotypic junctions and evidence for compensation between isoforms. Our results provide a model for how NMII force generation is effected along the junctional perimeter of each cell and communicated across neighboring cells in the epithelial organization. The sarcomeric network also provides a well-defined target to investigate the multiple roles of NMII in junctional homeostasis as well as in development and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Force Responses and Sarcomere Dynamics of Cardiac Myofibrils Induced by Rapid Changes in [Pi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Robert

    2017-01-24

    The second phase of the biphasic force decay upon release of phosphate from caged phosphate was previously interpreted as a signature of kinetics of the force-generating step in the cross-bridge cycle. To test this hypothesis without using caged compounds, force responses and individual sarcomere dynamics upon rapid increases or decreases in concentration of inorganic phosphate [Pi] were investigated in calcium-activated cardiac myofibrils. Rapid increases in [Pi] induced a biphasic force decay with an initial slow decline (phase 1) and a subsequent 3-5-fold faster major decay (phase 2). Phase 2 started with the distinct elongation of a single sarcomere, the so-called sarcomere "give". "Give" then propagated from sarcomere to sarcomere along the myofibril. Propagation speed and rate constant of phase 2 (k+Pi(2)) had a similar [Pi]-dependence, indicating that the kinetics of the major force decay (phase 2) upon rapid increase in [Pi] is determined by sarcomere dynamics. In contrast, no "give" was observed during phase 1 after rapid [Pi]-increase (rate constant k+Pi(1)) and during the single-exponential force rise (rate constant k-Pi) after rapid [Pi]-decrease. The values of k+Pi(1) and k-Pi were similar to the rate constant of mechanically induced force redevelopment (kTR) and Ca(2+)-induced force development (kACT) measured at same [Pi]. These results indicate that the major phase 2 of force decay upon a Pi-jump does not reflect kinetics of the force-generating step but results from sarcomere "give". The other phases of Pi-induced force kinetics that occur in the absence of "give" yield the same information as mechanically and Ca(2+)-induced force kinetics (k+Pi(1) ∼ k-Pi ∼ kTR ∼ kACT). Model simulations indicate that Pi-induced force kinetics neither enable the separation of Pi-release from the rate-limiting transition f into force states nor differentiate whether the "force-generating step" occurs before, along, or after the Pi-release.

  19. Comparison of the quantulus 1220 and 300SL liquid scintillation counters for the analysis of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Wanno; Choi, Guen Sik; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Liquid scintillation counters (LSCs) are commonly used as an analytical method for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater because they involve a simple sample pretreatment and allow high throughout with an autosampler. The Quantulus 1220 is the best-selling LSC in Korea, but its production was stopped. Recently, a new type of LSC, the 300SL, was introduced. In this study, the 300SL was compared with the Quantulus 1220 in order to evaluate the ability of each apparatus to detect {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. The Quantulus 1220 and 300SL were used to detect the presence of {sup 222}Rn. Radon gas was extracted from a groundwater sample using a water-immiscible cocktail in a LSC vial. The optimal analytical conditions for each LSC were determined using a {sup 222}Rn calibration source prepared with a {sup 226}Ra source. The optimal pulse shape analysis level for alpha and beta separation was 80 for the Quantulus 1220, and the corresponding pulse length index was 12 in the 300SL. The counting efficiency of the Quantulus 1220 for alpha emissions was similar to that of the 300SL, but the background count rate of the Quantulus 1220 was 10 times lower than that of the 300SL. The minimum detectable activity of the Quantulus 1220 was 0.08 Bq·L{sup -,} while that of the 300SL was 0.20 Bq·L{sup -1}. The analytical results regarding {sup 222}Rn in groundwater were less than 10% different between these LSCs. The 300SL is an LSC that is comparable to the Quantulus 1220 for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. Both LSCs can be applied to determine the levels of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater under the management of the Ministry of Environment.

  20. On the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    The universal sl_2 invariant of bottom tangles has a universality property for the colored Jones polynomial of links. Habiro conjectured that the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles takes values in certain subalgebras of the completed tensor powers of the quantized enveloping algebra U_h(sl_2) of the Lie algebra sl_2. In the present paper, we prove an improved version of Habiro's conjecture. As an application, we prove a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of boundary links.

  1. [Ambulatory ureteral lithotripsy with "Modulith SL-20"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Enguita, C; Calahorra Fernández, F J; García de la Peña, E; Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Vela Navarrete, R

    1993-03-01

    Analysis of our experience in 'in situ' ambulatory shockwave extracorporeal lithofragmentation of ureteral stones in 104 patients seen in the Lithotrity Unit, Urology Service, Fundación "Jiménez Díaz". Using Modulith SL 20, a third generation lithotripter, 'in situ' disintegration was achieved in 82.69% of cases, 51.92% of which were fragmented in a single lithotrity session. As a first choice, no ureteral handling was used in any of the patients prior to lithotrity. In 9.62% of patients it was necessary to place a 'double J' by-pass catheter, due to the disease presenting with a septic picture. The patient's position was either dorsal or ventral decubitus depending on the lithiatic site, while location and focusing of the stones was done radiologically. All patients were treated ambulatory without hospitalization. Only 18% was given oral or i.v. anaesthesia. Fursemide 40 mg was administered to all patients shortly before starting the session. Each patient received an average of 3,200 shockwaves per session (14-18 Kv, average 16 Kv). Haematuria was the single and modest side effect that happened during the 24 hours following lithofragmentation in 30% of patients, while 20% reported slight discomfort at the time of eliminating the gritted stones. We conclude stating that 'in situ' shockwave extracorporeal lithotrity of ureteral stones with Modulith SL 20 allows for elective disintegration of ureteral stones in whatever location they are found, due to the patient's easy positioning. The simple location and focusing of ureteral stones has allowed us to treat and solve some cases of ureteral lithiasis at the precise moment of the nephritic colic painful emergency, thus speeding up and facilitating the resolution of the condition. Our results and our strategy imply a new change of direction in the management of these lithiasis, as opposed to the well established and historical doctrines in existence regarding stones with ureteral location.

  2. SL Õhtuleht rikkus head tava / David Vseviov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2005-01-01

    Pressinõukogu arutas Meelis Atoneni kaebust 11. veebruaril SL Õhtulehes ilmunud artikli "Eksministrid lärmasid riigikogu valvelauas?" kohta ning jõudis otsusele, et SL Õhtuleht rikkus ajakirjanduseetika koodeksi punkte 1.4 ja 3.5

  3. AN ASYMPTOTIC ORDER OF FOURIER TRANSFORM ON SL(2,R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinsong; Zheng Weixing

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a better asymptotic order of Fourier transform on SL(2 ,R) is obtained by using classicalanalysis and Lie analysis comparing with that of [5]、 [6], and the Plancherel theorem on Cc2 (SL (2, R)) isalso obtained as an application.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain SL4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Bielak, Eliza Maria; Seo, Jae-Gu;

    2013-01-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 was isolated from a Korean fermented vegetable product, kimchi. We report here the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of P. pentosaceus SL4. The genome consists of a 1.79-Mb circular chromosome (G+C content of 37.3%) and seven distinct plasmids ranging in size from 4 kb to 50...

  5. Inhibition of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 Disrupts Defense Signaling Pathways and Enhances Tomato Fruit Susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Can; Chen, Lin; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2015-06-10

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are major components of defense signaling pathways that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in plants. Our previous study indicated that SlMPK1/2/3 were associated with nitric oxide-induced defense response in tomato fruit. In this study, we determine whether SlMPK1/2/3 influence the tomato fruit's innate immunity and whether plant hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways. Treatment with 10 μM U0126 significantly inhibited the relative expression of SlMPK1, SlMPK2, and SlMPK3 (P fruit showed higher concentrations of auxin indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA), but a lower concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The activities of defense enzymes, including β-1,3-glucanases (GLU), chitinase (CHI), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), decreased after U0126 treatment. Meanwhile, H2O2 content increased, and catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) activities decreased after U0126 treatment. U0126 treatment enhanced the susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea and resulted in more severe gray mold rot. These results demonstrate that inhibition of SlMPK1/2/3 disrupts tomato fruit defense signaling pathways and enhances the susceptibility to B. cinerea and also that plant hormones and ROS are associated with SlMPK1/2/3 defense signaling pathways.

  6. On SL(2,R) symmetry in nonlinear electrodynamics theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Velni, Komeil; Babaei-Aghbolagh, H.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, it has been observed that the Noether-Gaillard-Zumino (NGZ) identity holds order by order in α‧ expansion in nonlinear electrodynamics theories as Born-Infeld (BI) and Bossard-Nicolai (BN). The nonlinear electrodynamics theory that couples to an axion field is invariant under the SL (2 , R) duality in all orders of α‧ expansion in the Einstein frame. In this paper we show that there are the SL (2 , R) invariant forms of the energy momentum tensors of axion-nonlinear electrodynamics theories in the Einstein frame. These SL (2 , R) invariant structures appear in the energy momentum tensors of BI and BN theories at all orders of α‧ expansion. The SL (2 , R) symmetry appears in the BI and BN Lagrangians as a multiplication of Maxwell Lagrangian and a series of SL (2 , R) invariant structures.

  7. On SL(2;R) symmetry in nonlinear electrodynamics theories

    CERN Document Server

    Velni, Komeil Babaei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been observed that the Noether-Gaillard-Zumino (NGZ) identity holds order by order in $\\alpha'$ expansion in nonlinear electrodynamics theories as Born-Infeld (BI) and Bossard-Nicolai (BN). The nonlinear electrodynamics theory that couples to an axion field is invariant under the $SL(2,R)$ duality in all orders of $\\alpha'$ expansion in the Einstein frame. In this paper we show that there are the $SL(2,R)$ invariant forms of the energy momentum tensors of axion-nonlinear electrodynamics theories in the Einstein frame. These $SL(2,R)$ invariant structures appear in the energy momentum tensors of BI and BN theories at all orders of $\\alpha'$ expansion. The $SL(2,R)$ symmetry appears in the BI and BN Lagrangians as a multiplication of Maxwell Lagrangian and a series of $SL(2,R)$ invariant structures.

  8. The transcription factor SlAREB1 confers drought, salt stress tolerance and regulates biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Yañez, Mónica; Espinoza, Analía; Verdugo, Isabel; González, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; Casaretto, José A

    2010-12-01

    Members of the abscisic acid-responsive element binding protein (AREB)/abscisic acid-responsive element binding factor (ABF) subfamily of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress responses in plants. Here we describe two members identified in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), named SlAREB1 and SlAREB2. Expression of SlAREB1 and SlAREB2 is induced by drought and salinity in both leaves and root tissues, although that of SlAREB1 was more affected. In stress assays, SlAREB1-overexpressing transgenic tomato plants showed increased tolerance to salt and water stress compared to wild-type and SlAREB1-down-regulating transgenic plants, as assessed by physiological parameters such as relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll fluorescence and damage by lipoperoxidation. In order to identify SlAREB1 target genes responsible for the enhanced tolerance, microarray and cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were performed. Genes encoding oxidative stress-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), transcription regulators and late embryogenesis abundant proteins were found among the up-regulated genes in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines, especially in aerial tissue. Notably, several genes encoding defence proteins associated with responses to biotic stress (e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, protease inhibitors, and catabolic enzymes) were also up-regulated by SlAREB1 overexpression, suggesting that this bZIP transcription factor is involved in ABA signals that participate in abiotic stress and possibly in response to pathogens.

  9. Pre-mRNA mis-splicing of sarcomeric genes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is an important biological process that allows production of multiple proteins from a single gene in the genome, and mainly contributes to protein diversity in eukaryotic organisms. Alternative splicing is commonly governed by RNA binding proteins to meet the ever-changing demands of the cell. However, the mis-splicing may lead to human diseases. In the heart of human, mis-regulation of alternative splicing has been associated with heart failure. In this short review, we focus on alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes and review mis-splicing related heart failure with relatively well studied Sarcomeric genes and splicing mechanisms with identified regulatory factors. The perspective of alternative splicing based therapeutic strategies in heart failure has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Design of the Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (VANISH) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; McMurray, John J V; Cirino, Allison L; Colan, Steven D; Day, Sharlene M; Desai, Akshay S; Lipshultz, Steven E; MacRae, Calum A; Shi, Ling; Solomon, Scott D; Orav, E John; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by sarcomere gene mutations, resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and increased risk of sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Studies in mouse models of sarcomeric HCM demonstrated that early treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) reduced development of LVH and fibrosis. In contrast, prior human studies using ARBs for HCM have targeted heterogeneous adult cohorts with well-established disease. The VANISH trial is testing the safety and feasibility of disease-modifying therapy with an ARB in genotyped HCM patients with early disease. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial is being conducted in sarcomere mutation carriers, 8 to 45 years old, with HCM and no/minimal symptoms, or those with early phenotypic manifestations but no LVH. Participants are randomly assigned to receive valsartan 80 to 320 mg daily (depending on age and weight) or placebo. The primary endpoint is a composite of 9 z-scores in domains representing myocardial injury/hemodynamic stress, cardiac morphology, and function. Total z-scores reflecting change from baseline to final visits will be compared between treatment groups. Secondary endpoints will assess the impact of treatment on mutation carriers without LVH, and analyze the influence of age, sex, and genotype. The VANISH trial is testing a new strategy of disease modification for treating sarcomere mutation carriers with early HCM, and those at risk for its development. In addition, further insight into disease mechanisms, response to therapy, and phenotypic evolution will be gained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Discontinuity of sarcoplasmic reticulum in the mid-sarcomere region in flight muscle of dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Eguileor, M; Valvassori, R; Lanzavecchia, G

    1980-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum organization of dragonfly flight muscles is analyzed, with particular reference to the doubling existing at H-band level. This doubling could be explained as a consequence of a regular discontinuity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum covering myofibrils. In each sarcomere, two sleeves of the sarcoplasmic reticulum seem to overlap forming a telescopic system which can slide outside each other during the lengthening and shortening movements of the fiber.

  12. Animal and in silico models for the study of sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; Bakkers, Jeroen; Brundel, Bianca J; Robbins, Jeff; Tardiff, Jil C; Carrier, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, our understanding of cardiomyopathies has improved dramatically, due to improvements in screening and detection of gene defects in the human genome as well as a variety of novel animal models (mouse, zebrafish, and drosophila) and in silico computational models. These novel experimental tools have created a platform that is highly complementary to the naturally occurring cardiomyopathies in cats and dogs that had been available for some time. A fully integrative approach, which incorporates all these modalities, is likely required for significant steps forward in understanding the molecular underpinnings and pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies. Finally, novel technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, which have already been proved to work in zebrafish, are currently being employed to engineer sarcomeric cardiomyopathy in larger animals, including pigs and non-human primates. In the mouse, the increased speed with which these techniques can be employed to engineer precise 'knock-in' models that previously took years to make via multiple rounds of homologous recombination-based gene targeting promises multiple and precise models of human cardiac disease for future study. Such novel genetically engineered animal models recapitulating human sarcomeric protein defects will help bridging the gap to translate therapeutic targets from small animal and in silico models to the human patient with sarcomeric cardiomyopathy.

  13. Enhancing Brassinosteroid Signaling via Overexpression of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum SlBRI1 Improves Major Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses through the receptor, Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1, which perceives BRs and initiates BR signaling. There is considerable potential agricultural value in regulating BR signaling in crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum BRI1 gene, SlBRI1, on major agronomic traits, such as seed germination, vegetative growth, fruit ethylene production, carotenoid accumulation, yield, and quality attributes. SlBRI1 overexpression enhanced the endogenous BR signaling intensity thereby increasing the seed germination rate, lateral root number, hypocotyl length, CO2 assimilation, plant height, and flower size. The transgenic plants also showed an increase in fruit yield and fruit number per plant, although the mean weight of individual fruit was reduced, compared with wild type. SlBRI1 overexpression also promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production, and caused an increase in levels of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and soluble sugars during fruit ripening. An increased BR signaling intensity mediated by SlBRI1 overexpression was therefore positively correlated with carotenoid accumulation and fruit nutritional quality. Our results indicate that enhancing BR signaling by overexpression of SlBRI1 in tomato has the potential to improve multiple major agronomic traits.

  14. The MADS-box gene SlMBP11 regulates plant architecture and affects reproductive development in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhu; Chen, Guoping; Naeem, Muhammad; Yu, Xiaohu; Tang, Boyan; Li, Anzhou; Hu, Zongli

    2017-05-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves. Moreover, overexpression lines also exhibited reproductive phenotypes, such as those having a shorter style and split ovary, leading to polycarpous fruits, while the wild type showed normal floral organization. In addition, delayed perianth senescence was observed in transgenic tomatoes. These phenotypes were further confirmed by analyzing the morphological, anatomical and molecular features of lines exhibiting overexpression. These results suggest that SlMBP11 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture and reproductive development in tomato plants. These findings add a new class of transcription factors to the group of genes controlling axillary bud growth and illuminate a previously uncharacterized function of MADS-box genes in tomato plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5 Conferring Enhanced Drought Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Chuandong; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-08-22

    The function of aquaporin (AQP) protein in transporting water is crucial for plants to survive in drought stress. With 47 homologues in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reported, but the individual and integrated functions of aquaporins involved in drought response remains unclear. Here, three plasma membrane intrinsic protein genes, SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5, were identified as candidate aquaporins genes because of highly expressed in tomato roots. Assay on expression in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SlPIP2s protein displayed water channel activity and facilitated water transport into the cells. With real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis, SlPIP2s were considered to be involved in response to drought treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato lines overexpressing SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 were generated. Compared with wild type, the over-expression of SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 or SlPIP2;5 transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato plants all showed significantly higher hydraulic conductivity levels and survival rates under both normal and drought conditions. Taken together, this study concludes that aquaporins (SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5) contribute substantially to root water uptake in tomato plants through improving plant water content and maintaining osmotic balance.

  16. The exhaust system of the Mercedes SL 500; Die Abgasanlage des Mercedes SL 500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, B. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklung Ottomotoren; Enderle, C.; Herwig, H.; Strohmer, E. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Entwicklung Abgasanlagen Ottomotoren; Margadant, A.; Ruth, W. [Zeuna Staerker GmbH und Co. KG, Augsburg (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    More than its predecessor, the Mercedes SL 500 is designed for agility and a sports car character. This involved extensive sound engineering for the exhaust system as the legal and technical limits are quite narrow in this field. The result is a compromise between a sports car sound and a high-grade car sound, depending on the user's choice. The exhaust noise is ever-present, providing feedback on the state of operation, without being too loud or becoming a nuisance. Fluid mechanical optimisation of the exhaust system was supported by CAE in order to optimise the engine performance and driving comfort. [German] Der Mercedes SL 500 ist bereits in seiner Grundkonzeption staerker als sein Vorgaenger auf Sportlichkeit und Agilitaet ausgelegt. Die Abgasanlage liefert hierzu durch einen entsprechenden Sound und durch einen geringen Gegendruck einen nicht unerheblichen Beitrag. Der Aufwand fuer das Sound-Engineering der Abgasanlage ist gross, weil hier enge gesetzliche und technische Grenzen einzuhalten sind. Das Ergebnis ist ein Kompromiss zwischen sportlich-kraftvollem und komfortbetontem Klang - je nach Wunsch des Fahrers. Das Muendungsgeraeusch der Abgasanlage ist stets praesent und gibt jederzeit Rueckmeldung ueber den Fahrzustand, ohne dabei aufdringlich oder stoerend zu wirken. Die stroemungsmechanische Optimierung des Abgassystems durch umfangreichen CAE-Einsatz unterstuetzt die Leistungsentfaltung des Motors, was dem Fahrspass zu Gute kommt. (orig.)

  17. 番茄 SlMAPK7基因的亚细胞定位与组织表达特性%Subcellular localization and tissue expression pattern of SlMAPK7 gene in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关小燕; 陈丽妃; 何艳军; 王洁; 卢钢

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitogen‐activated protein kinase ( MAPK ) cascades are universal signal transmission modules in eukaryotes . Recent increasing evidences have proved that MAPKs play pivotal roles in plant growth and development , as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses . Up to date , a number of MAPK genes have been isolated from different plants . However , the most extensively studied MAPKs are MAPK 3 , MAPK4 and MAPK6 in A rabidopsis and rice . The function of other MAPK family members is not clear yet . Tomato , one of the most important vegetables , is considered one of the model plants for productive development . To the best of our knowledge , the research on tomato MAPK family genes is very limited . Therefore , this study aimed to characterize the temporal and spatial expression profiles of tomato SlMA PK7 , analyze the cis‐elements in its promoter sequences , and to confirm the subcellular localization of SlMA PK7 protein . The expression profiles of SlMA PK7 in the roots , stems , leaves , calyxes , petals , stamens , pistils , and fruits from flowering tomato plants were characterized by real‐time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( qRT‐PCR) , as well as the flower buds ranging from 2 mm to 8 .5 mm in length , representing in different floral development periods . The 5′‐upstream cis‐acting sequences of tomato SlMA PK7 gene were identified by PCR method according to the tomato genome sequence data . PLACE and PlantCARE were used to analyze the cis‐element of promoter . A plant expression vector with yellow fluorescent protein ( YFP) was constructed to confirm the subcellular localization of SlMA PK7 protein . Meanwhile , another plant expression vector with green fluorescent protein and β‐glucuronidase ( GUS) report gene was constructed to study the activity of promoter . The promoter expression vector was transferred into A rabidopsis by A grobacterium tume f aciens to analyze the promoter

  18. Hidden sl$_{2}$-algebra of finite-difference equations

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yuri; Turbiner, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    The connection between polynomial solutions of finite-difference equations and finite-dimensional representations of the sl_2-algebra is established. (Talk presented at the Wigner Symposium, Guadalajara, Mexico, August 1995; to be published in Proceedings)

  19. Automorphisms of sl(2) and dynamical r-matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiganov, A V

    1996-01-01

    Two outer automorphisms of infinite-dimensional representations of $sl(2)$ algebra are considered. The similar constructions for the loop algebras and yangians are presented. The corresponding linear and quadratic $R$-brackets include the dynamical $r$-matrices.

  20. Web bases for sl(3) are not dual canonical

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanov, M; Khovanov, Michael; Kuperberg, Greg

    1997-01-01

    We compare two natural bases for the invariant space of a tensor product of irreducible representations of A2, or sl(3). One basis is the web basis, defined from a skein theory called the combinatorial A2 spider. The other basis is the dual canonical basis, the dual of the basis defined by Lusztig and Kashiwara. For sl(2) or A1, the web bases have been discovered many times and were recently shown to be dual canonical by Frenkel and Khovanov. We prove that for sl(3), the two bases eventually diverge even though they agree in many small cases. The first disagreement comes in the invariant space Inv((V^+ tensor V^+ tensor V^- tensor V^-)^{tensor 3)), where V^+ and V^- are the two 3-dimensional representations of sl(3); if the tensor factors are listed in the indicated order, only 511 of the 512 invariant basis vectors coincide.

  1. Generating function of correlators in the $sl_2$ Gaudin model

    CERN Document Server

    Sklyanin, E K

    1997-01-01

    For the sl_2 Gaudin model (degenerated quantum integrable XXX spin chain) an exponential generating function of correlators is calculated explicitely. The calculation relies on the Gauss decomposition for the SL_2 loop group. From the generating function a new explicit expression for the correlators is derived from which the determinant formulas for the norms of Bethe eigenfunctions due to Richardson and Gaudin are obtained.

  2. Character algebras of decorated SL_2(C)-local systems

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Let S be a path-connected, locally-compact CW-complex, and let M be a subcomplex with finitely-many components. A `decorated SL_2(C)-local system' is an SL_2(C)-local system on S, together with a choice of `decoration' at each component of M (a section of the stalk of an associated vector bundle). We study the (decorated SL_2(C)-)character algebra of (S,M), those functions on the space of decorated SL_2(C)-local systems on (S,M) which are regular with respect to the monodromy. The character algebra is presented explicitly. The character algebra is then shown to correspond to the algebra spanned by collections of oriented curves in S modulo simple graphical rules. As an intermediate step, we obtain an invariant-theory result of independent interest: a presentation of the algebra of SL_2(C)-invariant functions on End(V)^m + V^n, where V is the tautological representation of SL_2(C).

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of tomato transcription factor SlWRKY53%番茄转录因子SlWRKY53的分离及生物学功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 牛向丽; 刘继恺; 唐维; 张霞; 张凝; 李頔; 刘永胜

    2013-01-01

    The overexpression vector containing the full-length coding region of SlWRKY53 gene was constructed and introduced into tomato cv .Ailsa Craig by A grobacterium-mediated genetic transforma-tion .Real-time PCR revealed a significant increase of SlWRKY53 expression levels in the transgenic lines compared with that of wild-type plants .Further study indicated that these transgenic lines dis-played enhanced tolerance to NaCl treatment .In addition ,the transgenic lines were shown slightly en-hanced resistance to Pst DC3000 pathogen inoculation than that of wild-type plants but without signifi-cant difference .Thus ,up-regulation of SlWRKY53 in tomato plants might result in enhanced tolerance to salt stress .%构建番茄SlWRKY53的过量表达载体,通过农杆菌介导转入番茄(Solanum lycoper-sicum)品种A ilsa Craig(AC+),获得转基因阳性植株。定量分析显示,这些转基因株系中 Sl-WRKY53基因表达量显著高于野生型。表型分析显示,转基因植株对盐胁迫抗性强于野生型。对抗病性进行检测,转基因植株抗性稍强,但与野生型相比无明显差异。由此推测番茄 Sl-WRKY53基因的过量表达能够一定程度增强植株抵抗盐胁迫的能力。

  4. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  5. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Prill

    Full Text Available The vertebrate sarcomere is a complex and highly organized contractile structure whose assembly and function requires the coordination of hundreds of proteins. Proteins require proper folding and incorporation into the sarcomere by assembly factors, and they must also be maintained and replaced due to the constant physical stress of muscle contraction. Zebrafish mutants affecting muscle assembly and maintenance have proven to be an ideal tool for identification and analysis of factors necessary for these processes. The still heart mutant was identified due to motility defects and a nonfunctional heart. The cognate gene for the mutant was shown to be smyd1b and the still heart mutation results in an early nonsense codon. SMYD1 mutants show a lack of heart looping and chamber definition due to a lack of expression of heart morphogenesis factors gata4, gata5 and hand2. On a cellular level, fast muscle fibers in homozygous mutants do not form mature sarcomeres due to the lack of fast muscle myosin incorporation by SMYD1b when sarcomeres are first being assembled (19hpf, supporting SMYD1b as an assembly protein during sarcomere formation.

  6. Evaluation of the flanking nucleotide sequences of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy substitution mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Kathryn M; Mealey, Katrina L

    2008-07-03

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial myocardial disease with a prevalence of 1 in 500. More than 400 causative mutations have been identified in 13 sarcomeric and myofilament related genes, 350 of these are substitution mutations within eight sarcomeric genes. Within a population, examples of recurring identical disease causing mutations that appear to have arisen independently have been noted as well as those that appear to have been inherited from a common ancestor. The large number of novel HCM mutations could suggest a mechanism of increased mutability within the sarcomeric genes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most commonly reported HCM genes, beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7), myosin binding protein C, troponin I, troponin T, cardiac regulatory myosin light chain, cardiac essential myosin light chain, alpha tropomyosin and cardiac alpha-actin for sequence patterns surrounding the substitution mutations that may suggest a mechanism of increased mutability. The mutations as well as the 10 flanking nucleotides were evaluated for frequency of di-, tri- and tetranucleotides containing the mutation as well as for the presence of certain tri- and tetranculeotide motifs. The most common substitutions were guanine (G) to adenine (A) and cytosine (C) to thymidine (T). The CG dinucleotide had a significantly higher relative mutability than any other dinucleotide (pmutation was calculated; none were at a statistically higher frequency than the others. The large number of G to A and C to T mutations as well as the relative mutability of CG may suggest that deamination of methylated CpG is an important mechanism for mutation development in at least some of these cardiac genes.

  7. The role of sarcomere gene mutations in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Daniel Vega; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Hedley, Paula

    2009-01-01

    We investigated a Danish cohort of 31 unrelated patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), to assess the role that mutations in sarcomere protein genes play in IDC. Patients were genetically screened by capillary electrophoresis single strand conformation polymorphism and subsequently...... by bidirectional DNA sequencing of conformers in the coding regions of MYH7, MYBPC3, TPM1, ACTC, MYL2, MYL3, TNNT2, CSRP3 and TNNI3. Eight probands carried disease-associated genetic variants (26%). In MYH7, three novel mutations were found; in MYBPC3, one novel variant and two known mutations were found...

  8. An intriguing morphological variability of Platanthera s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr G. Efimov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of 38 species of the genus Platanthera s.l. was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. Particular attention was paid to the structure of gynostemium and pollinaria. The species investigated represent 10 major lineages of the genus, all being recognized as sections or segregate genera in various taxonomical treatments. Considerable morphological variability was confirmed for Platanthera s.l. The most notably variable structures are tuberoids (root-like, stoloniferous, spherical, etc., lip (entire, lobed, fimbriate etc., rostellar lateral lobes (flat, concave, bursicle-like, lateral stigma lobes (flat, protruding, etc. and viscidia (orbicular, lanceolate, sub-linear, deeply concave, reduced. The morphology of several taxa confirms that they do not belong to Platanthera s.l., of them Platanthera camtschatica displays relation to Galearis s.l. and P. latilabris, P. clavigera and P. biermanniana – to subtribe Habenariinae. In many cases the morphology confirms the monophyly of the lineages within Platanthera s.l., as Tulotis, Limnorchis etc., although more thorough sampling is needed. Some of those groups correspond to the clades as defined by previously published molecular phylogenies (Hapeman and Inoue 1997, Bateman et al. 2009. The morphological polymorphism in Platanthera s.l. (especially gynostemium structure seems to be higher than in many other large genera of the subtribe Orchidinae, as Dactylorhiza, Ophrys or Orchis, and led to recognition of several segregate genera within Platanthera s.l. However, lesser genetic polymorphism revealed by molecular markers gives evidence for morphological plasticity (in particular, in gynostemium structure and rapid morphological evolution of this group.

  9. SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating the expression of ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 in Solanum lycopersicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-chun; GAO Yong-feng; ZHANG Ning; LI Hui-rong; YANG Shu-zhang; LIU Yong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    SOM encodes a nucleus-localized CCCH-type zinc finger protein and negatively regulates seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of SlABI3, an important transcription factor in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, resulted in alteration of SlSOM expression patterns in both leaf and seed of tomato. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of tomato SlSOM in regarding to seed germination and seedling development. Here, we constructed SlSOM over-expression vector pBI121-SOM driven by CaMV 35S promoter, and the recombinant plasmid was incorporated into wild-type tomato by the method of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The result showed that over-expression of SlSOM conferred enhanced responses to exogenous ABA application during seed germination and seedling development. In addition, ectopic expression of SlSOM resulted in the alteration of expression level of ABA/GA (gibberel ins) metabolic genes, such as SlABA1, SlCYP707A1, SlGA3ox2, and SlGA2ox4, in both leaf and seed. The ABA anabolic gene SlABA1 and the GA catabolic gene SlGA2ox4 were up-regulated while the ABA catabolic gene SlCYP707A1 and the GA anabolic gene SlGA3ox2 were down-regulated. Compared to wild type, the expression level of SlABI5 was increased by about 40–50%in transgenic seeds while adding exogenous ABA treatment. These results support the notion that SlSOM inhibits seed germination by regulating ABA/GA metabolic genes and SlABI5 expression in Solanum lycopersicum.

  10. Elliptic Deformed Superalgebra $u_{q,p}(\\hat{{sl}}(m|n))$

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the elliptic deformed superalgebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl}(M|N))$ as one parameter deformation of the quantum superalgebra $U_q(\\hat{sl}(M|N))$. We give bosonizations of the elliptic deformed superalgebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl}(1|2))$ and $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl}(2|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k$.

  11. Ekonomický personalismus a politika KDU-ČSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Stulík

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the phenomenon of economics in the doctrine of personalism and its consequences in the sphere of politics. Within this analysis, some economic distinctions between personalism, on the one hand, and libertarianism and neomarxism, on the other, are identified through a focus on the hermeneutics of personalism and its logical ideological results. These results have the form of testable propositions such as a pregnant definition of dignity, support for the concept of workfare, the family as the “core”, and the belief in the social market, which leads to progressive taxation and interventions in the labor market. These propositions are contained in KDU-ČSL policies, explicitly declared in the manifestos “Volební program 2010–2014”, “Volební program 2013–2017”, and other documents, as well as speeches of KDU-ČSL representatives, mainly of the chairman Pavel Bělobrádek. The connection between personalism and KDU-ČSL policies is then tested by metaphor analysis and the outcomes provide answers to two questions – first, whether the theory of personalism is present in KDU-ČSL policies; second, whether the KDU-ČSL could be subsumed under the socio-economic cleavage in the Czech context, and if so, then to which particular space.

  12. The Drosophila formin Fhos is a primary mediator of sarcomeric thin-filament array assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Arkadi; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-01-01

    Actin-based thin filament arrays constitute a fundamental core component of muscle sarcomeres. We have used formation of the Drosophila indirect flight musculature for studying the assembly and maturation of thin-filament arrays in a skeletal muscle model system. Employing GFP-tagged actin monomer incorporation, we identify several distinct phases in the dynamic construction of thin-filament arrays. This sequence includes assembly of nascent arrays after an initial period of intensive microfilament synthesis, followed by array elongation, primarily from filament pointed-ends, radial growth of the arrays via recruitment of peripheral filaments and continuous barbed-end turnover. Using genetic approaches we have identified Fhos, the single Drosophila homolog of the FHOD sub-family of formins, as a primary and versatile mediator of IFM thin-filament organization. Localization of Fhos to the barbed-ends of the arrays, achieved via a novel N-terminal domain, appears to be a critical aspect of its sarcomeric roles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16540.001 PMID:27731794

  13. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  14. An Equivalent Form of S-L Projection Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Benyong; OGAWA Hidemitsu

    2003-01-01

    Learning a mapping between an input space and an output space from training data can be viewed as a problem of function approximation, which means that different criteria result in learning approaches of different abilities. Among them, projection criterion proposed by one of the authors aims directly at optimal generalization. The projection idea leads to three specific learning approaches,projection learning, partial projection learning, and averaged projection learning, and a framework of a family of projection learning called S-L projection learning is established to discuss infinite kinds of learning. S-L projection learning has a different form from the three methods, and it is not easy to analyze their relationship. This paper focuses on an equivalent form of S-L projection learning, which shows that it is a transformed version of partial projection learning.

  15. Use of Industrial Components in SL/BT Equipment Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E

    1999-01-01

    The control system of all SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices is presently being refurbished, using solely standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers serve as equipment controllers. They are connected through Profibus to a WinNT front-end running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and gateway for remote access. A variant configuration, where the PLCs are directly linked to Ethernet, has been used for controlling the SPS Q measurement kickers. These and some other SL/BT projects will be reviewed where fully off-the-shelf components have been successfully integrated into the SL accelerator controls infrastructure. The arguments leading to the various technical choices will be laid down including a report of the experience gained. Finally, the presentation will address the perspective and current ideas for using industrial components in controlling SL/BT equipment during the LHC era.

  16. On the universal sl_2 invariant of Brunnian bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    A link L is called Brunnian if every proper sublink of L is trivial. Similarly, a bottom tangle T is called Brunnian if every proper subtangle of T is trivial. In this paper, we give a small subalgebra of the n-fold completed tensor power of U_h(sl_2) in which the universal sl_2 invariant of n-component Brunnian bottom tangles takes values. As an application, we give a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of Brunnian links.

  17. 迭代收缩SL0压缩感知恢复算法%Iterative shrinkage SL0 compressed sensing r ecov ery al gori thm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婉军; 王宏志; 王贤龙

    2014-01-01

    Combing SL0 with iterative threshold compression to improve both the compressed sensing signal recovery speed and effect ,we put forward an algorithm superior to the pure SL0 algorithm verified by experiments .%将SL0与迭代阈值收缩相结合,改善了压缩感知信号恢复速度以及信号恢复效果。实验结果表明,迭代收缩SL0算法在速度上,以及恢复信号的质量上都优于SL0算法。

  18. CAS-1, a C. elegans cyclase-associated protein, is required for sarcomeric actin assembly in striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2012-09-01

    Assembly of contractile apparatuses in striated muscle requires precisely regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeletal proteins into sarcomeric organization. Regulation of actin filament dynamics is one of the essential processes of myofibril assembly, but the mechanism of actin regulation in striated muscle is not clearly understood. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is a key enhancer of actin filament dynamics in striated muscle in both vertebrates and nematodes. Here, we report that CAS-1, a cyclase-associated protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, promotes ADF/cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover in vitro and is required for sarcomeric actin organization in striated muscle. CAS-1 is predominantly expressed in striated muscle from embryos to adults. In vitro, CAS-1 binds to actin monomers and enhances exchange of actin-bound ATP/ADP even in the presence of UNC-60B, a muscle-specific ADF/cofilin that inhibits the nucleotide exchange. As a result, CAS-1 and UNC-60B cooperatively enhance actin filament turnover. The two proteins also cooperate to shorten actin filaments. A cas-1 mutation is homozygous lethal with defects in sarcomeric actin organization. cas-1-mutant embryos and worms have aggregates of actin in muscle cells, and UNC-60B is mislocalized to the aggregates. These results provide genetic and biochemical evidence that cyclase-associated protein is a critical regulator of sarcomeric actin organization in striated muscle.

  19. A low prevalence of sarcomeric gene variants in a Chinese cohort with left ventricular non-compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Wang, Jizheng; Wang, Hu; Sun, Kai; Wang, Yilu; Jia, Lei; Zou, Yubao; Hui, Rutai; Zhou, Xianliang; Song, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is genetically heterogeneous. It has been previously shown that LVNC is associated with defects in TAZ, DNTA, LDB3, YWHAE, MIB1, PRDM16, and sarcomeric genes. This study was aimed to investigate sarcomeric gene mutations in a Chinese population with LVNC. From 2004 to 2010, 57 unrelated Chinese patients with LVNC were recruited at Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China. Detailed clinical evaluation was performed on the probands and available family members. DNA samples isolated from the peripheral blood of the index cases were screened for 10 sarcomeric genes, including MYH7, MYBPC3, MYL2, MYL3, MYH6, TNNC1, TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, and ACTC1. Seven heterozygous mutations (6 missense and 1 deletion) were identified in 7 (12 %) of the patients. These mutations were distributed among 4 genes, 4 in MYH7, and 1 each in ACTC1, TNNT2, and TPM1. Six of the mutations were novel and another one was reported previously. All mutations affected conserved amino acid residues and were predicted to alter the structure of the proteins by in silico analysis. No significant difference was observed between mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients with respect to clinical characteristics at baseline and mortality during follow-up. In conclusion, our study indicates that sarcomeric gene mutations are uncommon causes of LVNC in Chinese patients and genetic background of the disease may be divergent among the different races.

  20. Diagnostic yield, interpretation, and clinical utility of mutation screening of sarcomere encoding genes in Danish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Havndrup, Ole; Hougs, Lotte;

    2008-01-01

    persons. Index patients were screened for mutations in all coding regions of 10 sarcomere genes (MYH7, MYL3, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, ACTC, CSRP3, TCAP, and TNNC1) and five exons of TTN. Relatives were screened for presence of minor or major diagnostic criteria for HCM and tracking of DNA variants...

  1. Toward logarithmic extensions of ^sl(2)_k conformal field models

    CERN Document Server

    Semikhatov, A M

    2007-01-01

    For positive integer p=k+2, we consider a logarithmic extension of the ^sl(2)_k conformal field theory of integrable representations by taking the kernel of two fermionic screening operators in a three-boson realization of ^sl(2)_k. The currents W^-(z) and W^+(z) of a W-algebra acting in the kernel are determined by a highest-weight state of dimension 4p-2 and charge 2p-1, and a (theta=1)-twisted highest-weight state of the same dimension 4p-2 and charge -2p+1. We construct 2p W-algebra representations, evaluate their characters, and show that together with the p-1 integrable representation characters they generate a modular group representation whose structure is described as a deformation of the (9p-3)-dimensional representation $R_{p+1} \\oplus C^2 \\otimes R_{p+1} \\oplus R_{p-1} \\oplus C^2 \\otimes R_{p-1} \\oplus C^3 \\otimes R_{p-1}$, where R_{p-1} is the SL(2,Z) representation on integrable representation characters and R_{p+1} is a (p+1)-dimensional SL(2,Z) representation known from the logarithmic (p,1) m...

  2. Some deformations of U[sl(2)] and their representations

    CERN Document Server

    Ky, N A

    2003-01-01

    Some one- and two-parametric deformations of U[sl(2)] and their representations are considered. Interestingly, a newly introduced two-parametric deformation admits a class of infinite - dimensional representations which have no classical (non-deformed) and one-parametric deformation analogues, even at generic deformation parameters.

  3. On quantum equivalence of dual $\\sigma$ models $SL(3)$ examples

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Z; Palla, L

    1996-01-01

    The equivalence of several $SL(3)$ sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in the two loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various $\\beta$ functions of the original and dual models. The role of the discrete global symmetries is emphasized.

  4. On quantum equivalence of dual sigma models: SL(3) examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karp, R.L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Palla, L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1997-04-14

    The equivalence of several SL(3) sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in two-loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various {beta}-functions of the original and dual models. The role of discrete global symmetries is emphasized. (orig.).

  5. The prediction of impact of Comet SL9 on Jupiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家祥; 汪琦; 杨捷兴; 王思潮; 陈协珍

    1996-01-01

    Several predictions of the impact of Comet SL9 on Jupiter were made from April to July, 1994. The predictions are basically in agreement with actuality. The method and theory of the prediction are expounded briefly, and the predicted impact times are analyzed and compared with actually accepted impact times.

  6. Demazure modules and vertex models the affine sl(2) case

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Okado, M; Foda, Omar; Misra, Kailash C; Okado, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We characterize, in the case of affine sl(2), the crystal base of the Demazure module E_w(\\La) in terms of extended Young diagrams or paths for any dominant integral weight \\La and Weyl group element w. Its character is evaluated via two expressions, 'bosonic' and 'fermionic'.

  7. Regional variation in myofilament length-dependent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Olivier; Lacampagne, Alain

    2011-07-01

    The Frank-Starling law is an important regulatory mechanism of the heart that links the end-diastolic volume with the systolic ejection fraction. This beat-to-beat regulation of the heart, underlined at the cellular level by higher myofilament calcium sensitivity at longer sarcomere length, is known as length-dependent activation or stretch sensitization of activation. However, the heart is structurally and functionally heterogeneous and asymmetrical. Specifically, contractile properties are not uniform within the left ventricle partly due to transmural differences in action potential waveforms and calcium homeostasis. The present review will focus on the role of the contractile machinery in the transmural contractile heterogeneity and its adaptation to changes in muscle strain. The expression of different myosin isoforms, the level of titin-based passive tension, and thin and thick sarcomeric regulatory proteins are considered to explain the regional cellular contractile properties. Finally, the importance of transmural heterogeneity of length-dependent activation and the consequences of its modification on the heart mechanics are discussed. Despite extensive research since the characterization of the Frank-Starling law, the molecular mechanisms by which strain information is transduced to the contractile machinery have not been fully determined yet.

  8. Remodeling of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton in cardiac ventricular myocytes during heart failure and after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Justin G; Carruth, Eric; Mitchell, Chelsea; Barth, Andreas S; Aiba, Takeshi; Kass, David A; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Bridge, John H; Sachse, Frank B

    2014-07-01

    Sarcomeres are the basic contractile units of cardiac myocytes. Recent studies demonstrated remodeling of sarcomeric proteins in several diseases, including genetic defects and heart failure. Here we investigated remodeling of sarcomeric α-actinin in two models of heart failure, synchronous (SHF) and dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF), as well as a model of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We applied three-dimensional confocal microscopy and quantitative methods of image analysis to study isolated cells from our animal models. 3D Fourier analysis revealed a decrease of the spatial regularity of the α-actinin distribution in both SHF and DHF versus control cells. The spatial regularity of α-actinin in DHF cells was reduced when compared with SHF cells. The spatial regularity of α-actinin was partially restored after CRT. We found longitudinal depositions of α-actinin in SHF, DHF and CRT cells. These depositions spanned adjacent Z-disks and exhibited a lower density of α-actinin than in the Z-disk. Differences in the occurrence of depositions between the SHF, CRT and DHF models versus control were significant. Also, CRT cells exhibited a higher occurrence of depositions versus SHF, but not DHF cells. Other sarcomeric proteins did not accumulate in the depositions to the same extent as α-actinin. We did not find differences in the expression of α-actinin protein and its encoding gene in our animal models. In summary, our studies indicate that HF is associated with two different types of remodeling of α-actinin and only one of those was reversed after CRT. We suggest that these results can guide us to an understanding of remodeling of structures and function associated with sarcomeres.

  9. Expression of sarcomeric tropomyosin in striated muscles in axolotl treated with shz-1, a small cardiogenic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Changlong; Dube, Syamalima; Matoq, Amr; Mikesell, Lauren; Abbott, Lynn; Alshiekh-Nasany, Ruham; Chionuma, Henry; Huang, Xupei; Poiesz, Bernard J; Dube, Dipak K

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of shz-1, a cardiogenic molecule, on the expression of various tropomyosin (TM) isoforms in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hearts. qRT-PCR data show a ~1.5-fold increase in cardiac transcripts of the Nkx2.5 gene, which plays a crucial role in cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Shz-1 augments the expression of transcripts of the total sarcomeric TPM1 (both TPM1α & TPM1κ) and sarcomeric TPM4α. In order to understand the mechanism by which shz-1 augments the expression of sarcomeric TPM transcription in axolotl hearts, we transfected C2C12 cells with pGL3.axolotl. We transfected C2C12 cells with pGL3-axolotl TPM4 promoter constructs containing the firefly luciferase reporter gene. The transfected C2C12 cells were grown in the absence or presence of shz-1 (5 μM). Subsequently, we determined the firefly luciferase activity in the extracts of transfected cells. The results suggest that shz-1 activates the axolotl TPM4 promoter-driven ectopic expression in C2C12 cells. Also, we transfected C2C12 cells with a pGL3.1 vector containing the promoter of the mouse skeletal muscle troponin-I and observed a similar increase in the luciferase activity in shz-1-treated cells. We conclude that shz-1 activates the promoters of a variety of genes including axolotl TPM4. We have quantified the expression of the total sarcomeric TPM1 and observed a 1.5-fold increase in treated cells. Western blot analyses with CH1 monoclonal antibody specific for sarcomeric isoforms show that shz-1 does not increase the expression of TM protein in axolotl hearts, whereas it does in C2C12 cells. These findings support our hypothesis that cardiac TM expression in axolotl undergoes translational control.

  10. Role of common sarcomeric gene polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to left ventricular dysfunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SURENDRA KUMAR; AVSHESH MISHRA; ANSHIKA SRIVASTAVA; MANSI BHATT; N. GARG; S. K. AGARWAL; SHANTANU PANDE; BALRAJ MITTAL

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in sarcomeric genes are common genetic cause of cardiomyopathies. An intronic 25-bp deletion in cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) at 3' region is associated with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies in Southeast Asia. However, the frequency of sarcomeric gene polymorphisms and associated clinical presentation have not been established with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the association of MYBPC3 25-bp deletion, titin (TTN) 18 bp I/D, troponin T type 2 (TNNT2) 5 bp I/D and myospryn K2906N polymorphisms with LVD. This study includes 988 consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD) and 300 healthy controls. Among the 988 CAD patients, 253 with reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF≤45%) were categorized as LVD. MYBPC3 25-bp deletion,TTN 18 bp I/D and TNNT25 bp I/D polymorphisms were determined by direct polymerase chain reaction method, while myospryn K2906N polymorphism by TaqMan assay. Our results showed that MYBPC3 25-bpdeletion polymorphism was significantly associated with elevated risk of LVD (LVEF <45) (healthy controls versus LVD: OR= 3.85,P<0.001; and nonLVD versus LVD: OR=1.65,P=0.035), while TTN 18 bp I/D, TNNT25bpI/Dand myospryn K2906N polymorphisms did not show any significant association with LVD. The results also showed that MYBPC3 25-bp deletion polymorphism was significantly associated with other parameters of LV remodelling, i.e. LV dimensions (LV end diastole dimension, LVEDD: P= 0.037 and LV end systolic dimension, LVESD: P= 0.032).Our data suggests that MYBPC3 25-bp deletion may play significant role in conferring LVD as well as CAD risk in north Indian population

  11. Muscleblind, BSF and TBPH are mislocalized in the muscle sarcomere of a Drosophila myotonic dystrophy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Llamusi

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is a genetic disease caused by the pathological expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. In the DMPK transcripts, the CUG expansions sequester RNA-binding proteins into nuclear foci, including transcription factors and alternative splicing regulators such as MBNL1. MBNL1 sequestration has been associated with key features of DM1. However, the basis behind a number of molecular and histological alterations in DM1 remain unclear. To help identify new pathogenic components of the disease, we carried out a genetic screen using a Drosophila model of DM1 that expresses 480 interrupted CTG repeats, i(CTG480, and a collection of 1215 transgenic RNA interference (RNAi fly lines. Of the 34 modifiers identified, two RNA-binding proteins, TBPH (homolog of human TAR DNA-binding protein 43 or TDP-43 and BSF (Bicoid stability factor; homolog of human LRPPRC, were of particular interest. These factors modified i(CTG480 phenotypes in the fly eye and wing, and TBPH silencing also suppressed CTG-induced defects in the flight muscles. In Drosophila flight muscle, TBPH, BSF and the fly ortholog of MBNL1, Muscleblind (Mbl, were detected in sarcomeric bands. Expression of i(CTG480 resulted in changes in the sarcomeric patterns of these proteins, which could be restored by coexpression with human MBNL1. Epistasis studies showed that Mbl silencing was sufficient to induce a subcellular redistribution of TBPH and BSF proteins in the muscle, which mimicked the effect of i(CTG480 expression. These results provide the first description of TBPH and BSF as targets of Mbl-mediated CTG toxicity, and they suggest an important role of these proteins in DM1 muscle pathology.

  12. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively.

  13. Increased titin compliance reduced length-dependent contractionand slowed cross-bridge kinetics in skinned myocardial strips from Rbm20ΔRRM mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah C. Pulcastro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Titin is a giant protein spanning from the Z-disk to the M-band of the cardiac sarcomere. In the I-band titin acts as a molecular spring, contributing to passive mechanical characteristics of the myocardium throughout a heartbeat. RNA Binding Motif Protein 20 (RBM20 is required for normal titin splicing, and its absence or altered function leads to greater expression of a very large, more compliant N2BA titin isoform in Rbm20 homozygous mice (Rbm20ΔRRM compared to wild-type mice (WT that almost exclusively express the stiffer N2B titin isoform. Prior studies using Rbm20ΔRRM animals have shown that increased titin compliance compromises muscle ultrastructure and attenuates the Frank-Starling relationship. Although previous computational simulations of muscle contraction suggested that increasing compliance of the sarcomere slows the rate of tension development and prolongs cross-bridge attachment, none of the reported effects of Rbm20ΔRRM on myocardial function have been attributed to changes in cross-bridge cycling kinetics. To test the relationship between increased sarcomere compliance and cross-bridge kinetics, we used stochastic length-perturbation analysis in Ca2+-activated, skinned papillary muscle strips from Rbm20ΔRRM and WT mice. We found increasing titin compliance depressed maximal tension, decreased Ca2+-sensitivity of the tension-pCa relationship, and slowed myosin detachment rate in myocardium from Rbm20ΔRRM vs. WT mice. As sarcomere length increased from 1.9 to 2.2 µm, length-dependent activation of contraction was eliminated in the Rbm20ΔRRM myocardium, even though myosin MgADP release rate decreased ~20% to prolong strong cross-bridge binding at longer sarcomere length. These data suggest that increasing N2BA expression may alter cardiac performance in a length-dependent manner, showing greater deficits in tension production and slower cross-bridge kinetics at longer sarcomere length. This study also supports the idea

  14. Fältarbete i slöjdpraktiker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Samuelsson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Denna artikel beskriver överväganden gjorda inför och under ett fältarbete i två slöjdpraktiker, en skolslöjdspraktik och en slöjdklubbspraktik, liksom överväganden inför rapportering av detta fältarbete. Artikeln knyter an till vetenskapliga discipliner som antropologi, etnologi och sociologi där fältarbete under stora delar av 1900-talet använts för förstahandsregistreringar av interaktionen människa – människa, människa – kultur. Metodologiska aspekter som tid problematiseras med exemplifieringar från ett halvårslångt fältarbete i två olika slöjdpraktiker. På så sätt beskrivs hur kontakt med fälten eller slöjdpraktiker kan etableras, upprätthållas och avslutas genom olika slags portvakter. Vidare problematiseras hur fältforskare har att förhålla sig till och reflektera över sin roll som medaktör under det att deltagande observationer, fältanteckningar, samtal, dokument- och föremålsanalyser genomförs. Artikeln skildrar också hur forskaren genom hela fältarbetet medvetet arbetar med att förhålla sig reflexiv, vara nära och vara distanserad, i förhållande till fälten. Vidare framhålls hur fältforskaren genom att växla mellan empirisk och teoretisk närhet gör det möjligt att överraskas och på så sätt försöka etablera nya, annorlunda, sätt att se på och förstå det som sker i fält. Artikeln avslutas med reflektioner över senmoderna fältarbetens potential för att studera kommunikation, innehåll och meningserbjudanden i slöjdpraktiker.Sökord: metod, slöjd, fältarbete, deltagande observationURN:NBN:no-29953

  15. Eugenol confers resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating the expression of SlPer1 in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Lv, Wen-Jing; Li, Li-Na; Yin, Gan; Hang, Xiaofang; Xue, Yanfeng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-05-25

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating plant diseases, and poses a significant agricultural concern because of the lack of an efficient control method. Eugenol is a plant-derived natural compound that has been widely used as a food additive and in medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated the potential of eugenol to enhance the resistance of tomato plants to TYLCV. The anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol was significantly higher than that of moroxydine hydrochloride (MH), a widely used commercial antiviral agent. Eugenol application stimulated the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) in tomato plants. The full-length cDNA of SlPer1, which has been suggested to be a host R gene specific to TYLCV, was isolated from tomato plants. A sequence analysis suggested that SlPer1 might be a nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) belonging to the permease family. The transcript levels of SlPer1 increased markedly in response to treatment with eugenol or TYLCV inoculation. The results of this study also showed that SlPer1 expression was strongly induced by SA, MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester), and NO. Thus, we propose that the increased transcription of SlPer1 contributed to the high anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol, which might involve in the generation of endogenous SA and NO. Such findings provide the basis for the development of eugenol as an environmental-friendly agricultural antiviral agent.

  16. A stress-associated NAC transcription factor (SlNAC35) from tomato plays a positive role in biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Xiaocui; Wang, Yong; Kong, Fanying; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-09-01

    The NAC transcription factor family participates in responses to various kinds of environmental stimuli in plants. Responses of NAC genes to abiotic stresses have been widely studied, but their functions in response to biotic stress are little reported in plants, especially in crops. In the present study, we examined the functions of a novel tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC protein (SlNAC35) in abiotic and biotic stress resistance by using transgenic tobacco. Expression analysis found that SlNAC35 expression was induced by drought stress, salt stress, bacterial pathogen, and signaling molecules, suggesting its involvement in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Moreover, transgenic lines exhibited a greater number of lateral roots and longer root length compared with Vec lines (empty vector lines) after drought and salt treatment. These results indicate that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted root growth and development under drought and salt stresses. Higher expressions of NtARF1, NtARF2 and NtARF8 were observed under drought and salt stresses in transgenic lines, suggesting that overexpression of SlNAC35 promoted growth and development of roots in transgenic lines possibly by involving auxin signaling and by regulating NtARF expression. In addition, SlNAC35 overexpression improved resistance to bacterial pathogen in transgenic tobacco, and reactive oxygen species may be in the upstream of salicylic acid (SA) signaling in transgenic tobacco during defense response.

  17. Study on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of the UV-cured SL5510 Stereolithography Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bi-wu; HUANG Shu-huai; MO Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, Vantico A &T US Incorporation has developed a type of the hightest accuracy photosensitive resin:SL5510 stereolithography material (briefly named SL5510)to use in the stereolithography apparatus(SLA). In this paper, the thermal and mechanical properties were investigated for the fabricated specimens of SL5510 in the different UV post-cure time. This may instruct us to employ better the fabricated parts of SL5510.

  18. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden (CERN); W. Watson (TJNAF)

    1999-10-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described.

  19. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Charrue, P; Deloose, I; Di Maio, F; Kostro, K; Van den Eynden, M; Watson, W

    1999-01-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common controls infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organised in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described.

  20. Crepant Terminalisations and Orbifold Euler Numbers for SL(4) Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Sardo Infirri, A V

    1996-01-01

    Let $X$ and $Y$ be two analytic canonical Gorenstein orbifolds. A resolution of singularities $Y\\to X$ is called an Euler resolution if $Y$ and $X$ have the same orbifold Euler number. If $Y$ is only terminal rather than smooth, it is called an Euler terminalisation. It is proved that Euler terminalisations exist for toric varieties in any dimension, for 4-dimensional toroidal varieties, and for singularities $\\C^4/G$ where $G$ belongs to certain classes of $\\SL(4)$ subgroups. The method of proof is expected to be applicable to a sizeable number of finite $\\SL(4)$ subgroups and to lead to a generalisation of the Dixon-Harvey-Vafa-Witten orbifold Euler number conjecture to dimension~4.

  1. Hamiltonian formulation of SL(3) Ur-KdV equation

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, B K; Nam, S; Nam, Soonkeon

    1993-01-01

    We give a unified view of the relation between the $SL(2)$ KdV, the mKdV, and the Ur-KdV equations through the Fr\\'{e}chet derivatives and their inverses. For this we introduce a new procedure of obtaining the Ur-KdV equation, where we require that it has no non-local operators. We extend this method to the $SL(3)$ KdV equation, i.e., Boussinesq(Bsq) equation and obtain the hamiltonian structure of Ur-Bsq equationin a simple form. In particular, we explicitly construct the hamiltonian operator of the Ur-Bsq system which defines the poisson structure of the system, through the Fr\\'{e}chet derivative and its inverse.

  2. Strong Discreteness of Subgroups of SL(2,Гn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仙桃

    2004-01-01

    @@ As in [1,6], let Гn be the n-dimensional Clifford group, i.e., the set of all elements in n-dimensional Clifford algebra An, which can be expressed as a finite product of non-zero-vectors and SL(2, Гn)denote the group of n-dimensional Clifford matrices A= (a c b d) which satisfy:

  3. Quantum traces for representations of surface groups in SL_2

    CERN Document Server

    Bonahon, Francis

    2010-01-01

    We consider two different quantizations of the character variety consisting of all representations of surface groups in SL_2. One is the skein algebra considered by Przytycki-Sikora and Turaev. The other is the quantum Teichmuller space introduced by Chekhov-Fock and Kashaev. We construct a homomorphism from the skein algebra to the quantum Teichmuller space which, when restricted the classical case, corresponds to the equivalence between these two algebras through trace functions.

  4. Hamiltonian Analysis of SL(2,R) Symmetry in Liouville Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojevic, M

    1994-01-01

    We consider a Hamiltonian analysis of the Liouville theory and construction of symmetry generators using Castellani's method. We then discuss the light-cone gauge fixed theory. In particular, we clarify the difference between Hamiltonian approaches based on different choices of time, $\\xi^0$ and $\\xi^+$. Our main result is the construction of SL(2,R) symmetry generators in both cases. ( Lectures presented at the Danube Workshop '93, June 1993, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.)

  5. The Liouville Theory and SL(2,R) Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojevic, M

    1993-01-01

    The Liouville action emerges as the effective action of 2-d gravity in the process of path integral quantization of the bosonic string. It yields a measure of the violation of classical symmetries of the theory at the quantum level. Certain aspects of the residual SL(2,R) invariance of the gauge-fixed Liouville theory are disscussed. ( Lectures presented at the Danube Workshop '93, June 1993, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.)

  6. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions.

  7. Furthering the link between the sarcomere and primary cardiomyopathies: restrictive cardiomyopathy associated with multiple mutations in genes previously associated with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleshu, Colleen; Sakhuja, Rahul; Nussbaum, Robert L; Schiller, Nelson B; Ursell, Philip C; Eng, Celeste; De Marco, Teresa; McGlothlin, Dana; Burchard, Esteban González; Rame, J Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    Mutations in genes that encode components of the sarcomere are well established as the cause of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Sarcomere genes, however, are increasingly being associated with other cardiomyopathies. One phenotype more recently recognized as a disease of the sarcomere is restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). We report on two patients with RCM associated with multiple mutations in sarcomere genes not previously associated with RCM. Patient 1 presented with NYHA Class III/IV heart failure at 22 years of age. She was diagnosed with RCM and advanced heart failure requiring heart transplantation. Sequencing of sarcomere genes revealed previously reported homozygous p.Glu143Lys mutations in MYL3, and a novel heterozygous p.Gly57Glu mutation in MYL2. The patient's mother is a double heterozygote for these mutations, with no evidence of cardiomyopathy. Patient 2 presented at 35 years of age with volume overload while hospitalized for oophorectomy. She was diagnosed with RCM and is being evaluated for heart transplantation. Sarcomere gene sequencing identified homozygous p.Asn279His mutations in TPM1. The patient's parents are consanguineous and confirmed heterozygotes. Her father was diagnosed with HCM at 42 years of age. This is the first report of mutations in TPM1, MYL3, and MYL2 associated with primary, non-hypertrophied RCM. The association of more sarcomere genes with RCM provides further evidence that mutations in the various sarcomere genes can cause different cardiomyopathy phenotypes. These cases also contribute to the growing body of evidence that multiple mutations have an additive effect on the severity of cardiomyopathies.

  8. CAS-1, a C. elegans cyclase-associated protein, is required for sarcomeric actin assembly in striated muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kazumi; Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Assembly of contractile apparatuses in striated muscle requires precisely regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeletal proteins into sarcomeric organization. Regulation of actin filament dynamics is one of the essential processes of myofibril assembly, but the mechanism of actin regulation in striated muscle is not clearly understood. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is a key enhancer of actin filament dynamics in striated muscle in both vertebrates and nematodes. Here, we repo...

  9. Cadence, Stride Rate and Stride Length during Triathlon Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Grant J; Blanksby, Brian A; Rackland, Timothy

    Triathlon research shows cycling alters the physiological response of subsequent running but, at present, biomechanical changes are unresolved. This study examined cycling cadence and running stride rate (SR) and length (SL) used by senior elite triathletes during competition. These variables were then compared to running and triathlon performance. Data from 51 elite male World Championships triathletes were analyzed via video recordings and Video Expert II Coach. Triathletes revealed consistent cadences throughout the majority of the cycle (96.8 +2.7 rpm) and run (90.9 +2.4 rpm) disciplines. However, a cadence increase (99.6 +5.7 rpm) was recorded at the completion of the cycle prior to running. Running SR and SL was significantly lower at the end of the run indicating a level of fatigue (ptriathlon performance (p<0.01) suggesting those that could maintain a longer SL had a faster run and better final finishing position.

  10. The tomato SlSHINE3 transcription factor regulates fruit cuticle formation and epidermal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian Xin; Adato, Avital; Alkan, Noam; He, Yonghua; Lashbrooke, Justin; Matas, Antonio J; Meir, Sagit; Malitsky, Sergey; Isaacson, Tal; Prusky, Dov; Leshkowitz, Dena; Schreiber, Lukas; Granell, Antonio R; Widemann, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Pinot, Franck; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Rogachev, Ilana; Rothan, Christophe; Aharoni, Asaph

    2013-01-01

    Fleshy tomato fruit typically lacks stomata; therefore, a proper cuticle is particularly vital for fruit development and interaction with the surroundings. Here, we characterized the tomato SlSHINE3 (SlSHN3) transcription factor to extend our limited knowledge regarding the regulation of cuticle formation in fleshy fruits. We created SlSHN3 overexpressing and silenced plants, and used them for detailed analysis of cuticular lipid compositions, phenotypic characterization, and the study on the mode of SlSHN3 action. Heterologous expression of SlSHN3 in Arabidopsis phenocopied overexpression of the Arabidopsis SHNs. Silencing of SlSHN3 results in profound morphological alterations of the fruit epidermis and significant reduction in cuticular lipids. We demonstrated that SlSHN3 activity is mediated by control of genes associated with cutin metabolism and epidermal cell patterning. As with SlSHN3 RNAi lines, mutation in the SlSHN3 target gene, SlCYP86A69, resulted in severe cutin deficiency and altered fruit surface architecture. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that SlCYP86A69 possesses NADPH-dependent ω-hydroxylation activity, particularly of C18:1 fatty acid to the 18-hydroxyoleic acid cutin monomer. This study provided insights into transcriptional mechanisms mediating fleshy fruit cuticle formation and highlighted the link between cutin metabolism and the process of fruit epidermal cell patterning.

  11. Intermittent stretch training of rabbit plantarflexor muscles increases soleus mass and serial sarcomere number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Dominique; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2015-06-15

    In humans, enhanced joint range of motion is observed after static stretch training and results either from an increased stretch tolerance or from a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. We investigated the effects of an intermittent stretch training on muscle biomechanical and structural variables. The left plantarflexors muscles of seven anesthetized New Zealand (NZ) White rabbits were passively and statically stretched three times a week for 4 wk, while the corresponding right muscles were used as nonstretched contralateral controls. Before and after the stretching protocol, passive torque produced by the left plantarflexor muscles as a function of the ankle angle was measured. The left and right plantarflexor muscles were harvested from dead rabbits and used to quantify possible changes in muscle structure. Significant mass and serial sarcomere number increases were observed in the stretched soleus but not in the plantaris or medial gastrocnemius. This difference in adaptation between the plantarflexors is thought to be the result of their different fiber type composition and pennation angles. Neither titin isoform nor collagen amount was modified in the stretched compared with the control soleus muscle. Passive torque developed during ankle dorsiflexion was not modified after the stretch training on average, but was decreased in five of the seven experimental rabbits. Thus, an intermittent stretching program similar to those used in humans can produce a change in the muscle structure of NZ White rabbits, which was associated in some rabbits with a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  12. Cloning, Sequencing, and the Expression of the Elusive Sarcomeric TPM4α Isoform in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Dube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, tropomyosin is encoded by four known TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 each of which can generate a number of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing and/or using alternate promoters. In humans, the sarcomeric isoform(s of each of the TPM genes, except for the TPM4, have been known for a long time. Recently, on the basis of computational analyses of the human genome sequence, the predicted sequence of TPM4α has been posted in GenBank. We designed primer-pairs for RT-PCR and showed the expression of the transcripts of TPM4α and a novel isoform TPM4δ in human heart and skeletal muscle. qRT-PCR shows that the relative expression of TPM4α and TPM4δ is higher in human cardiac muscle. Western blot analyses using CH1 monoclonal antibodies show the absence of the expression of TPM4δ protein (~28 kDa in human heart muscle. 2D western blot analyses with the same antibody show the expression of at least nine distinct tropomyosin molecules with a mass ~32 kD and above in adult heart. By Mass spectrometry, we determined the amino acid sequences of the extracted proteins from these spots. Spot “G” reveals the putative expression of TPM4α along with TPM1α protein in human adult heart.

  13. Cloning, Sequencing, and the Expression of the Elusive Sarcomeric TPM4α Isoform in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lynn; Alshiekh-Nasany, Ruham; Mitschow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, tropomyosin is encoded by four known TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4) each of which can generate a number of TPM isoforms via alternative splicing and/or using alternate promoters. In humans, the sarcomeric isoform(s) of each of the TPM genes, except for the TPM4, have been known for a long time. Recently, on the basis of computational analyses of the human genome sequence, the predicted sequence of TPM4α has been posted in GenBank. We designed primer-pairs for RT-PCR and showed the expression of the transcripts of TPM4α and a novel isoform TPM4δ in human heart and skeletal muscle. qRT-PCR shows that the relative expression of TPM4α and TPM4δ is higher in human cardiac muscle. Western blot analyses using CH1 monoclonal antibodies show the absence of the expression of TPM4δ protein (~28 kDa) in human heart muscle. 2D western blot analyses with the same antibody show the expression of at least nine distinct tropomyosin molecules with a mass ~32 kD and above in adult heart. By Mass spectrometry, we determined the amino acid sequences of the extracted proteins from these spots. Spot “G” reveals the putative expression of TPM4α along with TPM1α protein in human adult heart. PMID:27703814

  14. Titin Isoform Size is Not Correlated with Thin Filament Length in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Lewis Greaser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling thin filament length in muscle remain controversial. It was recently reported that thin filament length was related to titin size, and that the latter might be involved in thin filament length determination. Titin plays several crucial roles in the sarcomere, but its function as it pertains to the thin filament has not been explored. We tested this relationship using several muscles from wild type rats and from a mutant rat model which results in increased titin size. Myofibrils were isolated from skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, external oblique, gastrocnemius, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, and tibialis anterior using both adult wild type (WT and homozygous mutant (HM rats. Phalloidin and antibodies against tropomodulin-4 and nebulin’s N-terminus were used to determine thin filament length. The WT rats studied express skeletal muscle titin sizes ranging from 3.2 to 3.7 MDa, while the HM rats express a giant titin isoform sized at 3.7 MDa. No differences in phalloidin-based thin filament length, nebulin N terminus distances from the Z line, or tropomodulin distances from the Z line were observed across genotypes. The data indicates that, although titin performs many sarcomeric functions, its correlation with thin filament length and structure could not be demonstrated in the rat. Current models of thin filament assembly are inadequate to explain the phalloidin, nebulin N terminus, and tropomodulin staining patterns in the myofibril.

  15. q-Difference Realization of $U_q(sl(M|N))$ and Its Application to Free Boson Realization of $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(2|1))$

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, H; Shiraishi, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a q-difference realization of the quantum superalgebra U_q(sl(M|N)), which includes Grassmann even and odd coordinates and their derivatives. Based on this result we obtain a free boson realization of the quantum affine superalgebra U_q(\\widehat{sl}(2|1)) of an arbitrary level k.

  16. The $q$-WakimotoO Realization of the Superalgebras $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$ AND $U_{q,p}(\\widehat{{sl}}(N|1))$

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We give bosonizations of the superalgebras $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$ and $U_{q,p}(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k \\in {\\bf C}$. We introduce the submodule by the $\\xi$-$\\eta$ system, that we call the $q$-Wakimoto realization.

  17. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Airlines: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower Business Center, 28042 Madrid, Spain; and Ad. de las Cortes Valencianas no 37, Esc. A Puerta 45 46015 Valencia, Spain; and... EAR. It is therefore ordered: First, that, Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5,...

  18. Colletotrichum caudatum s.l. is a species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne

    2014-06-01

    Colletotrichum caudatum sensu lato is a widespread fungal pathogen of warm-season grasses. The fungus is easily differentiated from other Colletotrichum species through the presence of a unique filiform appendage at the apex of the conidium. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of four DNA sequence markers from 21 isolates of C. caudatum s.l. from six grass hosts recovered the morphospecies as a well-supported monophyletic group. Although closely related to other Colletotrichum species pathogenic to warm-season grasses (e.g. C. sublineola, C. falcatum, C. navitas, C. graminicola), the sister taxon placement of C. caudatum remained unclear. Four major subgroups and three monotypic lineages were identified from the C. caudatum s.l. isolates. Despite the presence of localized, taxon-specific incongruence between gene trees and evidence for recombination in the dataset, application of genealogical concordance species recognition criteria diagnosed the four subgroups as phylogenetic species. Traditional morphology-based species concept defines C. caudatum as one species with a broad host range; however, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses refuted this model. Instead, isolates from different hosts were mainly segregated into different lineages. In particular, isolates from the type locale and host (USA, Sorghastrum nutans) collected within a 400 km radius were divided into three distinct species that corresponded with the three sampling sites. These data established that traditional morphological and ecological features are not informative for recognition of taxa within C. caudatum s.l., although there is some evidence that some species may be host specific. To stabilize the application of the name C. caudatum, DNA sequence data from the lectotype was generated, an epitype strain consistent with the type was designated and illustrated, and an emended description of C. caudatum sensu stricto is provided. Colletotrichum alcornii, C. baltimorense, C. somersetense, and C. zoysiae

  19. Isolation and Expression of Two Fruit Ripening Related Genes SlPEL and SlAPL in Tomato(Solanum lycopersicum)%番茄果实成熟相关基因SlPEL和SlAPL的表达特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖东; 牛应泽; 杨建平; 肖阳; 蔡应繁; 邓小峰; 吴锁伟; 郑旭; 李晚忱; 吴翠平; 费章君

    2010-01-01

    分析27个代表番茄不同发育阶段和生物反应的组织特异性及含有152 635个独立EST数据库的数码表达,发现果胶裂解酶基因(pectate lyase,SlPEL)和番茄AP2 Like(SlAPL)的转录受果实成熟的调节.以授粉后不同发育时期的番茄(品种为美味樱桃)果实为试材,用半定量PCR和荧光实时定量PCR分析SIPEL的表达模式,结果表明,授粉后12 d,其表达水平明显上升;授粉后16~18 d,达到第一个小高峰;28 d到最高峰;从28 d到完全成熟逐步下降到第一个小高峰的水平.SIAPL的表达模式与SIPEL类似,但其表达启动的时期迟于SlPEL.从授粉后25 d,SIAPL转录启动;授粉后28~32 d,其转录水平上升到第一个小高峰;39 d达到最高峰,以后到完全成熟略有下降.该研究也印证利用EST的数据库进行基因数码表达分析的可行性.

  20. Double quantization on the coajoint representation of sl(n)

    CERN Document Server

    Donin, J

    1997-01-01

    For $\\g=sl(n)$ we construct a two parametric $U_h(\\g)$-invariant family of algebras, $(S\\g)_{t,h}$, that is a quantization of the function algebra $S\\g$ on the coadjoint representation. Along the parameter $t$ the family gives a quantization of the Lie bracket. This family induces a two parametric $U_h(\\g)$-invariant quantization on the maximal orbits, which includes a quantization of the Kirillov-Kostant-Souriau bracket. Yet we construct a quantum de Rham complex on~$\\g^*$.

  1. Colored sl(N) link homology via matrix factorizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The Reshetikhin-Turaev sl(N) polynomial of links colored by wedge powers of the defining representation has been categorified via several different approaches. Here, we give a concise introduction to the categorification using matrix factorizations, which is a direct generalization of the Khovanov-Rozansky homology. Full details of the construction are given in [arXiv:0907.0695]. We also briefly review deformations and applications of this categorification given in [arXiv:1002.2662, arXiv:1011.2254, arXiv:1102.0586].

  2. Supersymmetric Casimir Energy and $SL(3,\\mathbb{Z})$ Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Brünner, Frederic; Spiridonov, Vyacheslav P

    2016-01-01

    We provide a recipe to extract the supersymmetric Casimir energy of theories defined on primary Hopf surfaces directly from the superconformal index. It involves an $SL(3,\\mathbb{Z})$ transformation acting on the complex structure moduli of the background geometry. In particular, the known relation between Casimir energy, index and partition function emerges naturally from this framework, allowing rewriting of the latter as a modified elliptic hypergeometric integral. We show this explicitly for $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SQCD and $\\mathcal{N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for all classical gauge groups, and conjecture that it holds more generally.

  3. A Bloch-Wigner complex for SL_2

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a refinement of the Bloch-Wigner complex of a field F. This is a complex of modules over the multiplicative group of the field. Instead of computing K_2 and indecomposable K_3 - as the classical Bloch-Wigner complex does - it calculates the second and third integral homology of SL_2 of the field. On passing to coinvariants for the action of the multiplicative group we recover the classical Bloch-Wigner complex. The case of finite fields is included throughout the article.

  4. Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Proteins SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5 Conferring Enhanced Drought Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Li; Jinfang Wang; Shuangtao Li; Lei Zhang; Chuandong Qi; Sarah Weeda; Bing Zhao; Shuxin Ren; Yang-Dong Guo

    2016-01-01

    The function of aquaporin (AQP) protein in transporting water is crucial for plants to survive in drought stress. With 47 homologues in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reported, but the individual and integrated functions of aquaporins involved in drought response remains unclear. Here, three plasma membrane intrinsic protein genes, SlPIP2;1, SlPIP2;7 and SlPIP2;5, were identified as candidate aquaporins genes because of highly expressed in tomato roots. Assay on expression in Xenopus oocy...

  5. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Wen-Bao, E-mail: wbli92128@yahoo.com [Sanlugen PharmaTech, Rm 506, No. 2766 Yingxiu Road, Jinan 250101 (China); Qu, Xian-Jun, E-mail: qxj@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine.

  6. The tomato plastidic fructokinase SlFRK3 plays a role in xylem development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ofer; Damari-Weissler, Hila; Secchi, Francesca; Rachamilevitch, Shimon; German, Marcelo A; Yeselson, Yelena; Amir, Rachel; Schaffer, Arthur; Holbrook, N Michele; Aloni, Roni; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Granot, David

    2016-03-01

    Plants have two kinds of fructokinases (FRKs) that catalyze the key step of fructose phosphorylation, cytosolic and plastidic. The major cytosolic tomato FRK, SlFRK2, is essential for the development of xylem vessels. In order to study the role of SlFRK3, which encodes the only plastidic FRK, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) plants with RNAi suppression of SlFRK3 as well as plants expressing beta-glucoronidase (GUS) under the SlFRK3 promoter. GUS staining indicated SlFRK3 expression in vascular tissues of the leaves and stems, including cambium, differentiating xylem, young xylem fibers and phloem companion cells. Suppression of SlFRK3 reduced the stem xylem area, stem and root water conductance, and whole-plant transpiration, with minor effects on plant development. However, suppression of SlFRK3 accompanied by partial suppression of SlFRK2 induced significant growth-inhibition effects, including the wilting of mature leaves. Grafting experiments revealed that these growth effects are imposed primarily by the leaves, whose petioles had unlignified, thin-walled xylem fibers with collapsed parenchyma cells around the vessels. A cross between the SlFRK2-antisense and SlFRK3-RNAi lines exhibited similar wilting and anatomical effects, confirming that these effects are the result of the combined suppression of SlFRK3 and SlFRK2. These results demonstrate a role of the plastidic SlFRK3 in xylem development and hydraulic conductance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Gigafida and slWaC: topic comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the following two issues are analyzed: (a incorporation of texts from the Internet into existing reference corpora and comparison with the existence of web corpora, and (b the latest two corpora of Slovenian language texts: the Gigafida corpus consisting mainly of printed texts and to a lesser extent also web texts, and the slWaC corpus which is entirely compiled from web texts. First, similarities and differences between the two corpora are identified using the topic modelling method, and then the same method is applied to the individual taxonomic categories of the Gigafida corpus. The first part of the analysis showed that the work of reference corpus compilers is currently still incoherent with regard to the incorporation of Internet texts into corpora which should reveal the overall picture of a certain language. In case compilers decide to incorporate web texts, the range of included genres is generally broad. The second part of the analysis showed a significant thematic variation between the Gigafida and slWaC corpora, and pointed out the most typical themes covered by each of the six Gigafida corpus parts.

  8. Reduced Properties and Applications of Y(sl(2)) Algebra for a Two-Spin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-Jun; YANG Guo-Hong; ZHANG Hong-Biao; HOU Jing-Min

    2006-01-01

    @@ By taking a special constraint for a general realization of Y(sl(2)), two sets of sl(2) algebras are presented, in which a u(1) algebra is hidden. With the help of this constraint, the block-diagonal form can be written to the generator J of Yangian algebras, and especially it is a rotational transformation of a spin in the elementary quantum mechanics. This sheds new light on the physical meaning of Y(sl(2)).

  9. Functional Characterization of SlSAHH2 in Tomato Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH functions as an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to homocysteine and adenosine. In the present work we have investigated its role in the ripening process of tomato fruit. Among the three SlSAHH genes we demonstrated that SlSAHH2 was highly accumulated during fruit ripening and strongly responded to ethylene treatment. Over-expression of SlSAHH2 enhanced SAHH enzymatic activity in tomato fruit development and ripening stages and resulted in a major phenotypic change of reduced ripening time from anthesis to breaker. Consistent with this, the content of lycopene was higher in SlSAHH2 over-expression lines than in wild-type at the same developmental stage. The expression of two ethylene inducible genes (E4 and E8 and three ethylene biosynthesis genes (SlACO1, SlACO3 and SlACS2 increased to a higher level in SlSAHH2 over-expression lines at breaker stage, and one transgenic line even produced much more ethylene than wild-type. Although inconsistency in gene expression and ethylene production existed between the two transgenic lines, the transcriptional changes of several important ripening regulators such as RIN, AP2a, TAGL1, CNR and NOR showed a consistent pattern. It was speculated that the influence of SlSAHH2 on ethylene production was downstream of the regulation of SlSAHH2 on these ripening regulator genes. The over-expressing lines displayed higher sensitivity to ethylene in both fruit and non-fruit tissues. Ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC treatment accelerated ripening faster in SlSAHH2 over-expressing fruit than in wild-type. Additionally, seedlings of transgenic lines displayed shorter hypocotyls and roots in ethylene triple response assay. In conclusion, SlSAHH2 played an important role in tomato fruit ripening.

  10. S100A1: A Regulator of Striated Muscle Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Handling, Sarcomeric, and Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Völkers

    2010-01-01

    S100A1 has further been detected at different sites within the cardiac sarcomere indicating potential roles in myofilament function. More recently, a study reported a mitochondrial location of S100A1 in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, normalizing the level of S100A1 protein by means of viral cardiac gene transfer in animal heart failure models resulted in a disrupted progression towards cardiac failure and enhanced survival. This brief review is confined to the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of S100A1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ handling with a particular focus on its potential as a molecular target for future therapeutic interventions.

  11. Connecting Sarcomere Protein Mutations to Pathogenesis in Cardiomyopathies: The Development of ‘Disease in a Dish’ Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zaunbrecher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological and protocol developments have greatly increased the ability to utilize stem cells transformed into cardiomyocytes as models to study human heart muscle development and how this is affected by disease associated mutations in a variety of sarcomere proteins. In this perspective we provide an overview of these emerging technologies and how they are being used to create better models of ‘disease in a dish’ for both research and screening assays. We also consider the value of these assays as models to explore the seminal processes in initiation of the disease development and the possibility of early interventions.

  12. Two-Loop SL(2) Form Factors and Maximal Transcendentality

    CERN Document Server

    Loebbert, Florian; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand's numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  13. Exactly solvable models of scattering with SL(2, C) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Technical University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-08-02

    Using the theory of induced representations two exactly solvable models of non-relativistic scattering with SL(2, C) symmetry are presented. The first describes the scattering of a charged particle moving on the Poincare upper half space H under the influence of an SU(2) non-Abelian gauge potential with isospin s. The second deals with a one-dimensional coupled-channel scattering problem for a charged particle in a matrix-valued scalar potential containing Morse-like interaction terms. The coupled channel wavefunctions and the corresponding scattering matrices are calculated. A detailed description of the underlying geometric structures is also given and a generalization for restricting the motion to fundamental domains of H (three manifolds of constant negative sectional curvature) is outlined. Such models provide an interesting generalization to the known ones of multichannel scattering, quantum chaos and chaotic cosmology. (author)

  14. Characterisation of the sarcomeric myosin heavy chain multigene family in the laboratory guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardsley Ronald G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several chronic conditions leading to skeletal muscle dysfunction are known to be associated with changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms at both the mRNA and protein level. Many of these conditions are modelled, pre-clinically, in the guinea pig due to similar disease onset and progression to the human condition, and their generally well-characterised anatomy. MHC composition is amenable to determination by protein and mRNA based methodologies, the latter quantifying the expression of MHC isoform-specific gene transcripts allowing the detection of earlier, and more subtle changes. As such, the MHC mRNAs, and specific oligonucleotide primers of all common laboratory species have been available for some time. However, due to incomplete genomic annotation, assessment of guinea pig MHC mRNA expression has not been previously possible, precluding the full characterisation of early changes in skeletal muscle in response to disease and disease modulation. The purpose of this study was to characterise the multigenic structure of the sarcomeric MHC family in the guinea pig, and to design and validate specific oligonucleotide primers to enable the assessment of the predominant adult-muscle associated MHC mRNAs in relevant disease models. Results Using a combination of ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RACE and bioinformatics, mRNAs to the four main skeletal-muscle isoforms of MHC were determined. Specific oligonucleotide primers were designed, and following verification of their specificity, found to successfully determine the expression of each MHC mRNA independently. Conclusions Because of their utilisation in the in vivo modelling of disease, there is a requirement to develop molecular methods that accurately differentiate the different MHC mRNAs in the guinea pig to enable rapid profiling of muscle composition in appropriate disease models. The methods developed here are suitable for

  15. On chirality and length-dependent potentials in polymer entanglements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, C.C. [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines)]. E-mail: cbernido@mozcom.com; Carpio-Bernido, M.V. [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines); Bornales, J.B. [Physics Department, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City 9200 (Philippines)

    2005-05-23

    The lineal structure of an entangled polymer of length L is simulated by a potential, V=f-bar (s){theta}, where, f-bar =df/ds, 0=<s=, and f(s) a modulating function. Entanglement probabilities calculated for two cases (a) f(s)=kcos({nu}s), and (b) f(s)=ks{sup p}, show a significant influence of chirality or 'handedness'.

  16. Predicting the potential distribution of main malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l. in Iran based on maximum entropy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. C. elegans SORB-1 localizes to integrin adhesion sites and is required for organization of sarcomeres and mitochondria in myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Timothy; Qadota, Hiroshi; Benian, Guy M; Hardin, Jeff

    2017-10-04

    We have identified and characterized sorb-1, the only Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein family member in C. elegans SORB-1 is strongly localized to integrin adhesion complexes in larvae and adults, including adhesion plaques and dense bodies (Z-disks) of striated muscles and attachment plaques of smooth muscles. SORB-1 is recruited to the actin-binding, membrane-distal regions of dense bodies via its C-terminal SH3 domains in an ATN-1(α-actinin)- and ALP-1(ALP/Enigma)-dependent manner, where it contributes to the organization of sarcomeres. SORB-1 is also found in other tissues known to be under mechanical stress, including stress fibers in migratory distal tip cells and in the proximal gonad sheath, where it becomes enriched in response to tissue distention. We provide evidence for a novel role for sorbin family proteins: SORB-1 is required for normal positioning of the mitochondrial network in muscle cells. Finally, we demonstrate that SORB-1 interacts directly with two other dense body components, DEB-1(vinculin) and ZYX-1(zyxin). This work establishes SORB-1 as a bona fide sorbin family protein, as one of the late additions to the dense body complex, and as a conserved regulator of body wall muscle sarcomere organization and organelle positioning. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  18. Drebrin-like protein DBN-1 is a sarcomere component that stabilizes actin filaments during muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Bodensiek, Kai; Fakhri, Nikta; von Roden, Kerstin; Schaap, Iwan A T; Majoul, Irina; Schmidt, Christoph F; Klopfenstein, Dieter R

    2015-07-06

    Actin filament organization and stability in the sarcomeres of muscle cells are critical for force generation. Here we identify and functionally characterize a Caenorhabditis elegans drebrin-like protein DBN-1 as a novel constituent of the muscle contraction machinery. In vitro, DBN-1 exhibits actin filament binding and bundling activity. In vivo, DBN-1 is expressed in body wall muscles of C. elegans. During the muscle contraction cycle, DBN-1 alternates location between myosin- and actin-rich regions of the sarcomere. In contracted muscle, DBN-1 is accumulated at I-bands where it likely regulates proper spacing of α-actinin and tropomyosin and protects actin filaments from the interaction with ADF/cofilin. DBN-1 loss of function results in the partial depolymerization of F-actin during muscle contraction. Taken together, our data show that DBN-1 organizes the muscle contractile apparatus maintaining the spatial relationship between actin-binding proteins such as α-actinin, tropomyosin and ADF/cofilin and possibly strengthening actin filaments by bundling.

  19. Role of dystroglycan in limiting contraction-induced injury to the sarcomeric cytoskeleton of mature skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Turk, Rolf; Willer, Tobias; Beltrán, Daniel; Inamori, Kei-Ichiro; Peterson, Taylor A; Engle, Jeffrey; Prouty, Sally; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Saito, Fumiaki; Anderson, Mary E; Campbell, Kevin P

    2016-09-27

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a highly expressed extracellular matrix receptor that is linked to the cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. DG is critical for the function of skeletal muscle, and muscle with primary defects in the expression and/or function of DG throughout development has many pathological features and a severe muscular dystrophy phenotype. In addition, reduction in DG at the sarcolemma is a common feature in muscle biopsies from patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. However, the consequence of disrupting DG in mature muscle is not known. Here, we investigated muscles of transgenic mice several months after genetic knockdown of DG at maturity. In our study, an increase in susceptibility to contraction-induced injury was the first pathological feature observed after the levels of DG at the sarcolemma were reduced. The contraction-induced injury was not accompanied by increased necrosis, excitation-contraction uncoupling, or fragility of the sarcolemma. Rather, disruption of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton was evident as reduced passive tension and decreased titin immunostaining. These results reveal a role for DG in maintaining the stability of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton during contraction and provide mechanistic insight into the cause of the reduction in strength that occurs in muscular dystrophy after lengthening contractions.

  20. Talin 1 and 2 are required for myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of myotendinous junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Francesco J.; Monkley, Sue J.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Critchley, David R.; Müller, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Summary Talin 1 and 2 connect integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and regulate the affinity of integrins for ligands. In skeletal muscle, talin 1 regulates the stability of myotendinous junctions (MTJs), but the function of talin 2 in skeletal muscle is not known. Here we show that MTJ integrity is affected in talin 2-deficient mice. Concomitant ablation of talin 1 and 2 leads to defects in myoblast fusion and sarcomere assembly, resembling defects in muscle lacking β1 integrins. Talin 1/2-deficient myoblasts express functionally active β1 integrins, suggesting that defects in muscle development are not primarily caused by defects in ligand binding, but rather by disruptions of the interaction of integrins with the cytoskeleton. Consistent with this finding, assembly of integrin adhesion complexes is perturbed in the remaining muscle fibers of talin 1/2-deficient mice. We conclude that talin 1 and 2 are crucial for skeletal muscle development, where they regulate myoblast fusion, sarcomere assembly and the maintenance of MTJs. PMID:19793892

  1. Characterization of an antifungal chitinase from Bacillus sp.SL-13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Shan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus sp.SL-13 produced antifungal proteins.The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani was considerably inhibited by the presence of the SL-13 culture supernatant.It is very suitable for the use in a relatively unstable environment,exhibiting effective biological control.

  2. REPRESENTACION DE WEIL DEL GRUPO SL*(2,Fq[X]/[XM]).

    OpenAIRE

    GUTIERREZ FREZ, LUIS CRISTIAN

    2006-01-01

    Let A be a unitary ring with invohition *. The groups SL(2. A) were defined by J. Pantoja and J. Soto Andrade in 141. These groups are a noncomnutative version of the special linear groups SL(2 F) defined over a commutative base fleid F. In particular, if 53p.

  3. Free Field Realization of Quantum Superalgebra $U_q(\\hat{{sl}}(N|1))$

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    We construct a free field realization of the quantum superalgebra $U_q(\\hat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k$, that we call $q$-Wakimoto realization. Using the dressing deformation, we construct a free field realization of the the elliptic deformed superalgebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k$.

  4. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ..., Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid... Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid, Spain; and Ad. de las Cortes Valencianas no 37, Esc.A Puerta 45 46015...

  5. sl3-web bases, intermediate crystal bases and categorification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We give an explicit graded cellular basis of the sl3-web algebra K_S. In order to do this, we identify Kuperberg's basis for the sl3-web space W_S with a version of Leclerc-Toffin's intermediate crystal basis and we identify Brundan, Kleshchev and Wang's degree of tableaux with the weight of flow...

  6. Length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity adds stiffness to muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur Knoek J; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-09-01

    It is well documented that muscle fibers become more sensitive for [Ca2+] with increasing sarcomere length. In mechanical terms this length-dependent [Ca2+] sensitivity (LDCS) adds to the stiffness of muscle fibers, because muscle force, normalized for the force-length relationship at maximal stimulation, increases with contractile element (CE) length. Although LDCS is well-documented in the physiological literature, it is ignored in most motor control studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of LDCS as a contributor to the stiffness of a muscle. Comparison of experimental data with predictions derived from the model of activation dynamics proposed by Hatze (Myocybernetic Control Models of Skeletal Muscle, University of South Africa, Pretoria, 1981, pp. 31-42) indicated that this model captures the main characteristics of LDCS well. It was shown that LDCS accounts for the experimentally observed shifts in optimum length at sub-maximal stimulation levels. Furthermore, it was shown that in conditions with low-to-medium muscle stimulation, the contribution of LDCS to the total amount of stiffness provided by the muscle is substantial. It was concluded that LDCS is an important muscle property and should be taken into account in studies concerning motor control.

  7. Overexpression of SlUPA-like induces cell enlargement, aberrant development and low stress tolerance through phytohormonal pathway in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Hu, Jingtao; Zhang, Yanjie; Yin, Wencheng; Zhu, Zhiguo; Feng, Ye; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-30

    upa20 induces cell enlargement and hypertrophy development. In our research, overexpression of SlUPA-like, orthologous to upa20, severely affected the growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues. Wilted leaves curled upwardly and sterile flowers were found in transgenic lines. Through anatomical analysis, palisade and spongy tissues showed fluffy and hypertrophic development in transgenic plants. Gene expression analysis showed that GA responsive, biosynthetic and signal transduction genes (e.g. GAST1, SlGA20OXs, SlGA3OXs, SlGID1s, and SlPREs) were significantly upregulated, indicating that GA response is stimulated by overproduction of SlUPA-like. Furthermore, SlUPA-like was strongly induced by exogenous JA and wounding. Decreased expression of PI-I and induced expression of SlJAZs (including SlJAZ2, SlJAZ10 and SlJAZ11) were observed in transgenic plants, suggesting that JA response is repressed. In addition, SlUPA-like overexpressed plant exhibited more opened stoma and higher water loss than the control when treated with dehydration stress, which was related to decreased ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction and response. Particularly, abnormal developments of transgenic plants promote the plant susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Therefore, it is deduced from these results that SlUPA-like plays vital role in regulation of plant development and stress tolerance through GA, JA and ABA pathways.

  8. 番茄Sl_OASTL/LCD基因的克隆与表达及其对侧根生长的作用%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Sl_OASTL/LCD on Promoting Lateral Root Formation in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳军; 陈健; 陈浩; 石志琦; 甘立军

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gaseous signaling molecule. Previous study suggested that endogenous H2S is synthesized by L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD) in plants. We suggested that exogenous H2S could promote the growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lateral root in another research. In order to investigate the origin of endogenous H2S and the role of it in NO-modulated lateral root formation, the full-length sequence of H2S-producing gene Sl_OASTL/LCD has been cloned from tomato (S. lycopersicum) root. The effect of prohibiting endogenous H2S generation in nitric oxide (NO)-induced lateral root formation in tomato (S. lycopersicum) seedling have been investigated, as well as the effect of NO on the expression of Sl_OASTL/LCD. The main results are as follows. (1) Three O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase genes (Sl_OASTL1, SI_OASTL2, and Sl_OASTL3) have been cloned from tomato (S. lycopersicum) root. The alignment and structural analysis suggested that Sl_OASTL1 might code for a H2S biosynthesis enzyme, which was designated as Sl_OASTL/LCD. And there are many conserved NO-and hormone-responsive cis-elements by analyzing the promoter region of Sl_OASTL/LCD. (2) Compared to the control, the growth of lateral root could be signiifcantly inhibited under the treatment DL-propargylglycine (PAG) (a H2S biosynthesis inhibitor) and hypotaurine (HT) (a H2S scavenger), respectively. (3) Exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) could significantly induce the formation of lateral root. (4) PAG and HT could block the stimulating effect of NO on lateral root formation. (5) Treatment with SNP could stimulate the expression of Sl_OASTL/LCD in tomato (S. lycopersicum) root by RT-PCR analysis. These results suggested that NO promoted the growth of tomato (S. lycopersicum) lateral root by inducing endogenous H2S.%硫化氢(H2S)是植物中最新发现的一种气体信号分子,高等植物中内源H2S主要由L-型半胱氨酸脱巯基酶(LCD)和D

  9. sl(2) Operators and Markov Processes on Branching Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified approach to various examples of Markov dynamics on partitions studied by Borodin, Olshanski, Fulman, and the author. Our technique generalizes the Kerov's operators first appeared in [Okounkov, arXiv:math/0002135], and also stems from the study of duality of graded graphs in [Fomin, 1994]. Our main object is a countable branching graph carrying an sl(2,C)-module of a special kind. Using this structure, we introduce distinguished probability measures on the floors of the graph, and define two related types of Markov dynamics associated with these measures. We study spectral properties of the dynamics, and our main result is the explicit description of eigenfunctions of the Markov generator of one of the processes. For the Young graph our approach reconstructs the z-measures on partitions and the associated dynamics studied by Borodin and Olshanski [arXiv:math-ph/0409075, arXiv:0706.1034]. The generator of the dynamics of [arXiv:math-ph/0409075] is diagonal in the basis of the Meixner symme...

  10. Nephrotoxicity of Kalach 360 SL: biochemical and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, Latifa; Naifar, Manel; Mzid, Massara; Ben Salem, Mariem; Chtourou, Amel; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebai, Tarek

    2016-11-01

    Kalach 360 SL (KL) is a commercial herbicide which contains 360 g/l of glyphosate used in both agricultural and urban areas throughout the world including Tunisia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of KL on rats' renal system. Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6) received a standard diet and served as control, groups 2 and 3 (n = 12 each) received 0.07 ml (D1: 126 mg/kg), and 0.175 ml (D2: 315 mg/kg) of KL, respectively, for 60 d. The chronic exposure to KL induced a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels. Creatinine clearance decreased in KL-treated groups, compared with controls. Several urine parameters, such as urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality, significantly decreased, while dieresis and urinary Na/K + ratio increased in KL-treated groups. These findings suggested a distal tubular damage caused by tubular necrosis. Moreover, the chronic exposure to KL induced an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in antioxidant status, enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic levels (vitamin C), which led to an oxidative stress. Histopathological studies showed a peritubular inflammatory reaction, nephrose, fragmented glomeruli, necrotic epithelial cells, and tubular dilatation. These results could have significant health implications for animal and human populations. Further data are necessary to investigate the potential consequences of chronic dose exposure during life.

  11. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  12. Estimation of genome length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The genome length is a fundamental feature of a species. This note outlined the general concept and estimation method of the physical and genetic length. Some formulae for estimating the genetic length were derived in detail. As examples, the genome genetic length of Pinus pinaster Ait. and the genetic length of chromosome Ⅵ of Oryza sativa L. were estimated from partial linkage data.

  13. SlARF2a plays a negative role in mediating axillary shoot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Xin; Wang, Rong; Dong, Xiufen; Guan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Yanling; Jiang, Yun; Shi, Zihang; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2016-01-01

    SlARF2a is expressed in most plant organs, including roots, leaves, flowers and fruits. A detailed expression study revealed that SlARF2a is mainly expressed in the leaf nodes and cross-sections of the nodes indicated that SlARF2a expression is restricted to vascular organs. Decapitation or the application of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) can initially promote axillary shoots, during which SlARF2a expression is significantly reduced. Down-regulation of SlARF2a expression results in an increased frequency of dicotyledons and significantly increased lateral organ development. Stem anatomy studies have revealed significantly altered cambia and phloem in tomato plants expressing down-regulated levels of ARF2a, which is associated with obvious alterations in auxin distribution. Further analysis has revealed that altered auxin transport may occur via altered pin expression. To identify the interactions of AUX/IAA and TPL with ARF2a, four axillary shoot development repressors that are down-regulated during axillary shoot development, IAA3, IAA9, SlTPL1 and SlTPL6, were tested for their direct interactions with ARF2a. Although none of these repressors are directly involved in ARF2a activity, similar expression patterns of IAA3, IAA9 and ARF2a implied they might work tightly in axillary shoot formation and other developmental processes. PMID:27645097

  14. 第三代推盖摄录手机 Siemens SL65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小如

    2005-01-01

    去年 Siemens 以推盖手机 SL55所爆发出来的气势可说是势不可挡,而当各大厂商不断连珠炮法式推出滑盖手机时,Siemens 再接再厉推出第三代推盖手机 SL65,今次 SL65在机背位置加上内置镜头,更承继 SL55的气势,誓要保持推盖机的地位。显著改进今次 SL65机身上的设计少了一点流线型的线条,令整部机身看起来更加简约,再配合黑色的外壳,可说是型仔的推盖王;而屏幕方面,采用65k 色 TFT 彩屏。解像度为130×130pjxeIs,明显比 SL55更优胜。此外,SL65在机身的设计亦有显著的改进,SL55机身是采用五方向键,但 SL65一改传统,以五方向Joystick 为选择键,让用家操控的时候更加得心应手。

  15. A refined Bloch group and the third homology of SL_2 of a field

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a variation of the Bloch group of a field F, which we call the refined Bloch group of F, and which bears essentially the same relationship to the third integral homology of SL_2 of the field as the classical Bloch group has to the indecomposable K_3 of the field. We use the properties of the refined Bloch group to prove that H_3 of SL_2 of a global field is never finitely generated, and to calculate - up to some 2- and 3-torsion - H_3 of SL_2 of local fields with finite residue field of odd characteristic.

  16. Geometric Weil representations for star-analogues of SL(2,k)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Frez, Luis; Pantoja, José; Soto-Andrade, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We present here an elementary geometric approach to the construction of Weil representations of the star-analogues $SL_\\ast(2,A), A$ a ring or algebra with involution $\\ast$, of the group SL(2, k), k a field, reminiscent of the quantum groups $SL_q(2,A)$. We review as well the elementary construction of Weil representations for these groups via generators and relations, which uses the Bruhat presentation available in many cases. We compare the representations obtained by both methods in the n...

  17. BRST Cohomology in Quantum Affine Algebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, H

    1994-01-01

    Using free field representation of quantum affine algebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$, we investigate the structure of the Fock modules over $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$. The analisys is based on a $q$-analog of the BRST formalism given by Bernard and Felder in the affine Kac-Moody algebra $\\widehat {sl_2}$. We give an explicit construction of the singular vectors using the BRST charge. By the same cohomology analysis as the classical case ($q=1$), we obtain the irreducible highest weight representation space as a nontrivial cohomology group. This enables us to calculate a trace of the $q$-vertex operators over this space.

  18. EFFICACY OF IMIDACLOPRID (CONFIDOR 200 SL AGAINST APHIDS INFESTING WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Joshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 SL was evaluated either alone or with a fungicide (Tilt 0.01% against wheat aphids. There were seven different treatments, including an untreated control. All the treatments were replicated three times in a similar field environment. Population of wheat aphids was recorded on randomly selected five plants in each plot at different intervals, both before and after the spraying. Confidor 200 SL @ 400 ml/ha treatment was found most effective against wheat aphids. However, mixing of Confidor 200 SL @ 100 ml/ha with Tilt @ 0.01 %, was found significantly least effective for wheat aphids control.

  19. An explicit bijection between semistandard tableaux and non-elliptic sl_3 webs

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Heather M

    2012-01-01

    The sl_3 spider is a diagrammatic category used to study the representation theory of the quantum group U_q(sl_3). The morphisms in this category are generated by a basis of non-elliptic webs. Khovanov- Kuperberg observed that non-elliptic webs are indexed by semistandard Young tableaux. They establish this bijection via a recursive growth algorithm. Recently, Tymoczko gave a simple version of this bijection in the case that the tableaux are standard and used it to study rotation and joins of webs. We build on Tymoczko's bijection to give a simple and explicit algorithm for constructing all non-elliptic sl_3 webs.

  20. Fourth generation effects in rare B sub s->l sup + l sup - and B sub s->l sup + l sup -gamma decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, T M; Savci, M

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of the fourth generation quarks to the rare B sub s->l sup + l sup - and B sub s->l sup + l sup -gamma decays are studied. Constraints on the extended Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements vertical stroke V sub t sub b V sub t sub s sup * vertical stroke and vertical stroke V sub t sub ' sub b V sub t sub ' sub s sup * vertical stroke are obtained from the existing experimental result for the branching ratio of the B ->X sub s gamma decay. The branching ratios of the above-mentioned decays, as well as the photon spectrum in the B sub s->l sup + l sup -gamma decay, are studied. It is found that the results are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. (orig.)

  1. New ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras from the elliptic algebra ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$

    CERN Document Server

    Avan, J; Rossi, M; Sorba, Paul

    1997-01-01

    We construct operators t(z) in the elliptic algebra introduced by Foda et al. ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$. They close an exchange algebra when p^m=q^{c+2} for m integer. In addition they commute when p=q^{2k} for k integer non-zero, and they belong to the center of ${\\cal A}_{q,p}({\\hat sl}(2)_c)$ when k is odd. The Poisson structures obtained for t(z) in these classical limits are identical to the q-deformed Virasoro Poisson algebra, characterizing the exchange algebras at generic values of p, q and m as new ${\\cal W}_{q,p}(sl(2))$ algebras.

  2. Titin determines the Frank-Starling relation in early diastole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, Michiel; Lim, Chee Chew; Liao, Ronglih; Bharti, Ajit; Cui, Lei; Sawyer, Douglas B

    2003-02-01

    Titin, a giant protein spanning half the sarcomere, is responsible for passive and restoring forces in cardiac myofilaments during sarcomere elongation and compression, respectively. In addition, titin has been implicated in the length-dependent activation that occurs in the stretched sarcomere, during the transition from diastole to systole. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of titin in the length-dependent deactivation that occurs during early diastole, when the myocyte is shortened below slack length. We developed a novel in vitro assay to assess myocyte restoring force (RF) by measuring the velocity of recoil in Triton-permeabilized, unloaded rat cardiomyocytes after rigor-induced sarcomere length (SL) contractions. We compared rigor-induced SL shortening to that following calcium-induced (pCa) contractions. The RF-SL relationship was linearly correlated, and the SL-pCa curve displayed a characteristic sigmoidal curve. The role of titin was defined by treating myocytes with a low concentration of trypsin, which we show selectively degrades titin using mass spectroscopic analysis. Trypsin treatment reduced myocyte RF as shown by a decrease in the slope of the RF-SL relationship, and this was accompanied by a downward and leftward shift of the SL-pCa curve, indicative of sensitization of the myofilaments to calcium. In addition, trypsin digestion did not alter the relationship between SL and interfilament spacing (assessed by cell width) after calcium activation. These data suggest that as the sarcomere shortens below slack length, titin-based restoring forces act to desensitize the myofilaments. Furthermore, in contrast to length-dependent activation at long SLs, length-dependent deactivation does not depend on interfilament spacing. This study demonstrates for the first time the importance of titin-based restoring force in length-dependent deactivation during the early phase of diastole.

  3. A STAY-GREEN protein SlSGR1 regulates lycopene and β-carotene accumulation by interacting directly with SlPSY1 during ripening processes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhidan; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Jinhua; Yang, Changxian; Wang, Taotao; Ouyang, Bo; Li, Hanxia; Giovannoni, James; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-04-01

    As a primary source of lycopene in the human diet, fleshy fruits synthesize this compound both de novo and via chlorophyll metabolism during ripening. SlSGR1 encodes a STAY-GREEN protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of chlorophyll degradation in tomato leaves and fruits. We report that SlSGR1 can regulate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lycopene accumulation through direct interaction with a key carotenoid synthetic enzyme SlPSY1, and can inhibit its activity. This interaction with SlSGR1 mediates lycopene accumulation during tomato fruit maturation. We confirmed this inhibitory activity in bacteria engineered to produce lycopene, where the introduction of SlSGR1 reduced dramatically lycopene biosynthesis. The repression of SlSGR1 in transgenic tomato fruits resulted in altered accumulation patterns of phytoene and lycopene, whilst simultaneously elevating SlPSY1 mRNA accumulation and plastid conversion at the early stages of fruit ripening, resulting in increased lycopene and β-carotene (four- and nine-fold, respectively) in red ripe fruits. SlSGR1 influences ethylene signal transduction via the altered expression of ethylene receptor genes and ethylene-induced genes. Fruit shelf-life is extended significantly in SlSGR1-repressed tomatoes. Our results indicate that SlSGR1 plays a pivotal regulatory role in color formation and fruit ripening regulation in tomato, and further suggest that SlSGR1 activity is mediated through direct interaction with PSY1.

  4. sln-webs, categorification and Khovanov-Rozansky homologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    cellular basis for the cyclotomic KL-R algebras of type A, has two major applications. The first is that it is a graded cellular basis. The second is that it can be explicitly computed for any \\mathfrak{sl}_n-web w=v^*u which gives a basis of the corresponding 2-hom space between u and v. We use this fact...... to give a (in principle) computable version of Khovanov-Rozansky \\mathfrak{sl}_n-link homology. The complex we define for this purpose can be realized in the KL-R setting and needs only F's and no E's. Moreover, we discuss some application of our construction on the uncategorified level related to dual...... canonical bases of the \\mathfrak{sl}_n-web space W_n(\\vec{k}) and the MOY-calculus. Latter gives rise to a method to compute colored Reshetikhin-Turaev \\mathfrak{sl}_n-link polynomials....

  5. Global Iwasawa-decomposition of SL($n$, $\\mathbb{A}_{\\mathbb{Q}}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlén, Olof

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Iwasawa-decomposition of a general matrix in SL($n$, $\\mathbb{Q}_p$) and SL($n$, $\\mathbb{R}$). For SL($n$, $\\mathbb{Q}_p$) we define an algorithm for computing a complete Iwasawa-decomposition and give a formula parameterizing the full family of decompositions. Furthermore, we prove that the $p$-adic norms of the coordinates on the Cartan torus are unique across all decompositions and give a closed formula for them which is proven using induction. For the case SL($n$, $\\mathbb{R}$), the decomposition is unique and we give formulae for the complete decomposition which are also proven inductively. Lastly we outline a method for deriving the norms of the coordinates on the Cartan torus in the framework of representation theory. This yields a simple formula valid globally which expresses these norms in terms of the vector norms of generalized Pl\\"ucker coordinates.

  6. Toroidal actions on level 1 modules of $U_q(\\overline{sl_n})$

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, Y; Uglov, D B

    1997-01-01

    We propose a proof of the recent observation due to Varagnolo and Vasserot that the q-deformed Fock spaces are modules of the quantum toroidal algebra U(sl_n,tor) (n > 2) with the level (0,1).The quantum toroidal action on the Fock space depends on a certain parameter. We find that with a specific choice of this parameter the action on the Fock spaces gives rise to the toroidal action on irreducible level-1 highest weight modules of the affine quantum algebra U_q(\\hat{sl_n}). Similarly, by a specific choice of the parameter, the level (1,0) vertex representation of the quantum toroidal algebra gives rise to a U(sl_n,tor)-module structure on irreducible level-1 highest weight U_q(\\hat{sl_n})-modules.

  7. SL2: an interactive webtool for modeling of missing segments in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismer, Jochen; Rose, Alexander S; Tiemann, Johanna K S; Goede, Andrean; Preissner, Robert; Hildebrand, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    SuperLooper2 (SL2) (http://proteinformatics.charite.de/sl2) is the updated version of our previous web-server SuperLooper, a fragment based tool for the prediction and interactive placement of loop structures into globular and helical membrane proteins. In comparison to our previous version, SL2 benefits from both a considerably enlarged database of fragments derived from high-resolution 3D protein structures of globular and helical membrane proteins, and the integration of a new protein viewer. The database, now with double the content, significantly improved the coverage of fragment conformations and prediction quality. The employment of the NGL viewer for visualization of the protein under investigation and interactive selection of appropriate loops makes SL2 independent of third-party plug-ins and additional installations.

  8. Bosonization and vertex operator of supersymmetry $u_q(\\hat{sl}(n|1))$ for level $k$

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We construct a bosonization of the quantum superalgebra $U_q(\\hat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k$. We construct the screening that commutes with the quantum superalgebra for an arbitrary level $k \

  9. On invariants of graphs related to quantum sl(2) at roots of unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geer, Nathan; Reshetikhin, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    We show how to define invariants of graphs related to quantum sl 2 when the graph has more then one connected component and components are colored by blocks of representations with zero quantum dimensions....

  10. Classification of gradient space of dimension 8 by a reducible sl(2,C)action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Stephen; S.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a reducible sl(2,C)action on the formal power series ring.The purpose of this paper is to confirm a special case of the Yau conjecture:Suppose that sl(2,C)acts on the formal power series ring via(1.1).Then I(f)=(li 1 )⊕(il2 )⊕···⊕(lis)modulo some one dimensional sl(2,C)representations where(i)is an irreducible sl(2,C)representation of i dimension and{li1 ,li2 ,...,lis }{ll1,ll2,...,lr}.Unlike classical invariant theory which deals only with irreducible action and 1-dimensional representations,we treat the reducible action and higher dimensional representations successively.

  11. The SL(V)-ample Cone of Product of Flag Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Shuo ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Let k be an algebraically closed field, and V be a vector space of dimension n over k. For a set ω = (−→d (1), . . . ,−→d (m)) of sequences of positive integers, denote by Lω the ample line bundle corresponding to the polarization on the product X=? mi=1 Flag(V,−→n (i)) of flag varieties of type−→n (i) determined byω. We study the SL(V )-linearization of the diagonal action of SL(V ) on X with respect to Lω . We give a suffi cient and necessary condition on ω such that Xss (Lω ) ?=∅ (resp., Xs (Lω ) ?=∅). As a consequence, we characterize the SL(V )-ample cone (for the diagonal action of SL(V ) on X), which turns out to be a polyhedral convex cone.

  12. Factorizing twists and R-matrices for representations of the quantum affine algebra U_q(\\hat sl_2)

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Hendryk

    2000-01-01

    We calculate factorizing twists in evaluation representations of the quantum affine algebra U_q(\\hat sl_2). From the factorizing twists we derive a representation independent expression of the R-matrices of U_q(\\hat sl_2). Comparing with the corresponding quantities for the Yangian Y(sl_2), it is shown that the U_q(\\hat sl_2) results can be obtained by `replacing numbers by q-numbers'. Conversely, the limit q -> 1 exists in representations of U_q(\\hat sl_2) and both the factorizing twists and...

  13. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  14. q-differential operator representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1))

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, K

    1996-01-01

    A representation of the quantum superalgebra Uq(sl(M+1|N+1)) is constructed based on the q-differential operators acting on the coherent states parameterized by coordinates. These coordinates correspond to the local ones of the flag manifold. This realization provides us with a guide to construct the free field realization for the quantum affine superalgebra Uq^(sl(M+1|N+1)) at arbitrary level.

  15. The unit group of group algebra $F_qSL(2;Z_3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let $\\F_q$ be a finite field of characteristic $p$ having $q$ elements, where $q = p^k$ and $p\\ge 5$. Let $ SL(2,\\Z_3$ be the special linear group of $2\\times2$ matrices with determinant $1$ over $\\Z_3$. In this note we establish the structure of the unit group of $\\F_q SL(2,\\Z_3$.

  16. No isomorphism between the affine $\\hat sl(2)$ algebra and the N=2 superconformal algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999 it became obvious that the would be `isomorphism' between the affine $\\hat sl(2)$ algebra and the N=2 superconformal algebras, proposed by some authors, simply does not work. However, this issue was never properly discussed in the literature and, as a result, some confusion still remains. In this article we finally settle down, clearly and unambiguously, the true facts: there is no isomorphism between the affine $\\hat sl(2)$ algebra and the N=2 superconformal algebras.

  17. Schools of language teaching methodology and teacher's roles in SL/FL classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李垂佳

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the teaching methods employed by different schools of language teaching respectively and the historical trend of the roles of language teacher in SL/FL classroom. The purpose of this paper is to survey the dif-ferent roles language teachers play with the advent of a new teaching method so as to supply a better interpretation of the language teachers' behaviors in the SL/FL classroom and to indicate the likely developments in language pedagogy in the future.

  18. The sL1CAM in sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Głowacka, Ewa; Wilczyński, Miłosz; Pękala-Wojciechowska, Anna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule suspected to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of soluble L1CAM in the sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian carcinomas and verify the feasibility of the sL1CAM as a marker of these carcinomas. 35 endometrial and 18 ovarian cancer patients were enrolled in the study. 43 patients with benign gynecological conditions constituted a control group. The sL1CAM serum level was measured with ELISA test in each patient and it was referred to the data from the surgical staging of the cancers. The sL1CAM serum level was significantly lower in patients with endometrial cancer than in healthy women and slightly lower in the ovarian cancer group than in the control group. In the endometrial cancer group there was no correlation between sL1CAM concentration and cancer histopathology, stage or grade. sL1CAM concentration positively correlated with ovarian cancer stage and (not significantly) with grade. Despite the increasing data about the possible role of L1CAM as a strong prognostic factor of poor outcome in many cancers, we did not find evidence supporting the use of sL1CAM as a marker of endometrial or ovarian cancers.

  19. Analyse quantitative du réseau hydrographique du bassin versant du Slănic (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Grecu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude porte sur le bassin versant du Slănic, un affluent du Buzău. Ce bassin de taille relativement réduite (433 km2 est situé dans la région des Carpates et des Subcarpates de la Courbure, région très active sur le plan sismique. Du point de vue lithologique, le bassin du Slănic correspond à des flyschs paléogènes et à des molasses mio-pliocènes. Ces roches peu résistantes ont facilité une forte érosion du relief. Actuellement, les précipitations présentent souvent une forte intensité, et elles se produisent fréquemment après des périodes de sécheresse. Elles sont ainsi très agressives et déclenchent une érosion intense. L'analyse de quelques paramètres morphométriques [grand nombre de segments de cours d'eau d'ordres 1 (5230 et 2 (944 ; densité élevée des segments par rapport à la superficie du bassin (environ 15 segments / km2 ; longueur moyenne réduite des segments d'ordre 1 (260 m par rapport à ceux d'ordre 2 (530 m] s'accorde avec des temps de concentration des eaux courts et une forte énergie des écoulements. La vitesse de réaction aux précipitations des segments d'ordres inférieurs est en outre favorisée par la répartition spatiale des pluies et par les conditions lithologiques.The study is focused on the Slănic basin which has a small size (433 km2. The hydrographical basin of Slănic, situated in the Carpathian and Subcarpathian Curvature, a very active from neotectonical viewpoint area, is a part of the Buzău basin. From a petrographic point of view, the Slănic hydrographic basin belongs to the paleogen flysch deposits (within the Carpathian sector and to the mio-pliocen molasse (within the Subcarpathian area latter formed by predominantely friable rocks which have encouraged deep fragmentation of the relief. Actual rainfalls are often very intensive, and they frequently occur after dry seasons. The analysis of morphometric parameters shows many elementary segments of first

  20. Seed Length Controlled by Same Locus in Four Different AA Genome Species of Genus Oryza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; LI Jing; ZHOU Jia-wu; XU Peng; DENG Xian-neng; YANG Fei; DENG Wei; HU Feng-yi; TAO Da-yun

    2014-01-01

    To broaden the genetic basis and overcome the yield plateau in Asian cultivated rice, the exploitation and utilization of favorable alleles from rice species with the AA genome has become important and urgent in modern breeding programs. Four different interspecific populations were used to detect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed length, including a BC4F2 population derived from Oryza glumaepatula crossed with Dianjingyou 1 (a japonica cultivar), a BC4F2 population derived from O. nivara crossed with Dianjingyou 1, a BC7F1 population derived from a cross between O. longistaminata and RD23 (an indica cultivar), and a BC8F1 population derived from a cross between O. glaberrima and Dianjingyou 1. The QTLs for seed length in four different populations were termed as SL-3a, SL-3b, SL-3c and SL-3d, respectively. They had good collinearity and accounted for 49% to 60% of the phenotypic variations. Sequencing data indicated that four QTLs were different alleles of GS3 which were responsible for the seed length variation between O. sativa and its four AA genome relatives. These results will be valuable for confirming the evolution of GS3 and also be helpful for rice breeding.

  1. miR168 influences phase transition, leaf epinasty, and fruit development via SlAGO1s in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Zhiqiang; Huang, Wei; Yang, Yingwu; Tang, Ning; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Zhengguo

    2014-12-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, Argonaute1 (AGO1) interacts with miR168 to modulate the small RNA regulatory pathway. However, the underlying mechanism of regulation and relationship between AGO1 and miR168 is poorly understood in the cash crop Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). We previously found that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B were cleaved by miR168 in tomato. In this study, we show that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B accumulate in miR168-sponge transgenic plants, and that expression of miR168-resistant SlAGO1A (4m-SlAGO1A) and SlAGO1B (4m-SlAGO1B) in tomato results in a series of defects affecting growth rate, floral timing, leaves, and fruit. Accumulation of miR156 was found when 4m-SlAGO1A was at an early developmental stage compared to the wild type and original SlAGO1A transgenic plants, and miR172 was highly expressed in adult 4m-SlAGO1A compared to the controls. In addition, the expression of multiple small RNAs was altered in 4m-SlAGO1A. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the interaction between SlAGO1s and miR168 in determining growth rate, phase change, leaf epinasty, fruit initiation and expansion, and other developmental processes in tomato.

  2. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  3. Hindlimb immobilization - Length-tension and contractile properties of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Casts were placed around rat feet in plantar flexion position to immobilize the soleus muscle in a shortened position, while the other foot was fixed in dorsal flexion to set the extensor digitorum longus in a shortened position. The total muscular atrophy and contractile properties were measured at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after immobilization, with casts being replaced every two weeks. The slow twitch soleus and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis and longus muscles were excised after termination of the experiment. The muscles were then stretched and subjected to electric shock to elicit peak tetanic tension and peak tetanic tension development. Force velocity features of the three muscles were assayed in a series of afterloaded contractions and fiber lengths were measured from subsequently macerated muscle. All muscles atrophied during immobilization, reaching a new steady state by day 21. Decreases in fiber and sarcomere lengths were also observed.

  4. Deranged aortic intima-media thickness, plasma triglycerides and granulopoiesis in Sl/Sld mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottarappat N. Dileepan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES were carried out to evaluate the impact of a high-fat dietary regimen on aortic wall thickness, peripheral blood leukocyte profile, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the mast cell-deficient Sl/Sld mouse. The results demonstrated that the mean aortic wall thickness of Sl/Sld mice was significantly higher than their normal littermates, and were increased in both genotypes after a 17-day high-fat regimen. In comparison with normal littermates, Sl/Sld genotypes had elevated levels of plasma triglycerides with normal levels of plasma cholesterol, and the high-fat diet markedly lowered the triglyceride levels. Total peripheral blood leukocytes, the monocyte and granulocyte counts, and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in Sl/Sld mice, although the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the same in both genotypes. Interestingly, the high-fat diet regimen elevated leukocyte counts and the number of monocytes and granulocytes in Sl/Sld mice.

  5. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  6. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey

    2017-05-01

    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  7. An Elliptic Algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ and the Fusion RSOS Model

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, H

    1997-01-01

    We introduce an elliptic algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ with $p=q^{2r} (r\\in show that this algebra governs a structure of the space of states in the $k-$fusion RSOS model specified by a pair of positive integers $(r,k)$, or equivalently a $q-$deformation of the coset conformal field theory $SU(2)_k\\times SU(2)_{r-k-2}/SU(2)_{r-2}$. Extending the work by Lukyanov and Pugai corresponding to the case $k=1$, we gives a full set of screening operators for $k>1$. The algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ has two interesting degeneration limits, $p\\to 0$ and $p\\to 1$. The former limit yields the quantum affine algebra $U_{q}(\\hat{sl_2})$ whereas the latter yields the algebra ${\\cal A}_{\\hbar,\\eta}(\\hat{sl_2})$, the scaling limit of the elliptic algebra ${\\cal A}_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$. Using this correspondence, we also obtain the highest component of two types of vertex operators which can be regarded as $q-$deformations of the primary fields in the coset conformal field theory.

  8. Nkx2.5 homeoprotein regulates expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 and sarcomere organization in postnatal cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Hideko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Liu, Margaret K; Maguire, Colin T; Converso, Kimber L; Kang, Peter M; Manning, Warren J; Lawitts, Joel; Paul, David L; Berul, Charles I; Izumo, Seigo

    2003-03-01

    Nkx2.5, an evolutionarily conserved homeodomain containing transcription factor, is one of the earliest cardiogenic markers. Although its expression continues through adulthood, its function in adult cardiomyocytes is not well understood. To examine the effect of Nkx2.5 in terminal differentiated postnatal cardiomyocytes, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type Nkx2.5 (TG-wild), a putative transcriptionally active mutant (carboxyl-terminus deletion mutant: TG-DeltaC) or a DNA non-binding point mutant of Nkx2.5 (TG-I183P) under alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter. Most TG-wild and TG-DeltaC mice died before 4 months of age with heart failure associated with conduction abnormalities. Cardiomyocytes expressing wild-type Nkx2.5 or a putative transcriptionally active mutant (DeltaC) had dramatically reduced expression of connexin 43 and changed sarcomere structure. Wild-type Nkx2.5 adenovirus-infected adult cardiomyocytes demonstrated connexin 43 downregulation as early as 16 h after infection, indicating that connexin 43 downregulation is due to Nkx2.5 overexpression but not due to heart failure phenotype in vivo. These studies indicate that overexpression of Nkx2.5 in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes dramatically alters cardiac cell structure and function.

  9. Cardiac MRI assessed left ventricular hypertrophy in differentiating hypertensive heart disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to a sarcomeric gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipola, Petri [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); Magga, Jarkko; Peuhkurinen, Keijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Husso, Minna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Pertti; Kuusisto, Johanna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center, P.O. Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI)-assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in differentiating between hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 95 unselected subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension, 24 patients with HCM attributable to the D175N mutation of the {alpha}-tropomyosin gene and 17 control subjects were studied by cine CMRI. Left ventricular (LV) quantitative and qualitative characteristics were evaluated. LV maximal end-diastolic wall thickness, wall thickness-to-LV volume ratio, end-diastolic septum thickness and septum-to-lateral wall thickness ratio were useful measures for differentiating between LVH due to hypertension and HCM. The most accurate measure for identifying patients with HCM was the LV maximal wall thickness {>=}17 mm, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 90%, 93%, 86%, 95% and 91%, respectively. LV maximal wall thickness in the anterior wall, or regional bulging in left ventricular wall was found only in patients with HCM. LV mass index was not discriminant between patients with HCM and those with LVH due to hypertension. LV maximal thickness measured by CMRI is the best anatomical parameter in differentiating between LVH due to mild-to-moderate hypertension and HCM attributable to a sarcomeric mutation. CMRI assessment of location and quality of LVH is also of value in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  11. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Shan, Chunhui; Wu, Zhansheng

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs) into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA) was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 10(6) cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v) sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v) microcapsules) increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  12. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor SlARF2 participates in regulating lateral root formation and flower organ senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenxin; Liu, Ruiyuan; Gu, Wenting; Dong, Xicun

    2017-03-01

    ARF2 as apleiotropic developmental regulator has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The present study showed SlARF2 transcripts in all tomato plant tissues but with higher accumulation in flowers. During bud-anthesis stages, SlARF2 transcripts showed a dynamic expression pattern in sepal, stamen, ovary and petal. Hormone treatment analysis suggested that SlARF2 transcript accumulation was positively regulated by auxin and gibberellic acid, and negatively regulated by ethylene in tomato seedlings. Phenotypes and molecular analyses of SlARF2-upregulated transgenic tomato indicated that SlARF2 regulated tomato lateral root formation and flower organ senescence may be partially mediated by regulating the gene expression of auxin and ethylene response factors. The data enlarges the functional characterization of SlARF2 in tomato, and broadens our understanding of auxin signaling in regulating plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrable couplings of C-KdV equations hierarchy with self-consistent sources associated with sl-tilde(4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)], E-mail: yfajun@163.com; Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-04-20

    We present a kind of integrable couplings of soliton equations hierarchy with self-consistent sources by using of loop algebra sl-tilde(4). As an application, a hierarchy of C-KdV equations with self-consistent sources is derived through loop algebra sl-tilde(2). Furthermore, we construct a new integrable couplings of the C-KdV soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources by using of the enlarged loop algebra sl-tilde(4)

  14. Cosmological perturbation spectra from SL(4,R)-invariant effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bridgman, H A; Bridgman, Helen A.; Wands, David

    2000-01-01

    We investigate four-dimensional cosmological vacuum solutions derived from aneffective action invariant under global SL(n,R) transformations. We find thegeneral solutions for linear axion field perturbations about homogeneousdilaton-moduli-vacuum solutions for an SL(4,R)-invariant action and find thespectrum of super-horizon perturbations resulting from vacuum fluctuations in apre big bang scenario. We show that for SL(n,R)-invariant actions with n>3there exists a regime of parameter space of non-zero measure where all theaxion field spectra have positive spectral tilt, as required if light axionfields are to provide a seed for anisotropies in the microwave background andlarge-scale structure in the universe.

  15. Infinitely many commuting operators for the elliptic quantum group $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_N})$

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    We construct two classes of infinitely many commuting operators associated with the elliptic quantum group $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_N})$. We call one of them the integral of motion ${\\cal G}_m$, $(m \\in {\\mathbb N})$ and the other the boundary transfer matrix $T_B(z)$, $(z \\in {\\mathbb C})$. The integral of motion ${\\cal G}_m$ is related to elliptic deformation of the $N$-th KdV theory. The boundary transfer matrix $T_B(z)$ is related to the boundary $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_N})$ face model. We diagonalize the boundary transfer matrix $T_B(z)$ by using the free field realization of the elliptic quantum group, however diagonalization of the integral of motion ${\\cal G}_m$ is open problem even for the simplest case $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$.

  16. Indecomposable U_q(sl_n) modules for q^h = -1 and BRS intertwiners

    CERN Document Server

    Furlan, Paolo; Todorov, I G; Furlan, Paolo; Hadjiivanov, Ludmil; Todorov, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    A class of indecomposable representations of U_q(sl_n) is considered for q an even root of unity (q^h = -1) exhibiting a similar structure as (height h) indecomposable lowest weight Kac-Moody modules associated with a chiral conformal field theory. In particular, U_q(sl_n) counterparts of the Bernard-Felder BRS operators are constructed for n=2,3. For n=2 a pair of dual d_2(h) = h dimensional U_q(sl_2) modules gives rise to a 2h-dimensional indecomposable representation including those studied earlier in the context of tensor product expansions of irreducible representations. For n=3 the interplay between the Poincare'-Birkhoff-Witt and (Lusztig) canonical bases is exploited in the study of d_3(h) = h(h+1)(2h+1)/6 dimensional indecomposable modules and of the corresponding intertwiners.

  17. Geometric Weil representations for star-analogues of SL(2,k)

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Frez, Luis; Soto-Andrade, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We present here an elementary geometric approach to the construction of Weil representations of the star-analogues $SL_\\ast(2,A), A$ a ring or algebra with involution $\\ast$, of the group SL(2, k), k a field, reminiscent of the quantum groups $SL_q(2,A)$. We review as well the elementary construction of Weil representations for these groups via generators and relations, which uses the Bruhat presentation available in many cases. We compare the representations obtained by both methods in the non - classical case of the finite truncated polynomial algebra $A_m$ of degree $m$ with its canonical involution and obtain the analogue of the Maslov Index in this case.

  18. Elementary constituents of the group SL(4,R), and classification of the Mueller matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsiyuk, E; Neagu, M; Balan, V; Red'kov, V

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a systematic method of locating the Mueller matrices within the class of the matrices of the real group SL(4, R). The main idea is to construct the general transformation of the group SL(4, R) (whose real matrices have unit determinant) is straightforward, but to analyze the adequacy of such a transformation for describing Mueller matrices is highly nontrivial. However, using the technique of Dirac matrices, we can quite easy and explicitly describe all the 16 one-parametric subgroups, from which, using the all possible products, emerges the whole group SL(4, R). As a matter of fact, for these separate 1-parametric subgroups the question of their adequacy of describing Mueller matrices becomes sufficiently simple and thus we obtain in each case a definite answer.

  19. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  20. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2 which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  1. The universal R-matrix for the jordanian deformation of sl(2), and the contracted forms of SO(4)

    CERN Document Server

    Shariati, A; Khorrami, M

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a universal R matrix for the Jordanian deformation of \\U{ \\sl(2)}. Using \\Uh{\\so(4)}=\\Uh{\\sl(2)} \\oplus {\\rm U}_{-h}(\\sl(2)) we obtain the universal R matrix for \\Uh{\\so(4)}. Applying the graded contractions on the universal R matrix of \\Uh{\\so(4)}, we show that there exist three distinct R matrices for all of the contracted algebras. It is shown that \\Uh{\\sl(2)}, \\Uh{\\so(4)}, and all of these contracted algebras are triangular.

  2. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  3. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp). To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp) is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence. PMID:19284581

  4. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Pia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp. To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence.

  5. Mp3-inspelning som metod för att studera slöjdundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hasselskog

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available I föreliggande text diskuteras några olika typer av empiriskt material för att studera slöjdverksamhet. Särskilt fokus riktas mot dokumentation genom inspelning av lärares och elevers muntliga kommunikation med Mp3-spelare, samt jämförelser mellan Mp3- och videoinspelning. Utgångspunkt är erfarenheterna från avhandlingsstudien ”Slöjdlärares förhållningssätt i undervisningen” (Hasselskog, 2010. I texten diskuteras relationen mellan teori, empiri och metod. Vad man som forskare avser att studera, och vad som med olika insamlingsmetoder är möjligt att studera. En poäng som görs är att valet av empiri för att studera slöjdverksamhet i stor utsträckning avgör vad som är möjligt respektive vad som inte är möjligt att studera – något som motiverar att valet av insamlingsmetod styrs av syftet, vilket i sin tur påverkas av forskarens teoretiska utgångspunkter. Men, att detta samtidigt innebär att möjligheterna med en specifik insamlingsmetod, i denna text framförallt Mp3-inspelning, därigenom riskerar att inte utnyttjas till sin fulla potential. Att låta en speciell insamlingsmetod vara utgångspunkt, kan vara ett sätt att synliggöra nya perspektiv på slöjdundervisning och möjligheterna att studera denna. Sökord: metod, slöjd, ljudinspelning, slöjdlärare, klassrumsforskningURN:NBN:no-29966

  6. Pro Android Python with SL4A Writing Android Native Apps Using Python, Lua, and Beanshell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrill, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Pro Android Python with SL4A is for programmers and hobbyists who want to write apps for Android devices without having to learn Java first. Paul Ferrill leads you from installing the Scripting Layer for Android (SL4A) to writing small scripts, to more complicated and interesting projects, and finally to uploading and packaging your programs to an Android device. Android runs scripts in many scripting languages, but Python, Lua, and Beanshell are particularly popular. Most programmers know more than one programming language, so that they have the best tool for whatever task they want to accomp

  7. Doka formwork system SL-1 for tunneling. Example: Šentvid tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Boris

    2006-01-01

    The present work focuses on formwork system SL-1, which was developed by the company Doka - die Schalungstechniker for forming of tunnels and special structures. Formwork in general is presented, along with the methods of tunneling, which are in use today. Doka formwork system SL-1 and its typical parts are described in detail. The use of this formwork system is represented on the example of a cavern in Šentvid tunnel. Discussed are two possible shapes of the cavern: the form of three resembl...

  8. The $BC_{1}$ Elliptic model: algebraic forms, hidden algebra $sl(2)$, polynomial eigenfunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Turbiner, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    The potential of the $BC_1$ elliptic model is a superposition of two Weierstrass functions with doubling of both periods (two coupling constants), the model degenerates to $A_1$ elliptic model characterized by the Lame Hamiltonian. It is shown that in space of $BC_1$ elliptic invariant the potential becomes a rational function while the flat space metric is polynomial. The model possesses the hidden $sl_2$ algebra for arbitrary coupling constants: it is equivalent to $sl_2$-quantum top in three different magnetic fields. It is shown that there exist three one-parametric families of coupling constants for which a finite number of polynomial eigenfunctions (up to a factor) occur.

  9. Metanpotentiale og metanudbytte af rørgræs ved forskellige slætstrategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S U; Lærke, Poul Erik; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Rørgræs kan trives godt på våde arealer som f.eks. vandlidende tørvejorde, og biomassen kan potentielt bruges til biogasproduktion. På en tørvejord i Nørreådalen ved Viborg har Aarhus Universitet gennemført et forsøg med dyrkning af rørgræs, og det er undersøgt, hvordan slættidspunkt og antal slæ...

  10. Bosonization of superalgebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    We give a bosonization of the quantum affine superalgebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$ for an arbitrary level $k \\in {\\bf C}$. The bosonization of level $k \\in {\\bf C}$ is completely different from those of level $k=1$. From this bosonization, we induce the Wakimoto realization whose character coincides with those of the Verma module. We give the screening that commute with $U_q(\\widehat{sl}(N|1))$. Using this screening, we propose the vertex operator that is the intertwiner among the Wakimoto realization and typical realization. We study non-vanishing property of the correlation function defined by a trace of the vertex operators.

  11. The Integrals of Motion for the Deformed W-Algebra Wqt(sl_N^)

    CERN Document Server

    Feigin, B; Shiraishi, J; Watanabe, H

    2006-01-01

    We review the deformed W-algebra Wqt(sl_N^) and its screening currents. We explicitly construct the local integrals of motion I_n for this deformed W-algebra. We explicitly construct the nonlocal integrals of motion G_n by means of the screening currents. Our integrals of motion commute with each other, and give the elliptic version of those for the Virasoro algebra and the W-algebra W(sl_3^), obtained by V.Bazhanov, A.Hibberd, S.Khoroshkin, S.Lukyanov and Al.Zamolodchikov.

  12. Metanpotentiale og metanudbytte af rørgræs ved forskellige slætstrategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S U; Lærke, Poul Erik; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Rørgræs kan trives godt på våde arealer som f.eks. vandlidende tørvejorde, og biomassen kan potentielt bruges til biogasproduktion. På en tørvejord i Nørreådalen ved Viborg har Aarhus Universitet gennemført et forsøg med dyrkning af rørgræs, og det er undersøgt, hvordan slættidspunkt og antal slæ...

  13. A categorification of U_T sl(1,1) and its tensor product representations

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yin

    2013-01-01

    We define the Hopf superalgebra U_T sl(1,1), which is a variant of the quantum supergroup U_q sl(1,1), and its tensor product representations V_1^{\\otimes n} for n>0. We construct families of DG algebras A, B and R_n, and consider the DG categories DGP(A), DGP(B) and DGP(R_n), which are full DG subcategories of the categories of DG A-, B- and R_n-modules generated by certain distinguished projective modules. Their 0th homology categories HP(A), HP(B), and HP(R_n) are triangulated and give alg...

  14. Diseño de packaging para la fruta congelada de Nice Fruit S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, Irene; Prat, Victor

    2014-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en proponer y desarrollar una línea de packaging completa (envase primario, secundario y terciario) para la fruta pelada, troceada y congelada que produce la empresa Nice Fruit S.L. Esta línea de packaging está destinada al sector RETAIL. Actualmente la compañía solo suministra su producto en bolsas de 10 kg al mercado HORECA. La fruta congelada que produce Nice Fruit S.L. es un producto único en el mundo. Las posibilidades que ofrece están prácticamente todas por desc...

  15. Notes on highest weight modules of the elliptic algebra A$_{q,p}$ (sl$_{2}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Jimbo, M; Kedem, R; Miwa, T; Yan, H

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a construction of highest weight modules for the recently defined elliptic algebra {\\cal A}_{q,p}(\\widehat{sl}_2), and make several conjectures concerning them. The modules are generated by the action of the components of the operator L on the highest weight vectors. We introduce the vertex operators \\Phi and \\Psi^* through their commutation relations with the L-operator. We present ordering rules for the L- and \\Phi-operators and find an upper bound for the number of linearly independent vectors generated by them, which agrees with the known characters of \\widehat{sl}_2-modules.

  16. An action for F-theory: {SL}(2){{{R}}}^{+} exceptional field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, David S.; Blair, Chris D. A.; Malek, Emanuel; Rudolph, Felix J.

    2016-10-01

    We construct the 12-dimensional exceptional field theory (EFT) associated to the group {SL}(2)× {{{R}}}+. Demanding the closure of the algebra of local symmetries leads to a constraint, known as the section condition, that must be imposed on all fields. This constraint has two inequivalent solutions, one giving rise to 11-dimensional supergravity and the other leading to F-theory. Thus {SL}(2)× {{{R}}}+ EFT contains both F-theory and M-theory in a single 12-dimensional formalism.

  17. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  18. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joshua A.; Markova, Svetlana; Ueda, Yu; Kim, Jae B.; Pascoe, Peter J.; Evanchik, Marc J.; Green, Eric M.; Harris, Samantha P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline

  19. Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We then consi...

  20. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Kron, K.A.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wood samples of 111 Vaccinieae specimens (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) representing 98 species and 26 genera are investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Vaccinieae delivers taxonomically important characters that can be used to define some subclad

  1. Evolutionary history of vegetative reproduction in Porpidia s.L. (Lichen-forming ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbom, Jutta; Barker, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The evolutionary history of gains and losses of vegetative reproductive propagules (soredia) in Porpidia s.l., a group of lichen-forming ascomycetes, was clarified using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches to monophyly tests and a combined MCMC and maximum likelihood approach to ancestral character state reconstructions. The MCMC framework provided confidence estimates for the reconstructions of relationships and ancestral character states, which formed the basis for tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Monophyly tests rejected all hypotheses that predicted any clustering of reproductive modes in extant taxa. In addition, a nearest-neighbor statistic could not reject the hypothesis that the vegetative reproductive mode is randomly distributed throughout the group. These results show that transitions between presence and absence of the vegetative reproductive mode within Porpidia s.l. occurred several times and independently of each other. Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral character states at selected nodes suggest that--contrary to previous thought--the ancestor to Porpidia s.l. already possessed the vegetative reproductive mode. Furthermore, transition rates are reconstructed asymmetrically with the vegetative reproductive mode being gained at a much lower rate than it is lost. A cautious note has to be added, because a simulation study showed that the ancestral character state reconstructions were highly dependent on taxon sampling. However, our central conclusions, particularly the higher rate of change from vegetative reproductive mode present to absent than vice versa within Porpidia s.l., were found to be broadly independent of taxon sampling.

  2. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Kron, K.A.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wood samples of 111 Vaccinieae specimens (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) representing 98 species and 26 genera are investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Vaccinieae delivers taxonomically important characters that can be used to define some

  3. The third homology of SL_2 of higher-dimensional local fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We calculate, for certain higher-dimensional local fields F, the third homology of SL_2(F) with coefficients in Z[1/2]. The answer is expressed as a direct sum of abelian groups, the first term being the indecomposable K_3 of F and all others being pre-Bloch groups of intermediate residue fields.

  4. $U_{q}(\\widehat{(sl_{n})}$-analog of the XXZ chain with a boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Furutsu, H

    1999-01-01

    We study $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$-analog of the XXZ spin chain with a boundary magnetic field $h$. We construct explicit bosonic formulas of the vacuum vectors and the dual vacuum vector with a boundary magnetic field. We derive integral formulas of the correlation functions.

  5. CRITERION FOR SL(2,Z)-MATRIX TO BE CONJUGATE TO ITS INVERSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙以明

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a matrix in SL(2, Z) to be conjugate to its inverse. This condition reduces the determination of the conjugation to solving some indeterminate equation of second degree. It yields an algorithm to determine this conjugation in finite steps based on the elementary number theory.

  6. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and ...

  7. Heisenberg-Type Families in $U_q(widehat{sl_2}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zuevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the second Drinfeld formulation of the quantized universal enveloping algebra $U_q(widehat{sl_2}$ we introduce a family of its Heisenberg-type elements which are endowed with a deformed commutator and satisfy properties similar to generators of a Heisenberg subalgebra. Explicit expressions for new family of generators are found.

  8. Phyllanthus balgooyi (Euphorbiaceae s.l.), a new nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Palawan and Sabah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, P.; Baker, A.J.M.; Madulid, D.A.; Proctor, J.

    2003-01-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi Petra Hoffm. & A.J.M. Baker (Euphorbiaceae s.l. or Phyllanthaceae) is described from Palawan (Philippines) and Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) as a species of Phyllanthus sect. Emblicastrum. The species is restricted to ultramafic sites and easily identified by its unusual leaf venation

  9. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    males (mean age 55 years), and 83% of reactions considered clinically relevant. 22% were suspected of occupational sensitization/dermatitis. 62% had a contact allergy to 2 or more compounds, most often to nickel, fragrance and colophonium. SL mix detected 65%, CM 87% of Compositae-allergic patients...

  10. Topological Representations of $U_q(sl_2)$ on the Torus and the Mapping Class Group

    CERN Document Server

    Crivelli, M; Wieczerkowski, C; Felder, Giovanni

    1993-01-01

    We compute the mapping class group action on cycles on the configuration space of the torus with one puncture, with coefficients in a local system arising in conformal field theory. This action commutes with the topological action of the quantum group $U_q(sl_2)$, and is given in vertex form.

  11. A characterization of the desarguesian planes of order q2 by SL(2,q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Foulser

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The main result is that if the translation complement of a translation plane of order q2 contains a group isomorphic to SL(2,q and if the subgroups of order q are elations (shears, then the plane is Desarguesian. This generalizes earlier work of Walker, who assumed that the kernel of the plane contained GF(q.

  12. The invariants of the third symmetric power representation of SL_2(F_p)

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    For a prime p>3, we compute a finite generating set for the SL_2(F_p)-invariants of the third symmetric power representation. The proof relies on the construction of an infinite SAGBI basis and uses the Hilbert series calculation of Hughes and Kemper.

  13. A search for phylogenetically informative wood characters within Lecythidaceae s.l.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Baas, P.; Jansen, S.; Smets, E.

    2007-01-01

    The wood structure of 71 species representing 24 genera of the pantropical Lecythidaceae s.l., including the edible Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) and the spectacular cannon-ball tree (Couroupita guianensis), was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. This study focused on fi

  14. Characteristics of the Cfu‐S Population In Mice Carrying the SlJ Allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Ploemacher (Robert); N.H.C. Brons (Nicolaas)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Abstract. A tentative characterization of haemopoietic stem cells with respect to their organ distribution, seeding fraction and colony formation in the spleen, radiosen‐sitivity and humoral regulation was attempted in mice heterozygous for the mutant allele SlJ and in their nor

  15. Two Members of the Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter Family, SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, are Expressed during Fruit Development, and the Overexpression of SlALMT5 Alters Organic Acid Contents in Seeds in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Nakano, Ryohei; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kubo, Yasutaka; Mori, Izumi C; Higashiizumi, Emi; Galis, Ivan; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family of proteins transports malate and/or inorganic anions across plant membranes. To demonstrate the possible role of ALMT genes in tomato fruit development, we focused on SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, the two major genes expressed during fruit development. Predicted proteins were classified into clade 2 of the family, many members of which localize to endomembranes. Tissue-specific gene expression was determined using transgenic tomato expressing the β-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by their own promoters. Both the genes were expressed in vascular bundles connecting to developing seeds in fruit and in the embryo of mature seeds. Further, SlALMT5 was expressed in embryo in developing seeds in fruit. Subcellular localization of both proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was established by transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein fusions in plant protoplasts. SlALMT5 probably localized to other endomembranes as well. Localization of SlALMT5 to the ER was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The transport function of both SlALMT proteins was investigated electrophysiologically in Xenopus oocytes. SlALMT5 transported malate and inorganic anions such as nitrate and chloride, but not citrate. SlALMT4 also transported malate, but the results were less consistent perhaps because it did not localize strongly to the plasma membrane. To elucidate the physiological role of SlALMT5 further, we overexpressed SlALMT5 in tomato. Compared with the wild type, overexpressors exhibited higher malate and citrate contents in mature seeds, but not in fruit. We conclude that the malate transport function of SlALMT5 expressed in developing fruit influences the organic acid contents in mature seeds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  17. Characterization of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (SlPAL5) from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-07-01

    Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (SlPAL5) cDNA from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) revealed high sequence similarity to PAL genes in Nicotiana tabacum (92%), Ipomoea nil (87%), Manihot esculenta (84%), and Catharanthus roseus (84%). The SlPAL5 gene exists as multiple copies in the tomato plant, and its transcription was strongly expressed in old leaves and flowers. From 5 days post-anthesis to the onset of ripening, SlPAL5 expression decreased gradually but was maintained at a comparatively high level; SlPAL5 transcript expression was very low at the mature-green stage. SlPAL5 expression was significantly induced in response to NaCl, mannitol, and cold treatment; SlPAL5 expression decreased gradually after treatment with abscisic acid and H(2)O(2); SlPAL5 transcript decreased after exposure to methyl viologen for 3 h and increased after 6 h and maintained a stable expression level until 24 h, suggesting that the SlPAL5 gene may function in the response to abiotic stress.

  18. EFISIENSI TEKNIS USAHA TANI PADI PETANI PESERTA DAN PETANI NONPESERTA PROGRAM SL-PTT DI KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuji Lasmini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze the influence of farmers’ participation in SL-PTT rice program on the technical efficiency of farm businesses run by the farmers. The measurement of technical efficiency was conducted by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA oriented toward the inputs of 35 SL-PTT rice program participants and 35 non-participant farmers of SL-PTT rice program in Cisaat District of Sukabumi Regency, particularly during the harvest season III in 2014. The significant difference of the mean value of technical efficiency between the participant farmers and non-participant farmers of SL-PTT rice program was examined by using t-test (different test. The results show that the average value of technical efficiency for all respondents is 0,83. The average value of the technical efficiency of the participant farmers in SL-PTT rice program (0,84 is higher than that of the non-participant farmers in SL-PTT rice program (0,82. The t-test results also show that the values of technical efficiency between both types of farmers are not significantly different. The development of SL-PTT program can be achieved by improving the delivery methods on the PTT technological information to the participant farmers i.e. by involving farmers who hold a role as progressive farmers to convey information and advice to other farmers.Keywords: rice production, SL-PTT of rice, technical efficiency, DEA

  19. Another Representation for the Maximal Lie Algebra of sl(n+2,ℝ in Terms of Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Feroze

    2009-01-01

    of the special linear group of order (n+2, over the real numbers, sl(n+2,ℝ. In this paper, we provide an alternate representation of the symmetry algebra by simple relabelling of indices. This provides one more proof of the result that the symmetry algebra of (ya″=0 is sl(n+2,ℝ.

  20. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid, Spain Ad. de las Cortes Valencianas... therefore ordered: First, that, Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A,...

  1. Fast-SL: an efficient algorithm to identify synthetic lethal sets in metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratapa, Aditya; Balachandran, Shankar; Raman, Karthik

    2015-10-15

    Synthetic lethal sets are sets of reactions/genes where only the simultaneous removal of all reactions/genes in the set abolishes growth of an organism. Previous approaches to identify synthetic lethal genes in genome-scale metabolic networks have built on the framework of flux balance analysis (FBA), extending it either to exhaustively analyze all possible combinations of genes or formulate the problem as a bi-level mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. We here propose an algorithm, Fast-SL, which surmounts the computational complexity of previous approaches by iteratively reducing the search space for synthetic lethals, resulting in a substantial reduction in running time, even for higher order synthetic lethals. We performed synthetic reaction and gene lethality analysis, using Fast-SL, for genome-scale metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fast-SL also rigorously identifies synthetic lethal gene deletions, uncovering synthetic lethal triplets that were not reported previously. We confirm that the triple lethal gene sets obtained for the three organisms have a precise match with the results obtained through exhaustive enumeration of lethals performed on a computer cluster. We also parallelized our algorithm, enabling the identification of synthetic lethal gene quadruplets for all three organisms in under 6 h. Overall, Fast-SL enables an efficient enumeration of higher order synthetic lethals in metabolic networks, which may help uncover previously unknown genetic interactions and combinatorial drug targets. The MATLAB implementation of the algorithm, compatible with COBRA toolbox v2.0, is available at https://github.com/RamanLab/FastSL CONTACT: kraman@iitm.ac.in Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with triacontanol and Asahi SL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect of short-term chilling on plants earlier treated with triacontanol (TRIA and Asahi SL was investigated. These plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with far flux density of 220 µmol × m-2 × s-1, with a photoperiod 16/8. At the 4th true leaf stage, the respective experimental series were sprayed with: 1 H2O - control, 2 TRIA 0.01, 3 TRIA 0.1, 4 TRIA 1.0 mg × dm-3, 5 Asahi SL 0.2, 6 Asahi SL 0.3%. After 24 hours one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results have shown that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in chlorophyll a+b content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf area and in the activity of catalase in leaves. The application of TRIA or ASAHI SL on leaves in the pre-stress period reduced the values of the traits which had been increased as a result of chilling and increased those which had reduced. Generally, TRIA was most effective at a concentration of 0.1 mg × dm-3, and Asahi SL at a concentration of 0.3%.

  3. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  4. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  5. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  6. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  7. Observations on oesophageal length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  8. Research progress of SlRT1 with eye diseases%SlRT1与眼科疾病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐可可; 李志坚

    2015-01-01

    •Silent information regulator protein 1 ( SlRT1 ) is a kind of histone deacetylases class lll on which cell metabolism coenzyme NAD+ is dependent. By the transcriptional regulation, it participates in the regulation of gene transcription, energy metabolism and cell aging process, which can prolong the lifespan of organisms and delay the development of various age-related diseases and has attracted much attention in the field of anti - aging research. ln recent years, studies have shown that SlRT1 occupies an important position in the pathogenesis of many ophthalmic diseases, especially in ocular surface diseases, glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, and ocular fundus diseases, etc. There is a possibility that the promotion of SlRT1 activity would be the new drug target of ophthalmic therapy. The paper will review studies on SlRT1 and ophthalmic diseases.%沉默信息调节因子相关酶1( sirtuin type1, SIRT1)是一种细胞代谢辅酶NAD+依赖的Ⅲ类组蛋白去乙酰化酶,通过转录调控,参与基因转录、能量代谢以及细胞衰老过程的调节,具有延长生物寿命和延缓多种年龄相关性疾病发展的作用,在抗衰老研究领域备受关注。近年的研究显示SIRT1在眼科多种疾病的发病机制中占有重要的地位,尤其是眼表疾病、青光眼、白内障、葡萄膜炎以及眼底病等,针对SIRT1活性的促进可能成为眼科新型药物的治疗靶点。本文将对SIRT1与眼科疾病的研究报道进行综述。

  9. A tomato bZIP transcription factor, SlAREB, is involved in water deficit and salt stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Li, Chia-Wen; Su, Ruey-Chih; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Sanjaya; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-05-01

    Abiotic stresses such as cold, water deficit, and salt stresses severely reduce crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important economic crop; however, not much is known about its stress responses. To gain insight into stress-responsive gene regulation in tomato plants, we identified transcription factors from a tomato cDNA microarray. An ABA-responsive element binding protein (AREB) was identified and named SlAREB. In tomato protoplasts, SlAREB transiently transactivated luciferase reporter gene expression driven by AtRD29A (responsive to dehydration) and SlLAP (leucine aminopeptidase) promoters with exogenous ABA application, which was suppressed by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, indicating that an ABA-dependent post-translational modification is required for the transactivation ability of SlAREB protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the recombinant DNA-binding domain of SlAREB protein is able to bind AtRD29A and SlLAP promoter regions. Constitutively expressed SlAREB increased tolerance to water deficit and high salinity stresses in both Arabidopsis and tomato plants, which maintained PSII and membrane integrities as well as water content in plant bodies. Overproduction of SlAREB in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato plants regulated stress-related genes AtRD29A, AtCOR47, and SlCI7-like dehydrin under ABA and abiotic stress treatments. Taken together, these results show that SlAREB functions to regulate some stress-responsive genes and that its overproduction improves plant tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  10. Effect of growth regulator Kelpak SL on the formation of aboveground biomass of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt. A. Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the cultivation of Festulolium braunii cv. 'Felopa' was carried out using polyurethane rings with a diameter of 36 cm and a height of 40 cm, which were sunk into the ground to a depth of 30 cm and filled with soil material. In this experiment, Kelpak SL was used as a bioregulator. It consists of natural plant hormones such as auxins (11 mg in dm3 and cytokinins (0.03 mg in dm3. The experimental factors were as follows: A1-control; A2 – 20% solution of the growth regulator; A3 – 40% solution; and A4 – 60% solution. The preparation was applied to all three regrowths in the form of spray, at a rate of 3 cm3 ring-1, at the stem elongation stage. The full period of this experiment was in the years 2010–2011. During this time, detailed investigations were carried out on aboveground biomass yield (g DM ring-1, number of shoots (pcs ring-1, leaf blade length (cm, width of the leaf blade base (mm, leaf greenness index (SPAD. The study showed a significant effect of the growth regulator on the formation of Festulolium braunii biomass. However, its highest effectiveness was observed when the 60% solution was applied.

  11. Correlation between the length and weight of Arius maculatus off the southwestern coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Shan Chu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Arius maculatus were collected using the samples caught by bottom trawling off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. Length-weight and length-length, fork (FL, standard (SL and total (TL lengths, relationships were determined. The relationships between the lengths were all significantly linear (p<0.01, the b value in the length-weight relationship for this value was significantly lower than 3 in the fall (p<0.01, when the temporal changes were taken into account, indicating that only the sampling time affected the growth pattern of A. maculatus. The growth was isometric in the spring, summer and winter, but it was negative and allometric in the fall.

  12. Constant harvest rate for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California based on catchability-at-length estimations

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Constant harvest rate as a management strategy for the Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) fishery in the Gulf of California is supported by an analysis of variations in the catchability coefficient (q), stock abundance and commercial catch. Catchability was analyzed based on population length-structured data standard length (SL), expressed as CPUE, for 26 fishing seasons (1972-1973 to 1997-1998). We used a deterministic model of catchability to estimate the catchability-at-length assuming ...

  13. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  14. Functional phosphatome requirement for protein homeostasis, networked mitochondria, and sarcomere structure in C. elegans muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Susann; Bass, Joseph J; Barratt, Thomas F; Ali, Mohammed Z; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal muscle is central to locomotion and metabolic homeostasis. The laboratory worm Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed into a genomic model for assessing the genes and signals that regulate muscle development and protein degradation. Past work has identified a receptor tyrosine kinase signalling network that combinatorially controls autophagy, nerve signal to muscle to oppose proteasome-based degradation, and extracellular matrix-based signals that control calpain and caspase activation. The last two discoveries were enabled by following up results from a functional genomic screen of known regulators of muscle. Recently, a screen of the kinome requirement for muscle homeostasis identified roughly 40% of kinases as required for C. elegans muscle health; 80 have identified human orthologues and 53 are known to be expressed in skeletal muscle. To complement this kinome screen, here, we screen most of the phosphatases in C. elegans. RNA interference was used to knockdown phosphatase-encoding genes. Knockdown was first conducted during development with positive results also knocked down only in fully developed adult muscle. Protein homeostasis, mitochondrial structure, and sarcomere structure were assessed using transgenic reporter proteins. Genes identified as being required to prevent protein degradation were also knocked down in conditions that blocked proteasome or autophagic degradation. Genes identified as being required to prevent autophagic degradation were also assessed for autophagic vesicle accumulation using another transgenic reporter. Lastly, bioinformatics were used to look for overlap between kinases and phosphatases required for muscle homeostasis, and the prediction that one phosphatase was required to prevent mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was assessed by western blot. A little over half of all phosphatases are each required to prevent abnormal development or maintenance of muscle. Eighty-six of these phosphatases have known

  15. APLICAÇÃO DO ÍNDICE DE HACK (SL A UM TRECHO DO RIO ZÊZERE, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vieira Souza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Os perfis longitudinais de rios são sensíveis a movimentações tectônicas causando alterações no nível de base. Devido a isto, verifica-se incisão fluvial a montante de compartimentos abatidos e agradação a jusante de compartimentos levantados. Os canais fl uviais são dinâmicos e se modificam através da incisão e da agradação periódicas, o estudo destes processos reveste-se de grande importância na compreensão das alterações do relevo. A formação de vales encaixados com perfis típicos em V, ou o aparecimento de trechos de agradação pode ter origem em causas tectônicas, ou outras. Hack (1973 propôs um índice (stream-gradient index para detectar estas alterações em cursos fluviais, decorrentes de mudanças no substrato geológico, aporte de carga, ou tectonismo. O stream-gradient index, ou simplesmente índice SL, relação declive (slope vs. comprimento do curso (length. O presente trabalho objetiva identificar rupturas de declive, num trecho do rio Zêzere, afluente do rio Tejo. O rio Zêzere corre num vale encaixado no interior da Cordilheira Central Portuguesa. Para identificar as roturas de declive utilizou-se o perfil longitudinal, índice de Hack, SL (slope VS. Lenght. Como resultado foi possível detectar locais onde sofreram abatimentos tectônicos, principalmente entre Pedrógão e Bogas de Baixo, foi possível também observar a influência de processos de erosão diferencial e de soleiras Quartzíticas de Farjão a Sarzedas na regularização dos processos tectônicos a montante daqueles níveis de base locais.

  16. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  17. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  18. Over-Expression of SlSHN1 Gene Improves Drought Tolerance by Increasing Cuticular Wax Accumulation in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed M. Al-Abdallat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing cuticular wax accumulation in plants has been associated with improving drought tolerance in plants. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding the SlSHN1 transcription factor, the closest ortholog to WIN/SHN1 gene in Arabidopsis, was isolated from tomato plant. Expression analysis of SlSHN1 indicated that it is induced in response to drought conditions. The over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter produced plants that showed mild growth retardation phenotype with shiny and dark green leaves. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato resulted in higher cuticular wax deposition on leaf epidermial tissue when compared to non-transformed plants. Expression analysis in transgenic lines over-expressing SlSHN1 indicated that several wax-related synthesis genes were induced. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing SlSHN1 showed higher drought tolerance when compared with wild type plants; this was reflected in delayed wilting of transgenic lines, improved water status and reduced water loss rate when compared with wild type plants. In conclusion, the SlSHN1 gene can modulate wax accumulation and could be utilized to enhance drought tolerance in tomato plant.

  19. Coexistence of Digenic Mutations in Both Thin (TPM1) and Thick (MYH7) Filaments of Sarcomeric Genes Leads to Severe Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a South Indian FHCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi Rani, Deepa; Nallari, Pratibha; Dhandapany, Perundurai S; Rani, Jhansi; Meraj, Khunza; Ganesan, Mala; Narasimhan, Calambur; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2015-05-01

    Mutations in sarcomeric genes are the leading cause for cardiomyopathies. However, not many genetic studies have been carried out on Indian cardiomyopathy patients. We performed sequence analyses of a thin filament sarcomeric gene, α-tropomyosin (TPM1), in 101 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and 147 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients against 207 ethnically matched healthy controls, revealing 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of these, one mutant, S215L, was identified in two unrelated HCM cases-patient #1, aged 44, and patient #2, aged 65-and was cosegregating with disease in these families as an autosomal dominant trait. In contrast, S215L was completely absent in 147 DCM and 207 controls. Patient #1 showed a more severe disease phenotype, with poor prognosis and a family history of sudden cardiac death, than patient #2. Therefore, these two patients and the family members positive for S215L were further screened for variations in MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, MYL2, MYL3, and ACTC. Interestingly, two novel thick filaments, D896N (homozygous) and I524K (heterozygous) mutations, in the MYH7 gene were identified exclusively in patient #1 and his family members. Thus, we strongly suggest that the coexistence of these digenic mutations is rare, but leads to severe hypertrophy in a South Indian familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM).

  20. Severe protein aggregate myopathy in a knockout mouse model points to an essential role of cofilin2 in sarcomeric actin exchange and muscle maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurniak, Christine B; Chevessier, Frédéric; Jokwitz, Melanie; Jönsson, Friederike; Perlas, Emerald; Richter, Hendrik; Matern, Gabi; Boyl, Pietro Pilo; Chaponnier, Christine; Fürst, Dieter; Schröder, Rolf; Witke, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human actin depolymerizing factor cofilin2 result in an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy. Here, we report on the targeted ablation of murine cofilin2, which leads to a severe skeletal muscle specific phenotype within the first two weeks after birth. Apart from skeletal muscle, cofilin2 is also expressed in heart and CNS, however the pathology was restricted to skeletal muscle. The two close family members of cofilin2 - ADF and cofilin1 - were co-expressed in muscle, but unable to compensate for the loss of cofilin2. While primary myofibril assembly and muscle development were unaffected in cofilin2 mutant mice, progressive muscle degeneration was observed between postnatal days 3 and 7. Muscle pathology was characterized by sarcoplasmic protein aggregates, fiber size disproportion, mitochondrial abnormalities and internal nuclei. The observed muscle pathology differed from nemaline myopathy, but showed combined features of actin-associated myopathy and myofibrillar myopathy. In cofilin2 mutant mice, the postnatal expression pattern and turnover of sarcomeric α-actin isoforms were altered. Levels of smooth muscle α-actin were increased and remained high in developing muscles, suggesting that cofilin2 plays a crucial role during the exchange of α-actin isoforms during the early postnatal remodeling of the sarcomere.

  1. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  2. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  3. Separation of variables for the quantum SL(2,R) spin chain

    CERN Document Server

    Derkachov, S E; Manashov, A N

    2003-01-01

    We construct representation of the Separated Variables (SoV) for the quantum SL(2,R) Heisenberg closed spin chain and obtain the integral representation for the eigenfunctions of the model. We calculate explicitly the Sklyanin measure defining the scalar product in the SoV representation and demonstrate that the language of Feynman diagrams is extremely useful in establishing various properties of the model. The kernel of the unitary transformation to the SoV representation is described by the same "pyramid diagram" as appeared before in the SoV representation for the SL(2,C) spin magnet. We argue that this kernel is given by the product of the Baxter Q-operators projected onto a special reference state.

  4. Characteristic Classes of SL(N)-Bundles and Quantum Dynamical Elliptic R-Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, A; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss quantum dynamical elliptic R-matrices related to arbitrary complex simple Lie group G. They generalize the known vertex and dynamical R-matrices and play an intermediate role between these two types. The R-matrices are defined by the corresponding characteristic classes describing the underlying vector bundles. The latter are related to elements of the center Z(G) of G. While the known dynamical R-matrices are related to the bundles with trivial characteristic classes, the Baxter-Belavin-Drinfeld-Sklyanin vertex R-matrix corresponds to the generator of the center Z_N of SL(N). We construct the R-matrices related to SL(N)- bundles with an arbitrary characteristic class explicitly and discuss the corresponding IRF models.

  5. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  6. SPECIAL LINEAR GROUP SL(2, C AND GENERATING FUNCTIONS FOR ULTRASPHERICAL POLYNOMIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.Khanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the generating functions for ultraspherical polynomials Cα n (x (Gegenbaur polynomials are obtained by using the representa- tion theory of the Lie group SL(2, C (the complex special linear group giving a suitable interpretation to the index 0 n0 . Further, linearly inde- pendent differential J-operators derived, which generate a Lie algebra isomorphic to sl(2, C. The principle interest in our results lies in the fact that, how thecomplex special linear group can be applied suitably to the Gegenbaur polynomials in order to derive six bilinear/bilateral generating functions. The generating functions, in turn yield, Legendre polynomials as special cases. Many results obtained are well known but some of them are believed to be new in the theory of specialfunctions.

  7. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  8. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  9. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than......Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... analysis in 548 same-sex Danish twins (274 pairs) aged 73-94 years, of whom 204 pairs experienced the death of one or both co-twins during 9-10 years of follow-up (1997-2007). From the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) distribution, the authors obtained the mean TRFL (mTRFL) and the mean values...

  10. The tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) is required for defense gene induction by the fungal elicitor xylanase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonorazky, G.; Ramirez, L.; Abd-El-Haliem, A.; Vossen, J.H.; Lamattina, L.; Have, ten A.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Laxalt, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated upon pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase rapidly induces nitric oxide (NO), which is

  11. Børn og unge anbragt i slægten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lajla

    Dette er den første af to rapporter om slægtspleje. De to rapporter udgør samtidig delundersøgelse 3 af en større SFI-evaluering af anbringelsesreformen. De to første delundersøgelser omhandlede henholdsvis anbragte børns skolegang og sundhed og kommunernes forebyggende foranstaltninger for udsat...

  12. Deformation of sl(2) and osp(1|2)-Modules of Symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Basdouri, Imed

    2010-01-01

    We consider the sl(2)-module structure on the spaces of symbols of differential opera- tors acting on the spaces of weighted densities. We compute the necessary and sufficient integrability conditions of a given infinitesimal deformation of this structure and we prove that any formal deformation is equivalent to its infinitesimal part. We study also the super analogue of this problem getting the same results.

  13. Another Free Boson Representation of Yangian Double Dyh(slN) with Arbitrary Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Bo-Yu; ZHAO Liu; DING Xiang-Mao

    2001-01-01

    We derive a free boson representation of the Yangian double DYh(slN) with arbitrary level k by the observation that there is a correspondence between the q-affine algebra and Yangian double associated with the same Cartan matrix. Vertex operator and screening currents cannot be obtained in the same way. From this point of view,the Yangian double with centre cannot be regarded as the degenerated case of the quantum affine algebra.

  14. [CAPTCHA - Mercedes SL600, Digital media hand cut in polycarbonate, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Darbyshire, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    CAPTCHA è il progetto per una scultura che riproduce a dimensione reali una macchina sportiva - la Mercedes SL600 del titolo - attraverso strati sovrapposti di policarbonato alveolare trasparente, e sarebbe dovuta essere installata all’interno dei Jardin des Plantes di Parigi. Il progetto, che nelle intenzioni dell’artista si concentra sugli aspetti formali della scultura e nel suo essere collocate in un consesto storico profondamente connotato, si inserisce nelle ricerche portate avanti da M...

  15. Simulation of Flash Separation in Polyethylene Industrial Processing: Comparison of SRK and SL Equations of State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Glória Meyberg Nunes; Guerrieri, Y.; Kislansky, S.; F.L.P. Pessoa; Melo, Silvio Alexandre Beisl Vieira de; Embiruçu, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Texto completo: Acesso restrito. p. 8613–8628. The Soave−Redlich−Kwong (SRK) and the Sanchez and Lacombe (SL) equations of state are applied to the flash simulation of polyethylene industrial separators, specifically low-density polyethylene (eight resins) and linear low-density polyethylene (25 resins). Three mixing rules are used in the SRK equation: van der Waals (VDW) one-fluid, Wong−Sandler, and LCVM (linear combination of the Vidal and Michelsen mixing rules). The latter two mixing r...

  16. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l. for Its Pharmacological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine.

  17. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  18. Four dimensional Abelian duality and SL(2,Z) action in three dimensional conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zucchini, R

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Witten showed that there is a natural action of the group SL(2,Z) on the space of 3 dimensional conformal field theories with U(1) global symmetry and a chosen coupling of the symmetry current to a background gauge field on a 3--fold N. He further argued that, for a class of conformal field theories, in the nearly Gaussian limit, this SL(2,Z) action may be viewed as a holographic image of the well--known SL(2,Z) Abelian duality of a pure U(1) gauge theory on a AdS--like 4--fold M bounded by N, as dictated by the AdS/CFT correspondence. However, he showed that explicitly only for the generator T; for the generator S, instead, his analysis remained conjectural. In this paper, we propose a solution of this problem by deriving a holographic formula for the generating functional of the correlators of the symmetry current. In our approach M, N are not required to be spin. Various consistency requirements imply that M has trivial real (relative) cohomology and that N is a real homology sphere.

  19. A simple bijection between standard (n,n,n) tableaux and irreducible webs for sl_3

    CERN Document Server

    Tymoczko, Julianna

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial spiders are a model for the invariant space of the tensor product of representations. The basic objects, webs, are certain directed planar graphs with boundary; algebraic operations on representations correspond to graph-theoretic operations on webs. Kuperberg developed spiders for rank 2 Lie algebras and sl_2. Building on a result of Kuperberg's, Khovanov-Kuperberg found a recursive algorithm giving a bijection between standard Young tableaux of shape (n,n,n) and irreducible webs for sl_3 whose boundary vertices are all sources. In this paper, we give a simple and explicit map from standard Young tableaux of shape (n,n,n) to irreducible webs for sl_3 whose boundary vertices are all sources, and show that it is the same as Khovanov-Kuperberg's map. Our construction generalizes to some webs with both sources and sinks on the boundary. Moreover, it allows us to extend the correspondence between webs and tableaux in two ways. First, we provide a short, geometric proof of Petersen-Pylyavskyy-Rhoades...

  20. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

  1. Replication and pathogenicity of primer binding site mutants of SL3-3 murine leukemia viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Schmidt, J; Luz, A

    1999-01-01

    delayed relative to that of the wild-type virus, molecular tumor analysis indicated that all the primer binding site-modified viruses induce T-cell lymphomas similar to those induced by the wild-type virus in terms of frequencies of genomic rearrangements within the T-cell receptor beta......) in undifferentiated embryonic cells. In this study we test whether SL3-3 MLV can replicate stably using tRNA primers other than the cognate tRNAPro and analyze the effect of altering the primer binding site sequence to match the 3' end of tRNA1Gln, tRNA3Lys, or tRNA1,2Arg in a mouse pathogenicity model. Contrary...... to findings from cell culture studies of primer binding site-modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and avian retroviruses, our findings were that SL3-3 MLV may stably and efficiently replicate with tRNA primers other than tRNAPro. Although lymphoma induction of the SL3-3 Lys3 mutant was significantly...

  2. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  3. Tissue distribution and timing of appearance of polytropic envelope recombinants during infection with SL3-3 murine leukemia virus or its weakly pathogenic SL3DeltaMyb5 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, K; Lobelle-Rich, P A; Trubetskoy, A; Lenz, J; Levy, L S

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3DeltaMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction.

  4. Tissue Distribution and Timing of Appearance of Polytropic Envelope Recombinants during Infection with SL3-3 Murine Leukemia Virus or Its Weakly Pathogenic SL3ΔMyb5 Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Karen; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Trubetskoy, Alla; Lenz, Jack; Levy, Laura S.

    2001-01-01

    A time course analysis was performed to identify the sites of formation and timing of appearance of polytropic recombinant viruses following infection of NIH/Swiss mice with the murine retrovirus SL3-3 murine leukemia virus (SL3) or with a weakly pathogenic mutant termed SL3ΔMyb5. The results indicated that (i) polytropic recombinant viruses occur initially in the thymus of SL3-infected animals, (ii) the timing of appearance of polytropic recombinants in bone marrow is not consistent with their participation in the previously reported formation of transplantable tumor-forming cells at 3 to 4 week postinoculation, and (iii) the efficient generation of recombinant virus is correlated with efficient tumor induction. PMID:11119621

  5. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  6. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways. PMID:28222174

  7. The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2014-05-01

    The glacial floods, called 'jökulhlaups', are common in Iceland and are of interest to geologists for several reasons. Firstly, the heat source origin - subglacial volcanic eruption or/and subglacial geothermal activity - determines the potential environmental impact of the floods. For example, if the heat was sourced by a volcanic eruption, acid gas input might lead to acidic flood waters and toxic metal release from the host rock. In contrast, geothermal heat melts the ice slowly allowing long-term fluid-rock interaction to neutralize the flood waters, limiting their toxicity. The chemical composition of the flood waters is often the only indicator of the flood triggering mechanism in volcanic and geothermal areas. As such river water chemistry monitoring might be an effective method to predict an upcoming volcanic eruption. Secondly, glacial floods may play an important role in global cycle of elements. Due to high discharge during the events, flood waters can transport large amounts of particulate material. This particulate material has large surface areas, making it especially reactive once it arrives in estuaries. Slow dissolution of particulate material releases micro- and macronutrients which could enhance primary productivity along the coast and in lakes. In July 2011, two ~2000 m3/s glacial floods from the Icelandic Mördalsjökull and Vatnajökull glaciers emerged into the Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl rivers, respectively. Water samples collected during both floods had neutral to alkaline pH and conductivity from 100 to 900 μS/cm. The total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), present mostly as HCO3-, was ~9 mmol/kg during the flood peak in the Múlakvísl river but stabilized at around 1 mmol/kg; a similar trend was observed in the Kaldakvísl river. Concentrations of most dissolved elements in the flood waters were comparable to those commonly observed in these rivers. The concentration of suspended particulate material however, increased dramatically

  8. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.

  9. The influence of Atonik SL, Betokson Super 050 SL and InsolCa on yielding of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of strawberry fruit depends mainly on cultivar, fruit maturity degree and climatic conditions in the growing period. Fruit quality is also determined by a cultivation technology. The influence of two biostimulants (Atonik SL and Betokson Super 050 SL, which were used separately, in combination with each other or with the liquid fertilizer InsolCa, on yielding and fruit quality of two strawberry cultivars: ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’, was tested. Betokson Super 050 SL + InsolCa tended to improve the yield of both cultivars. Significant differences compared to the control were evident especially in 2001. Fruits of ‘Senga Sengana’ started ripening later and had more ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and acidity than ‘Kent’. The use of Betokson Super 050 SL + InsolCa improved the content of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and sugar as well as acidity in strawberries of both cultivars. The use of Betokson Super 050 SL + Atonik SL significantly increased the content of ascorbic acid and sugar in fruits of both cultivars. ‘Kent’ strawberries also responded to the treatment with an increase in anthocyanin content and acidity.

  10. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  11. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  12. Molecular evidence for a single taxon, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., from two endemic malaria regions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Jaramillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. taxonomic status at a microgeographic level in four malaria endemic localities from Antioquia and Córdoba, Colombia, fragments of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and the white gene were used. The COI analysis showed low genetic differentiation with fixation index (F ST levels between -0.02-0.137 and Nm values between 3-∞, indicating the presence of high gene flow among An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from the four localities. The COI network showed a single most common haplotype, type 1 (n = 55, present in all localities, as the likely ancestral haplotype. Analysis of the white gene showed that An. nuneztovari s.l. populations from both departments grouped with haplotypes 19 and 20, which are part of lineage 3 reported previously. The results of the present study suggest that An. nuneztovari s.l. is a single taxon in the area of the present study.

  13. SL(2;R)/U(1) supercoset and elliptic genera of Non-compact Calabi-Yau Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, T

    2004-01-01

    We first discuss the relationship between the SL(2;)/U(1) supercoset and = 2 Liouville theory and make a precise correspondence between their representations. We shall show that the discrete unitary representations of SL(2;)/U(1) theory correspond exactly to those massless representations of = 2 Liouville theory which are closed under modular transformations and studied in our previous work [18]. It is known that toroidal partition functions of SL(2;)/U(1) theory (2D Black Hole) contain two parts, continuous and discrete representations. The contribution of continuous representations is proportional to the space-time volume and is divergent in the infinite-volume limit while the part of discrete representations is volume-independent. In order to see clearly the contribution of discrete representations we consider elliptic genus which projects out the contributions of continuous representations: making use of the SL(2;)/U(1), we compute elliptic genera for various non-compact space-times such as the conifold, ...

  14. Explicit Hopf-Galois description of $SL_{e^{\\frac{2i\\pi}{3}}}$(2)-induced Frobenius homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, L; Siniscalco, P

    1999-01-01

    The exact sequence of ``coordinate-ring'' Hopf algebras Frobenius map $Fr$ is studied when $q$ is a cubic root of unity. Direct proofs are provided that $A(SL(2,C))$ is isomorphic via the Frobenius map with the algebra of $A(F)$-coinvariants of $A(SL_q(2))$, and that, consequently, $A(SL_q(2))$ is a faithfully flat $A(F)$-Galois extension of $SL(2,C)$. A criterion for the cleftness of general principal homogenous extensions is proved. It is then used to construct a family of cleaving maps (sections) of the Hopf-Galois extension corresponding to the same way obtained exact sequence of (quantum) Borel subgroups. A cocycle and coaction determining the bicrossed-product structure of this extension are computed explicitly. In addition, integrals in and on $A(F)$ are computed and the non-existence of the Haar measure on the finite quantum group $F$ is concluded.

  15. Analysis of the DNA Methylation of SlGLD1 Regulated by JMJ524 in Tomato%番茄 JMJ524基因调控 SlGLD1的 DNA 甲基化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 潘宇; 苏承刚; 张兴国; 李金华

    2016-01-01

    旨在分析番茄 JMJ524基因如何通过影响 SlGLD1的 DNA 甲基化程度来调控其表达,从而导致番茄的赤霉素不敏感的矮化。利用生物信息学和 BSP(BisulfitesequencingPCR)分析 JMJ524抑制系和野生型的 SlGLD1的 DNA 甲基化程度。结果显示,分离出 SlGLD1的启动子序列,发现其启动子区域含有3个 GA 响应的顺式作用元件;SlGLD1的启动子区域和编码区的 DNA 是高度甲基化的,而且在不同组织部位和突变体中的甲基化模式是不一样的;在基因的编码区发现了两个 GC 岛,推测 SlGLD1的甲基化可能发生在基因的编码区;针对这两个 GC 岛进行的 BSP 分析结果表明:SlGLD1的这两个区段的 DNACpG 是高度甲基化的,而且在 JMJ524抑制系中,DNA 的整体甲基化,特别是 CpG 甲基化程度显著低于野生型对照 M82。JMJ524抑制表达导致了 SlGLD1的基因甲基化程度降低,从而激活这个基因的表达,可能是导致番茄植株矮化的一个因素。%This work is to reveal the mechanism of JMJ524 modulatinges the SlGLD1 expression by affecting the DNA methylation of SlGLD1,and leading to the dwarf of tomato insensitive to gibberellin. Bioinformatics and BSP(Bisulfite sequencing PCR)were employed to analyze the DNA methylation of SlGLD1 in inhibitory line and wild line of JMJ524. Results showed that the SlGLD1 promoter sequence was isolated,which contained 3 GA response cis-elements. The DNAs of SlGLD1 promoter and coding sequence were highly methylated, moreover,the methylation pattern varied at the different tissues and mutants. Two GC islands were found in this coding region of the gene,thus it was inferred that the methylation of SlGLD1 might happen in the region. Further,the analysis by BSP of the 2 GC islands indicated that the DNA CpG in the 2 regions of SlGLD1 was highly methylated. The whole methylation of DNA in the inhibitory line of JMJ524,especially CpG methylation was

  16. STS-55 MS3 Harris holds turbine blade sample at SL-D2 Rack 8 Werkstofflabor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, wearing gloves, holds turbine blade sample and examines it in front of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) Rack 8 Werkstofflabor (WL) (Material Sciences Laboratory). Harris is working at the Furnace for Turbine-blade geometry specimens to process special metallic alloys and cast them in the shape of turbine blades. SL-D2 is the German-managed payload aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  17. Level-0 action of $U_{q}(\\widehat{sl}_{n})$ on the q-deformed Fock spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Takemura, Kouichi; Uglov, Denis

    1996-01-01

    On the level-1 Fock space modules of the algebra $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$ we define a level-0 action $U_0$ of the $U_q(\\hat{sl_n})$, and an action of an abelian algebra of conserved Hamiltonians commuting with the $U_0$. An irreducible decomposition of the Fock space with respect to the level-0 action is derived by constructing a base of the Fock space in terms of the Non-symmetric Macdonald Polynomials.

  18. Equivariant K-Theory of Central Extensions and Twisted Equivariant K-theory: Sl3(Z) and St3(Z)

    OpenAIRE

    Barcenas, Noe; Velasquez, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We compare twisted Equivariant K-theory of Sl3Z with untwisted equivariant K-Theory of its universal central extension, St3Z. Using universal coefficient theorems by the authors, the computations explained here give the domain of Baum-Connes assembly maps landing on the topological K-theory of twisted group C*-algebras related to Sl3Z, for which a version of Poincar\\'e Duality studied previously by Echterhoff, Emerson and Kim is verified.

  19. PredSL: A Tool for the N-terminal Sequence-based Prediction of Protein Subcellular Localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia I. Petsalaki; Pantelis G. Bagos; Zoi I. Litou; Stavros J. Hamodrakas

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict the subcellular localization of a protein from its sequence is of great importance, as it provides information about the protein's function.We present a computational tool, PredSL, which utilizes neural networks, Markov chains, profile hidden Markov models, and scoring matrices for the prediction of the subcellular localization of proteins in eukaryotic cells from the N-terminal amino acid sequence. It aims to classify proteins into five groups: chloroplast,thylakoid, mitochondrion, secretory pathway, and "other". When tested in a fivefold cross-validation procedure, PredSL demonstrates 86.7% and 87.1% overall accuracy for the plant and non-plant datasets, respectively. Compared with TargetP, which is the most widely used method to date, and LumenP, the results of PredSL are comparable in most cases. When tested on the experimentally verified proteins of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, PredSL performs comparably if not better than any available algorithm for the same task. Furthermore, PredSL is the only method capable for the prediction of these subcellular localizations that is available as a stand-alone application through the URL:http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/PredSL/.

  20. Reduced Drought Tolerance by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated SlMAPK3 Mutagenesis in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu; Chen, Lin; Li, Rui; Zhao, Ruirui; Yang, Meijing; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2017-10-04

    Drought stress is one of the most destructive environmental factors that affect tomato plants adversely. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signaling molecules that respond to drought stress. In this study, SlMAPK3 was induced by drought stress, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system was utilized to generate slmapk3 mutants. Two independent T1 transgenic lines and wild-type (WT) tomato plants were used for analysis of drought tolerance. Compared with WT plants, slmapk3 mutants exhibited more severe wilting symptom, higher hydrogen peroxide content, lower antioxidant enzymes activities, and suffered more membrane damage under drought stress. Furthermore, knockout of SlMAPK3 led to up- or down-regulated expressions of drought stress-responsive genes including SlLOX, SlGST, and SlDREB. The results suggest that SlMAPK3 is involved in drought response in tomato plants by protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage and modulating transcription of stress-related genes.

  1. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  2. Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn [Find My Family - On biology, identity and kinship on television] Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Frello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Danish public service television station (DR has launched several documentary serials that focus on kinship and genealogy. Genealogy makes ‘good TV’ because it enables an immediate identification with the protagonist of the programme. Furthermore, the protagonist’s personal story can function as a vehicle for telling other stories. However, the way kinship is depicted in the serials presupposes that a person’s knowledge about her biological kin equals knowledge about her personal identity. The article analyses the serial Find my Family (Danish: Sporløs, discussing the naturalisation of biological kin and the possible consequences of the conceptualisation of kinship that is taken for granted in the serial.DR har i de senere år lanceret flere programserier, som har slægt og slægtsforskning som fokus. Slægtsprogrammer er ’godt fjernsyn’ i den forstand, at de giver mulighed for en umiddelbar identifikation med hovedpersonen, samtidig med at dennes historie kan bruges som løftestang for andre historier. Imidlertid anlægger programmerne en vinkel på slægten, som forudsætter, at et øget kendskab til den biologiske slægt automatisk medfører et øget kendskab til den personlige identitet. Denne selvfølgeliggørelse af den biologiske slægts betydning problematiseres i artiklen, og med udgangspunkt i Sporløs diskuteres mulige implikationer og konsekvenser af den forståelse af slægten, som programmerne tager udgangspunkt i og tager for givet.

  3. A synopsis or chinese euphorbia L. s.l. (euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majinshuang, J. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic treatment or the Chinese species or Euphorbia (s.l. is summarized. Altogether 5 subgenera., 12 sections and 77 species (including cultivated and escaped ones are recognized as occurring in China. Keys to subgenera., sections and species of Euphorbia (s.l. found in China are presented; the original literature of each species, synonyms and distribution to the provincial level within China and more briefly outside China, as well as comments where necessary, are reported also. One new species (E.tlongchuanensis C. Y. Wu & J. S. Ma, sp. nov. and one new section (Sect. Wentsai C. Y. Wu & J.S. Ma, sect. nov. are described.

    Síntesi del tractament taxonòmic de les espècies d'Euphorbia s.l. de la Xina. En conjunt es reconeixen per aquest país 5 subgèneres, 12 seccions i 77 espècies (incloent cultivades i naturalitzades. També es presenten claus de subgèneres, seccions i espècies; a més s'apona per a cada espècie lloc de publicació. sinònims i distribució a nivell provincial dins la Xina i més breument per a fora de la Xina, així com comentaris on siguin precisos. Es descriu una nova espècie (E. tongchuanensis Wu & Ma. i un nova secció (Sect. Wentsai Wu & Ma..

  4. Expression and identification of 10 sarcomeric MyHC isoforms in human skeletal muscles of different embryological origin. Diversity and similarity in mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, Francesco; Toniolo, Luana; Cancellara, Pasqua; Reggiani, Carlo; Maccatrozzo, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    In the mammalian genome, among myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms a family can be identified as sarcomeric based on their molecular structure which allows thick filament formation. In this study we aimed to assess the expression of the 10 sarcomeric isoforms in human skeletal muscles, adopting this species as a reference for comparison with all other mammalian species. To this aim, we set up the condition for quantitative Real Time PCR assay to detect and quantify MyHC mRNA expression in a wide variety of human muscles from somitic, presomitic and preotic origin. Specific patterns of expression of the following genes MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH8, MYH13, MYH14/7b and MYH15 were demonstrated in various muscle samples. On the same muscle samples which were analysed for mRNA expression, the corresponding MyHC proteins were studied with SDS PAGE and Western blot. The mRNA-protein comparison allowed the identification of 10 distinct proteins based on the electrophoretic migration rate. Three groups were formed based on the migration rate: fast migrating comprising beta/slow/1, alpha cardiac and fast 2B, slow migrating comprising fast 2X, fast 2A and two developmental isoforms (NEO and EMB), intermediate migrating comprising EO MyHC, slow B (product of MYH15), slow tonic (product of MYH14/7b). Of special interest was the demonstration of a protein band corresponding to 2B-MyHC in laryngeal muscles and the finding that all 10 isoforms are expressed in extraocular muscles. These latter muscles are the unique localization for extraocular, slow B (product of MYH15) and slow tonic (product of MYH14/7b).

  5. Exchange Relations for the q-Vertex Operators of $U_q(\\widehat{sl2})$

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, H

    1993-01-01

    We consider the q-deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation for the two point function of q-deformed vertex operators of $U_q(sl_2^)$. We give explicitly the fundamental solutions, the connection matrices and the exchange relations for the q-vertex operators of spin 1/2 and $j \\in {1\\over 2}{\\bf Z}_{\\geq 0}$. Consequently, we confirm that the connection matrices are equivalent to the elliptic Boltzman weights of IRF type obtained by the fusion procedure from ABF models.

  6. Multi-parametric R-matrix for the sl(2|1) Yangian

    CERN Document Server

    Babichenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We study the Yangian of the sl(2|1) Lie superalgebra in a multi-parametric four-dimensional representation. We use Drinfeld's second realization to derive the R-matrix, the antiparticle representation, the crossing and unitarity condition. We consistently apply the Yangian antipode and its inverse to the individual particles involved in the scattering. We explicitly find a scalar factor solving the crossing and unitarity conditions. The formulas we obtain bear some similarities with those familiar from the study of integrable structures in the AdS/CFT correspondence, although they present obvious crucial differences.

  7. Implantación del Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 en VECOPOL S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    González, Berta

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo trataré de desarrollar e implantar el Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 en la empresa VECOPOL S.L. El objetivo que me planteo es desarrollar parte de la documentación del Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 e iniciar su implantación de forma que se empiece a trabajar en un entorno de calidad, con el propósito fundamental de satisfacer al cliente. En un futuro, si la empresa lo considera conveniente, se podrá certificar el Sistema de Gestión de Calidad.

  8. On the weight distribution in level one Demazure modules of sl2hat

    CERN Document Server

    Bliem, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We compute the covariance of the weight distribution in level 1 Demazure modules of sl2hat. The crucial step is to compute the variance of the degree distribution. This also allows us to prove the weak law of large numbers for the degree and weight distribution using Chebyshev's inequality. We give two proofs of our main result, one by induction along Demazure's character formula, and one by using quantum calculus and the fact that Demazure characters are related to Macdonald and Rogers-Szego polynomials.

  9. 国外名胆CARY SL1-80功放赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松森

    2005-01-01

    @@ 美国著名的CARY SL1-80电子管功率放大器,是一款输出功率强劲的合并式功放,采用美式大功率束射四极管6550(KT88),其最大输出功率可达80W+80W,该功放机造型新颖,性能卓越,深受国际音响界人士的好评.

  10. SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, M; Carmeli, Moshe; Malin, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on general differentiable manifolds or on affinely connected manifolds. The SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is employed to explore this possibility. Within this framework, the quantization itself may well be canonical.

  11. Plan de prevención de riesgos laborales para la empresa Plasdur S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    García Palencia, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    El Plan de prevención de riesgos laborales de la empresa PLASDUR S.L. se refleja en el presente documento que se conservará a disposición de la autoridad laboral, de las autoridades sanitarias y de los representantes de los trabajadores, e incluye, con la amplitud adecuada a la dimensión y características de la empresa, según el Reglamento de los servicios de prevención (R.D. 39/1997), los siguientes elementos: o La identificación de la empresa, de su actividad productiva, el número y caracte...

  12. The SL_3 Jones polynomial of the trefoil: a case study of $q$-holonomic recursions

    CERN Document Server

    Garoufalidis, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The SL_3 colored Jones polynomial of the trefoil knot is a $q$-holonomic sequence of two variables with natural origin, namely quantum topology. The paper presents an explicit set of generators for the annihilator ideal of this $q$-holonomic sequence as a case study. On the one hand, our results are new and useful to quantum topology: this is the first example of a rank 2 Lie algebra computation concerning the colored Jones polynomial of a knot. On the other hand, this work illustrates the applicability and computational power of the employed computer algebra methods.

  13. Molecular basis of TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Adam P; Mokdad, Ali; Major, François; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Babitzke, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by the interaction of tryptophan-activated TRAP with 11 (G/U)AG trinucleotide repeats that lie in the leader region of the nascent trp transcript. Bound TRAP prevents folding of an antiterminator structure and favors formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator hairpin upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5'-stem-loop (5'SL) structure that forms just upstream of the triplet repeat region increases the affinity of TRAP-trp RNA interaction, thereby increasing the efficiency of transcription termination. Single-stranded nucleotides in the internal loop and in the hairpin loop of the 5'SL are important for TRAP binding. We show here that altering the distance between these two loops suggests that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop constitute two structurally discrete TRAP-binding regions. Photochemical cross-linking experiments also show that the hairpin loop of the 5'SL is in close proximity to the flexible loop region of TRAP during TRAP-5'SL interaction. The dimensions of B. subtilis TRAP and of a three-dimensional model of the 5'SL generated using the MC-Sym and MC-Fold pipeline imply that the 5'SL binds the protein in an orientation where the helical axis of the 5'SL is perpendicular to the plane of TRAP. This interaction not only increases the affinity of TRAP-trp leader RNA interaction, but also orients the downstream triplet repeats for interaction with the 11 KKR motifs that lie on TRAP's perimeter, increasing the likelihood that TRAP will bind in time to promote termination.

  14. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues, Rbohs are the enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of each of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. The SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and attenuated expression of defense genes after infection of B. cinerea than the nonsilenced plants. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI and drought tolerance in tomato.

  15. The Influence of Added Mass on Optimal Step Length in Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maas, Maurice T F; de Koning, Jos J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the influence of induced changes in the morphology of the leg by adding mass on the optimal step length (OSL) in experienced runners to get more insight into parameters that influence preferred step length (PSL) and OSL. Thirteen experienced male runners (mean age 26.9 ± 6.1 y, height 183.7 ± 7.1 cm, mass 71.8 ± 5.9 kg) ran on a treadmill in 3 different conditions: unloaded (UL), loaded with 2 kg mass at the ankles (MA), and loaded with 2 kg mass at the hips (MH) at 7 different step lengths (SLs). SL deviations were expressed as deviations in relative leg length (%LL) from the individual PSL: 0%LL, ±5%LL, ±10%LL, and ±15%LL. Trials lasted 8 min, and 8 min of rest was given between trials. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was expressed as a fraction of V̇O2 at PSL + 0%LL in the unloaded condition (%V̇O2). The %SL with the lowest value of %V̇O2 was considered the OSL for this group of participants. OSL at the UL condition was 6% shorter than PSL. The MA condition resulted in a 7%LL larger OSL than at UL and MH (P distribution of the leg is a determinant of the OSL. As a consequence of the added mass to the ankles, OSL was 7%LL longer. Morphological characteristics of the leg might therefore play an important role in determining the runner's individual optimal SL.

  16. Determination of strontium-isotopes using Hidex 300 SL with TDCR-Cerenkov-counting; Messung von Strontium-Isotopen im Hidex 300 SL mittels TDCR-Cerenkov-counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisser, S. [FCI, Mainz (Germany); Oikari, T. [Hidex Oy, Turku (Finland); Frenzel, E.

    2014-01-20

    A new rapid method for the determination of Sr-89/Sr-90 has been introduced due to the advances in the LSC-Technology. By means of the TDCR-Technique (Triple-to-Double-Coincidence-Ratio) in combination with Cerenkov-Counting, the samples can be measured directly after the sample preparation without significant waiting times. The prompt availability of results allows the competent authorities and radiation protection experts a faster reaction after a nuclear incident. The TDCR-Technique can also be applied for the routine analysis of Sr-90/Y-90. This method is also suitable for the determination of Sr-90/Y-90 directly after the radiochemical sample preparation. On the first step, the activity of Y-90 has to be determined by TDCR-Cerenkov-Counting. After adding LSC-Cocktail, the sum of Sr-90 und Y-90 can then be determined by TDCR-LSC measurement. The results obtained so far are very promising. The counting efficiencies obtained with Hidex 300 SL for the TDCR-LSC-measurement of Sr-90 were above 97%. The counting efficiencies for Sr-89 and Y-90 by TDCR-Cerenkov-Counting were higher than 60%.

  17. Drift data of the sea-gravity meter (SL-2) installed on the R/V Hakurei-maru; `Hakureimaru` senjo jurokei (SL-2) no drift ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a rapid change in the drift of a sea-gravity meter SL-2 after 1987 and after its modification in 1993. In order to confirm the accuracy of the sea-gravity meter of the Hakurei-maru, changes in the lapse of time were summarized on the relative gravity value at the Funabashi base and on the drift rate in each voyage. The drift rates in the case of departing from and returning to Funabashi base were all less than 0.1mgal/day except the first year of 1987, which was presumably due to the growing stability of the gravimeter. The drift value of 1992 was 0.05mgal/day, producing an error of only 2mgal without drift compensation at the end of a 40 day voyage. The gravimeter after the total renewal of the control part in 1993 produced a large drift in the direction opposite to the conventional drift. The cause of these phenomena was supposed to be some kind of change in the spring property during the gap of one year; this large drift seemed to be settling down after the elapse of approximately one year. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Purification and characterization of an antifungal chitinase from Bacillus sp.SL-13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Shan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus sp.SL-13 produced antifungal proteins.The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani was considerably inhibited by the presence of the SL-13 culture supernatant.The proteins were purified by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow ion exchange column chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration,and the main antifungal protein was purified to be chitinase.The molecular weight of chitinase was estimated to be 36 kD by 12%SDS PAGE.The optimal pH and temperature for the chitinase was 7.0 and 50℃.It demonstrated that the enzyme was stable from pH 5 to 9 and form 40?C to 60℃.The enzyme still kept 70%activity when incubated at 121℃,0.11MPa up to 20 minutes and the enzyme is also not lost the activity when treated with protease K and ultraviolet radiation for 1.5hours.It is very suitable for the use in a relatively unstable environment,exhibiting effective biological control.

  19. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Andrew K.; Smith, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10- and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the supersymmetry algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB supergravity and 11-dimensional supergravity in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations are compatible with the construction of an SL(2,R) covariant kinetic term in the 11-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole worldvolume action.

  20. Traces of Intertwiners for Quantum Affine sl_2 and Felder-Varchenko Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We show that the traces of {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-intertwiners of [ESV02] valued in the three-dimensional evaluation representation converge in a certain region of parameters and give a representation-theoretic construction of Felder-Varchenko's hypergeometric solutions to the q-KZB heat equation given in [FV02]. This gives the first proof that such a trace function converges and resolves the first case of the Etingof-Varchenko conjecture of [EV00]. As applications, we prove a symmetry property for traces of intertwiners and prove Felder-Varchenko's conjecture in [FV04] that their elliptic Macdonald polynomials are related to the affine Macdonald polynomials defined as traces over irreducible integrable {U_q({widehat{sl}_2)}-modules in [EK95]. In the trigonometric and classical limits, we recover results of [EK94,EV00]. Our method relies on an interplay between the method of coherent states applied to the free field realization of the q-Wakimoto module of [Mat94], convergence properties given by the theta hypergeometric integrals of [FV02], and rationality properties originating from the representation-theoretic definition of the trace function.

  1. Virulence potential of Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. isolates on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinelato, Simone; Golo, Patrícia S; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Sá, Fillipe A; Camargo, Mariana G; Angelo, Isabele C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-12-21

    The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has been reported worldwide for decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the virulence of 30 Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. Brazilian isolates from different geographical regions, hosts or substrates on the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks under in vitro conditions to the selection of virulent isolates in order to be further used in biological control programs. The current study confirmed the lethal action of M. anisopliae s.l. isolates on R. (B.) microplus larvae with different mortality levels, usually directly proportional to the conidia concentration. No relationship was found between the origin of the isolate and its virulence potential or between the virulence potential and conidia production. Three isolates (CG 37, CG 384 and IBCB 481) caused a high percentage of larval mortality, reaching LC(50) at 10(6) conidia ml(-1), thus requiring a lower conidia concentration to cause an approximately 100% larval mortality. The results of this study suggest that these three isolates are the most promising for use in programs aimed at microbial control in the field.

  2. SL(2,C) Chern-Simons Theory and Quantum Gravity with a Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal; Han, Muxin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Riello, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    We show a relation between 4-dimensional quantum gravity with a cosmological constant and SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory in 3-dimensions with knotted graph defects. In particular, we study the expectation value of a non-planar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory on S3. We analyze its asymptotic behavior in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. We find that a class of flat connections in the graph complement manifold are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. We show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged curved volume of the 4-simplex. Interestingly, the volume term stems from the asymptotics of the Chern-Simons action. Another peculiarity of our approach is that the sign of the curvature of the reconstructed geometry, and hence of the cosmological constant in the Regge action, is not fixed a priori, but rather emerges semiclassically and dynamically from the solution of the equations of motion. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the European Marie Curie actions, and the Perimeter Institute.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. from the western Iberian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Simões, R; Coimbra-Dores, M J; Rosa, F; Dias, D

    2017-06-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille (1806) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is considered to be the most widely distributed tick and to have a vast range of habitats and hosts, including livestock, pets and wildlife. In addition to morphological differences, recent investigations using approaches based on molecular genetic markers have revealed the existence of different R. sanguineus lineages in different geographic regions. In this study, 475 ticks collected from dogs in the western Iberian peninsula were studied both morphologically and genetically, using 12S and 16S rDNA and COI gene markers in order to clarify the controversy over the systematic status of R. sanguineus sensu lato in Western Europe, and to compare the present data with those sourced from studies conducted in other regions of the world. Despite the high morphometric variability, particularly on spiracles in both genders and in female genitalia, data obtained with different genetic molecular markers show very low variability, suggesting the existence of a unique species. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis showed genetic uniformity, supporting the existence of a well-defined clade consisting of R. sanguineus s.l. specimens from Western Europe that are distinct from R. sanguineus s.l. from Africa. Furthermore, these data corroborate the existence of a polymorphic species in Western Europe, which requires to be consensually redescribed in view of its medical and veterinary importance in pathogen transmission. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Continuum limit of the integrable sl(2/1)3-3-bar superspin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essler, Fabian H.L. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Frahm, Holger [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Saleur, Hubert [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)]. E-mail: saleur@physics1.usc.edu

    2005-04-25

    By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we analyze the continuum limit of the integrable 3 x 3-bar x 3 x 3-bar ...sl(2/1) superspin chain. We discover profoundly new features, including a continuous spectrum of conformal weights, whose numerical evidence is infinite degeneracies of the scaled gaps in the thermodynamic limit. This indicates that the corresponding conformal field theory has a non compact target space (even though our lattice model involves only finite-dimensional representations). We argue that our results are compatible with this theory being the level k=1, 'SU(2/1) WZW model' (whose precise definition requires some care). In doing so, we establish several new results for this model. With regard to potential applications to the spin quantum Hall effect, we conclude that the continuum limit of the 3 x 3-bar x 3 x 3-bar ...sl(2/1) integrable superspin chain is not the same as (and is in fact very different from) the continuum limit of the corresponding chain with two-superspin interactions only, which is known to be a model for the spin quantum Hall effect. The study of possible RG flows between the two theories is left for further study.

  5. Models of the SL9 Impacts II. Radiative-hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plume Splashback

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, D; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    We model the plume "splashback" phase of the SL9 collisions with Jupiter using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamic code. We modified the Zeus code to include gray radiative transport, and we present validation tests. We couple the infalling mass and momentum fluxes of SL9 plume material (from paper I) to a jovian atmospheric model. A strong and complex shock structure results. The modeled shock temperatures agree well with observations, and the structure and evolution of the modeled shocks account for the appearance of high excitation molecular line emission after the peak of the continuum light curve. The splashback region cools by radial expansion as well as by radiation. The morphology of our synthetic continuum light curves agree with observations over a broad wavelength range (0.9 to 12 microns). A feature of our ballistic plume is a shell of mass at the highest velocities, which we term the "vanguard". Portions of the vanguard ejected on shallow trajectories produce a lateral shock front, whose initial expansion a...

  6. The Yangian of sl(n|m) and the universal R-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Rej, Adam

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study Yangians of sl(n|m) superalgebras. We derive the universal R-matrix and evaluate it on the fundamental representation obtaining the standard Yang R-matrix with unitary dressing factors. For m=0, we directly recover up to a CDD factor the well-known S-matrices for relativistic integrable models with su(N) symmetry. Hence, the universal R-matrix found provides an abstract plug-in formula, which leads to results obeying fundamental physical constraints: crossing symmetry, unitrarity and the Yang-Baxter equation. This implies that the Yangian double unifies all desired symmetries into one algebraic structure. In particular, our analysis is valid in the case of sl(n|n), where one has to extend the algebra by an additional generator leading to the algebra gl(n|n). We find two-parameter families of scalar factors in this case and provide a detailed study for gl(1|1).

  7. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  8. Arthroscopic-Assisted Combined Dorsal and Volar Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction with Tendon Graft for Chronic SL Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Cheong; Wong, Clara Wing-Yee; Tse, Wing-Lim

    2015-11-01

    Background Both the dorsal and the volar portion of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are major stabilizers of the scapholunate (SL) joint. Most reconstruction methods to restore SL stability do not address the volar constraints and frequently fail to reduce the SL gapping. Wrist arthroscopy allows a complete evaluation of the SL interval, accompanying ligament status, and associated SL advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist changes. It enables simultaneous reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar SL ligaments anatomically with the use tendon graft in a boxlike structure. Materials and Methods From October 2002 to June 2012, the treatment method was applied in 17 patients of chronic SL instability of average duration of 9.5 months (range 1.5-18 months). There were three Geissler grade 3 and 14 grade 4 instability cases. The average preoperative SL interval was 4.9 mm (range 3-9 mm). Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformity was present in 13 patients. Six patients had stage 1 SLAC wrist change radiologically. Concomitant procedures were performed in four patients. Description of Technique With the assistance of arthroscopy and intraoperative imaging as a guide, a combined limited dorsal and volar incision exposed the dorsal and palmar SL interval without violating the wrist joint capsule. Bone tunnels of 2.4 mm were made on the proximal scaphoid and lunate. A palmaris longus tendon graft was delivered through the wrist capsule and the bone tunnels to reduce and connect the two bones in a boxlike fashion. Once the joint diastasis is reduced and any DISI malrotation corrected, the tendon graft was knotted and sutured on the dorsal surface of the SL joint extra-capsularly in a shoe-lacing manner. The scaphocapitate joint was transfixed with Kirschner wires (K-wires) to protect the reconstruction for 6-8 weeks. Results The average follow-up was 48.3 months (range 11-132 months). Thirteen returned to their preinjury job level. Eleven

  9. The algebra of dual -1 Hahn polynomials and the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl{sub -1}(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2013-02-15

    The algebra H of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is derived and shown to arise in the Clebsch-Gordan problem of sl{sub -1}(2). The dual -1 Hahn polynomials are the bispectral polynomials of a discrete argument obtained from the q{yields}-1 limit of the dual q-Hahn polynomials. The Hopf algebra sl{sub -1}(2) has four generators including an involution, it is also a q{yields}-1 limit of the quantum algebra sl{sub q}(2) and furthermore, the dynamical algebra of the parabose oscillator. The algebra H, a two-parameter generalization of u(2) with an involution as additional generator, is first derived from the recurrence relation of the -1 Hahn polynomials. It is then shown that H can be realized in terms of the generators of two added sl{sub -1}(2) algebras, so that the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of sl{sub -1}(2) are dual -1 Hahn polynomials. An irreducible representation of H involving five-diagonal matrices and connected to the difference equation of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials is constructed.

  10. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  11. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY-SODICITY AND GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS – AVANS PREMIUM 360 SL ON PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN SANDY LOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the influence of NaCl and glyphosate-based herbicide Avans Premium 360 SL on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy loam. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions on sandy loam with Corg content 10.90 g/kg. Soil was divided into half kilogram samples and adjusted to 60% of maximum water holding capacity. In the experiment dependent variables were: I – dosages of Avans Premium 360 SL (0, a recommended field dosage – FD, a tenfold higher dosage – 10 FD and hundredfold higher dosage – 100 FD, II – amount of NaCl (0, 3% and 6%, III – day of experiment (1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. On days of experiment the activity of alkaline and acid phosphomonoesterase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. The obtained result showed that the application of Avans Premium 360 SL decreased in acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity in clay soil. Significant interaction effect between the dosage of Avans Premium 360 SL, NaCl amount and day of experiment was reported in the experiment. The inhibitory effect of Avans Premium 360 SL was the highest in soil with NaCl at the amount of 6%.

  12. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  13. Physiological changes in fruit ripening caused by overexpression of tomato SlAN2, an R2R3-MYB factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Yang, Dongyue; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Shuya; Sui, Na; Meng, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-MYB protein SlAN2 has long been thought to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the role of SlAN2, we have previously overexpressed the gene in tomato. In this work, we analysed physiological characters of the transgenic plants during the fruit ripening. We show that fruits of transformants overexpressing SlAN2 displayed an orange colour, fast softening and elevated ethylene production. Overexpression of SlAN2 resulted in reduction of carotenoid levels via alteration of flux through the carotenoid pathway, elevated ethylene synthesis mainly via upregulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes, and early softening of fruits. We also found that the transcript level of SlRIN, an important ripening-related gene, was up-regulated in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that SlAN2 acts as an important regulator of fruit ripening.

  14. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium trxA mutants are protective against virulent challenge and induce less inflammation than the live-attenuated vaccine strain SL3261.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S E; Paterson, G K; Bandularatne, E S D; Northen, H C; Pleasance, S; Willers, C; Wang, J; Foote, A K; Constantino-Casas, F; Scase, T J; Blacklaws, B A; Bryant, C E; Mastroeni, P; Charles, I G; Maskell, D J

    2010-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, trxA encodes thioredoxin 1, a small, soluble protein with disulfide reductase activity, which catalyzes thiol disulfide redox reactions in a variety of substrate proteins. Thioredoxins are involved as antioxidants in defense against oxidative stresses, such as exposure to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. We have made a defined, complete deletion of trxA in the mouse-virulent S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 (SL1344 trxA), replacing the gene with a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. SL1344 trxA was attenuated for virulence in BALB/c mice by the oral and intravenous routes and when used in immunization experiments provided protection against challenge with the virulent parent strain. SL1344 trxA induced less inflammation in murine spleens and livers than SL3261, the aroA mutant, live attenuated vaccine strain. The reduced splenomegaly observed following infection with SL1344 trxA was partially attributed to a reduction in the number of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B lymphocytes in the spleen and reduced infiltration by CD11b(+) cells into the spleen compared with spleens from mice infected with SL3261. This less severe pathological response indicates that a trxA mutation might be used to reduce reactogenicity of live attenuated vaccine strains. We tested this by deleting trxA in SL3261. SL3261 trxA was also less inflammatory than SL3261 but was slightly less effective as a vaccine strain than either the SL3261 parent strain or SL1344 trxA.

  15. Ss-Sl2, a novel cell wall protein with PAN modules, is essential for sclerotial development and cellular integrity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Jiang, Daohong; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Li, Guoqing; Yi, Xianhong; Fu, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    The sclerotium is an important dormant body for many plant fungal pathogens. Here, we reported that a protein, named Ss-Sl2, is involved in sclerotial development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ss-Sl2 does not show significant homology with any protein of known function. Ss-Sl2 contains two putative PAN modules which were found in other proteins with diverse adhesion functions. Ss-Sl2 is a secreted protein, during the initial stage of sclerotial development, copious amounts of Ss-Sl2 are secreted and accumulated on the cell walls. The ability to maintain the cellular integrity of RNAi-mediated Ss-Sl2 silenced strains was reduced, but the hyphal growth and virulence of Ss-Sl2 silenced strains were not significantly different from the wild strain. Ss-Sl2 silenced strains could form interwoven hyphal masses at the initial stage of sclerotial development, but the interwoven hyphae could not consolidate and melanize. Hyphae in these interwoven bodies were thin-walled, and arranged loosely. Co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Woronin body major protein (Hex1) and elongation factor 1-alpha interact with Ss-Sl2. GAPDH-knockdown strains showed a similar phenotype in sclerotial development as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. Hex1-knockdown strains showed similar impairment in maintenance of hyphal integrity as Ss-Sl2 silenced strains. The results suggested that Ss-Sl2 functions in both sclerotial development and cellular integrity of S. sclerotiorum.

  16. Measurements of Electroweak Penguin Processes b->d,s gamma and b->sl+l- at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, M

    2004-01-01

    We report the measurements of electroweak penguin processes b->d,s gamma and b->sl+l- at the Belle experiment. The analyses are based on 152 million BB-bar events collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric-energy collider. The b->d gamma transition is studied through exclusive decays: B0->rho0 gamma, B0->omega gamma and B+ ->rho+ gamma. We apply fully inclusive and semi-inclusive reconstruction to b->s gamma and b->sl+l- processes, respectively. The results on the exclusive b->d gamma and semi-inclusive b->sl+l- measurements are preliminary.

  17. Under-expression of the Auxin Response Factor Sl-ARF4 improves postharvest behavior of tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Maha; Chervin, Christian; Roustant, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Auxin is one of the most prominent phytohormones regulating many aspects of fleshy fruit development including fruit set, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and fruit ripening. To shed light on the role of auxin fruit ripening, we have previously shown that Sl-ARF4 is a major player in mediating the auxin control of sugar metabolism in tomato fruit (cv MicroTom). Further extending this study, we show here that down-regulation of Sl-ARF4 in tomato alters some ripening-related fruit quality traits including enhanced fruit density at mature stage, increased firmness, prolonged shelf-life and reduced water (weight) loss at red ripe stage. These findings suggest that Sl-ARF4 plays a role in determining fruit cell wall architecture and thus providing a potential genetic marker for improving post-harvest handling and shelf life of tomato fruits.

  18. The elliptic quantum algebra $A_{q,p}(\\overline{sl_n})$ and its bosonization at level one

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, H; Shi, K; Yang, W; Fan, Heng; Hou, Bo-yu; Shi, Kang-jie; Yang, Wen-li

    1998-01-01

    We extend the work of Foda et al and propose an elliptic quantum algebra $A_{q,p}(\\hat {sl_n})$. Similar to the case of $A_{q,p}(\\hat {sl_2})$, our presentation of the algebra is based on the relation $RLL=LLR^*$, where $R$ and $R^*$ are $Z_n$ symmetric R-matrices with the elliptic moduli chosen differently and a factor is also involved. With the help of the results obtained by Asai et al, we realize type I and type II vertex operators in terms of bosonic free fields for $Z_n$ symmetric Belavin model. We also give a bosonization for the elliptic quantum algebra $A_{q,p}(\\hat {sl_n})$ at level one.

  19. The sucrose transporter SlSUT2 from tomato interacts with brassinosteroid functioning and affects arbuscular mycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Mycorrhizal plants benefit from the fungal partners by getting better access to soil nutrients. In exchange, the plant supplies carbohydrates to the fungus. The additional carbohydrate demand in mycorrhizal plants was shown to be balanced partially by higher CO2 assimilation and increased C metabolism in shoots and roots. In order to test the role of sucrose transport for fungal development in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tomato, transgenic plants with down-regulated expression of three sucrose transporter genes were analysed. Plants that carried an antisense construct of SlSUT2 (SlSUT2as) repeatedly exhibited increased mycorrhizal colonization and the positive effect of plants to mycorrhiza was abolished. Grafting experiments between transgenic and wild-type rootstocks and scions indicated that mainly the root-specific function of SlSUT2 has an impact on colonization of tomato roots with the AM fungus. Localization of SISUT2 to the periarbuscular membrane indicates a role in back transport of sucrose from the periarbuscular matrix into the plant cell thereby affecting hyphal development. Screening of an expression library for SlSUT2-interacting proteins revealed interactions with candidates involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling or biosynthesis. Interaction of these candidates with SlSUT2 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Tomato mutants defective in BR biosynthesis were analysed with respect to mycorrhizal symbiosis and showed indeed decreased mycorrhization. This finding suggests that BRs affect mycorrhizal infection and colonization. If the inhibitory effect of SlSUT2 on mycorrhizal growth involves components of BR synthesis and of the BR signaling pathway is discussed. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Strigolactone deficiency confers resistance in tomato line SL-ORT1 to the parasitic weeds Phelipanche and Orobanche spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Evgenia; Yoneyama, Koichi; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram; Yoneyama, Kaori; Koltai, Hinanit; Xie, Xiaonan; Hershenhorn, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The parasitic flowering plants of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche (broomrape species) are obligatory chlorophyll-lacking root-parasitic weeds that infect dicotyledonous plants and cause heavy economic losses in a wide variety of plant species in warm-temperate and subtropical regions. One of the most effective strategies for broomrape control is crop breeding for broomrape resistance. Previous efforts to find natural broomrape-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genotypes were unsuccessful, and no broomrape resistance was found in any wild tomato species. Recently, however, the fast-neutron-mutagenized tomato mutant SL-ORT1 was found to be highly resistant to various Phelipanche and Orobanche spp. Nevertheless, SL-ORT1 plants were parasitized by Phelipanche aegyptiaca if grown in pots together with the susceptible tomato cv. M-82. In the present study, no toxic activity or inhibition of Phelipanche seed germination could be detected in the SL-ORT1 root extracts. SL-ORT1 roots did not induce Phelipanche seed germination in pots but they were parasitized, at the same level as M-82, after application of the synthetic germination stimulant GR24 to the rhizosphere. Whereas liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of root exudates of M-82 revealed the presence of the strigolactones orobanchol, solanacol, and didehydro-orobanchol isomer, these compounds were not found in the exudates of SL-ORT1. It can be concluded that SL-ORT1 resistance results from its inability to produce and secrete natural germination stimulants to the rhizosphere.

  1. 番茄低温响应转录因子SlNAC41克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Cold-Responsive Transcription Factor SlNAC41 in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 王涛涛; 张俊红; 欧阳波; 李汉霞

    2014-01-01

    NAC transcription factors play vital roles in regulating plant growth and developmental processes as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In our previous study, Unigene SGN-U212711 was found to be strongly induced by low temperature through analyzing the gene expression proifles of tomato seedlings under cold stress. In this study, we cloned this gene (designated as SlNAC41) from tomato. SlNAC41 had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 173 bp encoding 390 amino acids with a typical NAM domain in its N-terminal, sug-gesting that it belonged to NAC transcription factor family. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of SlNAC41 protein was 43.5 kDa and 5.2, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that SlNAC41 was expressed in all tested tomato tissues, with the highest expression in lfowers and the lowest expression in mature red fruits. Expression of SlNAC41 was induced by cold, drought, salt, methyl viologen (MV), abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon (ETH) treatments, especially was strongly induced by cold and drought stresses. Promoter sequence analyzed by PLACE and PlantCARE showed that there were many cis-acting regulatory elements involved in response to light, pathogen infection, hormones, cold, dehydration and salt stresses. These results suggest that SlNAC41 may play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato.%NAC转录因子在调控植物生长发育、生物及非生物逆境应答中发挥着重要作用。前期,我们通过对番茄幼苗在低温胁迫下的基因表达谱进行分析,发现Unigene SGN-U212711受低温诱导表达强烈。本研究从番茄中克隆了该基因,命名为SlNAC41,其开放阅读框(ORF)1173 bp,编码390个氨基酸,蛋白N端具有典型的NAM结构域,属于NAC转录因子家族成员。预测SlNAC41蛋白分子量为43.5 kDa,等电点为5.2。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明, SlNAC41在番茄各组织均有表达,在花中的表达量最高,在红熟果中

  2. Effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL in the control of glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on tomato cv. Gracja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkiewicz-Jodko, Jan; Nawrocka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 a glasshouse experiment was carried out on the effectiveness of Juventox 040 SL at the concentration 0.05% in the control of glasshouse whitefly on tomato. The standard treatment was pyriproxyfen. In order to determine the efficiency of the insecticides the dynamics of whitefly development was determined for each treatment and in the control on 10 plants, on 3 leafs per plant. Juventox 040SL performed well in limiting of glasshouse whitefly and keep pest population on low level for many days.

  3. The McKay correspondence for finite subgroups of SL(3,C)

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y

    1994-01-01

    Let G in SL(n,C) be a finite subgroup and Y->X=C^n/G any resolution of singularities of the quotient space. We prove that crepant exceptional prime divisors of Y correspond one-to-one with "junior" conjugacy classes of G. When n=2 this is a version of the McKay correspondence (with irreducible representations of G replaced by conjugacy classes). In the case n=3, a resolution with K_Y=0 is known to exist by work of Roan and others; we prove the existence of a basis of H^*(Y) by algebraic cycles in one-to-one correspondence with conjugacy classes of G. Our treatment leaves lots of open problems.

  4. Representations and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the Jordanian quantum algebra $U_h(sl(2))$

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Jeugt, J

    1997-01-01

    Representation theory for the Jordanian quantum algebra $U=U_h(sl(2))$ is developed. Closed form expressions are given for the action of the generators of U on the basis vectors of finite dimensional irreducible representations. It is shown how representation theory of U has a close connection to combinatorial identities involving summation formulas. A general formula is obtained for the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients $C^{j_1,j_2,j}_{n_1,n_2,m}(h)$ of U. These Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are shown to coincide with those of su(2) for $n_1+n_2 \\leq m$, but for $n_1+n_2 > m$ they are in general a nonzero monomial in $h^{n_1+n_2-m}$.

  5. On the reality of spectra of $\\boldsymbol{U_q(sl_2)}$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Ruelle, Philippe; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    A new inner product is constructed on each standard module over the Temperley-Lieb algebra $\\mathsf{TL}_n(\\beta)$ for $\\beta\\in \\mathbb R$ and $n \\ge 2$. On these modules, the Hamiltonian $h = -\\sum_i e_i$ is shown to be self-adjoint with respect to this inner product. This implies that its action on these modules is diagonalisable with real eigenvalues. A representation theoretic argument shows that the reality of spectra of the Hamiltonian extends to all other Temperley-Lieb representations. In particular, this result applies to the celebrated $U_q(sl_2)$-invariant XXZ Hamiltonian, for all $q+q^{-1}\\in \\mathbb R$.

  6. Supercuspidal characters of $\\operatorname{SL}_2$ over a $p$-adic field

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Jeffrey D; Sally, Paul J; Jr.,; Spice, Loren

    2010-01-01

    The character formulas of Sally and Shalika are an early triumph in $p$-adic harmonic analysis, but, to date, the calculations underlying the formulas have not been available. In this paper, which should be viewed as a precursor of the forthcoming volume by the authors and Alan Roche, we leverage modern technology (for example, the Moy-Prasad theory) to compute explicit character tables. An interesting highlight is the computation of the 'exceptional' supercuspidal characters, i.e., those depth-zero representations not arising by inflation-induction from a Deligne-Lusztig representation of finite $\\operatorname{SL}_2$; this provides a concrete application for the recent work of DeBacker and Kazhdan.

  7. Some results on the crystal commutor and affine sl(n) crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Tingley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are two parts to this work, which are largely independent. The first consists of a series of results concerning the crystal commutor of Henriques and Kamnitzer. We first describe the relationship between the crystal commutor and Drinfeld's unitarized R-matrix. We then give a new definition for the crystal commutor, which makes sense for any symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebra. We show that this new definition agrees with A. Henriques and J. Kamnitzer's definition in the finite type case, but we cannot prove our commutor remains a coboundary structure in other cases. Next, we extend these ideas to give a new formula for the standard R-matrix. In the second part, we define three combinatorial models for affine sl(n) crystals. These are parameterized by partitions, configurations of beads on an "abacus", and cylindric plane partitions, respectively. Our models are reducible, but we can identify an irreducible subcrystal corresponding to any dominant integral highest weight. Cylindric plane partitions actually ...

  8. Super-light SL-Deck elements with fixed end connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2015-01-01

    to low weight and due to possibilities of continuous elements and fixed end connections. A new machine is constructed producing the elements and BIM software is developed optimizing the structures, the production, and the logistics and running the machine. New production lines are established......Super-light structures combining light and strong concrete are invented by the author at the Technical University of Denmark and commercialized by the spin-out company Abeo Ltd. The first product is the SL-Deck element that represents a number of strong improvements to the building industry among...... which improved sound insulation, low weight, low CO2 emission, 4 hour fire resistance, improved flexibility with respect to holes, services, curved edges, conical shapes, cross-reinforcements, included beams and edge stringers, balcony solutions, hung down elements, leaf-connections, and long spans due...

  9. On Whittaker modules over a class of algebras similar to U(sl2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the study of invariant rings of finite groups on the first Weyl algebras A1 and finding interesting families of new noetherian rings, a class of algebras similar to U(sl2) was introduced and studied by Smith. Since the introduction of these algebras, research efforts have been focused on understanding their weight modules, and many important results were already obtained. But it seems that not much has been done on the part of nonweight modules. In this paper, we generalize Kostant's results on the Whittaker model for the universal enveloping algebras U(g) of finite dimensional semisimple Lie algebras g to Smith's algebras. As a result, a complete classification of irreducible Whittaker modules (which are definitely infinite dimensional) for Smith's algebras is obtained, and the submodule structure of any Whittaker module is also explicitly described.

  10. The Exact SL(K+3,C) Symmetry of String Scattering Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We discover that the 26D open bosonic string scattering amplitudes (SSA) of three tachyons and one arbitrary string state can be expressed in terms of the D-type Lauricella functions with associated SL(K+3,C) symmetry. As a result, SSA and symmetries or relations among SSA of different string states at various limits calculated previously can be rederived. These include the linear relations conjectured by Gross [1-3] and proved in [4-9] in the hard scattering limit, the recurrence relations in the Regge scattering limit [14-16] and the extended recurrence relations in the nonrelativistic scattering limit [19] discovered recently. Finally, as an application, we calculate a new recurrence relation of SSA which is valid for all energies.

  11. The genus Macroteleia Westwood in Middle Miocene amber from Peru (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the scelionine genus Macroteleia Westwood (Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae) is described and figured from a female beautifully preserved in Middle Miocene amber from Peru. Macroteleia yaguarum Perrichot & Engel, sp. n., shows a unique combination of characters otherwise seen independently within its congeners. It is most similar to the modern M. surfacei Brues, but differs from it by the non-foveolate notauli, the contiguous punctures of the vertex, and the continuous propodeum. The new species is the first New World fossil of the genus, suggesting a Cretaceous origin for the group and a relatively old age of the South American, tropical African, and Australian faunas, and a younger age of the modern Holarctic faunas. PMID:25147461

  12. Integrable spin chain for the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole sigma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlef, Yacine; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2012-02-24

    We introduce a spin chain based on finite-dimensional spin-1/2 SU(2) representations but with a non-Hermitian "Hamiltonian" and show, using mostly analytical techniques, that it is described at low energies by the SL(2,R)/U(1) Euclidian black hole conformal field theory. This identification goes beyond the appearance of a noncompact spectrum; we are also able to determine the density of states, and show that it agrees with the formulas in [J. Maldacena, H. Ooguri, and J. Son, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 42, 2961 (2001)] and [A. Hanany, N. Prezas, and J. Troost, J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2002) 014], hence providing a direct "physical measurement" of the associated reflection amplitude.

  13. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank–Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (ktr; which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K+ contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the ktr was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of ktr in rat muscle at optimal length (Lopt) and 90% of optimal length (L90) revealed that ktr was significantly slower at Lopt (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s−1 in duplicate analyses) than at L90 (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s−1). We therefore show that ktr can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the ktr decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank–Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics. PMID:23277479

  14. SL500/HZ超精密平面磨床的试验模态分析%Experimental modal analysis of the SL500/HZ ultra-precision surface grinding machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐学哲; 卢波; 郑艳琴; 洪芳; 翁泽宇

    2011-01-01

    为了改善S1500/HZ超精密平面磨床的动态性能,应用模态分析的基本理论,得出了试验模态分析的理论和方法.根据SL500/HZ超精密平面磨床的实际工作状态和试验的实际环境条件,采用脉冲锤击法对SL500/HZ超精密平面磨床进行了试验模态分析,得到了该机床结构的前8阶模态参数和模态振型,然后对所得模态参数进行了参数识别,找出了机床结构的薄弱环节,进而提出了机床结构的改进方案.研究结果表明,该研究为进一步改善SL500/HZ超精密平面磨床的动态性能提供了结构改进的依据.%In order to improving the dynamic performance of the SL500/HZ ultra-precision surface grinding machining, the basic theory and methods of the experimental modal analysis was gotten from the basic theory of modal analysis.According to actual working conditions of the SL500/HZ ultra-precision surface grinding machine and the actual environmental conditions of the test, experimental modal analysis of the SL500/HZ ultra-precision surface grinding machine was made through the hannner testing, the modal parameters and mode shapes of the first stage to the eighth-order were obtained, the modal parameters of each order were analyzed, the weak links of the dynamic performance of the machine were found out.At last, the improvement program in the structure was designed for the weak link.The experimental results show that the research provides bases in the structure to improve the dynamic performance of the SL500/HZ ultra-precision surface grinding machine.

  15. FETAL FOOT LENGTH AND HAND LENGTH: RELATIONSHIP WITH CROWN RUMP LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of gestational age of fetus is of great medicolegal importance. Multiple parameters of the fetal anatomical measurements are in use. However, gestational age assessment may be difficult in fetus with anencephaly, hydrocephalus, short limb dysplasia, post mortem destruction or in mutilated case. Study of literature suggests that fetal foot has a characteristic pattern of normal growth and the fetal foot shows gradual increase in length relative to the length of the embryo and could be used to estimate gestational age. The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy in estimating gestational age using fetal foot and hand length by studying its relation with crown rump length in the foetuses of Manipuri origin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1 To study the relationship between fetal crown rump length and fetal hand and foot length, thereby determining the accuracy in estimating gestational age by a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 formalin fixed fetuses of Manipuri origin, obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, were included in the study, carried out in the Department of Anatomy, from February 2015 to July 2015. The parameters studied were crown rump length, foot length and hand length of fetuses. The data was analysed using SPSS software by regression analysis. Graphs were also plotted to determine pattern of growth and their correlation with crown rump length if any. RESULTS A total of 100 fetuses were studied, of which 43 were females and 57 were males. The mean foot length and hand length progressively increased with increase in crown rump length. Measurements were not significantly different in right or left side or among male and female fetuses. A statistically significant linear relationship was seen between foot length and crown rump length of the fetus (r=0.980, p<0.0001 and hand length and crown rump length of the fetus

  16. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  17. Nebulin deficiency in adult muscle causes sarcomere defects and muscle-type-dependent changes in trophicity: novel insights in nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank; Buck, Danielle; De Winter, Josine; Kolb, Justin; Meng, Hui; Birch, Camille; Slater, Rebecca; Escobar, Yael Natelie; Smith, John E; Yang, Lin; Konhilas, John; Lawlor, Michael W; Ottenheijm, Coen; Granzier, Henk L

    2015-09-15

    Nebulin is a giant filamentous protein that is coextensive with the actin filaments of the skeletal muscle sarcomere. Nebulin mutations are the main cause of nemaline myopathy (NEM), with typical adult patients having low expression of nebulin, yet the roles of nebulin in adult muscle remain poorly understood. To establish nebulin's functional roles in adult muscle, we studied a novel conditional nebulin KO (Neb cKO) mouse model in which nebulin deletion was driven by the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promotor. Neb cKO mice are born with high nebulin levels in their skeletal muscles, but within weeks after birth nebulin expression rapidly falls to barely detectable levels Surprisingly, a large fraction of the mice survive to adulthood with low nebulin levels (Muscles rich in glycolytic fibers upregulate proteolysis pathways (MuRF-1, Fbxo30/MUSA1, Gadd45a) and undergo hypotrophy with smaller cross-sectional areas (CSAs), worsening their force deficit. Muscles rich in oxidative fibers do not have smaller weights and can even have hypertrophy, offsetting their specific-force deficit. These studies reveal nebulin as critically important for force development and trophicity in adult muscle. The Neb cKO phenocopies important aspects of NEM (muscle weakness, oxidative fiber-type predominance, variable trophicity effects, nemaline rods) and will be highly useful to test therapeutic approaches to ameliorate muscle weakness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  19. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  20. Non-linear affine embedding of the Dirac field from the multiplicity-free SL(4,R) unirreps

    CERN Document Server

    López-Pinto, A; Tresguerres, R

    1995-01-01

    The correspondence between the linear multiplicity-free unirreps of SL(4, R) studied by Ne'eman and {\\~{S}}ija{\\~{c}}ki and the non-linear realizations of the affine group is worked out. The results obtained clarify the inclusion of spinorial fields in a non-linear affine gauge theory of gravitation.

  1. The Solanum lycopersicum auxin response factor 7 (SlARF7) regulates auxin signaling during tomato fruit set and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Feron, Richard; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H

    2009-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are encoded by a gene family of transcription factors that specifically control auxin-dependent developmental processes. A tomato ARF gene, homologous to Arabidopsis NPH4/ARF7 and therefore designated as Solanum lycopersicum ARF7 (SlARF7), was found to be expressed at a high level in unpollinated mature ovaries. More detailed analysis of tomato ovaries showed that the level of SlARF7 transcript increases during flower development, remains at a constant high level in mature flowers, and is down-regulated within 48 h after pollination. Transgenic plants with decreased SlARF7 mRNA levels formed seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits. These fruits were heart-shaped and had a rather thick pericarp due to increased cell expansion, compared with the pericarp of wild-type fruits. The expression analysis, together with the parthenocarpic fruit phenotype of the transgenic lines, suggests that, in tomato, SlARF7 acts as a negative regulator of fruit set until pollination and fertilization have taken place, and moderates the auxin response during fruit growth.

  2. Diagonalization of transfer matrix of supersymmetry $u_q(\\hat{sl}(m+1|n+1))$ chain with a boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We study the supersymmetry $U_q(\\hat{sl}(M+1|N+1))$ analogue of the supersymmetric t-J model with a boundary, in the framework of the algebraic analysis method. We diagonalize the commuting transfer matrix by using the bosonization of the vertex operator associated with the quantum affine supersymmetry.

  3. Quasi-exact-solvability of the $A_{2}$ Elliptic model: algebraic form, $sl(3)$ hidden algebra, polynomial eigenfunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    The potential of the $A_2$ quantum elliptic model (3-body Calogero elliptic model) is defined by the pairwise three-body interaction through Weierstrass $\\wp$-function and has a single coupling constant. A change of variables has been found, which are $A_2$ elliptic invariants. In those, the potential becomes a rational function, while the flat space metric as well as its associated vector are polynomials in two variables. It is shown the model possesses the hidden $sl_3$ algebra - the Hamiltonian is an element of the universal enveloping algebra $U_{sl_3}$ for arbitrary coupling constant - being equivalent to $sl_3$-quantum top. The integral in a form of the third order differential operator with polynomial coefficients is constructed explicitly, being also an element of the universal enveloping algebra $U_{sl_3}$. It is shown that there exists a discrete sequence of coupling constants for which a finite number of polynomial eigenfunctions up to a (non-singular) gauge factor occur.

  4. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  5. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an exper

  6. A generalized super AKNS hierarchy associated with Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) and its super bi-Hamiltonian structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingwei; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Starting from a 3 × 3 matrix-valued spectral problem associated with a Lie superalgebra sl(2|1), a generalized super Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy is derived. The resulting super AKNS hierarchy has a super bi-Hamiltonian structure by the supertrace identity.

  7. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The wood anatomical structure of 11 out of 13 genera from four tribes of the Vaccinioideae, namely Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Ericaceae s.l.), is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features of the secondary xylem support the tribal classifi

  8. Didaktiskt erfarenhetsutbyte mellan lärare i slöjd i en nätbaserad praxisgemenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Sven-Erik Samuelsson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ett didaktiskt fenomen, hanteringen av stökiga pojkar i slöjd, fick en lärare i slöjd med inriktning mot textil att posta ett inlägg i en nätbaserad praxisgemenskap. Läraren efterfrågade andra lärares erfarenheter och radikala tips för att hantera ett för henne aldrig tidigare upplevt problem, störande killar. Läraren i slöjd fick under tio dagar svar av 13 andra lärare i slöjd. Inlägget tydliggjorde att också lärare i slöjd emellanåt upplever elever som stör undervisningen. Inlägget visar vidare på ett behov och intresse bland lärare i slöjd för att utbyta erfarenheter avseende hur didaktiska fenomen kan hanteras. Dessa två aspekter är i sig något nytt i betydelsen sällan tidigare beskrivet gällande lärare i slöjd i nätbaserade praxisgemenskaper. Läraren som postade inlägget intervjuades och samtliga lärares erfarenhetsutbyte analyserades. Ur intervjun framkom två teman: beteendeanalyser och åtgärdsförsök. Dessa beskrev vilka erfarenheter och motiv läraren hade för att efterfråga andras lärares tips. Ur analysen av erfarenhetsutbytet framkom två teman: lösningsförslag eller problemformuleringar. Lösningsförslagen var normativa utsagor om hur fenomenet skulle förstås och hanteras. Problemformuleringarna var deskriptiva utsagor om hur fenomenet kunde förstås och hanteras. Diskussionen visar att erfarenhetsutbytet om störande pojkar kollegorna emellan framstod som stärkande såväl som utmanade för den nätbaserade praxisgemenskapen. Nyckelord: deskriptivt, didaktik, erfarenhetsutbyte, ledarskap, normativt, praxisgemenskap

  9. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  10. ‘Micro-Tom’番茄SlSARK-like基因克隆及初步功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤凤; 赵曦娟; 王丹; 苏杨起; 梅圆圆; 王宁宁

    2015-01-01

    从‘Micro-Tom’番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)中分离克隆了一个与叶片衰老相关、编码LRR型类受体蛋白激酶(receptorlike protein kinase,RLK)的基因。序列分析显示,该基因的编码产物与大豆和拟南芥中的SARK(SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE)类似,都具有典型的LRR-RLK结构,且可能具有丝/苏氨酸和酪氨酸双底物特异性激酶活性,因此命名为SlSARK-like。半定量RT-PCR分析表明,无论是自然衰老还是AtSARK过表达诱导衰老的‘Micro-Tom’叶片中,SlSARK-like基因的表达水平都明显提高。进一步利用农杆菌介导的番茄转化技术获得了6个GVG:SlSARK-like转基因‘Micro-Tom’株系,发现DEX诱导SlSARK-like基因过表达导致转基因植株早衰,说明SlSARK-like基因对‘Micro-Tom’叶片衰老起正向调控作用。上述研究结果进一步支持了编码LRR-RLK的SARK基因参与叶片衰老调控的机制普遍存在于高等植物中。

  11. The impact of the Tekay chromoviral elements on genome organisation and evolution of Anemone s.l. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinarec, J; Franjević, D; Harapin, J; Besendorfer, V

    2016-03-01

    We studied the highly abundant chromoviral Tekay clade in species from three sister genera - Anemone, Pulsatilla and Hepatica (Ranunculaceae). With this clade, we performed a concomitant survey of its phylogenetic diversity, chromosomal organisation and transcriptional activity in Anemone s.l. in order to investigate dynamics of the Tekay elements at a finer scale than previously achieved in this or any other flowering clade. The phylogenetic tree built from Tekay sequences conformed to expected evolutionary relationships of the species; exceptions being A. nemorosa and A. sylvestris, which appeared more closely related that expected, and we invoke hybridisation events to explain the observed topology. The separation of elements into six clusters could be explained by episodic bursts of activity since divergence from a common ancestor at different points in their respective evolutionary histories. In Anemone s.l. the Tekay elements do not have a preferential position on chromosomes, i.e. they can have a: (i) centromeric/pericentromeric position; (ii) interstitial position in DAPI-positive AT-rich heterochromatic regions; can be (iii) dispersed throughout chromosomes; or even (iv) be absent from large heterochromatic blocks. Widespread transcriptional activity of the Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. taxa indicate that some copies of Tekay elements could still be active in this plant group, contributing to genome evolution and speciation within Anemone s.l. Identification of Tekay elements in Anemone s.l. provides valuable information for understanding how different localisation patterns might help to facilitate plant genome organisation in a structural and functional manner. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Impedance of Finite Length Resistor

    CERN Document Server

    Krinsky, Samuel; Podobedov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a and length g, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k>>1/a). In the equilibrium regime, ka2

  13. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  14. Cloning and Preliminary Functional Analysis ofSlSARK-likeGene in ‘Mi-cro-Tom’ Tomato%‘Micro-Tom’番茄SlSARK-like基因克隆及初步功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤凤; 赵曦娟; 王丹; 苏杨起; 梅圆圆; 王宁宁

    2015-01-01

    从‘Micro-Tom’番茄(Solanum lycopersicum)中分离克隆了一个与叶片衰老相关、编码LRR型类受体蛋白激酶(recep-tor-like protein kinase, RLK)的基因。序列分析显示,该基因的编码产物与大豆和拟南芥中的SARK (SENESCENCE-ASSO-CIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE)类似,都具有典型的LRR-RLK结构,且可能具有丝/苏氨酸和酪氨酸双底物特异性激酶活性,因此命名为SlSARK-like。半定量RT-PCR分析表明,无论是自然衰老还是AtSARK过表达诱导衰老的‘Micro-Tom’叶片中, SlSARK-like基因的表达水平都明显提高。进一步利用农杆菌介导的番茄转化技术获得了6个GVG:SlSARK-like转基因‘Micro-Tom’株系,发现DEX诱导SlSARK-like基因过表达导致转基因植株早衰,说明SlSARK-like基因对‘Micro-Tom’叶片衰老起正向调控作用。上述研究结果进一步支持了编码LRR-RLK的SARK基因参与叶片衰老调控的机制普遍存在于高等植物中。%In this research, we reported the cloning and functional analysis ofSlSARK-likegene in ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that shares high similarity toSARK (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEP-TOR-LIKE KINASE) genes in soybean (Glycine max) andArabidopsisthaliana. The encoded protein contains typical domains of LRR receptor-like kinase and may also auto-phosphorylate on both serine/threonine and ty-rosine residues. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression ofSlSARK-likewas signiifcant-ly increased during both natural senescence andAtSARK-induced precocious senescence in ‘Micro-Tom’. Fur-thermore, we obtained six GVG:SlSARK-liketransgenic ‘Micro-Tom’ lines byAgrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and we found that DEX-induced overexpression ofSlSARK-likecaused precocious se-nescence in the transgenic ‘Micro-Tom’ tomato. Taken together, these results imply thatSARK-induced leaf se-nescence may be a common mechanism in higher plants.

  15. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  16. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  17. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  18. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  19. Topological charges in SL(2,R) covariant massive 11-dimensional and Type IIB SUGRA

    CERN Document Server

    Callister, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct closed expressions that correspond to the topological charges of the various 1/2-BPS states of the maximal 10 and 11-dimensional supergravity theories. These expressions are related to the structure of the SUSY algebras in curved spacetimes. We mainly focus on IIB SUGRA and 11-dimensional SUGRA in a double M9-brane background, with an emphasis on the SL(2,R) multiplet structure of the charges and how these map between theories. This includes the charges corresponding to the multiplets of 7- and 9-branes in IIB. We find that examining the possible multiplet structures of the charges provides another tool for exploring the spectrum of BPS states that appear in these theories. As a prerequisite to constructing the charges we determine the field equations and multiplet structure of the 11-dimensional gauge potentials, extending previous results on the subject. The massive gauge transformations of the fields are also discussed. We also demonstrate how these massive gauge transformations ...

  20. Searching for new physics in $b\\rightarrow sl^+l^-$ transitions at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pescatore, Luca; Lazzaroni, Cristina

    Flavour Changing Neutral Currents are transitions between different quarks with the same charge such as b $\\rightarrow$ s processes. These are forbidden at tree level in the Standard Model (SM) but can happen through loop diagrams, which causes the branching ratio of this type of decays to be small, typically $\\sim10^{-6}$ or less. Particles beyond the SM can contribute in the loops enhancing the branching fractions of these decays, which are therefore very sensitive new physics. In this work two analysis of semileptonic $b\\rightarrow sl^+l^-$ decays are presented. In the first, $\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\mu^+mu^-$ decays are analysed to measure their branching fraction as a function of the square of the dimuon invariant mass, \\q$^2$. An angular analysis of these decays is also performed for the first time. Secondly, $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{\\star 0} l^+l^-$ decays are analysed measuring the $R_{K\\star 0}$ ratio between the muon, $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{\\star 0} e^+e^-$, channels, which is interesting as it is...

  1. Quantization of the AdS3 superparticle on OSP (1 | 2) 2 / SL (2 , R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George

    2017-02-01

    We analyze AdS3 superparticle dynamics on the coset OSP (1 | 2) × OSP (1 | 2) / SL (2 , R). The system is quantized in canonical coordinates obtained by gauge invariant Hamiltonian reduction. The left and right Noether charges of a massive particle are parametrized by coadjoint orbits of a timelike element of osp (1 | 2). Each chiral sector is described by two bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates corresponding to a superparticle with superpotential W = q - m / q, where m is the particle mass. Canonical quantization then provides a quantum realization of osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2). For the massless particle the chiral charges lie on the coadjoint orbit of a nilpotent element of osp (1 | 2) and each of them depends only on one real fermion, which demonstrates the underlying κ-symmetry. These remaining left and right fermionic variables form a canonical pair and the system is described by four bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates. Due to conformal invariance of the massless particle, the osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2) extends to the corresponding superconformal algebra osp (2 | 4). Its 19 charges are given by all real quadratic combinations of the canonical coordinates, which trivializes their quantization.

  2. Quantization of the AdS3 superparticle on OSP(1|22/SL(2,R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heinze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze AdS3 superparticle dynamics on the coset OSP(1|2×OSP(1|2/SL(2,R. The system is quantized in canonical coordinates obtained by gauge invariant Hamiltonian reduction. The left and right Noether charges of a massive particle are parametrized by coadjoint orbits of a timelike element of osp(1|2. Each chiral sector is described by two bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates corresponding to a superparticle with superpotential W=q−m/q, where m is the particle mass. Canonical quantization then provides a quantum realization of osp(1|2⊕osp(1|2. For the massless particle the chiral charges lie on the coadjoint orbit of a nilpotent element of osp(1|2 and each of them depends only on one real fermion, which demonstrates the underlying κ-symmetry. These remaining left and right fermionic variables form a canonical pair and the system is described by four bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates. Due to conformal invariance of the massless particle, the osp(1|2⊕osp(1|2 extends to the corresponding superconformal algebra osp(2|4. Its 19 charges are given by all real quadratic combinations of the canonical coordinates, which trivializes their quantization.

  3. Modular forms of half-integral weights on SL(2,Z)

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that, for an integer $r$ with $(r,6)=1$ and $0SL}(2,\\Z)$, $S_{2k}^{\\text{new}}(6,\\epsilon_2,\\epsilon_3)$ is the space of newforms of weight $2k$ on $\\Gamma_0(6)$ that are eigenfunctions with eigenvalues $\\epsilon_2$ and $\\epsilon_3$ for Atkin-Lehner involutions $W_2$ and $W_3$, respectively, and the notation $\\otimes(\\frac{12}\\cdot)$ means the twist by the quadratic character $\\frac{12}\\cdot)$. There is also an analogous result for the cases $(r,6)=3$.

  4. Upper bound for SL-invariant entanglement measures of mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloh, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    An algorithm is proposed that serves to handle full-rank density matrices when coming from a lower-rank method to compute the convex roof. This is in order to calculate an upper bound for any polynomial SL-invariant multipartite entanglement measure E . This study exemplifies how this algorithm works based on a method for calculating convex roofs of rank-2 density matrices. It iteratively considers the decompositions of the density matrix into two states each, exploiting the knowledge for the rank-2 case. The algorithm is therefore quasiexact as far as the rank-2 case is concerned, and it also hints where it should include more states in the decomposition of the density matrix. Focusing on the measure of three-way entanglement of qubits (called three-tangle), I show the results the algorithm gives for two states, one of which is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Werner (GHZ-W ) state, for which the exact convex roof is known. It overestimates the three-tangle in the state, thereby giving insight into the optimal decomposition the GHZ-W state has. As a proof of principle, I have run the algorithm for the three-tangle on the transverse quantum Ising model. I give qualitative and quantitative arguments why the convex roof should be close to the upper bound found here.

  5. Discrete space structure of the sl(1 vertical bar 3) Wigner quantum oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    King, R C; Palev, T D; Stoilova, N I

    2002-01-01

    The properties of a noncanonical 3D Wigner quantum oscillator, whose position and momentum operators generate the Lie superalgebra sl(1 vertical bar 3), are further investigated. Within each state space W(p), p=1,2,..., the energy E sub q , q=0,1,2,3, takes no more than 4 different values. If the oscillator is in a stationary state psi sub q is an element of W(p) then measurements of the non-commuting Cartesian coordinates of the particle are such that their allowed values are consistent with it being found at a finite number of sites, called 'nests'. These lie on a sphere centered on the origin of fixed, finite radius p sub q. The nests themselves are at the vertices of a rectangular parallelepiped. In the typical cases (p>2) the number of nests is 8 for q=0 and 3, and varies from 8 to 24, depending on the state, for q=1 and 2. The number of nests is less in the atypical cases (p=1,2), but it is never less than two. In certain states in W(2) (resp. in W(1)) the oscillator is 'polarized' so that all the nests...

  6. Bruhat Order in the Full Symmetric sl(n) Toda Lattice on Partial Flag Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakov, Yury B.; Sharygin, Georgy I.; Sorin, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    In our previous paper [Comm. Math. Phys. 330 (2014), 367-399] we described the asymptotic behaviour of trajectories of the full symmetric sl_n Toda lattice in the case of distinct eigenvalues of the Lax matrix. It turned out that it is completely determined by the Bruhat order on the permutation group. In the present paper we extend this result to the case when some eigenvalues of the Lax matrix coincide. In that case the trajectories are described in terms of the projection to a partial flag space where the induced dynamical system verifies the same properties as before: we show that when tto±∞ the trajectories of the induced dynamical system converge to a finite set of points in the partial flag space indexed by the Schubert cells so that any two points of this set are connected by a trajectory if and only if the corresponding cells are adjacent. This relation can be explained in terms of the Bruhat order on multiset permutations.

  7. Low linkage disequilibrium in wild Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, understanding diversity in natural populations and genetic components of important phenotypes such as resistance to malaria infection is crucial for developing new malaria transmission blocking strategies. The design and interpretation of many studies here depends critically on Linkage disequilibrium (LD. For example in association studies, LD determines the density of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs to be genotyped to represent the majority of the genomic information. Here, we aim to determine LD in wild An. gambiae s.l. populations in 4 genes potentially involved in mosquito immune responses against pathogens (Gambicin, NOS, REL2 and FBN9 using previously published and newly generated sequences. Results The level of LD between SNP pairs in cloned sequences of each gene was determined for 7 species (or incipient species of the An. gambiae complex. In all tested genes and species, LD between SNPs was low: even at short distances (2 2 ranged from 0.073 to 0.766. In most genes and species LD decayed very rapidly with increasing inter-marker distance. Conclusions These results are of great interest for the development of large scale polymorphism studies, as LD generally falls below any useful limit. It indicates that very fine scale SNP detection will be required to give an overall view of genome-wide polymorphism. Perhaps a more feasible approach to genome wide association studies is to use targeted approaches using candidate gene selection to detect association to phenotypes of interest.

  8. Studies of Anopheles gambiae s.l (Diptera: Culicidae exhibiting different vectorial capacities in lymphatic filariasis transmission in the Gomoa district, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amuzu Hilaria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two lymphatic filariasis endemic communities Mampong and Hwida in Ghana have been regularly monitored for impact on transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin. After six MDAs even though the ABR for Mampong was 55883/person/year and that of Hwida was 2494/person/year, they both had ATPs of 15.21 infective larvae/person/year. Interestingly the human microfilaraemia levels had reduced significantly from 14% to 0% at Mampong and 12% to 3% at Hwida. In an attempt to understand this anomaly, we collected mosquitoes over a 5-month period using human landing catches to determine the species composition, the number of cibarial teeth, the lengths and widths of the cibarium and the cibarial dome of the vector populations. Results Out of 2553 mosquitoes caught at Mampong, 42.6% were An. gambiae s.l. All 280 identified further by PCR were An. gambiae s.s (275 M and 5 S molecular forms. At Hwida, 112 mosquitoes were obtained; 67 (59.8% were An. gambiae s.l, comprised of 40 (59.7% An. melas, 24 (35.8% An. gambiae s.s (17 and 5 M and S molecular forms respectively and 3 (4.5% unidentified. The mean number of teeth for An. melas was 14.1 (median = 14, range = 12-15, An. gambiae s.s., 15.7 (median = 15, range = 13-19 M form 15.5 (median = 15 range = 13-19 and S form 16 (median = 16, range 15-17. The observed differences in teeth numbers were significantly different between An. melas and An. gambiae s.s (p = 0.004, and the M form (p = 0.032 and the S form (p = 0.002. Conclusions In this study, An. gambiae s.s was the main vector at Mampong and was found to possess significantly more cibarial teeth than An. melas, the principal vector at Hwida. We postulate that the different impact observed after 6 MDAs may be due to An. gambiae s.s exhibiting 'facilitation' at Mampong and at Hwida An. melas the main vector exhibits 'limitation'. Thus it may be necessary to compliment MDA with vector control to

  9. Chronic apocynin treatment attenuates beta amyloid plaque size and microglial number in hAPP(751(SL mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda E Lull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL. METHODS: Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months. RESULTS: Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number

  10. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S

    2015-01-01

    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  11. Analysis of the ACTN3 heterozygous genotype suggests that α-actinin-3 controls sarcomeric composition and muscle function in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Marshall W; Garton, Fleur C; Houweling, Peter J; Tukiainen, Taru; Lek, Monkol; Macarthur, Daniel G; Seto, Jane T; Quinlan, Kate G R; Yang, Nan; Head, Stewart I; North, Kathryn N

    2016-03-01

    A common null polymorphism (R577X) in ACTN3 causes α-actinin-3 deficiency in ∼ 18% of the global population. There is no associated disease phenotype, but α-actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to sprint and power performance in both elite athletes and the general population. However, despite considerable investigation to date, the functional consequences of heterozygosity for ACTN3 are unclear. A subset of studies have shown an intermediate phenotype in 577RX individuals, suggesting dose-dependency of α-actinin-3, while others have shown no difference between 577RR and RX genotypes. Here, we investigate the effects of α-actinin-3 expression level by comparing the muscle phenotypes of Actn3(+/-) (HET) mice to Actn3(+/+) [wild-type (WT)] and Actn3(-/-) [knockout (KO)] littermates. We show reduction in α-actinin-3 mRNA and protein in HET muscle compared with WT, which is associated with dose-dependent up-regulation of α-actinin-2, z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif and myotilin at the Z-line, and an incremental shift towards oxidative metabolism. While there is no difference in force generation, HET mice have an intermediate endurance capacity compared with WT and KO. The R577X polymorphism is associated with changes in ACTN3 expression consistent with an additive model in the human genotype-tissue expression cohort, but does not influence any other muscle transcripts, including ACTN2. Overall, ACTN3 influences sarcomeric composition in a dose-dependent fashion in mouse skeletal muscle, which translates directly to function. Variance in fibre type between biopsies likely masks this phenomenon in human skeletal muscle, but we suggest that an additive model is the most appropriate for use in testing ACTN3 genotype associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Circadian regulation of myocardial sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, telethonin: identification of cardiac clock-controlled genes using open access bioinformatics data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Podobed

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and are regulated at the molecular level by a circadian clock mechanism. We and others previously demonstrated that 9-13% of the cardiac transcriptome is rhythmic over 24 h daily cycles; the heart is genetically a different organ day versus night. However, which rhythmic mRNAs are regulated by the circadian mechanism is not known. Here, we used open access bioinformatics databases to identify 94 transcripts with expression profiles characteristic of CLOCK and BMAL1 targeted genes, using the CircaDB website and JTK_Cycle. Moreover, 22 were highly expressed in the heart as determined by the BioGPS website. Furthermore, 5 heart-enriched genes had human/mouse conserved CLOCK:BMAL1 promoter binding sites (E-boxes, as determined by UCSC table browser, circadian mammalian promoter/enhancer database PEDB, and the European Bioinformatics Institute alignment tool (EMBOSS. Lastly, we validated findings by demonstrating that Titin cap (Tcap, telethonin was targeted by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 by showing 1 Tcap mRNA and TCAP protein had a diurnal rhythm in murine heart; 2 cardiac Tcap mRNA was rhythmic in animals kept in constant darkness; 3 Tcap and control Per2 mRNA expression and cyclic amplitude were blunted in Clock(Δ19/Δ19 hearts; 4 BMAL1 bound to the Tcap promoter by ChIP assay; 5 BMAL1 bound to Tcap promoter E-boxes by biotinylated oligonucleotide assay; and 6 CLOCK and BMAL1 induced tcap expression by luciferase reporter assay. Thus this study identifies circadian regulated genes in silico, with validation of Tcap, a critical regulator of cardiac Z-disc sarcomeric structure and function.

  13. A Kiss Lajos-díj 2014. évi nyertese: dr. Slíz Mariann [The 2014 winner of Lajos Kiss Prize: Dr Mariann Slíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, István

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lajos Kiss Prize, awarded every two or three years since 2006, is considered to be a highly prestigious award for young onomasticians. The 2014 winner of the prize is Dr Mariann Slíz, senior lecturer at the Department of Hungarian Linguistics and Finno-Ugric Studies of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. She earned this award for her contribution to Hungarian Onomastics, especially in research on personal names.

  14. Length Invisibilization of Tachyonic Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Faster than the speed of light particle such as tachyonic neutrino due to its superluminal nature disapper and is undetectable. L = iΩ-1Lo where, i =√{ - 1 } is imaginary Number, Ω = 1 /√{βs2 - 1 } is Estakhr's Omega factor, L is the Superluminal Length, Lo is the proper length, βs =Vs / c > 1 is superluminal speed parameter, Vs is Superluminal velocity and c is speed of light.

  15. 枯草芽孢杆菌SL-13的生防性能及其抗菌几丁质酶特性研究%Biocontrol Efficiency of Bacillus subtilis SL-13 and Characterization of an Antifungal Chitinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 陶晶; 阎豫君; 李彬; 李晖; 李春

    2011-01-01

    The seed germination and tomato seedling tests showed that Bacillus subtilis SL-13 could promote the sprouting and seedling growth of tomato. The fresh and dry weight of tomato seedlings increased 42.86% and 18.75%, respectively. The control efficacies of the SL-13 to tomato Rhizoctonia rot were 20.65% and 35.23% in the greenhouse and field, respectively. The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani was considerably inhibited in the presence of the strain SL-13 culture supernatant. The main antifungal protein was detected to be chitinase through vitro assay. The chitinase was purified with DEAE-Sepharose fast flow ion exchange column chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration for further characterization. The optimal pH and temperature for the chitinase activity were 7.0 and 50 ℃, respectively. It was demonstrated that the enzyme was stable at pH 5-9 and 40-60 ℃. 70% of the enzyme activity was retained when incubated at 121 ℃ and 0.11 MPa for 20 min, and the enzyme was not sensitive to protease K and ultraviolet radiation. Thus it is suitable for effective biological control in relatively unstable environment.

  16. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life.

  17. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  18. Ethylene Response Factor Sl-ERF.B.3 Is Responsive to Abiotic Stresses and Mediates Salt and Cold Stress Response Regulation in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Klay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3 gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity.

  19. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingku Zhu

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  20. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Jianling; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were classified into stress-related DEAD-box proteins by phylogenetic analysis. Expression analysis indicated that SlDEAD30 was highly expressed in roots and mature leaves, while SlDEAD31 was constantly expressed in various tissues. Furthermore, the expression of both genes was induced mainly in roots under NaCl stress, and SlDEAD31 mRNA was also increased by heat, cold, and dehydration. In stress assays, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlDEAD31 exhibited dramatically enhanced salt tolerance and slightly improved drought resistance, which were simultaneously demonstrated by significantly enhanced expression of multiple biotic and abiotic stress-related genes, higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content, and lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) production compared to wild-type plants. Collectively, these results provide a preliminary characterization of SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 genes in tomato, and suggest that stress-responsive SlDEAD31 is essential for salt and drought tolerance and stress-related gene regulation in plants.

  1. An Sl(3,R) multiplet of 8-dimensional type II supergravity theories and the gauged supergravity inside

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Alberca, N; Ortín, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    The so-called ``massive 11-dimensional supergravity'' theory gives, for one Killing vector, Romans' massive 10-dimensional supergravity in 10 dimensions, for two Killing vectors an Sl(2,Z) multiplet of massive 9-dimensional supergravity theories that can be obtained by standard generalized dimensional reduction type IIB supergravity and has been shown to contain a gauged supergravity. We consider a straightforward generalization of this theory to three Killing vectors and a 3\\times 3 symmetric mass matrix and show that it gives an Sl(3,Z) multiplet of 8-dimensional supergravity theories that contain an SO(3) gauged supergravity which is, in some way, the dual to the one found by Salam and Sezgin by standard generalized dimensional reduction.

  2. $SL(2, Z)$ invariant rotating $(m,n)$ strings in $AdS_3\\times S^3$ with mixed flux

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, Sorna Prava; Kluson, Josef; Panigrahi, Kamal L

    2016-01-01

    We study rigidly rotating and pulsating $(m,n)$ strings in $AdS_3 \\times S^3$ with mixed three form flux. The $AdS_3 \\times S^3$ background with mixed three form flux is obtained in the near horizon limit of $SL(2,Z)$-transformed solution, corresponding to the bound state of NS5-branes and fundamental strings. We study the probe $(m,n)-$string in this background by solving the manifest $SL(2,Z)-$covariant form of the action. We find out the dyonic giant magnon and single spike solutions corresponding to the equations of motion of a probe string in this background and find out various relationships among the conserved charges. We further study a class of pulsating $(m,n)$ string in $AdS_3$ with mixed three form flux.

  3. SL(4,R) generating symmetry in five-dimensional gravity coupled to dilaton and three-form

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Maeda, K I; Sharakin, S A; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Sharakin, Sergei A.

    1999-01-01

    We give an explicit formulation of the three-dimensional $SL(4,R)/SO(2,2) dilaton and the three-form field for spacetimes with two commuting Killing vector fields. New matrix representation is obtained which is similar to one found earlier in the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA) theory. The SL(4,R) symmetry joins a variety of 5D solutions of different physical types including strings, 0-branes, KK monopoles etc. interpreting them as duals to the four-dimensional Kerr metric translated along the fifth coordinate. The symmetry transformations are used to construct new rotating strings and composite $0\\subset 1$-branes endowed with a NUT parameter.

  4. Logarithmic Link Invariants of $\\overline{U}_q^H(\\mathfrak{sl}_2)$ and Asymptotic Dimensions of Singlet Vertex Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Creutzig, Thomas; Rupert, Matt

    2016-01-01

    We study relationships between the restricted unrolled quantum group $\\overline{U}_q^H(\\mathfrak{sl}_2)$ at $2r$-th root of unity $q=e^{\\pi i/r}, r \\geq 2$, and the singlet vertex operator algebra $\\mathcal M(r)$. We use deformable families of modules to efficiently compute $(1, 1)$-tangle invariants colored with projective modules of $\\overline{U}_q^H(\\mathfrak{sl}_2)$. These relate to the colored Alexander tangle invariants studied in [ADO, M1]. It follows that the regularized asymptotic dimensions of characters of $\\mathcal M(r)$ coincide with the corresponding modified traces of open Hopf link invariants. We also discuss various categorical properties of $\\mathcal M(r)$-mod in connection to braided tensor categories.

  5. SL6504 High Resolution Induction Logging Tool%高分辨率感应测井仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汝泉

    2004-01-01

    介绍了SL6504高分辨率感应测井仪的基本测量原理、仪器构成及特点;对其现场测井资料及应用效果进行了分析.结果表明,该仪器性能可靠,对划分薄层有明显作用.

  6. The cohomology of the braid group B_3 and of SL_2(Z) with coefficients in a geometric representation

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Filippo; Salvetti, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the integral cohomology of the braid group B_3 and SL_2(Z) with local coefficients in a classical geometric representation given by symmetric powers of the natural symplectic representation. These groups have a description in terms of the so called "divided polynomial algebra". The results show a strong relation between torsion part of the computed cohomology and fibrations related to loop spaces of spheres.

  7. Probing critical point energies of transition metal dichalcogenides: surprising indirect gap of single layer $SL-WSe_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chendong; CHEN, YUXUAN; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding quasiparticle band structures of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is critical for technological advances of these materials for atomic layer electronics and photonics. Although theoretical calculations to date have shown qualitatively similar features, there exist subtle differences which can lead to important consequences in the device characteristics. For example, most calculations have shown that all single layer (SL) TMDs have direct band gaps, while some have shown t...

  8. Time course of anti-SL-IV immunoglobulin G antibodies in patients with tuberculosis and tuberculosis-associated AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Casabona, N.; Gonzalez Fuente, T; Papa, F.; Rosselló Urgell, J; Vidal Plá, R; Codina Grau, G; Ruiz Camps, I

    1992-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against the SL-IV antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sera of patients with tuberculosis with negative serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (TB group; n = 97), patients with tuberculosis with positive serology for HIV infection (TB-HIV group; n = 59), and healthy controls (n = 289) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All sera were obtained at the onset of tuberculosis, i.e., when clinical symptoms appear...

  9. Tomato cystatin SlCYS8 as a stabilizing fusion partner for human serpin expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Varennes-Jutras, Philippe; Goulet, Marie-Claire; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Michaud, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Studies have reported the usefulness of fusion proteins to bolster recombinant protein yields in plants. Here, we assess the potential of tomato SlCYS8, a Cys protease inhibitor of the cystatin protein superfamily, as a stabilizing fusion partner for human alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (α1ACT) targeted to the plant cell secretory pathway. Using the model expression platform Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that the cystatin imparts a strong stabilizing effect when expressed as a translational fusion with α1ACT, allowing impressive accumulation yields of over 2 mg/g of fresh weight tissue for the human serpin, a 25-fold improvement on the yield of α1ACT expressed alone. Natural and synthetic peptide linkers inserted between SlCYS8 and α1ACT have differential effects on protease inhibitory potency of the two protein partners in vitro. They also have a differential impact on the yield of α1ACT, dependent on the extent to which the hybrid protein may remain intact in the plant cell environment. The stabilizing effect of SlCYS8 does not involve Cys protease inhibition and can be partly reproduced in the cytosol, where peptide linkers are less susceptible to degradation. The effect of SlCYS8 on α1ACT yields could be explained by: (i) an improved translation of the human protein coding sequence; and/or (ii) an overall stabilization of its tertiary structure preventing proteolytic degradation and/or polymerization. These findings suggest the potential of plant cystatins as stabilizing fusion partners for recombinant proteins in plant systems. They also underline the need for an empirical assessment of peptide linker functions in plant cell environments.

  10. ITS2-rDNA Sequence Variation of Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. (Dip: Psychodidae Populations in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Moin-Vaziri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. is considered the most likely vector of Leishmania tropica in Iran. Although two morphotypes- P. sergenti sergenti (A and P. sergenti similis (B-have been formally described, further morphologi­cal and a molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA-COI gene revealed inconsistencies and suggests that the variation between the morphotypes is intra-specific and the morphotypes might be identical species.Methods: We examined the sequence of the ITS2-rDNA of Iranian specimens of P. sergenti s.l., comprising P. cf ser­genti, P. cf similis, and intermediate morphotypes, together with available data in Genbank.Results: Sequence analysis showed 5.2% variation among P. sergenti s.l. morphotypes. Almost half of the variation was due to the number of an AT microsatellite repeats in the center of the spacer. Nine haplotypes were found in the spe­cies constructing three main lineages corresponding to the origin of the colonies located in southwest (SW, northeast (NE, and northwest-center-southeast (NCS. Lineages NCS and NE included both typical P. cf sergenti and P. cf similis and intermediate morphotypes.Conclusion: Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed that, except for one Iranian sample, which was close to the European samples, other Iranian haplotypes were associated with the northeastern Mediterranean populations in­cluding Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, and Pakistan. Similar to the sequences of mtDNA COI gene, ITS2 sequences could not resolve P. sergenti from P. similis and did not support the possible existence of sibling species or subspecies within P. sergenti s.l..

  11. ITS2-rDNA Sequence Variation of Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. (Dip: Psychodidae) Populations in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Derakhshandeh-Peykar, Pupak; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Mohtarami, Fatemeh; Zahraei-Ramezani, Ali Reza; Nadim, Aboulhassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. is considered the most likely vector of Leishmania tropica in Iran. Although two morphotypes- P. sergenti sergenti (A) and P. sergenti similis (B)-have been formally described, further morphological and a molecular analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA-COI) gene revealed inconsistencies and suggests that the variation between the morphotypes is intraspecific and the morphotypes might be identical species. Methods: We examined the sequence of the ITS2-rDNA of Iranian specimens of P. sergenti s.l., comprising P. cf sergenti, P. cf similis, and intermediate morphotypes, together with available data in Genbank. Results: Sequence analysis showed 5.2% variation among P. sergenti s.l. morphotypes. Almost half of the variation was due to the number of an AT microsatellite repeats in the center of the spacer. Nine haplotypes were found in the species constructing three main lineages corresponding to the origin of the colonies located in southwest (SW), northeast (NE), and northwest-center-southeast (NCS). Lineages NCS and NE included both typical P. cf sergenti and P. cf similis and intermediate morphotypes. Conclusion: Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed that, except for one Iranian sample, which was close to the European samples, other Iranian haplotypes were associated with the northeastern Mediterranean populations including Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, and Pakistan. Similar to the sequences of mtDNA COI gene, ITS2 sequences could not resolve P. sergenti from P. similis and did not support the possible existence of sibling species or subspecies within P. sergenti s.l.. PMID:28032098

  12. Abscisic acid levels in tomato ovaries are regulated by LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Lisette Maria Catharina; Oplaat, Carla; Feron, Richard; Ma, Qian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Hedden, Peter; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim Hendrik

    2009-05-01

    Although the hormones, gibberellin and auxin, are known to play a role in the initiation of fruits, no such function has yet been demonstrated for abscisic acid (ABA). However, ABA signaling and ABA responses are high in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ovaries before pollination and decrease thereafter (Vriezen et al. in New Phytol 177:60-76, 2008). As a first step to understanding the role of ABA in ovary development and fruit set in tomato, we analyzed ABA content and the expression of genes involved in its metabolism in relation to pollination. We show that ABA levels are relatively high in mature ovaries and decrease directly after pollination, while an increase in the ABA metabolite dihydrophaseic acid was measured. An important regulator of ABA biosynthesis in tomato is 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1), whose mRNA level in ovaries is reduced after pollination. The increased catabolism is likely caused by strong induction of one of four newly identified putative (+)ABA 8'-hydroxylase genes. This gene was named SlCYP707A1 and is expressed specifically in ovules and placenta. Transgenic plants, overexpressing SlCYP707A1, have reduced ABA levels and exhibit ABA-deficient phenotypes suggesting that this gene encodes a functional ABA 8'-hydroxylase. Gibberellin and auxin application have different effects on the LeNCED1 and SlCYP707A1 gene expression. The crosstalk between auxins, gibberellins and ABA during fruit set is discussed.

  13. Sparse-view computed tomography image reconstruction via a combination of L(1) and SL(0) regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hongliang; Chen, Zijia; Guo, Jingyu; Zhou, Linghong

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose computed tomography reconstruction is an important issue in the medical imaging domain. Sparse-view has been widely studied as a potential strategy. Compressed sensing (CS) method has shown great potential to reconstruct high-quality CT images from sparse-view projection data. Nonetheless, low-contrast structures tend to be blurred by the total variation (TV, L1-norm of the gradient image) regularization. Moreover, TV will produce blocky effects on smooth and edge regions. To overcome this limitation, this study has proposed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm by combining L1 regularization and smoothed L0 (SL0) regularization. SL0 is a smooth approximation of L0 norm and can solve the problem of L0 norm being sensitive to noise. To evaluate the proposed method, both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted on a digital Shepp-Logan phantom and a real head phantom. Experimental comparative results have indicated that the proposed L1/SL0-POCS algorithm can effectively suppress noise and artifacts, as well as preserve more structural information compared to other existing methods.

  14. Interaction of brassinosteroid functions and sucrose transporter SlSUT2 regulate the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of the sucrose transporter SlSUT2 showed higher efficiency of mycorrhization suggesting a sucrose retrieval function of SlSUT2 from the peri-arbuscular space back into the cell cytoplasm plant cytoplasm thereby limiting mycorrhiza fungal development. Sucrose uptake in colonized root cells requires efficient plasma membrane-targeting of SlSUT2 which is often retained intracellularly in vacuolar vesicles. Protein-protein interaction studies suggested a link between SISUT2 function and components of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling. Indeed, the tomato DWARF mutant d(x) defective in BR synthesis (1) showed significantly reduced mycorrhization parameters. (2) The question has been raised whether the impact of brassinosteroids on mycorrhization is a general phenomenon. Here, we include a rice mutant defective in DIM1/DWARF1 involved in BR biosynthesis to investigate the effects on mycorrhization. A model is presented where brassinolides are able to impact mycorrhization by activating SUT2 internalization and inhibiting its role in sucrose retrieval.

  15. Interaction of brassinosteroid functions and sucrose transporter SlSUT2 regulate the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of the sucrose transporter SlSUT2 showed higher efficiency of mycorrhization suggesting a sucrose retrieval function of SlSUT2 from the peri-arbuscular space back into the cell cytoplasm plant cytoplasm thereby limiting mycorrhiza fungal development. Sucrose uptake in colonized root cells requires efficient plasma membrane-targeting of SlSUT2 which is often retained intracellularly in vacuolar vesicles. Protein-protein interaction studies suggested a link between SISUT2 function and components of brassinosteroid biosynthesis and signaling. Indeed, the tomato DWARF mutant dx defective in BR synthesis1 showed significantly reduced mycorrhization parameters.2 The question has been raised whether the impact of brassinosteroids on mycorrhization is a general phenomenon. Here, we include a rice mutant defective in DIM1/DWARF1 involved in BR biosynthesis to investigate the effects on mycorrhization. A model is presented where brassinolides are able to impact mycorrhization by activating SUT2 internalization and inhibiting its role in sucrose retrieval. PMID:25482803

  16. Preparation and characterization of alginate-gelatin microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 by emulsification/internal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Yang, Hongbing; Wu, Zhansheng; Yi, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin was blended with sodium alginate (NaALG) to obtain a novel microbial fungicide, and dispersed micron Bacillus subtilis SL-13 microspheres prepared by emulsification/internal gelation method. Microscopic examination revealed that microcapsules were nearly spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction confirmed that the electrostatic interaction was occurred when gelatin added into NaALG. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was 93.44% at a gelatin concentration of 1.5%. Particle size, swelling, and biodegradation of beads increased with gelatin content increase. Furthermore, the viability of encapsulated SL-13 could be preserved at more than 10(8) CFU/mL after 120 d storage at 25 °C. The number of viable cells released from microcapsules presented an initial rapid increase followed by a gradual increase, and reached the maximum as 10(10) CFU/mL on day 35. Thus, it is feasible to prepare uniform, rounded shape, and well-dispersed micron microcapsules of SL-13 via emulsification/internal gelation using NaALG and gelatin composites. This encapsulation strategy could be considered as a potential alternative to future applications in the agricultural industry.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of HMW glutenin subunits from 1S(l genome of Aegilops longissima positively affecting wheat breadmaking quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunli Wang

    Full Text Available A wheat cultivar "Chinese Spring" chromosome substitution line CS-1S(l(1B, in which the 1B chromosome was substituted by 1S(l from Aegilops longissima, was developed and found to possess superior dough and breadmaking quality. The molecular mechanism of its super quality conformation is studied in the aspects of high molecular glutenin genes, protein accumulation patterns, glutenin polymeric proteins, protein bodies, starch granules, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and PDI-like protein expressions. Results showed that the introduced HMW-GS 1S(l×2.3* and 1S(ly16* in the substitution line possesses long repetitive domain, making both be larger than any known x- and y-type subunits from B genome. The introduced subunit genes were also found to have a higher level of mRNA expressions during grain development, resulting in more HMW-GS accumulation in the mature grains. A higher abundance of PDI and PDI-like proteins was observed which possess a known function of assisting disulfide bond formation. Larger HMW-GS deposited in protein bodies were also found in the substitution line. The CS substitution line is expected to be highly valuable in wheat quality improvement since the novel HMW-GS are located on chromosome 1S(l, making it possible to combine with the known superior D×5+Dy10 subunits encoded by Glu-D1 for developing high quality bread wheat.

  18. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Gerrie P; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C; de Tombe, Pieter P

    2011-06-01

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I(1,1)/I(1,0) intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I(M3)) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short (∼10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by I(M3)) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  19. Myosin head orientation: a structural determinant for the Frank-Starling relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Gerrie P.; Gore, David; Allen, Edward; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Irving, Thomas C.; de Tombe, Pieter P. (IIT); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    The cellular mechanism underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart is myofilament length-dependent activation. The mechanism(s) whereby sarcomeres detect changes in length and translate this into increased sensitivity to activating calcium has been elusive. Small-angle X-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the intact myofilament lattice undergoes numerous structural changes upon an increase in sarcomere length (SL): lattice spacing and the I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} intensity ratio decreases, whereas the M3 meridional reflection intensity (I{sub M3}) increases, concomitant with increases in diastolic and systolic force. Using a short ({approx}10 ms) X-ray exposure just before electrical stimulation, we were able to obtain detailed structural information regarding the effects of external osmotic compression (with mannitol) and obtain SL on thin intact electrically stimulated isolated rat right ventricular trabeculae. We show that over the same incremental increases in SL, the relative changes in systolic force track more closely to the relative changes in myosin head orientation (as reported by IM3) than to the relative changes in lattice spacing. We conclude that myosin head orientation before activation determines myocardial sarcomere activation levels and that this may be the dominant mechanism for length-dependent activation.

  20. Dual African origins of global Aedes aegypti s.l. populations revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades. CONCLUSIONS: Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa.

  1. Dual African Origins of Global Aedes aegypti s.l. Populations Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michelle; Sylla, Massamba; Goss, Laura; Burugu, Marion Warigia; Sang, Rosemary; Kamau, Luna W.; Kenya, Eucharia Unoma; Bosio, Chris; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes; Sharakova, Maria; Black, William Cormack

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated. Methods and Findings ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades. Conclusions Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa PMID:23638196

  2. Emergency contraception with Multiload Cu-375 SL IUD: a multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Xiao, B

    2001-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy and side effects and the benefits and limitations of inserting Multiload intrauterine device (IUD) for emergency contraception. A total of 1013 women requesting emergency contraception was recruited, among whom 843 were parous women and 170 nulliparous women. Multiload Cu-375 SL IUD was inserted within 120 h after unprotected intercourse. A urine test for pregnancy was performed before IUD insertion to rule out pregnancy. Participants were followed-up until 1 week after the expected day of the next menstruation. Pregnancy test or ultrasound scanning were performed if menstruation did not return. Efficacy of preventing unplanned pregnancy was calculated. Efficacy and side effects were compared between the parous and nulliparous groups. The results showed that there were two pregnancies, one in each group. The pregnancy rate was 0.2 per 100 women. The efficacy rate of preventing unwanted pregnancy in the parous group was 98.1% and in the nulliparous group 92.4%. The difference was not significant. Removal of IUD because of pain and bleeding was 2.5% in parous women, but was more in the nulliparous group (10.6%). After the return of menstruation, 95.7% of parous women and 80% of nulliparous women maintained the IUD for contraception. There were two complete expulsions and three partial expulsions of the IUD, but there was no significant changes in menstruation and bleeding pattern, nor was infection or trauma observed. It was concluded that IUD insertion is a safe and effective method for emergency contraception for both parous and nulliparous women. One of the advantages of using an IUD is its long-term contraceptive effect, if the women prefer to continue its use.

  3. Do ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. constitute a burden to birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, A C; Lobato, D N C; Braga, E M; Antonini, Y; Lacorte, G; Gonçalves, M; Lopes de Carvalho, I; Gern, L; Núncio, M S; Ramos, J A

    2013-05-01

    Ticks consume resources from their hosts shaping their life-history traits and are vectors of many zoonotic pathogens. Several studies have focused on the health effects of blood-sucking ectoparasites on avian hosts, but there is limited information on the effects of ticks on adult and sub-adult birds, which may actively avoid ticks and are likely to present low infestation intensities. We evaluated the effects of the presence of feeding ticks and intensity of infestation on health variables of avian hosts. We also evaluated whether these variables were affected by tick infection by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and by the presence of Borrelia infection on the birds' skin. Presence of parasite association among ticks, haemosporidea and Borrelia within the bird-host was also tested. We found that infestation by ticks significantly increased heterophyl/lymphocyte ratio in Turdus merula suggesting increased stress. This was especially evident at high infestation intensities when a significant decrease in body mass and body condition (body mass corrected for size) was also observed. Erithacus rubecula infested with more than 10 larvae tended to have lower haematocrit and blood haemoglobin. Plasma globulin concentration in T. merula tended to be affected by the presence of attached ticks and their infection with Borrelia, but this depended on the age of the bird. No association was detected among ticks, haemosporidea and Borrelia infection. We showed that ticks have detrimental effects on their avian hosts even under natural infestation conditions and that confirmed Borrelia reservoir hosts may also present symptoms of infection, though these may be subtle.

  4. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  5. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  6. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  7. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  8. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/j.cam.2009.09.043

    2009-01-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  9. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  10. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  11. Distribution, phenology and demography of sympatric sexual and asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale s.l.): geographic parthenogenesis on a small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.H.; van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plant and animal species, sexual and asexual forms have different geographical distributions ('geographic parthenogenesis'). The common dandelion Taraxacum officinale s.l. provides a particularly clear example of differing distributions: diploid sexuals are restricted to southern and central

  12. The decomposition of level-1 irreducible highest weight modules with respect to the level-0 actions of the quantum affine algebra $U'_q(\\overline{sl}_n)$

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K

    1997-01-01

    We decompose the level-1 irreducible highest weight modules of the quantum affine algebra $U_q(\\hat{sl}_n)$ with respect to the level-0 $U'_q parameterized by the skew Young diagrams of the border strip type.

  13. Distribution, phenology and demography of sympatric sexual and asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale s.l.): geographic parthenogenesis on a small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.H.; van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plant and animal species, sexual and asexual forms have different geographical distributions ('geographic parthenogenesis'). The common dandelion Taraxacum officinale s.l. provides a particularly clear example of differing distributions: diploid sexuals are restricted to southern and central

  14. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  15. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  16. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and ... both fish species showed strong correlation between the weight and length with correlation coefficient (r) and ..... Basic data on the assessment of Sphyraena ... review of methods and their application.

  17. Persistence length of dendronized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailov, I.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerical results for the thermodynamic rigidity and induced persistence length of dendronized polymers with systematically varied topology of their grafts obtained by the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field method. The results were compared to predictions of an analytical mean-fiel

  18. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  19. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  20. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.