WorldWideScience

Sample records for sarcomere length sl

  1. The relationship between shear force, compression, collagen characteristics, desmin degradation and sarcomere length in lamb biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identity the relationships between known variants of tenderness (collagen content (total and soluble), desmin degradation and sarcomere length) and shear force and compression in the biceps femoris aged for 14days from 112 mixed sex lambs. Desmin degradation was related to compression (Pcompression decreased. Sarcomere length (SL) was related to shear force (Pcompression (Pcompression, sarcomere length and soluble collagen. The findings from this experiment indicate that the known variants (soluble collagen, sarcomere length and desmin degradation) are related to shear force and compression in ovine biceps femoris. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thin filament length in the cardiac sarcomere varies with sarcomere length but is independent of titin and nebulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Justin; Li, Frank; Methawasin, Mei; Adler, Maya; Escobar, Yael-Natalie; Nedrud, Joshua; Pappas, Christopher T; Harris, Samantha P; Granzier, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Thin filament length (TFL) is an important determinant of the force-sarcomere length (SL) relation of cardiac muscle. However, the various mechanisms that control TFL are not well understood. Here we tested the previously proposed hypothesis that the actin-binding protein nebulin contributes to TFL regulation in the heart by using a cardiac-specific nebulin cKO mouse model (αMHC Cre Neb cKO). Atrial myocytes were studied because nebulin expression has been reported to be most prominent in this cell type. TFL was measured in right and left atrial myocytes using deconvolution optical microscopy and staining for filamentous actin with phalloidin and for the thin filament pointed-end with an antibody to the capping protein Tropomodulin-1 (Tmod1). Results showed that TFLs in Neb cKO and littermate control mice were not different. Thus, deletion of nebulin in the heart does not alter TFL. However, TFL was found to be ~0.05μm longer in the right than in the left atrium and Tmod1 expression was increased in the right atrium. We also tested the hypothesis that the length of titin's spring region is a factor controlling TFL by studying the Rbm20(ΔRRM) mouse which expresses titins that are ~500kDa (heterozygous mice) and ~1000kDa (homozygous mice) longer than in control mice. Results revealed that TFL was not different in Rbm20(ΔRRM) mice. An unexpected finding in all genotypes studied was that TFL increased as sarcomeres were stretched (~0.1μm per 0.35μm of SL increase). This apparent increase in TFL reached a maximum at a SL of ~3.0μm where TFL was ~1.05μm. The SL dependence of TFL was independent of chemical fixation or the presence of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). In summary, we found that in cardiac myocytes TFL varies with SL in a manner that is independent of the size of titin or the presence of nebulin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sarcomere length-dependence of activity-dependent twitch potentiation in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacIntosh Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that potentiation of a skeletal muscle twitch response is proportional to muscle length with a negative slope during staircase, and a positive slope during posttetanic potentiation. This study was done to directly compare staircase and posttetanic responses with measurement of sarcomere length to compare their length-dependence. Methods Mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were dissected to small bundles of fibers, which permit measurement of sarcomere length (SL, by laser diffraction. In vitro fixed-end contractions of EDL fiber bundles were elicited at 22°C and 35°C at sarcomere lengths ranging from 2.35 μm to 3.85 μm. Twitch contractions were assessed before and after 1.5 s of 75 Hz stimulation at 22°C or during 10 s of 10 Hz stimulation at 22°C or 35°C. Results Staircase potentiation was greater at 35°C than 22°C, and the relative magnitude of the twitch contraction (Pt*/Pt was proportional to sarcomere length with a negative slope, over the range 2.3 μm – 3.7 μm. Linear regression yielded the following: Pt*/Pt = -0.59·SL+3.27 (r2 = 0.74; Pt*/Pt = -0.39·SL+2.34 (r2 = 0.48; and Pt*/Pt = -0.50·SL+2.45 (r2 = 0.80 for staircase at 35°C, and 22°C and posttetanic response respectively. Posttetanic depression rather than potentiation was present at long SL. This indicates that there may be two processes operating in these muscles to modulate the force: one that enhances and a second that depresses the force. Either or both of these processes may have a length-dependence of its mechanism. Conclusion There is no evidence that posttetanic potentiation is fundamentally different from staircase in these muscles.

  4. Uniquely identifying cell orientation and sarcomere length in the intact rodent heart with oblique plane remote focussing microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. D.; Burton, R. A. B.; Bub, G.; Wilson, T.

    2015-07-01

    In cardiac imaging, the spacing between sub-cellular sarcomere structures is of great importance to physiologists in understanding muscle design and performance. Making accurate measurements of the sarcomere length (SL) presents a significant imaging challenge owing to the size of the SL (~2μm) and its naturally low variability (pathological models of chronic hypertension. As well as improving measurement precision, the distribution of α across the field of view provides additional structural information which can be related to disease morphology. To validate this new imaging protocol, the value of α calculated from the oblique planes provided the input to a rigid model cell which was used to predict the appearance of the cell in the conventional focal plane. The comparison of the model to the image data provided a confidence metric for our measurements. Finally, by considering the optical transfer function, the range of cell orientations for which the method is valid could be calculated.

  5. Muscle structure, sarcomere length and influences on meat quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertbjerg, Per; Puolanne, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The basic contractile unit of muscle, the sarcomere, will contract as the muscle goes into rigor post-mortem. Depending on the conditions, such as the rate of pH decline, the cooling rate and the mechanical restraints on the muscles, this longitudinal shortening will result in various post-mortem sarcomere lengths as well as lateral differences in the distances between the myosin and actin filaments. This shortening is underlying the phenomena described as rigor contraction, thaw rigor, cold shortening and heat shortening. The shortening in combination with the molecular architecture of the sarcomere as defined by the myosin filaments and their S-1 and S-2 units, the interaction with the actin filaments, and the boundaries formed by the Z-disks will subsequently influence basic meat quality traits including tenderness and water-holding capacity. Biochemical reactions from proteolysis and glycogen metabolism interrelate with the sarcomere length in a complex manner. The sarcomere length is also influencing the eating quality of cooked meat and the water-holding in meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The interdependence of Ca2+ activation, sarcomere length, and power output in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kerry S

    2011-07-01

    Myocardium generates power to perform external work on the circulation; yet, many questions regarding intermolecular mechanisms regulating power output remain unresolved. Power output equals force × shortening velocity, and some interesting new observations regarding control of these two factors have arisen. While it is well established that sarcomere length tightly controls myocyte force, sarcomere length-tension relationships also appear to be markedly modulated by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins. Concerning loaded shortening, historical models predict independent cross-bridge mechanics; however, it seems that the mechanical state of one population of cross-bridges affects the activity of other cross-bridges by, for example, recruitment of cross-bridges from the non-cycling pool to the cycling force-generating pool during submaximal Ca(2+) activation. This is supported by the findings that Ca(2+) activation levels, myofilament phosphorylation, and sarcomere length are all modulators of loaded shortening and power output independent of their effects on force. This fine tuning of power output probably helps optimize myocardial energetics and to match ventricular supply with peripheral demand; yet, the discernment of the chemo-mechanical signals that modulate loaded shortening needs further clarification since power output may be a key convergent point and feedback regulator of cytoskeleton and cellular signals that control myocyte growth and survival.

  7. Spontaneous oscillation of tension and sarcomere length in skeletal myofibrils. Microscopic measurement and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, T; Yasuda, K; Ishiwata, S

    1992-05-01

    We have devised a simple method for measuring tension development of single myofibrils by micromanipulation with a pair of glass micro-needles. The tension was estimated from the deflection of a flexible needle under an inverted phase-contrast microscope equipped with an image processor, so that the tension development is always accompanied by the shortening of the myofibril (auxotonic condition) in the present setup. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of tension (1/30 s for time resolution and about 0.05 micrograms for accuracy of tension measurement; 0.05 microns as a spatial resolution for displacement of the micro-needle) and the observation of sarcomere structure are possible at the same time, and the technique to hold myofibrils, even single myofibrils, is very simple. This method has been applied to study the tension development of glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under the condition where spontaneous oscillation of sarcomeres is induced, i.e., the coexistence of MgATP, MgADP and inorganic phosphate without free Ca2+. Under this condition, we found that the tension of myofibrils spontaneously oscillates accompanied by the oscillation of sarcomere length with a main period of a few seconds; the period was lengthened and shortened with stretch and release of myofibrils. A possible mechanism of the oscillation is discussed.

  8. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite element modeling of aponeurotomy: altered intramuscular myofascial force transmission yields complex sarcomere length distributions determining acute effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, C.A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element modeling of aponeurotomized rat extensor digitorium longus muscle was performed to investigate the acute effects of proximal aponeurotomy. The specific goal was to assess the changes in lengths of sarcomeres within aponeurotomized muscle and to explain how the intervention leads to

  10. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Lee, Ki S; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-05-15

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from an upper motoneuron (UMN)lesion in the developing brain. Secondary to the UMNl esion,which causes spasticity, is a pathological response by muscle - namely, contracture. However, the elements within muscle that increase passive mechanical stiffness, and therefore result in contracture, are unknown. Using hamstring muscle biopsies from pediatric patients with CP (n =33) and control (n =19) patients we investigated passive mechanical properties at the protein, cellular, tissue and architectural levels to identify the elements responsible for contracture. Titin isoform, the major load-bearing protein within muscle cells, was unaltered in CP. Correspondingly, the passive mechanics of individual muscle fibres were not altered. However, CP muscle bundles, which include fibres in their constituent ECM, were stiffer than control bundles. This corresponded to an increase in collagen content of CP muscles measured by hydroxyproline assay and observed using immunohistochemistry. In vivo sarcomere length of CP muscle measured during surgery was significantly longer than that predicted for control muscle. The combination of increased tissue stiffness and increased sarcomere length interact to increase stiffness greatly of the contracture tissue in vivo. These findings provide evidence that contracture formation is not the result of stiffening at the cellular level, but stiffening of the ECM with increased collagen and an increase of in vivo sarcomere length leading to higher passive stresses.

  11. Explaining the variation in the shear force of lamb meat using sarcomere length, the rate of rigor onset and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Toohey, E S; Lamb, T A; Kerr, M J; van de Ven, R; Refshauge, G

    2011-08-01

    The temperature when the pH=6.0 (temp@pH6) impacts on the tenderness and eating quality of sheep meat. Due to the expense, sarcomere length is not routinely measured as a variable to explain variation in shear force, but whether measures such as temp@pH6 are as useful a parameter needs to be established. Measures of rigor onset in 261 carcases, including the temp@pH6, were evaluated in this study for their ability to explain some of the variation in shear force. The results show that for 1 day aged product combinations of the temp@pH6, the pH at 18 °C and the pH at 24 h provided a larger reduction (almost double) in total shear force variation than sarcomere length alone, with pH at 24 h being the single best measure. For 5 day aged product, pH at 18 °C was the single best measure. Inclusion of sarcomere length did represent some improvement, but the marginal increase would not be cost effective. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Active Contraction and Tropomodulins in Regulating Actin Filament Length and Sarcomere Structure in Developing Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelet, Lise; Parker, Matthew O; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Ashworth, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Whilst it is recognized that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1 (ts25) ) which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors) in the muscle and pharmacological immobilization of embryos with a reversible anesthetic (Tricaine), allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anesthetized fish) and recovery of movement (reversal of anesthetic treatment). The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17 and 24 hours post-fertilization, hpf) on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localization of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 & 4 (Tmod) in fish aged from 17 hpf until 42 hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post-fertilization (dpf). Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf) resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralyzed fish by 42 hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organization is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localization of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  13. Role of active contraction and tropomodulins in regulating actin filament length and sarcomere structure in developing zebrafish skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eMazelet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst it is recognised that contraction plays an important part in maintaining the structure and function of mature skeletal muscle, its role during development remains undefined. In this study the role of movement in skeletal muscle maturation was investigated in intact zebrafish embryos using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. An immotile mutant line (cacnb1ts25 which lacks functional voltage-gated calcium channels (dihydropyridine receptors in the muscle and pharmacological immobilisation of embryos with a reversible anaesthetic (Tricaine, allowed the study of paralysis (in mutants and anaesthetised fish and recovery of movement (reversal of anaesthetic treatment. The effect of paralysis in early embryos (aged between 17-24 hours post fertilisation, hpf on skeletal muscle structure at both myofibrillar and myofilament level was determined using both immunostaining with confocal microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction. The consequences of paralysis and subsequent recovery on the localisation of the actin capping proteins Tropomodulin 1 &4 (Tmod in fish aged from 17hpf until 42hpf was also assessed. The functional consequences of early paralysis were investigated by examining the mechanical properties of the larval muscle. The length-force relationship, active and passive tension, was measured in immotile, recovered and control skeletal muscle at 5 and 7 day post fertilisation (dpf. Recovery of muscle function was also assessed by examining swimming patterns in recovered and control fish. Inhibition of the initial embryonic movements (up to 24 hpf resulted in an increase in myofibril length and a decrease in width followed by almost complete recovery in both moving and paralysed fish by 42hpf. In conclusion, myofibril organisation is regulated by a dual mechanism involving movement-dependent and movement-independent processes. The initial contractile event itself drives the localisation of Tmod1 to its sarcomeric

  14. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W; Tomiya, Akihito; Lee, Yu Po; Ghofrani, Hossein; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-12-15

    Controlled laboratory and cross-sectional study designs. To determine psoas major (PM) muscle architectural properties, in vivo sarcomere-length operating range, and passive mechanical properties. PM is an important hip flexor but its role in lumbar spine function is not fully understood. Several investigators have detailed the gross anatomy of PM, but comprehensive architectural data and in vivo length-tension and passive mechanical behaviors have not been documented. PM was isolated in 13 cadaver specimens, permitting architectural measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length (Lf), and Lf:muscle length (Lm) ratio. Sarcomere lengths were measured in vivo from intraoperative biopsies taken with the hip joint in flexed and extended positions. Single-fiber and fiber bundle tensile properties and titin molecular weight were then measured from separate biopsies. Architecturally, average PCSA was 18.45 ± 1.32 cm2, average Lf was 12.70 ± 2 cm, and average Lf: Lm was 0.48 ± 0.06. Intraoperative sarcomere length measurements revealed that the muscle operates from 3.18 ± 0.20 μm with hip flexed at 10.7° ± 13.9° to 3.03 ± 0.22 μm with hip flexed at 55.9° ± 21.4°. Passive mechanical data demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the PM muscle fibers was 37.44 ± 9.11 kPa and of fiber bundles was 55.3 ± 11.8 kPa. Analysis of PM architecture demonstrates that its average Lf and passive biomechanical properties resemble those of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. In addition, PM sarcomere lengths were confined to the descending portion of the length-tension curve allowing the muscle to become stronger as the hip is flexed and the spine assumes a forward leaning posture. These findings suggest that the human PM has architectural and physiologic features that support its role as both a flexor of the hip and a dynamic stabilizer of the lumbar spine.

  15. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  16. The sarcomeric cytoskeleton: from molecules to motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautel, Mathias; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Highly ordered organisation of striated muscle is the prerequisite for the fast and unidirectional development of force and motion during heart and skeletal muscle contraction. A group of proteins, summarised as the sarcomeric cytoskeleton, is essential for the ordered assembly of actin and myosin filaments into sarcomeres, by combining architectural, mechanical and signalling functions. This review discusses recent cell biological, biophysical and structural insight into the regulated assembly of sarcomeric cytoskeleton proteins and their roles in dissipating mechanical forces in order to maintain sarcomere integrity during passive extension and active contraction. α-Actinin crosslinks in the Z-disk show a pivot-and-rod structure that anchors both titin and actin filaments. In contrast, the myosin crosslinks formed by myomesin in the M-band are of a ball-and-spring type and may be crucial in providing stable yet elastic connections during active contractions, especially eccentric exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.

  18. Differential Sarcomere and Electrophysiological Maturation of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiac Myocytes in Monolayer vs. Aggregation-Based Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jeziorowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D or, more recently, on monolayer culture (2D. We performed a direct comparison of the characteristics of the derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs on day 27 ± 2 of differentiation between 3D and 2D differentiation protocols with two different Wnt-inhibitors were compared: IWR1 (inhibitor of Wnt response or IWP2 (inhibitor of Wnt production. We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2 expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D protocols as compared to the 3D protocol. In the three methods, iPSC-CM show sarcomeric structures. However, iPSC-CM generated in 2D protocols constantly displayed larger sarcomere lengths as compared to the 3D protocol. In addition, mRNA and protein analyses reveal higher cTNi to ssTNi ratios in the 2D protocol using IWP2 as compared to both other protocols, indicating a higher sarcomeric maturation. Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies.

  19. Subtle abnormalities in contractile function are an early manifestation of sarcomere mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens J; Colan, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomere mutations cause both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); however, the steps leading from mutation to disease are not well described. By studying mutation carriers before a clinical diagnosis develops, we characterize the early manifestations of sarcomere...... mutations in DCM and investigate how these manifestations differ from sarcomere mutations associated with HCM....

  20. Divergent regulation of the sarcomere and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevzov, Galina; Fath, Thomas; Vrhovski, Bernadette; Vlahovich, Nicole; Rajan, Sudarsan; Hook, Jeff; Joya, Josephine E; Lemckert, Frances; Puttur, Franz; Lin, Jim J-C; Hardeman, Edna C; Wieczorek, David F; O'Neill, Geraldine M; Gunning, Peter W

    2008-01-04

    The existence of a feedback mechanism regulating the precise amounts of muscle structural proteins, such as actin and the actin-associated protein tropomyosin (Tm), in the sarcomeres of striated muscles is well established. However, the regulation of nonmuscle or cytoskeletal actin and Tms in nonmuscle cell structures has not been elucidated. Unlike the thin filaments of striated muscles, the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells is intrinsically dynamic. Given the differing requirements for the structural integrity of the actin thin filaments of the sarcomere compared with the requirement for dynamicity of the actin cytoskeleton in nonmuscle cells, we postulated that different regulatory mechanisms govern the expression of sarcomeric versus cytoskeletal Tms, as key regulators of the properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Comprehensive analyses of tissues from transgenic and knock-out mouse lines that overexpress the cytoskeletal Tms, Tm3 and Tm5NM1, and a comparison with sarcomeric Tms provide evidence for this. Moreover, we show that overexpression of a cytoskeletal Tm drives the amount of filamentous actin.

  1. Cell biology of sarcomeric protein engineering: disease modeling and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian R; Metzger, Joseph M

    2014-09-01

    The cardiac sarcomere is the functional unit for myocyte contraction. Ordered arrays of sarcomeric proteins, held in stoichiometric balance with each other, respond to calcium to coordinate contraction and relaxation of the heart. Altered sarcomeric structure-function underlies the primary basis of disease in multiple acquired and inherited heart disease states. Hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathies are caused by inherited mutations in sarcomeric genes and result in altered contractility. Ischemia-mediated acidosis directly alters sarcomere function resulting in decreased contractility. In this review, we highlight the use of acute genetic engineering of adult cardiac myocytes through stoichiometric replacement of sarcomeric proteins in these disease states with particular focus on cardiac troponin I. Stoichiometric replacement of disease causing mutations has been instrumental in defining the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy in a cellular context. In addition, taking advantage of stoichiometric replacement through gene therapy is discussed, highlighting the ischemia-resistant histidine-button, A164H cTnI. Stoichiometric replacement of sarcomeric proteins offers a potential gene therapy avenue to replace mutant proteins, alter sarcomeric responses to pathophysiologic insults, or neutralize altered sarcomeric function in disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression of various sarcomeric tropomyosin isoforms in equine striated muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamalima Dube

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the training and athletic activity of horses, we must have complete understanding of the isoform diversity of various myofibrillar protein genes like tropomyosin. Tropomyosin (TPM, a coiled-coil dimeric protein, is a component of thin filament in striated muscles. In mammals, four TPM genes (TPM1, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 generate a multitude of TPM isoforms via alternate splicing and/or using different promoters. Unfortunately, our knowledge of TPM isoform diversity in the horse is very limited. Hence, we undertook a comprehensive exploratory study of various TPM isoforms from horse heart and skeletal muscle. We have cloned and sequenced two sarcomeric isoforms of the TPM1 gene called TPM1α and TPM1κ, one sarcomeric isoform of the TPM2 and one of the TPM3 gene, TPM2α and TPM3α respectively. By qRT-PCR using both relative expression and copy number, we have shown that TPM1α expression compared to TPM1κ is very high in heart. On the other hand, the expression of TPM1α is higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Further, the expression of TPM2α and TPM3α are higher in skeletal muscle compared to heart. Using western blot analyses with CH1 monoclonal antibody we have shown the high expression levels of sarcomeric TPM proteins in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Due to the paucity of isoform specific antibodies we cannot specifically detect the expression of TPM1κ in horse striated muscle. To the best of our knowledge this is the very first report on the characterization of sarcmeric TPMs in horse striated muscle.

  3. Gene transfer, expression, and sarcomeric incorporation of a headless myosin molecule in cardiac myocytes: evidence for a reserve in myofilament motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, Rene; Herron, Todd; Favre, Elizabeth; Albayya, Faris P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a living myocyte in vitro model system to test whether a motor domain-deleted headless myosin construct could be incorporated into the sarcomere and affect contractility. To this end we used gene transfer to express a “headless” myosin heavy chain (headless-MHC) in complement with the native full-length myosin motors in the cardiac sarcomere. An NH2-terminal Flag epitope was used for unique detection of the motor domain-deleted headless-MHC. Total MHC content (i.e., headless-MHC + endogenous MHC) remained constant, while expression of the headless-MHC in transduced myocytes increased from 24 to 72 h after gene transfer until values leveled off at 96 h after gene transfer, at which time the headless-MHC comprised ∼20% of total MHC. Moreover, immunofluorescence labeling and confocal imaging confirmed expression and demonstrated incorporation of the headless-MHC in the A band of the cardiac sarcomere. Functional measurements in intact myocytes showed that headless-MHC modestly reduced amplitude of dynamic twitch contractions compared with controls (P < 0.05). In chemically permeabilized myocytes, maximum steady-state isometric force and the tension-pCa relationship were unaltered by the headless-MHC. These data suggest that headless-MHC can express to 20% of total myosin and incorporate into the sarcomere yet have modest to no effects on dynamic and steady-state contractile function. This would indicate a degree of functional tolerance in the sarcomere for nonfunctional myosin molecules. PMID:21112946

  4. Null fields realizations of W3 from W (sl(4), sl(3)) and W (sl(3/1), sl(3)) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A.

    1995-09-01

    It is considered the nonlinear algebras W(sl(4), sl(3)) and W(sl(3/1), sl(3)) and it is found their realizations in terms of currents spanning conformal linearizing algebras. The specific structure of these algebras, allows to construct realizations modulo null fields of the W 3 algebra that lies in the cosets W(sl(4), sl(3))/u(1) and W(sl(3/1), sl(3))/u(1). Such realizations exist for the following values of the W 3 algebra central charge: cw=-30, -40/7, -98/5, -2. The first two values are listed for the first time, whereas for the remaining values the new realizations get in terms of an arbitrary stress tensor and u(1) x sl(2) affine currents

  5. The W(sl(N+3), sl(3)) algebra and their contractions to W3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.

    1996-09-01

    The authors construct the nonlinear W(sl(N+3), sl(3)) algebras and find the spectrum of values of the central charge that gives rise, by contracting the W(sl(N+3), sl(3)) algebras, to a W 3 algebra belonging to the coset W((sl(N+3), sl(3)/(u(1) x sl(N)). Using the tool of embedding the W(sl(N+3), sl(3)) algebras into linearizing algebras, the authors construct new realization of W 3 modulo null fields. The possibility to reproduce, within the conformal linearization framework, the central charge spectrum for minimal models of the nonlinear W(sl(N+3), sl(3)) algebras is discussed at the end

  6. Sarcomeric gene mutations in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Maria; Allegue, Catarina; Santori, Montserrat; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Poster, Simone; Madea, Burkhard; Campuzano, Oscar; Brugada, Ramon; Carracedo, Angel

    2012-06-10

    In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) represents the most prevalent cause of death in children between 1 month and 1 year of age. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, a negative autopsy which requires the absence of structural organ disease. Although investigators have confirmed that a significant percentage of SIDS cases are actually channelopathies, no data have been made available as to whether other sudden cardiac death-associated diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), could be responsible for some cases of SIDS. The presence of a genetic mutation in the sarcomeric protein usually affects the force of contraction of the myocyte, whose weakness is compensated with progressive hypertrophy and disarray. However, it is unclear whether in the most incipient forms, that is, first years of life, the lack of these phenotypes still confers a risk of arrhythmogenesis. The main goal of the present study is to wonder whether genetic defects in the sarcomeric proteins, previously associated with HCM, could be responsible for SIDS. We have analysed 286 SIDS cases for the most common genes implicated in HCM in adults. A total of 680 mutations localised in 16 genes were analysed by semi-automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF-MS) using the Sequenom MassARRAY(®) System. Ten subjects with completely normal hearts showed mutated alleles at nine of the genetic variants analysed, and one additional novel mutation was detected by conventional sequencing. Therefore, a genetic mutation associated with HCM may cause sudden cardiac death in the absence of an identifiable phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo cardiac nano-imaging: A new technology for high-precision analyses of sarcomere dynamics in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, Togo; Hirokawa, Erisa; Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Fuyu; Oyama, Kotaro; Shintani, Seine A; Terui, Takako; Kushida, Yasuharu; Tsukamoto, Seiichi; Fujii, Teruyuki; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Fukuda, Norio

    2017-03-01

    The cardiac pump function is a result of a rise in intracellular Ca 2+ and the ensuing sarcomeric contractions [i.e., excitation-contraction (EC) coupling] in myocytes in various locations of the heart. In order to elucidate the heart's mechanical properties under various settings, cardiac imaging is widely performed in today's clinical as well as experimental cardiology by using echocardiogram, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. However, because these common techniques detect local myocardial movements at a spatial resolution of ∼100 μm, our knowledge on the sub-cellular mechanisms of the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart in vivo is limited. This is because (1) EC coupling occurs in the μm partition in a myocyte and (2) cardiac sarcomeres generate active force upon a length change of ∼100 nm on a beat-to-beat basis. Recent advances in optical technologies have enabled measurements of intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and sarcomere length displacements at high spatial and temporal resolution in the beating heart of living rodents. Future studies with these technologies are warranted to open a new era in cardiac research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cross-bridge dynamics is determined by two length-independent kinetics: Implications on muscle economy and Frank-Starling Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiad Pavlov, Daria; Landesberg, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart and the skeletal muscle force-length relationship are not clear. This study tested the effects of sarcomere length (SL) on the average force per cross-bridge and on the rate of cross-bridge cycling in intact rat cardiac trabeculae (n=9). SL was measured by laser diffraction and controlled with a fast servomotor to produce varying initial SLs. Tetanic contractions were induced by addition of cyclopiazonic acid, to maintain a constant activation. Stress decline and redevelopment in response to identical ramp shortenings, starting at various initial SLs, was analyzed. Both stress decline and redevelopment responses revealed two distinct kinetics: a fast and a slower phase. The duration of the rapid phases (4.2 ± 0.1 msec) was SL-independent. The second slower phase depicted a linear dependence of the rate of stress change on the instantaneous stress level. Identical slopes (70.5 ± 1.6 [1/s], p=0.33) were obtained during ramp shortening at all initial SLs, indicating that the force per cross-bridge and cross-bridge cycling kinetics are length-independent. A decrease in the slope at longer SLs was obtained during stress redevelopment, due to internal shortening. The first phase is attributed to rapid changes in the average force per cross-bridge. The second phase is ascribed to both cross-bridge cycling between its strong and weak conformations and to changes in the number of strong cross-bridges. Cross-bridge cycling kinetics and muscle economy are length-independent and the Frank-Starling Law cannot be attributed to changes in the force per cross-bridge or in the single cross-bridge cycling rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel, highly conserved metallothionein family in basidiomycete fungi and characterization of two representative SlMTa and SlMTb genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai; Rineau, François; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann; Colpaert, Jan V; Ruytinx, Joske

    2017-07-01

    The basidiomycete Suillus luteus is an important member of the ectomycorrhizal community that thrives in heavy metal polluted soils covered with pioneer pine forests. This study aimed to identify potential heavy metal chelators in S. luteus. Two metallothionein (MT) coding genes, SlMTa and SlMTb, were identified. When heterologously expressed in yeast, both SlMTa and SlMTb can rescue the Cu sensitive mutant from Cu toxicity. In S. luteus, transcription of both SlMTa and SlMTb is induced by Cu but not Cd or Zn. Several putative Cu-sensing and metal-response elements are present in the promoter sequences. These results indicate that SlMTa and SlMTb function as Cu-thioneins. Homologs of the S. luteus MTs are present in 49 species belonging to 10 different orders of the subphylum Agaricomycotina and are remarkably conserved. The length of the proteins, number and distribution of cysteine residues indicate a novel family of fungal MTs. The ubiquitous and highly conserved features of these MTs suggest that they are important for basic cellular functions in species in the subphylum Agaricomycotina. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Effect of the Wooden Breast Myopathy on Sarcomere Structure and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Sandra G; Clark, Daniel L; Tonniges, Jeffrey R

    2018-03-01

    The wooden breast (WB) has been classically identified by the phenotypic presence of a wood-like pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The WB-affected p. major muscle is characterized by necrotic muscle fibers and the replacement of muscle with connective tissue, water, and fat. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of the WB myopathy on sarcomere organization by transmission electron microscopy. Sarcomere structure and organization were examined in two broiler lines with a high incidence of WB (Lines A and B) and another broiler line without WB (Line C). Affected muscle had an increase in smaller myofibers with diameters of 20 μm or less. Sarcomere organization decreased with fiber diameter in both Lines A and B. The structure and organization of sarcomeres in Line C were similar to WB-unaffected muscle in Lines A and B. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the WB myopathy detrimentally affects sarcomere organization in a broiler line-specific manner. Disorganization of sarcomere structure will affect the function of the p. major muscle as well as meat quality.

  11. Sarcomere lattice geometry influences cooperative myosin binding in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand C W Tanner

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In muscle, force emerges from myosin binding with actin (forming a cross-bridge. This actomyosin binding depends upon myofilament geometry, kinetics of thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and kinetics of cross-bridge cycling. Binding occurs within a compliant network of protein filaments where there is mechanical coupling between myosins along the thick-filament backbone and between actin monomers along the thin filament. Such mechanical coupling precludes using ordinary differential equation models when examining the effects of lattice geometry, kinetics, or compliance on force production. This study uses two stochastically driven, spatially explicit models to predict levels of cross-bridge binding, force, thin-filament Ca(2+ activation, and ATP utilization. One model incorporates the 2-to-1 ratio of thin to thick filaments of vertebrate striated muscle (multi-filament model, while the other comprises only one thick and one thin filament (two-filament model. Simulations comparing these models show that the multi-filament predictions of force, fractional cross-bridge binding, and cross-bridge turnover are more consistent with published experimental values. Furthermore, the values predicted by the multi-filament model are greater than those values predicted by the two-filament model. These increases are larger than the relative increase of potential inter-filament interactions in the multi-filament model versus the two-filament model. This amplification of coordinated cross-bridge binding and cycling indicates a mechanism of cooperativity that depends on sarcomere lattice geometry, specifically the ratio and arrangement of myofilaments.

  12. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  13. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  14. The magnitude of muscle strain does not influence serial sarcomere number adaptations following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-02-01

    It is generally accepted that eccentric exercise, when performed by a muscle that is unaccustomed to that type of contraction, results in a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). A prolonged exposure to eccentric exercise leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS, which has been referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE). Although the mechanisms underlying the RBE remain unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the serial sarcomere number addition following exercise induced muscle damage. In the traditional DOMS and RBE protocols, muscle injury has been treated as a global parameter, with muscle force and strain assumed to be uniform throughout the muscle. To assess the effects of muscle-tendon unit strain, fiber strain, torque and injury on serial sarcomere number adaptations, three groups of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were subjected to chronic repetitive eccentric exercise bouts of the ankle dorsiflexors for 6 weeks. These eccentric exercise protocols consisted of identical muscle tendon unit (MTU) strain, but other mechanical factors were systematically altered. Following chronic eccentric exercise, serial sarcomere number adaptations were not identical between the three eccentric exercise protocols, and serial sarcomere number adaptations were not uniform across all regions of the muscle. Peak torque and relaxation fiber strain were the best predictors of serial sarcomere number across all three protocols. Therefore, MTU strain does not appear to be the primary cause for sarcomerogenesis, and differential adaptations within the muscle may be explained by the nonuniform architecture of the muscle, resulting in differential local fiber strains.

  15. Theoretical Review on Sustainable Leadership (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    binti Zulkiffli Noorul Adharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has been identified as one of the factor contributes to construction organisation success. Therefore, leadership has acts as an admixture to the sum of leader’s effort and subordinates teamwork in order to accomplish organisational goals. There are several types of leadership style that have been practiced by leaders in the construction industry, however, there are still several morality issues such as corruptions, mismanagement and spillages occurred among leaders in the industry. Therefore, a new established leadership style such as sustainable leadership (SL is needed to reduce any circumstances that can affect both individual and organisation in the construction industry. SL has been recognised by its holistic approaches, which include sustainability elements into it. Additionally, SL is not just depending on leader’s ability and resolution only, but to maintain the continuously efforts and achieving results are important. The aim of this paper is to explore the theoretical review of sustainable leadership (SL. A literature review on sustainable leadership (SL is gained from journals and books of SL and leadership style in construction industry. The overall intent of this paper is to highlight the values and benefits of SL so that it can be adapted by leaders in construction organisation.

  16. Contribution of Post-translational Phosphorylation to Sarcomere-linked Cardiomyopathy Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Westfall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary shifts develop in post-translational phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in multi¬ple animal models of inherited cardiomyopathy. These signaling alterations together with the primary mutation are predicted to contribute to the overall cardiac phenotype. As a result, identification and integration of post-translational myofilament signaling responses are identified as priorities for gaining insights into sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. However, significant questions remain about the nature and contribution of post-translational phosphorylation to structural remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in animal models and human patients. This perspective essay discusses specific goals for filling critical gaps about post-translational signaling in response to these inherited mutations, especially within sarcomeric proteins. The discussion focuses primarily on pre-clinical analysis of animal models and defines challenges and future directions in this field.

  17. Three-dimensional stochastic model of actin–myosin binding in the sarcomere lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijailovich, Srboljub M.; Kayser-Herold, Oliver; Stojanovic, Boban; Nedic, Djordje; Irving, Thomas C.; Geeves, MA (Harvard); (IIT); (U. Kent); (Kragujevac)

    2016-11-18

    The effect of molecule tethering in three-dimensional (3-D) space on bimolecular binding kinetics is rarely addressed and only occasionally incorporated into models of cell motility. The simplest system that can quantitatively determine this effect is the 3-D sarcomere lattice of the striated muscle, where tethered myosin in thick filaments can only bind to a relatively small number of available sites on the actin filament, positioned within a limited range of thermal movement of the myosin head. Here we implement spatially explicit actomyosin interactions into the multiscale Monte Carlo platform MUSICO, specifically defining how geometrical constraints on tethered myosins can modulate state transition rates in the actomyosin cycle. The simulations provide the distribution of myosin bound to sites on actin, ensure conservation of the number of interacting myosins and actin monomers, and most importantly, the departure in behavior of tethered myosin molecules from unconstrained myosin interactions with actin. In addition, MUSICO determines the number of cross-bridges in each actomyosin cycle state, the force and number of attached cross-bridges per myosin filament, the range of cross-bridge forces and accounts for energy consumption. At the macroscopic scale, MUSICO simulations show large differences in predicted force-velocity curves and in the response during early force recovery phase after a step change in length comparing to the two simplest mass action kinetic models. The origin of these differences is rooted in the different fluxes of myosin binding and corresponding instantaneous cross-bridge distributions and quantitatively reflects a major flaw of the mathematical description in all mass action kinetic models. Consequently, this new approach shows that accurate recapitulation of experimental data requires significantly different binding rates, number of actomyosin states, and cross-bridge elasticity than typically used in mass action kinetic models to

  18. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, which are the mostly likely source of the passive component, become at most approximately 30% stiffer in saturating Ca2+ solutions. The work described in this manuscript used computer modeling to test an alternative systems theory that attributes the stretch response of a mammalian fiber to the composite behavior of a collection of half-sarcomeres. The principal finding was that the stretch response of a chemically permeabilized rabbit psoas fiber could be reproduced with a framework consisting of 300 half-sarcomeres arranged in 6 parallel myofibrils without requiring titin filaments to stiffen in activating solutions. Ablation of inter-myofibrillar links in the computer simulations lowered isometric force values and lowered energy absorption during a stretch. This computed behavior mimics effects previously observed in experiments using muscles from desmin-deficient mice in which the connections between Z-disks in adjacent myofibrils are presumably compromised. The current simulations suggest that muscle fibers exhibit emergent properties that reflect interactions between half-sarcomeres and are not properties of a single half-sarcomere in isolation. It is therefore likely that full quantitative understanding of a fiber's mechanical properties requires detailed analysis of a complete fiber system and cannot be achieved by focusing solely on the properties of a single half-sarcomere.

  19. Length dependence of force generation exhibit similarities between rat cardiac myocytes and skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, Laurin M; McDonald, Kerry S

    2010-08-01

    According to the Frank-Starling relationship, increased ventricular volume increases cardiac output, which helps match cardiac output to peripheral circulatory demand. The cellular basis for this relationship is in large part the myofilament length-tension relationship. Length-tension relationships in maximally calcium activated preparations are relatively shallow and similar between cardiac myocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. During twitch activations length-tension relationships become steeper in both cardiac and skeletal muscle; however, it remains unclear whether length dependence of tension differs between striated muscle cell types during submaximal activations. The purpose of this study was to compare sarcomere length-tension relationships and the sarcomere length dependence of force development between rat skinned left ventricular cardiac myocytes and fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres. Muscle cell preparations were calcium activated to yield 50% maximal force, after which isometric force and rate constants (k(tr)) of force development were measured over a range of sarcomere lengths. Myofilament length-tension relationships were considerably steeper in fast-twitch fibres compared to slow-twitch fibres. Interestingly, cardiac myocyte preparations exhibited two populations of length-tension relationships, one steeper than fast-twitch fibres and the other similar to slow-twitch fibres. Moreover, myocytes with shallow length-tension relationships were converted to steeper length-tension relationships by protein kinase A (PKA)-induced myofilament phosphorylation. Sarcomere length-k(tr) relationships were distinct between all three cell types and exhibited patterns markedly different from Ca(2+) activation-dependent k(tr) relationships. Overall, these findings indicate cardiac myocytes exhibit varied length-tension relationships and sarcomere length appears a dominant modulator of force development rates. Importantly, cardiac myocyte length

  20. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Norio, E-mail: noriof@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Cell Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwata, Shin’ichi, E-mail: ishiwata@waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); WASEDA Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABIOS) (Singapore)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  1. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  2. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully...

  3. Stream gradient Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (SL-HCA) for improving the longitudinal profiles metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Piacentini, Daniela; Seta Marta, Della

    2016-04-01

    Many researches successfully focused on stream longitudinal profiles analysis through Stream Length-gradient (SL) index for detecting, at different spatial scales, either tectonic structures or hillslope processes. The analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of SL values, both at a regional and local scale, is often complicated due to the concomitance of different factors generating SL anomalies, including the bedrock composition. The creation of lithologically-filtered SL maps is often problematic in areas where homogeneously surveyed geological maps, with a sufficient resolution are unavailable. Moreover, both the SL map classification and the unbiased anomaly detection are rather difficult. For instance, which is the best threshold to define the anomalous SL values? Further, is there a minimum along-channel extent of anomalous SL values for objectively defining over-steeped segments on long-profiles? This research investigates the relevance and potential of a new approach based on Hotspot and Cluster Analysis of SL values (SL-HCA) for detecting knickzones on long-profiles at a regional scale and for fine-tuning the interpretation of their geological-geomorphological meaning. We developed this procedure within a 2800 km2-wide area located in the mountainous sector of the Northern Apennines of Italy. The Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistic is applied for the SL-HCA approach. The value of SL, calculated starting from a 5x5 m Digital Elevation Model, is used as weighting factor and the Gi∗ index is calculated for each 50 m-long channel segment for the whole fluvial system. The outcomes indicate that high positive Gi∗ values imply the clustering of SL anomalies, thus the occurrence of knickzones on the stream long-profiles. Results show that high and very high Gi* values (i.e. values beyond two standard deviations from the mean) correlate well with the principal knickzones detected with existent lithologically-filtered SL maps. Field checks and remote sensing

  4. Double field theory at SL(2) angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Franz [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dibitetto, Giuseppe [Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, University of Uppsala, Box 803, SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernandez-Melgarejo, J.J. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guarino, Adolfo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxellesand International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Inverso, Gianluca [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico,Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-05

    An extended field theory is presented that captures the full SL(2)×O(6,6+n) duality group of four-dimensional half-maximal supergravities. The theory has section constraints whose two inequivalent solutions correspond to minimal D=10 supergravity and chiral half-maximal D=6 supergravity, respectively coupled to vector and tensor multiplets. The relation with O(6,6+n) (heterotic) double field theory is thoroughly discussed. Non-Abelian interactions as well as background fluxes are captured by a deformation of the generalised diffeomorphisms. Finally, making use of the SL(2) duality structure, it is shown how to generate gaugings with non-trivial de Roo-Wagemans angles via generalised Scherk-Schwarz ansätze. Such gaugings allow for moduli stabilisation including the SL(2) dilaton.

  5. Pre-mRNA mis-splicing of sarcomeric genes in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is an important biological process that allows production of multiple proteins from a single gene in the genome, and mainly contributes to protein diversity in eukaryotic organisms. Alternative splicing is commonly governed by RNA binding proteins to meet the ever-changing demands of the cell. However, the mis-splicing may lead to human diseases. In the heart of human, mis-regulation of alternative splicing has been associated with heart failure. In this short review, we focus on alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes and review mis-splicing related heart failure with relatively well studied Sarcomeric genes and splicing mechanisms with identified regulatory factors. The perspective of alternative splicing based therapeutic strategies in heart failure has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions between connected half-sarcomeres produce emergent mechanical behavior in a mathematical model of muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth S Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Most reductionist theories of muscle attribute a fiber's mechanical properties to the scaled behavior of a single half-sarcomere. Mathematical models of this type can explain many of the known mechanical properties of muscle but have to incorporate a passive mechanical component that becomes approximately 300% stiffer in activating conditions to reproduce the force response elicited by stretching a fast mammalian muscle fiber. The available experimental data suggests that titin filaments, whi...

  7. An embedding of the universal Askey-Wilson algebra into Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hau-Wen

    2017-09-01

    The Askey-Wilson algebras were used to interpret the algebraic structure hidden in the Racah-Wigner coefficients of the quantum algebra Uq (sl2). In this paper, we display an injection of a universal analog △q of Askey-Wilson algebras into Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) ⊗Uq (sl2) behind the application. Moreover we establish the decomposition rules for 3-fold tensor products of irreducible Verma Uq (sl2)-modules and of finite-dimensional irreducible Uq (sl2)-modules into the direct sums of finite-dimensional irreducible △q-modules. As an application, we derive a formula for the Racah-Wigner coefficients of Uq (sl2).

  8. An embedding of the universal Askey–Wilson algebra into Uq(sl2⊗Uq(sl2⊗Uq(sl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wen Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Askey–Wilson algebras were used to interpret the algebraic structure hidden in the Racah–Wigner coefficients of the quantum algebra Uq(sl2. In this paper, we display an injection of a universal analog △q of Askey–Wilson algebras into Uq(sl2⊗Uq(sl2⊗Uq(sl2 behind the application. Moreover we establish the decomposition rules for 3-fold tensor products of irreducible Verma Uq(sl2-modules and of finite-dimensional irreducible Uq(sl2-modules into the direct sums of finite-dimensional irreducible △q-modules. As an application, we derive a formula for the Racah–Wigner coefficients of Uq(sl2.

  9. Deletion analysis of susy-sl promoter for the identification of optimal promoter sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, S.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bshir, A.

    2015-01-01

    The promoter region of sucrose synthase (susy-Sl) was identified and isolated from tomato. The 5? deletion analysis was carried out for the identification of minimum optimal promoter. Transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana were developed by floral dip method incorporating various promoter deletion cassettes controlling GUS reporter gene. GUS assay of transgenic tissues indicated that full length susy-Sl promoter and its deletion mutants were constitutively expressed in vegetative and floral tissues of A. thaliana. The expression was observed in roots, shoots and flowers of A. thaliana. Analysis of 5? deletion series of susy-Sl promoter showed that a minimum of 679 bp fragment of the promoter was sufficient to drive expression of GUS reporter gene in the major tissues of transgenic A. thaliana. (author)

  10. A Formal Definition of VDM-SL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans; Damm, F.; Dawes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This joint report from the Danish Institute for Applied Computer Science (IFAD), the Technical Universities of Delft and Denmark and the University of Leicester contains the background and technical material used in the production of the ISO Standard that defines the specification language part...... and reviewers of the project - these changes have improved the style and technical correctness of the formal definitions used to define VDM-SL....

  11. Yangian Y(sl(2)) in Coulomb problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the Yangian Y(sl(2)) is shown existing in the system that a particle moves in Coulomb field. The generators of Y(sl(2)) are constructed in terms of the angular momentum operators and so-called Yangian Runge-Lenz vector. The selection rule and matrix element of Y(sl(2)) generators are calculated. (orig.)

  12. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Vicious Cycle Triggered by Sarcomere Mutations and Secondary Disease Hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Paul J M; Sequeira, Vasco; Kuster, Diederik W D; Velden, Jolanda van der

    2018-04-11

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits. Recent Advances: Laboratory-based studies indicate that HCM development not only depends on the primary sarcomere impairment caused by the mutation but also on secondary disease-related alterations in the heart. Here we propose a vicious mutation-induced disease cycle, in which a mutation-induced energy depletion alters cellular metabolism with increased mitochondrial work, which triggers secondary disease modifiers that will worsen disease and ultimately lead to end-stage HCM. Evidence shows excessive cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCM patients and HCM animal models. Oxidative stress markers are increased in the heart (oxidized proteins, DNA, and lipids) and serum of HCM patients. In addition, increased mitochondrial ROS production and changes in endogenous antioxidants are reported in HCM. Mutant sarcomeric protein may drive excessive levels of cardiac ROS via changes in cardiac efficiency and metabolism, mitochondrial activation and/or dysfunction, impaired protein quality control, and microvascular dysfunction. Interventions restoring metabolism, mitochondrial function, and improved ROS balance may be promising therapeutic approaches. We discuss the effects of current HCM pharmacological therapies and potential future therapies to prevent and reverse HCM. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  13. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Prill

    Full Text Available The vertebrate sarcomere is a complex and highly organized contractile structure whose assembly and function requires the coordination of hundreds of proteins. Proteins require proper folding and incorporation into the sarcomere by assembly factors, and they must also be maintained and replaced due to the constant physical stress of muscle contraction. Zebrafish mutants affecting muscle assembly and maintenance have proven to be an ideal tool for identification and analysis of factors necessary for these processes. The still heart mutant was identified due to motility defects and a nonfunctional heart. The cognate gene for the mutant was shown to be smyd1b and the still heart mutation results in an early nonsense codon. SMYD1 mutants show a lack of heart looping and chamber definition due to a lack of expression of heart morphogenesis factors gata4, gata5 and hand2. On a cellular level, fast muscle fibers in homozygous mutants do not form mature sarcomeres due to the lack of fast muscle myosin incorporation by SMYD1b when sarcomeres are first being assembled (19hpf, supporting SMYD1b as an assembly protein during sarcomere formation.

  14. QUANTICOL - CaSL at work

    OpenAIRE

    Galpin, Vashti; Georgoulas, Anastasis; Gilmore, Stephen; Hillston, Jane; Latella, Diego; Loreti, Michele; Massink, Mieke; Zon, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This deliverable reports on the work completed in the final reporting period on the modelling language at the centre of the QUANTICOL framework, C ARMA . A major focus of the period has been on making modelling with C ARMA accessible to a wide audience of potential users interested in CAS, not just those already familiar with formal modelling with process algebras. To this end we have further developed the C ARMA Specification Language ( CaSL ) and the software tools that support it; we have ...

  15. SL(C) 5 migration at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Most LCG sites are currently running on SL(C)4. However, this operating system is already rather old, and it is becoming difficult to get the required hardware drivers, to get the best out of recent hardware. A possible way out is the migration to SL(C)5 based systems where possible, in combination with virtualization methods. The former is typically possible for nodes where the software to run the services is available and tested, while the latter offers a possibility to make use of the new hardware platforms whilst maintaining operating system compatibility. Since autumn 2008, CERN has offered public interactive and batch worker nodes for evaluation to the experiments. For the Grid environment, access is granted by a dedicated CEs. The status of the evaluation, feedback received from the experiments and the status of the migration will be reviewed, and the status of virtualization of services at CERN will be reported. Beyond this, the migration to a new operating system also offers an excellent opportunity to upgrade the fabric infrastructure used to manage the servers.

  16. The new SL of Mercedes-Benz; Der neue SL von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2012-04-15

    The brochure under consideration reports on the new Mercedes SL and consists of contributions to the following aspects: historical aspects, positioning, project management, vehicle concept, design, lightweight construction, car body, aerodynamics, interior, power train, dynamics of vehicle movement, electronics, safety aspects, environmental aspects, testing.

  17. Hidden Uq (sl(2)) Uq (sl(2)) Quantum Group Symmetry in Two Dimensional Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremmer, Eugène; Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens

    1997-02-01

    In a previous paper, the quantum-group-covariant chiral vertex operators in the spin 1/2 representation were shown to act, by braiding with the other covariant primaries, as generators of the well known Uq(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry (for a single screening charge). Here, this structure is transformed to the Bloch wave/Coulomb gas operator basis, thereby establishing for the first time its quantum group symmetry properties. A Uq(sl(2)) otimes Uq(sl(2)) symmetry of a novel type emerges: The two Cartan-generator eigenvalues are specified by the choice of matrix element (Vermamodules); the two Casimir eigenvalues are equal and specified by the Virasoro weight of the vertex operator considered; the co-product is defined with a matching condition dictated by the Hilbert space structure of the operator product. This hidden symmetry possesses a novel Hopf-like structure compatible with these conditions. At roots of unity it gives the right truncation. Its (non-linear) connection with the Uq(sl(2)) previously discussed is disentangled.

  18. Coherent Raman Imaging of Live Muscle Sarcomeres Assisted by SFG Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Do-Young; Joo, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jung-Hye; Jeong, Soon Moon; Lee, Eun Seong; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Kyuhyung; Moon, Dae Woon

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we used spectrally focused coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (spCARS) microscopy assisted by sum-frequency generation (SFG) to monitor the variations in the structural morphology and molecular vibrations of a live muscle of Caenorhabditis elegans. The subunits of the muscle sarcomeres, such as the M-line, myosin, dense body, and α-actinin, were alternatively observed using spCARS microscopy for different sample orientations, with the guidance of a myosin positional marker captured by SFG microscopy. Interestingly enough, the beam polarization dependence of the spCARS contrasts for two parallel subunits (dense body and myosin) showed a ~90° phase difference. The chemically sensitive spCARS spectra induced by the time-varying overlap of two pulses allowed (after a robust subtraction of the non-resonant background using a modified Kramers-Krönig transformation method) high-fidelity detection of various genetically modified muscle sarcomeres tuned to the C-H vibration (2800-3100 cm -1 ). Conversely, SFG image mapping assisted by phase-retrieved spCARS spectra also facilitated label-free monitoring of the changes in the muscle content of C. elegans that are associated with aging, based on the hypothesis that the C-H vibrational modes could serve as qualitative chemical markers sensitive to the amount and/or structural modulation of the muscle.

  19. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process

  20. Comparison of the quantulus 1220 and 300SL liquid scintillation counters for the analysis of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Wanno; Choi, Guen Sik; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Liquid scintillation counters (LSCs) are commonly used as an analytical method for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater because they involve a simple sample pretreatment and allow high throughout with an autosampler. The Quantulus 1220 is the best-selling LSC in Korea, but its production was stopped. Recently, a new type of LSC, the 300SL, was introduced. In this study, the 300SL was compared with the Quantulus 1220 in order to evaluate the ability of each apparatus to detect {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. The Quantulus 1220 and 300SL were used to detect the presence of {sup 222}Rn. Radon gas was extracted from a groundwater sample using a water-immiscible cocktail in a LSC vial. The optimal analytical conditions for each LSC were determined using a {sup 222}Rn calibration source prepared with a {sup 226}Ra source. The optimal pulse shape analysis level for alpha and beta separation was 80 for the Quantulus 1220, and the corresponding pulse length index was 12 in the 300SL. The counting efficiency of the Quantulus 1220 for alpha emissions was similar to that of the 300SL, but the background count rate of the Quantulus 1220 was 10 times lower than that of the 300SL. The minimum detectable activity of the Quantulus 1220 was 0.08 Bq·L{sup -,} while that of the 300SL was 0.20 Bq·L{sup -1}. The analytical results regarding {sup 222}Rn in groundwater were less than 10% different between these LSCs. The 300SL is an LSC that is comparable to the Quantulus 1220 for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. Both LSCs can be applied to determine the levels of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater under the management of the Ministry of Environment.

  1. Dual models with SL(2, C) symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brink, L

    1972-01-01

    Making use of homogeneous space techniques, the authors construct a class of dual models, which is a generalization of the Virasoro- Shapiro type of model. The integrand in the integral representation for the N-point function depends not only on the modulus of the distances between two-dimensional Koba-Nielsen variables, but also on the corresponding phases. This is in fact the most general SL(2, C) invariant amplitude that can be constructed using complex integration variables. The extra phase factors in the integrand provide a possible means of avoiding tachyons both as external particles and as intermediate states in the amplitude. When factorized in a simple- minded fashion the intercepts are fixed to be integers. Although the external particles can be chosen not to be tachyons, such states appear as intermediate states. Within this factorization one can show that there are gauge conditions for the amplitude that can provide a ghostkilling mechanism. (19 refs).

  2. The European SL-9/JUPITER Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    During the past six months, many astronomers - observational as well theoretical - have been busy interpreting the many data taken during the impacts and thereafter. This is a very labour-intensive task and although the first conclusions have begun to emerge, it has also become obvious that extensive consultations between the various groups are necessary before it will be possible to understand the very complex processes during the impacts and thereafter. In order to further the interaction among the involved scientists, it has been decided to hold a three-day "European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop" at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. More than 100 astronomers will meet on February 13-15, 1995, and close to 100 reports will be delivered on this occasion. Although most come from European countries, the major groups on other continents are also well represented. This meeting will give the participants the opportunity to exchange information about their individual programmes and will serve to establish future collaborative efforts. SL-9/JUPITER PRESS CONFERENCE In this connection, ESO is pleased to invite the media to a Press Conference: Wednesday, February 15, 1995, 17:30 CET ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany This conference will be held at the end of the Workshop and will provide a thorough overview of the latest results, as presented during the meeting. Media representatives who are interested in participating in this Press Conference are requested to register with the ESO Information Service (Mrs. E. Völk, Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax: +49-89-3202362), at the latest on Friday, February 10, 1995. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  3. Diagnostic yield, interpretation, and clinical utility of mutation screening of sarcomere encoding genes in Danish hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Havndrup, Ole; Hougs, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    persons. Index patients were screened for mutations in all coding regions of 10 sarcomere genes (MYH7, MYL3, MYBPC3, TNNI3, TNNT2, TPM1, ACTC, CSRP3, TCAP, and TNNC1) and five exons of TTN. Relatives were screened for presence of minor or major diagnostic criteria for HCM and tracking of DNA variants...

  4. Sarcomeres pattern proprioceptive sensory dendritic endings through Perlecan/UNC-52 in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing; Dong, Xintong; Moerman, Donald G.; Shen, Kang; Wang, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Sensory dendrites innervate peripheral tissues through cell-cell interactions that are poorly understood. The proprioceptive neuron PVD in C. elegans extends regular terminal dendritic branches between muscle and hypodermis. We found that the PVD branch pattern was instructed by adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM, which formed regularly spaced stripes on the hypodermal cell. The regularity of the SAX-7 pattern originated from the repeated and regularly spaced dense body of the sarcomeres in the muscle. The extracellular proteoglycan, UNC-52/Perlecan, links the dense body to the hemidesmosome on the hypodermal cells, which in turn instructed the SAX-7 stripes and PVD dendrites. Both UNC-52 and hemidesmosome components exhibited highly regular stripes that interdigitated with the SAX-7 stripe and PVD dendrites, reflecting the striking precision of subcellular patterning between muscle, hypodermis and dendrites. Hence, the muscular contractile apparatus provides the instructive cues to pattern proprioceptive dendrites. PMID:25982673

  5. Hypothesis and theory: Mechanical instabilities and non-uniformities in hereditary sarcomere myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf eMansson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, due to point mutations in genes for sarcomere proteins such as myosin, occurs in 1/500 people and is the most common cause of sudden death in young individuals. Similar mutations in skeletal muscle, e.g. in the MYH7 gene for slow myosin found in both the cardiac ventricle and slow skeletal muscle, may also cause severe disease but the severity and the morphological changes are often different. In HCM, the modified protein function leads, over years to decades, to secondary remodeling with substantial morphological changes, such as hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray and extensive fibrosis associated with severe functional deterioration. Despite intense studies, it is unclear how the moderate mutation-induced changes in protein function cause the long-term effects. In hypertrophy of the heart due to pressure overload (e.g. hypertension, mechanical stress in the myocyte is believed to be major initiating stimulus for activation of relevant cell signaling cascades. Here it is considered how expression of mutated proteins, such as myosin or regulatory proteins, could have similar consequences through one or both of the following mechanisms: 1. contractile instabilities within each sarcomere (with more than one stable velocity for a given load, 2. different tension generating capacities of cells in series. These mechanisms would have the potential to cause increased tension and/or stretch of certain cells during parts of the cardiac cycle. Modeling studies are used to illustrate these ideas and experimental tests are proposed. The applicability of similar ideas to skeletal muscle is also postulated, and differences between heart and skeletal muscle are discussed.

  6. Localization of sarcomeric proteins during myofibril assembly in cultured mouse primary skeletal myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Barro, Marietta V.; Makarenkova, Helen P.; Sanger, Joseph W.; Sanger, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand how muscle forms normally in order to understand muscle diseases that result in abnormal muscle formation. Although the structure of myofibrils is well understood, the process through which the myofibril components form organized contractile units is not clear. Based on the staining of muscle proteins in avian embryonic cardiomyocytes, we previously proposed that myofibrils formation occurred in steps that began with premyofibrils followed by nascent myofibrils and ending with mature myofibrils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the premyofibril model of myofibrillogenesis developed from studies developed from studies in avian cardiomyocytes was supported by our current studies of myofibril assembly in mouse skeletal muscle. Emphasis was on establishing how the key sarcomeric proteins, F-actin, non-muscle myosin II, muscle myosin II, and α-actinin were organized in the three stages of myofibril assembly. The results also test previous reports that non-muscle myosins II A and B are components of the Z-Bands of mature myofibrils, data that are inconsistent with the premyofibril model. We have also determined that in mouse muscle cells, telethonin is a late assembling protein that is present only in the Z-Bands of mature myofibrils. This result of using specific telethonin antibodies supports the approach of using YFP-tagged proteins to determine where and when these YFP-sarcomeric fusion proteins are localized. The data presented in this study on cultures of primary mouse skeletal myocytes are consistent with the premyofibril model of myofibrillogenesis previously proposed for both avian cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25125171

  7. Muscleblind, BSF and TBPH are mislocalized in the muscle sarcomere of a Drosophila myotonic dystrophy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Llamusi

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is a genetic disease caused by the pathological expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene. In the DMPK transcripts, the CUG expansions sequester RNA-binding proteins into nuclear foci, including transcription factors and alternative splicing regulators such as MBNL1. MBNL1 sequestration has been associated with key features of DM1. However, the basis behind a number of molecular and histological alterations in DM1 remain unclear. To help identify new pathogenic components of the disease, we carried out a genetic screen using a Drosophila model of DM1 that expresses 480 interrupted CTG repeats, i(CTG480, and a collection of 1215 transgenic RNA interference (RNAi fly lines. Of the 34 modifiers identified, two RNA-binding proteins, TBPH (homolog of human TAR DNA-binding protein 43 or TDP-43 and BSF (Bicoid stability factor; homolog of human LRPPRC, were of particular interest. These factors modified i(CTG480 phenotypes in the fly eye and wing, and TBPH silencing also suppressed CTG-induced defects in the flight muscles. In Drosophila flight muscle, TBPH, BSF and the fly ortholog of MBNL1, Muscleblind (Mbl, were detected in sarcomeric bands. Expression of i(CTG480 resulted in changes in the sarcomeric patterns of these proteins, which could be restored by coexpression with human MBNL1. Epistasis studies showed that Mbl silencing was sufficient to induce a subcellular redistribution of TBPH and BSF proteins in the muscle, which mimicked the effect of i(CTG480 expression. These results provide the first description of TBPH and BSF as targets of Mbl-mediated CTG toxicity, and they suggest an important role of these proteins in DM1 muscle pathology.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain SL4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Shruti Harnal; Bielak, Eliza Maria; Seo, Jae-Gu

    2013-01-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 was isolated from a Korean fermented vegetable product, kimchi. We report here the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of P. pentosaceus SL4. The genome consists of a 1.79-Mb circular chromosome (G+C content of 37.3%) and seven distinct plasmids ranging in size from 4 kb to 50...

  9. Retraction: Myostatin Induces Degradation of Sarcomeric Proteins through a Smad3 Signaling Mechanism During Skeletal Muscle Wasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; McFarlane, Craig; Ge, Xiaojia; Zhang, Huoming; Sze, Siu Kwan; Sharma, Mridula

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis is a hallmark of skeletal muscle wasting manifested in response to negative growth factors, including myostatin. Thus, the characterization of signaling mechanisms that induce the ubiquitination of intracellular and sarcomeric proteins during skeletal muscle wasting is of great importance. We have recently characterized myostatin as a potent negative regulator of myogenesis and further demonstrated that elevated levels of myostatin in circulation results in the up-regulation of the muscle-specific E3 ligases, Atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1). However, the exact signaling mechanisms by which myostatin regulates the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, as well as the proteins targeted for degradation in response to excess myostatin, remain to be elucidated. In this report, we have demonstrated that myostatin signals through Smad3 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) to activate forkhead box O1 and Atrogin-1 expression, which further promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation of critical sarcomeric proteins. Smad3 signaling was dispensable for myostatin-dependent overexpression of MuRF1. Although down-regulation of Atrogin-1 expression rescued approximately 80% of sarcomeric protein loss induced by myostatin, only about 20% rescue was seen when MuRF1 was silenced, implicating that Atrogin-1 is the predominant E3 ligase through which myostatin manifests skeletal muscle wasting. Furthermore, we have highlighted that Atrogin-1 not only associates with myosin heavy and light chain, but it also ubiquitinates these sarcomeric proteins. Based on presented data we propose a model whereby myostatin induces skeletal muscle wasting through targeting sarcomeric proteins via Smad3-mediated up-regulation of Atrogin-1 and forkhead box O1. PMID:21964591

  10. Mutation-specific effects on thin filament length in thin filament myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josine M de; Joureau, Barbara; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kiss, Balázs; Yuen, Michaela; Gupta, Vandana A; Pappas, Christopher T; Gregorio, Carol C; Stienen, Ger J M; Edvardson, Simon; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Pelin, Katarina; Malfatti, Edoardo; Romero, Norma B; Engelen, Baziel G van; Voermans, Nicol C; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bönnemann, C G; Clarke, Nigel F; Beggs, Alan H; Granzier, Henk; Ottenheijm, Coen A C

    2016-06-01

    Thin filament myopathies are among the most common nondystrophic congenital muscular disorders, and are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins that are associated with the skeletal muscle thin filament. Mechanisms underlying muscle weakness are poorly understood, but might involve the length of the thin filament, an important determinant of force generation. We investigated the sarcomere length-dependence of force, a functional assay that provides insights into the contractile strength of muscle fibers as well as the length of the thin filaments, in muscle fibers from 51 patients with thin filament myopathy caused by mutations in NEB, ACTA1, TPM2, TPM3, TNNT1, KBTBD13, KLHL40, and KLHL41. Lower force generation was observed in muscle fibers from patients of all genotypes. In a subset of patients who harbor mutations in NEB and ACTA1, the lower force was associated with downward shifted force-sarcomere length relations, indicative of shorter thin filaments. Confocal microscopy confirmed shorter thin filaments in muscle fibers of these patients. A conditional Neb knockout mouse model, which recapitulates thin filament myopathy, revealed a compensatory mechanism; the lower force generation that was associated with shorter thin filaments was compensated for by increasing the number of sarcomeres in series. This allowed muscle fibers to operate at a shorter sarcomere length and maintain optimal thin-thick filament overlap. These findings might provide a novel direction for the development of therapeutic strategies for thin filament myopathy patients with shortened thin filament lengths. Ann Neurol 2016;79:959-969. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  11. S Tank Farm SL-119 saltwell piping failure analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    On January 24, 1992, while pressure testing saltwell line SL-119 in the 241-S Tank Farm, water was observed spraying out of heat trace enclosure. The SL-115, SL-116, SN-215, and SN-216 saltwell lines also recently failed pressure testing because of leaks. This study documents the pertinent facts about the SL-119 line and discusses the cause of the failures. The inspection of the SL-119 failure revealed two through-the-wall holes in the top center of the pipeline. The inspection also strongly suggests that the heat tracing system is directly responsible for causing the SL-119 failure. Poor design of the heat tracing system allowed water to enter, condense, and collect in the electric metallic tubing (EMT) carbon steel conduits. Water flowed to the bottom of the elbow of the conduit and corroded out the elbow. The design also allowed drifting desert sand to enter into the conduit and fall to the bottom (elbow) of the conduit. The sand became wet and aided in the corrosion of the elbow of the conduit. After the EMT conduits corroded though, the water dripped from the corroded ends of the EMT conduits onto the top of the saltwell pipe, corroding the two holes into the top of the line. If the heat tracing hot splice box had not allowed moisture to enter the EMT conduits, the saltwell piping would not have corroded and caused SL-119 to fail

  12. Enhancing Brassinosteroid Signaling via Overexpression of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum SlBRI1 Improves Major Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses through the receptor, Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1, which perceives BRs and initiates BR signaling. There is considerable potential agricultural value in regulating BR signaling in crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of overexpressing the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum BRI1 gene, SlBRI1, on major agronomic traits, such as seed germination, vegetative growth, fruit ethylene production, carotenoid accumulation, yield, and quality attributes. SlBRI1 overexpression enhanced the endogenous BR signaling intensity thereby increasing the seed germination rate, lateral root number, hypocotyl length, CO2 assimilation, plant height, and flower size. The transgenic plants also showed an increase in fruit yield and fruit number per plant, although the mean weight of individual fruit was reduced, compared with wild type. SlBRI1 overexpression also promoted fruit ripening and ethylene production, and caused an increase in levels of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and soluble sugars during fruit ripening. An increased BR signaling intensity mediated by SlBRI1 overexpression was therefore positively correlated with carotenoid accumulation and fruit nutritional quality. Our results indicate that enhancing BR signaling by overexpression of SlBRI1 in tomato has the potential to improve multiple major agronomic traits.

  13. Increased survival of CBA pluripotent haemopoietic stem cells in vitro induced by a marrow stromal factor in Sl/Sl/sup d/ mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, M J; Patt, H M

    1979-07-01

    Media conditioned by marrow adherent cells from anaemic Sl/Sl/sup d/ and W/W/sup v/ mice increased the 24-h survival of CBA CFU/sub s/ in vitro compared to fresh medium to about the same extent as marrow-conditioned medium from normal Sl/sup +//Sl/sup +/, W/sup +//W/sup +/, and CBA mice. Sl/Sl/sup d/ marrow-conditioned medium also increased the percentage of CFU/sub s/ in DNA synthesis to the same extent as CBA marrow-conditioned medium. These results demonstrate that Sl/Sl/sup d/ mice produce a marrow stromal factor that increases both survival of CFU/sub s/ and the percentage of CFU/sub s/ in DNA synthesis in vitro. Therefore, the defective haemopoietic microenvironment of Sl/Sl/sup d/ mice is not due to a deficiency in the production of this factor.

  14. sl3-web bases, intermediate crystal bases and categorification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We give an explicit graded cellular basis of the sl3-web algebra K_S. In order to do this, we identify Kuperberg's basis for the sl3-web space W_S with a version of Leclerc-Toffin's intermediate crystal basis and we identify Brundan, Kleshchev and Wang's degree of tableaux with the weight of flows...... on webs and the q-degree of foams. We use this to give a “foamy” version of Hu and Mathas graded cellular basis of the cyclotomic Hecke algebra which turns out to be a graded cellular basis of the sl3-web algebra K_S. We restrict ourselves to the sl3 case here, but our approach should, up...... to the combinatorics of sln-webs, work for all n>1....

  15. Finite abelian subalgebra of W(sl(n))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, M.

    1991-03-01

    A representation theoretical construction of the conservation laws of affine Toda-type systems is described. The construction employs the completely degenerate representations of the extended conformal algebras (W(sl(n)). The conserved charges are shown to generate an infinite dimensional abelian subalgebra of W(sl(n)). Different characterizations of this subalgebra are obtained: As space of physical Fock space operators with dihedral symmetry, as constants of commuting flows of quantum KdV-type equations and as subalgebra of the sl(n) singlets in affine sl(n) level 1 modules. The existence of the subalgebras is established for low rank cases by means of an algorithmic Fock space procedure. (orig.)

  16. Sugawara construction for affine SL(N,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, M.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the sl(N,1) superalgebras, their affine extensions and their representations. This is used to perform a Sugawara construction of the Virasoro algebra. The allowed values of the conformal anomaly and the conformal dimension are computed. (orig.)

  17. Toxicological evaluation of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Rit Bahadur; Kim, Dae Hee; Kim, Lila; Lee, Albert W; Wang, Zhenhua; Gao, Yonglin

    2018-06-01

    We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. An in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in Kunming mice showed no clastogenic activities with 6'-SL sodium salt doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw). In an acute toxicity study, the mean lethal dose of 6'-SL sodium salt was greater than 20 g/kg bw in rats. In a 13-week subchronic toxicity investigation, no effects were found at doses up to 5.0 g/kg bw of 6'-SL sodium salt in food consumption, body weight, clinical signs, blood biochemistry and hematology, urinalysis, or ophthalmic and histological macroscopic examination of organs. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 5.0 g/kg bw/day in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  19. Ekonomický personalismus a politika KDU-ČSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Stulík

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the phenomenon of economics in the doctrine of personalism and its consequences in the sphere of politics. Within this analysis, some economic distinctions between personalism, on the one hand, and libertarianism and neomarxism, on the other, are identified through a focus on the hermeneutics of personalism and its logical ideological results. These results have the form of testable propositions such as a pregnant definition of dignity, support for the concept of workfare, the family as the “core”, and the belief in the social market, which leads to progressive taxation and interventions in the labor market. These propositions are contained in KDU-ČSL policies, explicitly declared in the manifestos “Volební program 2010–2014”, “Volební program 2013–2017”, and other documents, as well as speeches of KDU-ČSL representatives, mainly of the chairman Pavel Bělobrádek. The connection between personalism and KDU-ČSL policies is then tested by metaphor analysis and the outcomes provide answers to two questions – first, whether the theory of personalism is present in KDU-ČSL policies; second, whether the KDU-ČSL could be subsumed under the socio-economic cleavage in the Czech context, and if so, then to which particular space.

  20. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  1. sl(2)-1/2 and the triplet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridout, David

    2010-01-01

    Conformal field theories with sl(2) -1/2 symmetry are studied with a view to investigating logarithmic structures. Applying the parafermionic coset construction to the non-logarithmic theory, a part of the structure of the triplet model is uncovered. In particular, the coset theory is shown to admit the triplet W-algebra as a chiral algebra. This motivates the introduction of an augmented sl(2) -1/2 -theory for which the corresponding coset theory is precisely the triplet model. This augmentation is envisaged to lead to a precise characterisation of the 'logarithmic lift' of the non-logarithmic sl(2) -1/2 -theory that has been proposed by Lesage et al.

  2. Use of Industrial Components in SL/BT Equipment Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E

    1999-01-01

    The control system of all SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices is presently being refurbished, using solely standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers serve as equipment controllers. They are connected through Profibus to a WinNT front-end running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and gateway for remote access. A variant configuration, where the PLCs are directly linked to Ethernet, has been used for controlling the SPS Q measurement kickers. These and some other SL/BT projects will be reviewed where fully off-the-shelf components have been successfully integrated into the SL accelerator controls infrastructure. The arguments leading to the various technical choices will be laid down including a report of the experience gained. Finally, the presentation will address the perspective and current ideas for using industrial components in controlling SL/BT equipment during the LHC era.

  3. Design tool for TOF and SL based 3D cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Gregory; Thorstensen, Jostein; Bakke, Kari Anne Hestnes; Risholm, Petter

    2017-10-30

    Active illumination 3D imaging systems based on Time-of-flight (TOF) and Structured Light (SL) projection are in rapid development, and are constantly finding new areas of application. In this paper, we present a theoretical design tool that allows prediction of 3D imaging precision. Theoretical expressions are developed for both TOF and SL imaging systems. The expressions contain only physically measurable parameters and no fitting parameters. We perform 3D measurements with both TOF and SL imaging systems, showing excellent agreement between theoretical and measured distance precision. The theoretical framework can be a powerful 3D imaging design tool, as it allows for prediction of 3D measurement precision already in the design phase.

  4. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  5. Dia mundial da espirometria na ESTeSL

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Hermínia Brites; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-01-01

    Objectivos do estudo: associar a ESTeSL e a AC de CPL às comemorações do Dia Mundial da Espirometria promovidas pela Fundação Europeia do Pulmão; realizar o maior número possível de espirometrias; consciencializar a comunidade para o papel da espirometria no diagnóstico precoce da patologia respiratória; colocar a ESTeSL, enquanto entidade formadora de Técnicos de Cardiopneumologia, na primeira linha das iniciativas relacionadas com o estudo espirométrico; identificar possíveis alter...

  6. American Library Association (ALA no Second Life (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele Grenge Vignoli

    Full Text Available A American Library Association (ALA está inserida no contexto de Realidade Virtual (RV em 3D, por meio de sua atuação no Second Life (SL, com a ALA Island. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o atendimento virtual a bibliotecários no SL; identificar produtos e serviços que a ALA oferece no SL e analisar sua infraestrutura. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a análise documental, ação em que a ALA Island foi observada/explorada e estruturada em dados; e o questionário - enviado a uma bibliotecária da ALA Island. Os resultados demonstram que a atuação da ALA no SL tem como propósito central a divulgação de seus projetos, os eventos físicos e os virtuais e o apoio ao bibliotecário em sua vida profissional. A ALA está inserida em diversos recursos da Web 2.0, além do SL, como blogs, wikis, sites de relacionamento, entre outros. Toda a trajetória da ALA foi analisada, assim como as especificidades do seu trabalho realizado para os bibliotecários. Observou-se que o atendimento a bibliotecários no SL é realizado por meio de robôs e indicação de notecards e hiperlinks informativos. No SL, a ALA disponibiliza diversos serviços e produtos aos bibliotecários, como os relacionados com os escritórios, comitês e instituições, além dos serviços e produtos disponíveis no site e no escritório da ALA em Washington-DC e de seus representantes. Os recursos da ALA e do SL, assim como a inserção de bibliotecários em Realidade Virtual (RV precisam ser estudados por meio de pesquisas, para dinamizar e aproximar essa realidade desses profissionais.

  7. About the phase space of SL(3) black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo-Bizet, Alejandro [SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, 34128 Trieste (Italy); Giraldo-Rivera, V.I. [SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, 34128 Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-03-17

    In this note we address some issues of recent interest, related to the asymptotic symmetry algebra of higher spin black holes in sl(3,ℝ)×sl(3,ℝ) Chern Simons (CS) formulation. We compute the fixed time Dirac bracket algebra that acts on two different phase spaces. Both of these spaces contain black holes as zero modes. The result for one of these phase spaces is explicitly shown to be isomorphic to W{sub 3}{sup (2)}×W{sub 3}{sup (2)} in first order perturbations.

  8. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  9. Gravitation SL(2,C) gauge theory and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe; Nissani, Noah

    1990-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive presentation of the SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation along with some recent developments in the problem of Conservation Laws in General Relativity. Emphasis is put on quadratic Lagrangians which yield the Einstein field equations, as compared with Hilbert's original linear Langrangian, thus gravitation follows the other Gauge Fields all of which are derived from nonlinear Lagrangians.

  10. Characterization of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is endemic in Ghana as in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to characterize Anopheles gambiae s.l. and determine pyrethroid resistance profiles relative to physicochemical properties of breeding habitats in Accra, Ghana. Eight aquatic habitats containing Anopheles larvae were ...

  11. A note on Valeriana jatamansi Jones (Caprifoliaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabberley, D.J.; Noltie, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The tangled arguments around the names of jatamansi drug plants are examined and the correct synonymies and typifications for Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. and V. jatamansi Jones (both Caprifoliaceae s.l.) are provided. The conservation status of the former, and the need for further work on the

  12. Role of dystroglycan in limiting contraction-induced injury to the sarcomeric cytoskeleton of mature skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Turk, Rolf; Willer, Tobias; Beltrán, Daniel; Inamori, Kei-Ichiro; Peterson, Taylor A; Engle, Jeffrey; Prouty, Sally; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Saito, Fumiaki; Anderson, Mary E; Campbell, Kevin P

    2016-09-27

    Dystroglycan (DG) is a highly expressed extracellular matrix receptor that is linked to the cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle. DG is critical for the function of skeletal muscle, and muscle with primary defects in the expression and/or function of DG throughout development has many pathological features and a severe muscular dystrophy phenotype. In addition, reduction in DG at the sarcolemma is a common feature in muscle biopsies from patients with various types of muscular dystrophy. However, the consequence of disrupting DG in mature muscle is not known. Here, we investigated muscles of transgenic mice several months after genetic knockdown of DG at maturity. In our study, an increase in susceptibility to contraction-induced injury was the first pathological feature observed after the levels of DG at the sarcolemma were reduced. The contraction-induced injury was not accompanied by increased necrosis, excitation-contraction uncoupling, or fragility of the sarcolemma. Rather, disruption of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton was evident as reduced passive tension and decreased titin immunostaining. These results reveal a role for DG in maintaining the stability of the sarcomeric cytoskeleton during contraction and provide mechanistic insight into the cause of the reduction in strength that occurs in muscular dystrophy after lengthening contractions.

  13. Silencing of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 (SlPLC2) reduces plant susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonorazky, Gabriela; Guzzo, María Carla; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Laxalt, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    The tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) gene family is composed of six members, named SlPLC1 to SlPLC6, differentially regulated on pathogen attack. We have previously shown that the fungal elicitor xylanase induces a raise of SlPLC2 and SlPLC5

  14. Wrapping corrections beyond the sl(2) sector in N = 4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, M.; Ratti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Macorini, G. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    The sl(2) sector of N = 4 SYM theory has been much studied and the anomalous dimensions of those operators are well known. Nevertheless, many interesting operators are not included in this sector. We consider a class of twist operators beyond the sl(2) subsector introduced by Freyhult, Rej and Zieme. They are spin n, length-3 operators. At one-loop they can be identified with three gluon operators. At strong coupling, they are associated with spinning strings with two spins in AdS space and charge in S{sup 5}. We exploit the Y-system to compute the leading weak-coupling four loop wrapping correction to their anomalous dimension. The result is written in closed form as a function of the spin n. We combine the wrapping correction with the known four loop asymptotic Bethe Ansatz contribution and analyze special limits in the spin n. In particular, at large n, we prove that a generalized Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity holds. At negative unphysical spin, we present a simple BFKL-like equation predicting the rightmost leading poles. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. EXTERIOR PHENOTYPICAL PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AT ROSO SL EGGS HYBRID AT 45 WEEKS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA PASCALĂU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological material which was studied has been represented by 34 ROSO SL hybrid that lay eggs, of 45 weeks of age. We have analyzed the 45 weeks age as a middle age for the intensity of egg laying on the level of over 80%. Measurements have been made for the following conformation traits: body weight, body length, former depth, former width, pelvis width, length of the breast-bone careen, thoracic perimeter, shin perimeter and length. The measurements have been made according to the methodology and the known speciality instruments. The observation data have been overworked, this way we have established the average values and the variability parameters for the traits we followed, which fit the values presented in the specialty literature and are even over these for the age group chosen for studies. The body weight of 2058.82 ± 38.49 g, superior to the one mentioned in the technological guide, confirms a proper unrolling of the body weight deposits and shows that the Roso SL hybrid will properly support both the body growth in weight and also egg production in parallel, respectively this double effort, fact that gives the hybrid a higher quality. Other registered values are of 18.06 ± 0.15 for the body length, of 10.85 ± 0.11 cm for the length of the breastbone careen, together with the sizes which maintain a proper egg production, such as the width of the pelvis of 9.75 ± 0.14, the former width of 6.78 ± 0.10 cm and, why not, even the former depth of 10.72 ± 0.12. We would also notice an appreciable uniformity of these values, the limits of the variation factor being between 4.66 (length of the shin and 8.36 (former width. The values that the biological material represent for the characters we studied, convince us about the hybrid’s availability for being exploited in the egg production.

  16. The CERN PS/SL Controls Java Application Programming Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Deloose; J. Cuperus; P. Charrue; F. DiMaio; K. Kostro; M. Vanden Eynden; W. Watson

    1999-01-01

    The PS/SL Convergence Project was launched in March 1998. Its objective is to deliver a common control as infrastructure for the CERN accelerators by year 2001. In the framework of this convergence activity, a project was launched to develop a Java Application Programming Interface (API) between programs written in the Java language and the PS and SL accelerator equipment. This Java API was specified and developed in collaboration with TJNAF. It is based on the Java CDEV [1] package that has been extended in order to end up with a CERN/TJNAF common product. It implements a detailed model composed of devices organized in named classes that provide a property-based interface. It supports data subscription and introspection facilities. The device model is presented and the capabilities of the API are described with syntax examples. The software architecture is also described

  17. A finite oscillator model related to sl(2|1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, E I; Van der Jeugt, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a new model for the finite one-dimensional quantum oscillator based upon the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1). In this setting, it is natural to present the position and momentum operators of the oscillator as odd elements of the Lie superalgebra. The model involves a parameter p (0 j of sl(2|1), the Hamiltonian has the usual equidistant spectrum. The spectrum of the position operator is discrete and turns out to be of the form ±√k, where k = 0, 1, …, j. We construct the discrete position wavefunctions, which are given in terms of certain Krawtchouk polynomials. These wavefunctions have appealing properties, as can already be seen from their plots. The model is sufficiently simple in the sense that the corresponding discrete Fourier transform (relating position wavefunctions to momentum wavefunctions) can be constructed explicitly. (paper)

  18. Four point functions in the SL(2,R) WZW model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minces, Pablo [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), C.C. 67 Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: minces@iafe.uba.ar; Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), C.C. 67 Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Physics Department, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2007-04-19

    We consider winding conserving four point functions in the SL(2,R) WZW model for states in arbitrary spectral flow sectors. We compute the leading order contribution to the expansion of the amplitudes in powers of the cross ratio of the four points on the worldsheet, both in the m- and x-basis, with at least one state in the spectral flow image of the highest weight discrete representation. We also perform certain consistency check on the winding conserving three point functions.

  19. Four point functions in the SL(2,R) WZW model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    We consider winding conserving four point functions in the SL(2,R) WZW model for states in arbitrary spectral flow sectors. We compute the leading order contribution to the expansion of the amplitudes in powers of the cross ratio of the four points on the worldsheet, both in the m- and x-basis, with at least one state in the spectral flow image of the highest weight discrete representation. We also perform certain consistency check on the winding conserving three point functions

  20. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  1. BL.-SL. *balnā „brazdas; oda“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincas Urbutis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BL.-SL. *balnā "SPLINT; HAUT"ZusammenfassungSl. *bolna „Splint (weiche saftige Holzschicht unter der Rinde; dünnes Häutchen, Haut“ (vgl. russ. болона́ „Splint“, čech. blána „dünnes Häutchen; Splint; (ačech. Haut, Fell“ hatte früher seine genaue formelle und semantische Entsprechung lit. *balna, von dem das Verb balnóti „schlagen, prügeln“ gebildet ist, dessen frühere Bedeutung „schälen, abhäuten“ war, vgl. nubalnóti „abscheuern, abhäuten, Haut abreißen“. Das läßt annehmen bl.—sl. *balnā „Splint; Haut“ — eine substantivierte feminine Form von dem Adjektiv, dessen Fortsetzung lit. bálnas (bal̃nas,-à „weiß, mit dem weißen Rücken (von einem Ochsen oder einer Kuh“ ist.

  2. The LISST-SL streamlined isokinetic suspended-sediment profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Agrawal, Yogesh C.; Pottsmith, H. Charles

    2004-01-01

    The new manually deployed Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometer-StreamLined profiler (LISST-SL) represents a major technological advance for suspended-sediment measurements in rivers. The LISST-SL is being designed to provide real-time data on sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions. A pressure sensor and current meter provide real-time depth and ambient velocity data, respectively. The velocity data are also used to control pumpage across an internal laser so that the intake velocity is constantly adjusted to match the ambient stream velocity. Such isokinetic withdrawal is necessary for obtaining representative sedimentary measurements in streamflow, and ensures compliance with established practices. The velocity and sediment-concentration data are used to compute fluxes for up to 32 particle-size classes at points, verticals, or in the entire stream cross section. All data are stored internally, as well as transmitted via a 2-wire conductor to the operator using a specially developed communication protocol. The LISST-SL's performance will be measured and compared to published sedimentological accuracy criteria, and a performance summary will be placed on-line.

  3. Coupling Langevin Dynamics With Continuum Mechanics: Exposing the Role of Sarcomere Stretch Activation Mechanisms to Cardiac Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Washio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance computing approaches that combine molecular-scale and macroscale continuum mechanics have long been anticipated in various fields. Such approaches may enrich our understanding of the links between microscale molecular mechanisms and macroscopic properties in the continuum. However, there have been few successful examples to date owing to various difficulties associated with overcoming the large spatial (from 1 nm to 10 cm and temporal (from 1 ns to 1 ms gaps between the two scales. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel scheme to couple a microscopic model using Langevin dynamics for a protein motor with a finite element continuum model of a beating heart. The proposed scheme allows us to use a macroscale time step that is an order of magnitude longer than the microscale time step of the Langevin model, without loss of stability or accuracy. This reduces the overhead required by the imbalanced loads of the microscale computations and the communication required when switching between scales. An example of the Langevin dynamics model that demonstrates the usefulness of the coupling approach is the molecular mechanism of the actomyosin system, in which the stretch-activation phenomenon can be successfully reproduced. This microscopic Langevin model is coupled with a macroscopic finite element ventricle model. In the numerical simulations, the Langevin dynamics model reveals that a single sarcomere can undergo spontaneous oscillation (15 Hz accompanied by quick lengthening due to cooperative movements of the myosin molecules pulling on the common Z-line. Also, the coupled simulations using the ventricle model show that the stretch-activation mechanism contributes to the synchronization of the quick lengthening of the sarcomeres at the end of the systolic phase. By comparing the simulation results given by the molecular model with and without the stretch-activation mechanism, we see that this synchronization contributes to

  4. Hidden U$_{q}$(sl(2)) x U$_{q}$(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry in two dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremmer, E; Schnittger, J

    1997-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a construction of U_q(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry generators for 2d gravity, where we took the chiral vertex operators of the theory to be the quantum group covariant ones established in earlier works. The basic idea was that the covariant fields in the spin 1/2 representation themselves can be viewed as generators, as they act, by braiding, on the other fields exactly in the required way. Here we transform this construction to the more conventional description of 2d gravity in terms of Bloch wave/Coulomb gas vertex operators, thereby establishing for the first time its quantum group symmetry properties. A U_q(sl(2))\\otimes U_q(sl(2)) symmetry of a novel type emerges: The two Cartan-generator eigenvalues are specified by the choice of matrix element (bra/ket Verma-modules); the two Casimir eigenvalues are equal and specified by the Virasoro weight of the vertex operator considered; the co-product is defined with a matching condition dictated by the Hilbert space structure of...

  5. sln-webs, categorification and Khovanov-Rozansky homologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    In this paper we define an explicit basis for the \\mathfrak{sl}_n-web algebra H_n(\\vec{k}), the \\mathfrak{sl}_n generalization of Khovanov's arc algebra H_{2}(m), using categorified q-skew Howe duality. Our construction, which can be seen as a \\mathfrak{sl}_n-web version of Hu and Mathas graded c...... canonical bases of the \\mathfrak{sl}_n-web space W_n(\\vec{k}) and the MOY-calculus. Latter gives rise to a method to compute colored Reshetikhin-Turaev \\mathfrak{sl}_n-link polynomials....

  6. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    1999-12-01

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue U q [sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve lectotipificaciones: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P. pringlei Leeke, P. tristachyum (Kunth Spreng. subsp. boliviense Chase, y se propone un nombre nuevo para Gymnotrix crinita Kunth.Nomenclatural novelties in Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae. Recent phylogenetic studies with morphological and molecular data provided evidence on the monophyly of the genera Cenchrus, Pennisetum and Odontelytrum. Therefore, these studies propose the unification and transfer of species of Pennisetum and Odontelytrum to the genus Cenchrus, which has priority. Nomenclatural problems were detected when conducting a preliminary taxonomic revision of the genus Cenchrus s.l. from America (Gutiérrez, in preparation. To resolve these inconveniences, nine lectotypifications: Cenchrus bambusoides Caro & E.A. Sánchez, C. brevisetus E. Fourn., C. pennisetiformis Hochst. & Steud. var. intermedia Chiov., C. roseus E. Fourn., Gymnotrix mexicana E. Fourn., Hymenachne montana Griseb., Pennisetum amoenum Hochst. ex A. Rich., P. cenchroides Rich. var. hamphilahense Terracc., P. ciliare (L. Link var. anachoreticum Chiov., P. petraeum Steud., P

  8. Characteristics of photon beams from Philips SL25 linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Ayyangar, K.; Daftari, I.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1990-01-01

    The Philips SL25 accelerator is a multimodality machine offering asymmetric collimator jaws and a new type of beam bending and transport system. It produces photon beams, nominally at 6 and 25 MV, and a scattered electron beam with nine selectable energies between 4 and 22 MeV. Dosimetric characteristics for the 6- and 25-MV photon beams are presented with respect to field flatness, surface and depth dose characteristics, isodose distribution, field size factors for both open and wedged fields, and narrow beam transmission data in different materials

  9. Electron beam characteristics on a Philips SL25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Daftari, I.K.; Ayyangar, K.M.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1990-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements at nominal electron energies of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, and 22 MeV were made for different sized, open-sided applicators on two Philips SL25 linear accelerators. Measurements include beam flatness, percentage depth dose, surface dose, isodose curves, field size dependence, output at extended distances, virtual source position, and required low melting point alloy thickness for field shaping. These measurements are presented to document the characteristics of electron beams with a new type of applicator design on this series of Philips accelerators

  10. Diff(S1)/SL(2,R) and Teichmueller space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, S.; Verjovsky, A.

    1988-08-01

    It is shown that the unique homogeneous Kaehler metric carried by M=Diff(S 1 )/SL(2,R) induces the Weil-Petersson metric on the Teichmueller space. This is via our identification of M as a holomorphic submanifold of universal Teichmueller space T(1). The identification was obtained simply by noting that every diffeomorphism of S 1 is a quasisymmetric homeomorphism. Our computations allow us also to prove that every T(G), G any infinite Fuchsian group, projects out of M transversely. This last assertion is related to the ''fractal'' nature of G-invariant quasicircles. (author). 12 refs

  11. Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Hugo F; Morrone, Osvaldo

    2012-01-01

    Recientes estudios filogenéticos con datos morfológicos y moleculares aportaron evidencia sobre la monofilia de los géneros Cenchrus, Pennisetum y Odontelytrum y, por ello, se propuso su unificación y transferencia a Cenchrus, el cual tiene prioridad. Resultados preliminares de la revisión taxonómica del género Cenchrus s.l. para América (Gutiérrez, en preparación) permitieron detectar problemas nomenclaturales. Para resolver dichos inconvenientes, en el presente trabajo se presentan nueve le...

  12. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine

  13. Gigafida and slWaC: topic comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Logar Berginc

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the following two issues are analyzed: (a incorporation of texts from the Internet into existing reference corpora and comparison with the existence of web corpora, and (b the latest two corpora of Slovenian language texts: the Gigafida corpus consisting mainly of printed texts and to a lesser extent also web texts, and the slWaC corpus which is entirely compiled from web texts. First, similarities and differences between the two corpora are identified using the topic modelling method, and then the same method is applied to the individual taxonomic categories of the Gigafida corpus. The first part of the analysis showed that the work of reference corpus compilers is currently still incoherent with regard to the incorporation of Internet texts into corpora which should reveal the overall picture of a certain language. In case compilers decide to incorporate web texts, the range of included genres is generally broad. The second part of the analysis showed a significant thematic variation between the Gigafida and slWaC corpora, and pointed out the most typical themes covered by each of the six Gigafida corpus parts.

  14. The elliptic quantum algebra Uq,p(sl-hatN) and its vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Wenjing; Ding Xiangmao

    2009-01-01

    We construct a realization of the elliptic quantum algebra U q,p (sl-hat N ) for any given level k in terms of free boson fields and their twisted partners. It can be considered as the elliptic deformation of the Wakimoto realization of the quantum affine algebra U q (sl-hat N ). We also construct a family of screening currents, which commute with the currents of U q,p (sl-hat N ) up to total q-differences. And we give explicit twisted expressions for the type I and type II vertex operators of U q,p (sl-hat N ) by twisting the known results of the type I vertex operators of the quantum affine algebra U q (sl-hat N ) and the new results of the type II vertex operators of U q (sl-hat N ) we obtained in this paper.

  15. A Novel, In-solution Separation of Endogenous Cardiac Sarcomeric Proteins and Identification of Distinct Charged Variants of Regulatory Light Chain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Sarah B.; Reisdorph, Rick; Armstrong, Mike L.; Warren, Chad M.; Reisdorph, Nichole; Solaro, R. John; Buttrick, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular conformation of the cardiac myosin motor is modulated by intermolecular interactions among the heavy chain, the light chains, myosin binding protein-C, and titin and is governed by post-translational modifications (PTMs). In-gel digestion followed by LC/MS/MS has classically been applied to identify cardiac sarcomeric PTMs; however, this approach is limited by protein size, pI, and difficulties in peptide extraction. We report a solution-based work flow for global separation of endogenous cardiac sarcomeric proteins with a focus on the regulatory light chain (RLC) in which specific sites of phosphorylation have been unclear. Subcellular fractionation followed by OFFGEL electrophoresis resulted in isolation of endogenous charge variants of sarcomeric proteins, including regulatory and essential light chains, myosin heavy chain, and myosin-binding protein-C of the thick filament. Further purification of RLC using reverse-phase HPLC separation and UV detection enriched for RLC PTMs at the intact protein level and provided a stoichiometric and quantitative assessment of endogenous RLC charge variants. Digestion and subsequent LC/MS/MS unequivocally identified that the endogenous charge variants of cardiac RLC focused in unique OFFGEL electrophoresis fractions were unphosphorylated (78.8%), singly phosphorylated (18.1%), and doubly phosphorylated (3.1%) RLC. The novel aspects of this study are that 1) milligram amounts of endogenous cardiac sarcomeric subproteome were focused with resolution comparable with two-dimensional electrophoresis, 2) separation and quantification of post-translationally modified variants were achieved at the intact protein level, 3) separation of intact high molecular weight thick filament proteins was achieved in solution, and 4) endogenous charge variants of RLC were separated; a novel doubly phosphorylated form was identified in mouse, and singly phosphorylated, singly deamidated, and deamidated/phosphorylated forms were

  16. Differentiation and sarcomere formation in skeletal myocytes directly prepared from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a sphere-based culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwlawat, Saowanee; Lynch, Eileen; Glaser, Jennifer; Smit-Oistad, Ivy; Jeffrey, Jeremy; Van Dyke, Jonathan M; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures. A long differentiation period (over 6 weeks) promoted the differentiation of iPSC-derived myogenic progenitors and subsequent myotube formation. These iPSC-derived myotubes contained representative sarcomeric structures, consisting of organized myosin and actin filaments, and could spontaneously contract. We also found that a bioengineering approach using three-dimensional (3D) artificial muscle constructs could facilitate the formation of elongated myotubes. Lastly, we determined how culture surface coating matrices and different supplements would influence terminal differentiation. While both Matrigel and laminin coatings showed comparable effects on muscle differentiation, B27 serum-free supplement in the differentiation medium significantly enhanced myogenesis compared to horse serum. Our findings support the possibility to create an in vitro model of contractile sarcomeric myofibrils for disease modeling and drug screening to study neuromuscular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Irrational free field resolutions for W(sl(n)) and extended Sugawara construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, M.

    1991-03-01

    The existence of Miura-type free field realizations is established for the extended conformal algebras W(sl(n)) at irrational values of the screening parameter. The problem of the 'closure' of the algebra is reduced to a finite dimensional quantum group problem. The structure of the Fock space resolution and the character formulae are obtained for the irreducible modules. They are shown to be isomorphic to the space of sl(n) singlets in sl(n) affine affine level 1 modules. The isomorphism is given by the Φβγ free field realization of sl(n). (orig.)

  18. Silencing SlMED18, tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene, restricts internode elongation and leaf expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunshu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Jianling; Yu, XiaoHui; Guo, Jun-E; Liang, Honglian; Liao, Changguang; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-19

    Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves. The contents of endogenous bioactive GA 3 in SlMED18 silenced lines were slightly less than that in wild type. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes such as SlGACPS and SlGA20x2, auxin transport genes (PIN1, PIN4, LAX1 and LAX2) and several key regulators, KNOX1, KNOX2, PHAN and LANCEOLATE(LA), which involved in the leaf morphogenesis were significantly down-regulated in SlMED18-RNAi lines. These results illustrated that SlMED18 plays an essential role in regulating plant internode elongation and leaf expansion in tomato plants and it acts as a key positive regulator of gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as auxin proper transport signalling. These findings are the basis for understanding the function of the individual Mediator subunits in tomato.

  19. sl(1|2) Super-Toda Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-Ying; Xue, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Liu; Shi, Kang-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Explicit exact solution of supersymmetric Toda fields associated with the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) is constructed. The approach used is a super extension of Leznov Saveliev algebraic analysis, which is based on a pair of chiral and antichiral Drienfeld Sokolov systems. Though such approach is well understood for Toda field theories associated with ordinary Lie algebras, its super analogue was only successful in the super Liouville case with the underlying Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). The problem lies in that a key step in the construction makes use of the tensor product decomposition of the highest weight representations of the underlying Lie superalgebra, which is not clear until recently. So our construction made in this paper presents a first explicit example of Leznov Saveliev analysis for super Toda systems associated with underlying Lie superalgebras of the rank higher than 1.

  20. sl(1|2) Super-Toda Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Xue Panpan; Zhao Liu; Shi Kangjie

    2008-01-01

    Explicit exact solution of supersymmetric Toda fields associated with the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) is constructed. The approach used is a super extension of Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis, which is based on a pair of chiral and antichiral Drienfeld-Sokolov systems. Though such approach is well understood for Toda field theories associated with ordinary Lie algebras, its super analogue was only successful in the super Liouville case with the underlying Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). The problem lies in that a key step in the construction makes use of the tensor product decomposition of the highest weight representations of the underlying Lie superalgebra, which is not clear until recently. So our construction made in this paper presents a first explicit example of Leznov-Saveliev analysis for super Toda systems associated with underlying Lie superalgebras of the rank higher than 1

  1. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbert, Florian; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Halorhodospira halophila SL1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Jean F [ORNL; Majid, Sophia [University of Chicago; Deole, Ratnakar [Oklahoma State University; Brettin, Thomas S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Delano, Susana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gleasner, Cheryl D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Reitenga, Krista K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hoff, Wouter D. [Oklahoma State University

    2013-01-01

    Halorhodospira halophila is among the most halophilic organisms known. It is an obligately photosynthetic and anaerobic purple sulfur bacterium that exhibits autotrophic growth up to saturated NaCl concentrations. The type strain H. halophila SL1 was isolated from a hypersaline lake in Oregon. Here we report the determination of its entire genome in a single contig. This is the first genome of a phototrophic extreme halophile. The genome consists of 2,678,452 bp, encoding 2493 predicted genes as determined by automated genome annotation. Of the 2407 predicted proteins, 1905 were assigned to a putative function. Future detailed analysis of this genome promises to yield insights into the halophilic adaptations of this organism, its ability for photoautotrophic growth under extreme conditions, and its characteristic sulfur metabolism.

  3. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbert, Florian [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sieg, Christoph [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Yang, Gang [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-19

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  4. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle SL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.D.; Andrews, R.B.; Gibson, L.A.; Congdon, C.C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C.D.R.; Jones, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays performed by radioimmunoassay and clonal studies were performed for the first time

  5. Evaluation of haematology analyzer CELL-DYN 3700 SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Suljević

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on the parameters of full blood count and differential white blood count is included in the program of all medical laboratories of primary, secondary and tertiary health care levels. Today, all haematological tests are exclusively performed on the haematology analyzers. Automation of haematology laboratories is a result of the huge requires for haematological test performing, timely issuing of the haematological findings, and possibility of the usage of modern techniques.This work is an evaluation of laser haematology analyzer Cell-Dyn 3700 SL. It investigates the reliability of test results throughout the following parameters: precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of determination methods. It also explores the influence of sample transferring and correlation with haematology analyzer MAXM Retti. Haematology parameters that have been investigated are: white blood cell (WBC, neutrophils (NEU, lymphocytes (LXM, monocytes (MONO, eosinophils (EOS, basophils (BASO, red blood cells (RBC, haemoglobin (HGB, haematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC red cell distribution width (RDW, platelet (PLT, mean platelet volume (MPV, plateletocrit (PCT, and platelet distribution width (PDW.The results confirms that precision of analyzer fulfils the reproducibility of testing parameters: WBC, RBC, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and PLT. Correlation coefficient values (r gained throughout the statistical analysis, that is linear regression results obtained throughout the comparison of two analyzers are adequate except for MCHC (r = 0.64, what is in accordance with literature data.Accuracy is tested by haematology analyzer method and microscopic differentiating method. Correlation coefficient results for granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes point the accuracy of methods. Sensitivity and specificity parameters fulfil the analytical criteria.It is confirmed that haematology analyzer Cell-Dyn 3700 SL is reliable for

  6. SL-401 and SL-501, Targeted Therapeutics Directed at the Interleukin-3 Receptor, Inhibit the Growth of Leukaemic Cells and Stem Cells in Advanced Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Olga; Benito, Juliana; Brooks, Chris; Wang, Rui-Yu; Korchin, Borys; Rowinsky, Eric K.; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Frankel, Arthur E.; Konopleva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY While imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly efficacious in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), some patients become refractory to these therapies. After confirming that interleukin-3 receptor (IL3R, CD123) is highly expressed on CD34+/CD38− BCR-ABL1+ CML stem cells, we investigated whether targeting IL3R with diphtheria toxin (DT)-IL3 fusion proteins SL-401 (DT388-IL3) and SL-501 (DT388-IL3[K116W]) could eradicate these stem cells. SL-401 and SL-501 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in the KBM5 cell line and its TKI-resistant KBM5-STI subline. Combinations of imatinib with these agents increased apoptosis in KBM5 and in primary CML cells. In six primary CML samples, including CML cells harbouring the ABL1 T315I mutation, SL-401 and SL-501 decreased the absolute numbers of viable CD34+/CD38−/CD123+ CML progenitor cells by inducing apoptosis. IL3-targeting agents reduced clonogenic growth and diminished the fraction of primitive long-term culture-initiating cells in samples from patients with advanced phase CML that were resistant to TKIs or harboured an ABL1 mutation. Survival was also extended in a mouse model of primary TKI-resistant CML blast crisis. These data suggest that the DT-IL3 fusion proteins, SL-401 and SL-501, deplete CML stem cells and may increase the effectiveness of current CML treatment, which principally targets tumour bulk. PMID:24942980

  7. [Comparison of anterior chamber angle examination by UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-jue; Wang, Men; Xia, Wen-tao; Yu, Xiao-ying; Chen, Jie-min; Zhou, Shu; Peng, Shu-ya; Liu, Dong-mei

    2014-08-01

    To compare the agreement of anterior chamber angle examination by ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM), slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT), and gonioscopy in angle recession and angle closure. The anterior chamber angle was measured with UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy in turns for temporal, nasal, superior and inferior quadrant in the same dark room. The results were compared with the agreement of the three methods in angle recession and angle closure by χ2 test and Kappa test. There were no statistically significant differences of the three methods in testing angle closure and angle recession (P>0.05). The consistency of UBM and gonioscopy was better (Kappa value of 0.882) than that of SL-OCT and gonioscopy (Kappa value of 0.624). When testing angle recession, UBM is better than SL-OCT with gonioscopy as the standard. When testing angle closure, UBM, SL-OCT and gonioscopy have good agreement.

  8. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  9. SlBIR3 Negatively Regulates PAMP Responses and Cell Death in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo. We established that SlBIR3 interacts with SlBAK1 and AtBAK1 using yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation and maltose-binding protein pull down assays. We observed that SlBIR3 overexpression in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana has weak effect on growth and development through brassinosteroid (BR signaling. SlBIR3 overexpression in A. thaliana suppressed flg22-induced defense responses, but did not affect infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000. This result was confirmed using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS in tomato in conjunction with PstDC3000 infection. Overexpression of SlBIR3 in tomato (cv. micro-tom and A. thaliana resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In addition, co-silencing SlBIR3 with SlSERK3A or SlSERK3B using VIGS and the tobacco rattle virus (TRV-RNA2 vector containing fragments of both the SlSERK3 and SlBIR3 genes induced spontaneous cell death, indicating a cooperation between the two proteins in this process. In conclusion, our study revealed that SlBIR3 is the ortholog of AtBIR3 and that it participates in BR, PTI, and cell death signaling pathways.

  10. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  11. Differences in Contractile Function of Myofibrils within Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes vs. Adult Ventricular Myofibrils Are Related to Distinct Sarcomeric Protein Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Iorga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the contractile function of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs is key for advancing their utility for cellular disease models, promoting cell based heart repair, or developing novel pharmacological interventions targeting cardiac diseases. The aim of the present study was to understand whether steady-state and kinetic force parameters of β-myosin heavy chain (βMyHC isoform-expressing myofibrils within human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs differentiated in vitro resemble those of human ventricular myofibrils (hvMFs isolated from adult donor hearts. Contractile parameters were determined using the same micromechanical method and experimental conditions for both types of myofibrils. We identified isoforms and phosphorylation of main sarcomeric proteins involved in the modulation of force generation of both, chemically demembranated hESC-CMs (d-hESC-CMs and hvMFs. Our results indicate that at saturating Ca2+ concentration, both human-derived contractile systems developed forces with similar rate constants (0.66 and 0.68 s−1, reaching maximum isometric force that was significantly smaller for d-hESC-CMs (42 kPa than for hvMFs (94 kPa. At submaximal Ca2+-activation, where intact cardiomyocytes normally operate, contractile parameters of d-hESC-CMs and hvMFs exhibited differences. Ca2+ sensitivity of force was higher for d-hESC-CMs (pCa50 = 6.04 than for hvMFs (pCa50 = 5.80. At half-maximum activation, the rate constant for force redevelopment was significantly faster for d-hESC-CMs (0.51 s−1 than for hvMFs (0.28 s−1. During myofibril relaxation, kinetics of the slow force decay phase were significantly faster for d-hESC-CMs (0.26 s−1 than for hvMFs (0.21 s−1, while kinetics of the fast force decay were similar and ~20x faster. Protein analysis revealed that hESC-CMs had essentially no cardiac troponin-I, and partially non-ventricular isoforms of some other sarcomeric proteins

  12. MR imaging near metallic implants using MAVRIC SL: initial clinical experience at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Luis B; Do, Bao H; Gold, Garry E; Hargreaves, Brian A; Koch, Kevin M; Worters, Pauline W; Stevens, Kathryn J

    2015-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of multiacquisition with variable resonance image combination selective (MAVRIC SL) with conventional two-dimensional fast spin-echo (2D-FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) techniques at 3T in imaging patients with a variety of metallic implants. Twenty-one 3T MR studies were obtained in 19 patients with different types of metal implants. Paired MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE sequences were reviewed by two radiologists and compared for in-plane and through-plane metal artifact, visualization of the bone implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, blurring, and overall image quality using a two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. The area of artifact on paired images was measured and compared using a paired Wilcoxon signed rank test. Changes in patient management resulting from MAVRIC SL imaging were documented. Significantly less in-plane and through-plane artifact was seen with MAVRIC SL, with improved visualization of the bone-implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, and superior overall image quality (P = .0001). Increased blurring was seen with MAVRIC SL (P = .0016). MAVRIC SL significantly decreased the image artifact compared to 2D-FSE (P = .0001). Inclusion of MAVRIC SL to the imaging protocol determined the need for surgery or type of surgery in five patients and ruled out the need for surgery in 13 patients. In three patients, the area of interest was well seen on both MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE images, so the addition of MAVRIC had no effect on patient management. Imaging around metal implants with MAVRIC SL at 3T significantly improved image quality and decreased image artifact compared to conventional 2D-FSE imaging techniques and directly impacted patient management. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI Near Metallic Implants Using MAVRIC SL: Initial Clinical Experience at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Luis B.; Do, Bao H.; Gold, Garry E.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Koch, Kevin M.; Worters, Pauline W.; Stevens, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To compare the effectiveness of MAVRIC SL with conventional 2D-FSE MR techniques at 3T in imaging patients with a variety of metallic implants. Materials and Methods Twenty-one 3T MR studies were obtained in 19 patients with different types of metal implants. Paired MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE sequences were reviewed by 2 radiologists, and compared for in-plane and through-plane metal artifact, visualization of the bone implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, blurring, and overall image quality using a 2-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test. The area of artifact on paired images was measured and compared using a paired Wilcoxon signed rank test. Changes in patient management resulting from MAVRIC SL imaging were documented. Results Significantly less in-plane and through-plane artifact was seen with MAVRIC SL, with improved visualization of the bone-implant interface and surrounding soft tissues, and superior overall image quality (p = 0.0001). Increased blurring was seen with MAVRIC SL (p=0.0016). MAVRIC SL significantly decreased the image artifact compared to 2D-FSE (p=0.0001). Inclusion of MAVRIC SL to the imaging protocol determined the need for surgery or type of surgery in 5 patients, and ruled out the need for surgery in 13 patients. In 3 patients the area of interest was well seen on both MAVRIC SL and 2D-FSE images, so the addition of MAVRIC had no effect on patient management. Conclusion Imaging around metal implants with MAVRIC SL at 3T significantly improved image quality and decreased image artifact compared to conventional 2D-FSE imaging techniques, and directly impacted patient management. PMID:25435186

  14. SL1 revisited: functional analysis of the structure and conformation of HIV-1 genome RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Yokoyama, Masaru; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-11

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell). In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle. We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.

  15. The surface disposal concept for LIL/SL waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Most low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LIL/SL) waste result from the nuclear-power industry. Their specific activity level is sufficiently high to justify a protective conditioning and to ensure proper confinement until that level has decreased to harmless levels for human beings and the environment (a few centuries considering the half lives of the radionuclides contained in LIL/SL waste). The disposal concept for such residues relies on a multi-barrier protective system, each barrier being designed to fulfil different or redundant functions in order to delay or mitigate radionuclide transfers first into the environment and onwards to human beings. The originality of the concept pertains to its flexibility, since: it is adaptable to various geological environments and its overall performance may be guaranteed by modulating that of the engineered barriers, and it is suitable for the disposal of different types and sizes of waste packages, as long as their characteristics are consistent with acceptance criteria, which are de facto specific to each case. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects. The safety of the disposal facility is guaranteed by the combination of the package, the concrete structures, the filling materials between packages and the watertight clay cap that will be installed at the end of the operating lifetime of the facility. That layout also takes all natural risks into account. Lastly, all disposal structures are built away from any potential flood zones and from the highest possible level of the groundwater table. Concrete and metal packages are disposed of in slightly different structures. Once a structure is full, concrete packages are immobilised with gravel, whereas metal packages are blocked in place by pouring concrete between them. Once a disposal structure is

  16. The surface disposal concept for LIL/SL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Most low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LIL/SL) waste result from the nuclear-power industry. Their specific activity level is sufficiently high to justify a protective conditioning and to ensure proper confinement until that level has decreased to harmless levels for human beings and the environment (a few centuries considering the half lives of the radionuclides contained in LIL/SL waste). The disposal concept for such residues relies on a multi-barrier protective system, each barrier being designed to fulfil different or redundant functions in order to delay or mitigate radionuclide transfers first into the environment and onwards to human beings. The originality of the concept pertains to its flexibility, since: it is adaptable to various geological environments and its overall performance may be guaranteed by modulating that of the engineered barriers, and it is suitable for the disposal of different types and sizes of waste packages, as long as their characteristics are consistent with acceptance criteria, which are de facto specific to each case. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects. The safety of the disposal facility is guaranteed by the combination of the package, the concrete structures, the filling materials between packages and the watertight clay cap that will be installed at the end of the operating lifetime of the facility. That layout also takes all natural risks into account. Lastly, all disposal structures are built away from any potential flood zones and from the highest possible level of the groundwater table. Concrete and metal packages are disposed of in slightly different structures. Once a structure is full, concrete packages are immobilised with gravel, whereas metal packages are blocked in place by pouring concrete between them. Once a disposal structure is

  17. EFFICACY OF IMIDACLOPRID (CONFIDOR 200 SL AGAINST APHIDS INFESTING WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Joshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 SL was evaluated either alone or with a fungicide (Tilt 0.01% against wheat aphids. There were seven different treatments, including an untreated control. All the treatments were replicated three times in a similar field environment. Population of wheat aphids was recorded on randomly selected five plants in each plot at different intervals, both before and after the spraying. Confidor 200 SL @ 400 ml/ha treatment was found most effective against wheat aphids. However, mixing of Confidor 200 SL @ 100 ml/ha with Tilt @ 0.01 %, was found significantly least effective for wheat aphids control.

  18. Quantization of a relativistic particle on the SL(2.R) manifold based on Hamiltonian reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorjadze, G.; O'Raifeartaigh, L.; Tsutsui, I.

    1994-07-01

    A quantum theory is constructed for the system of a relativistic particle with mass m moving freely on the SL(2.R) group manifold. Applied to the cotangent bundle of SL(2.R). the method of Hamiltonian reduction allows us to split the reduced system into two coadjoint orbits of the group. We find that the Hilbert space consists of states given by the discrete series of the unitary irreducible representations of SL(2.R). and with a positive-definite, discrete spectrum. (author)

  19. On the construction of SL(2,Z) type IIB 5-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.X.; Roy, S.

    1999-01-01

    This talk reviews our recent work on the construction of SL(2,Z) multiplets of type lIB superfivebranes. We here pay particular attention to the methods employed and some salient features of the solutions. (author)

  20. The emergence of sarcomeric, graded-polarity and spindle-like patterns in bundles of short cytoskeletal polymers and two opposite molecular motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, E M; Dey, S; Mogilner, A

    2011-01-01

    We use linear stability analysis and numerical solutions of partial differential equations to investigate pattern formation in the one-dimensional system of short dynamic polymers and one (plus-end directed) or two (one is plus-end, another minus-end directed) molecular motors. If polymer sliding and motor gliding rates are slow and/or the polymer turnover rate is fast, then the polymer-motor bundle has mixed polarity and homogeneous motor distribution. However, if motor gliding is fast, a sarcomeric pattern with periodic bands of alternating polymer polarity separated by motor aggregates evolves. On the other hand, if polymer sliding is fast, a graded-polarity bundle with motors at the center emerges. In the presence of the second, minus-end directed motor, the sarcomeric pattern is more ubiquitous, while the graded-polarity pattern is destabilized. However, if the minus-end motor is weaker than the plus-end directed one, and/or polymer nucleation is autocatalytic, and/or long polymers are present in the bundle, then a spindle-like architecture with a sorted-out polarity emerges with the plus-end motors at the center and minus-end motors at the edges. We discuss modeling implications for actin-myosin fibers and in vitro and meiotic spindles.

  1. Generalized Virasoro constructions and higher spin gravity: An SL(3) example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-06-01

    We consider a SL(3) current algebra and construct bilinears in the currents. A multitude of new Virasoro algebras, differing from the usual Sugawara and coset constructions, are then obtained. Since the SL(3) current algebra is a hidden symmetry of W 3 -gravity, we apply our results to calculate the allowed range for the values of the matter central charge. We find that this depends crucially on a parameter arising from the Sugawara-like constructions. (author). 23 refs

  2. Representations of braid group obtained from quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi.

    1989-07-01

    The quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the coproduct 6x6 of the quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra are computed. Based on the representation 6, the representation of the braid group and the corresponding link polynomial are obtained. The link polynomials based on the representations of the quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra with one row Young tableau are discussed. (author). 11 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating iso...

  4. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  5. Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.; Mokhtari, S.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to the SL(2,R) kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL (2,R) algebra. (orig.)

  6. Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)); Mokhtari, S. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1990-02-08

    Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to the SL(2,R) kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL (2,R) algebra. (orig.).

  7. Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helayel Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.; Mokhtari, S.

    1989-12-01

    Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to SL(2,R)-Kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL(2,R) algebra. (author). 8 refs

  8. The unit group of group algebra $F_qSL(2;Z_3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let $\\F_q$ be a finite field of characteristic $p$ having $q$ elements, where $q = p^k$ and $p\\ge 5$. Let $ SL(2,\\Z_3$ be the special linear group of $2\\times2$ matrices with determinant $1$ over $\\Z_3$. In this note we establish the structure of the unit group of $\\F_q SL(2,\\Z_3$.

  9. Sláintecare - A ten-year plan to achieve universal healthcare in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara; Barry, Sarah; Siersbaek, Rikke; Johnston, Bridget; Ní Fhallúin, Maebh; Thomas, Steve

    2018-05-22

    In May 2017, an Irish cross-party parliamentary committee published the 'Houses of the Oireachtas Committee on the Future of Healthcare "Sláintecare" report'. The report, known as 'Sláintecare', is unique and historic as it is the first time there has been a cross-party political consensus on major health reform in Ireland. Sláintecare sets out a high level policy roadmap to deliver whole system reform and universal healthcare, phased over a ten year period and costed. Sláintecare details reform proposals which, if delivered, will establish; a universal, single-tier health service where patients are treated solely on the basis of health need; the reorientation of the health system 'towards integrated primary and community care, consistent with the highest quality of patient safety in as short a time-frame as possible'. Sláintecare has five interrelated components: population health; entitlements and access to healthcare; integrated care; funding; and implementation. In this article, the authors use documents in the public domain (parliamentary reports, public hearings, submissions to the Committee, media coverage, the final report of the Committee, speeches by Committee members) to describe the policy process and the main contents of the proposed Sláintecare reforms. It is too soon tell if the political consensus in the policy formation can hold for its implementation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiometric characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (t2sl) midwave infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Jean; Giard, E.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.; Caes, M.; Martijn, H.; Costard, E.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) has emerged as a new material technology suitable for high performance infrared (IR) detectors operating from Near InfraRed (NIR, 2-3μm) to Very Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR, λ > 15μm) wavelength domains. To compare their performances with well-established IR technologies such as MCT, InSb or QWIP cooled detectors, specific electrical and radiometric characterizations are needed: dark current, spectral response, quantum efficiency, temporal and spatial noises, stability… In this paper, we first present quantum efficiency measurements performed on T2SL MWIR (3-5μm) photodiodes and on one focal plane array (320x256 pixels with 30μm pitch, realized in the scope of a french collaboration ). Different T2SL structures (InAs-rich versus GaSb-rich) with the same cutoff wavelength (λc= 5μm at 80K) were studied. Results are analysed in term of carrier diffusion length in order to define the optimum thickness and type of doping of the absorbing zone. We then focus on the stability over time of a commercial T2SL FPA (320x256 pixels with 30μm pitch), measuring the commonly used residual fixed pattern noise (RFPN) figure of merit. Results are excellent, with a very stable behaviour over more than 3 weeks, and less than 10 flickering pixels, possibly giving access to long-term stability of IR absolute calibration.

  11. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.

  12. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey

    2017-05-01

    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  14. The quantum Rabi model and Lie algebra representations of sl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Masato; Yamasaki, Taishi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to understand the spectral problem of the quantum Rabi model in terms of Lie algebra representations of sl 2 (R). We define a second order element of the universal enveloping algebra U(sl 2 ) of sl 2 (R), which, through the image of a principal series representation of sl 2 (R), provides a picture equivalent to the quantum Rabi model drawn by confluent Heun differential equations. By this description, in particular, we give a representation theoretic interpretation of the degenerate part of the spectrum (i.e., Judd's eigenstates) of the Rabi Hamiltonian due to Kuś in 1985, which is a part of the exceptional spectrum parameterized by integers. We also discuss the non-degenerate part of the exceptional spectrum of the model, in addition to the Judd eigenstates, from a viewpoint of infinite dimensional irreducible submodules (or subquotients) of the non-unitary principal series such as holomorphic discrete series representations of sl 2 (R). (paper)

  15. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  16. Discrete series representations for sl(2|1), Meixner polynomials and oscillator models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, E I; Van der Jeugt, J

    2012-01-01

    We explore a model for a one-dimensional quantum oscillator based on the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1). For this purpose, a class of discrete series representations of sl(2|1) is constructed, each representation characterized by a real number β > 0. In this model, the position and momentum operators of the oscillator are odd elements of sl(2|1) and their expressions involve an arbitrary parameter γ. In each representation, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian is the same as that of a canonical oscillator. The spectrum of a position operator can be continuous or infinite discrete, depending on the value of γ. We determine the position wavefunctions both in the continuous and the discrete case and discuss their properties. In the discrete case, these wavefunctions are given in terms of Meixner polynomials. From the embedding osp(1|2) subset of sl(2|1), it can be seen why the case γ = 1 corresponds to a paraboson oscillator. Consequently, taking the values (β, γ) = (1/2, 1) in the sl(2|1) model yields a canonical oscillator. (paper)

  17. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  18. IRF models associated with representations of the Lie superalgebras gl(m|n) and sl(m|n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, T.; Fujii, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents two families of exactly solvable interaction round a face (IRF) models associated with representations of the Lie superalgebras gl(m/n) and sl(m/n). These IRF models are the generalizations of integrable spin chains with bosons and fermions. The authors present fusion models associated with higher representations of gl(m/n) and sl(m/n). The authors introduce restricted IRF models both for gl(m/n) and sl(m/n)

  19. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating isolation between the three allopatric populations. In addition, the results also indicate a stronger pre-mating isolation between the two sympatric siblings than between the three allopatric ones, suggesting a role for reinforcement in the speciation of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. complex.

  20. Baxter Q-operator and separation of variables for the open SL(2, R) spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkachov, Sergey E.; Korchemsky, Gregory P.; Manashov, Alexander N.

    2003-01-01

    We construct the Baxter Q-operator and the representation of the Separated Variables (SoV) for the homogeneous open SL(2, R) spin chain. Applying the diagrammatical approach, we calculate Sklyanin's integration measure in the separated variables and obtain the solution to the spectral problem for the model in terms of the eigenvalues of the Q-operator. We show that the transition kernel to the SoV representation is factorized into the product of certain operators each depending on a single separated variable. As a consequence, it has a universal pyramid-like form that has been already observed for vari- ous quantum integrable models such as periodic Toda chain, closed SL(2, R) and SL(2, C) spin chains. (author)

  1. Analysis of the SL-1 Accident Using RELAPS5-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, A.D.; Tomlinson, E.T.

    2007-01-01

    On January 3, 1961, at the National Reactor Testing Station, in Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1) experienced a major nuclear excursion, killing three people, and destroying the reactor core. The SL-1 reactor, a 3 MW t boiling water reactor, was shut down and undergoing routine maintenance work at the time. This paper presents an analysis of the SL-1 reactor excursion using the RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic and nuclear analysis code, with the intent of simulating the accident from the point of reactivity insertion to destruction and vaporization of the fuel. Results are presented, along with a discussion of sensitivity to some reactor and transient parameters (many of the details are only known with a high level of uncertainty)

  2. Importance of biota in radionuclide transport at the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.J.; Grant, J.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    During summer 1981 and 1982, radioecological research was conducted at the Stationary Low Power Reactor-1 radioactive waste disposal area to: (1) identify vegetation, wildlife, and invertebrate species occurring at or using the area; (2) determine radionuclide concentrations in these various ecosystem components; and (3) to evaluate their respective roles in radionuclide uptake and transport through the surrounding environment. Cesium-137 concentrations detected in surface soils, small mammal excavated soils and small mammal tissues collected at the waste disposal site were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than control area samples. Strontium-90 and 235 U analyses of SL-1 and control area samples and projections of total mass of ecosystem components in SL-1 area will be completed in summer of 1983 at which time estimates will be made on the total quantity of fission and activation radionuclides occurring in ecological media at the SL-1 waste disposal area

  3. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp). To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp) is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence. PMID:19284581

  4. Characterization of the hupSL promoter activity in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Pia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 and oxidize it, and a bidirectional hydrogenase that can both oxidize and produce H2.Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous dinitrogen fixing cyanobacterium containing a nitrogenase and an uptake hydrogenase but no bidirectional hydrogenase. Generally, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenases. In this study gel shift assays showed that NtcA has a specific affinity to a region of the hupSL promoter containing a predicted NtcA binding site. The predicted NtcA binding site is centred at 258.5 bp upstream the transcription start point (tsp. To further investigate the hupSL promoter, truncated versions of the hupSL promoter were fused to either gfp or luxAB, encoding the reporter proteins Green Fluorescent Protein and Luciferase, respectively. Results Interestingly, all hupsSL promoter deletion constructs showed heterocyst specific expression. Unexpectedly the shortest promoter fragment, a fragment covering 57 bp upstream and 258 bp downstream the tsp, exhibited the highest promoter activity. Deletion of the NtcA binding site neither affected the expression to any larger extent nor the heterocyst specificity. Conclusion Obtained data suggest that the hupSL promoter in N. punctiforme is not strictly dependent on the upstream NtcA cis element and that the shortest promoter fragment (-57 to tsp is enough for a high and heterocyst specific expression of hupSL. This is highly interesting because it indicates that the information that determines heterocyst specific gene expression might be confined to this short sequence or in the downstream untranslated leader sequence.

  5. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  6. Differential expression of calcium/calmodulin-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Peng, Hui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Jurick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    Calcium has been shown to enhance stress tolerance, maintain firmness and reduce decay in fruits. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also responsive to ethylene. To study their expressions in response to stresses encountered during postharvest handling, tomato fruit at the mature-green stage was subjected to chilling and wounding injuries, infected with Botrytis cinerea and treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. Gene expression studies revealed that the seven SlSRs differentially respond to different stress signals. SlSR2 was the only gene upregulated by all the treatments. SlSR4 acted as a late pathogen-induced gene; it was upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, but downregulated by cold treatment. SlSR3L was cold- and wound-responsive and was also induced by salicylic acid. SlSR1 and SlSR1L were repressed by cold, wounding and pathogen infection, but were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Overall, results of these expression studies indicate that individual SlSRs have distinct roles in responses to the specific stress signals, and SlSRs may act as a coordinator(s) connecting calcium-mediated signaling with other stress signal transduction pathways during fruit ripening and storage. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. First integrals and parametric solutions of third-order ODEs admitting {\\mathfrak{sl}(2, {R})}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A.; Muriel, C.

    2017-05-01

    A complete set of first integrals for any third-order ordinary differential equation admitting a Lie symmetry algebra isomorphic to sl(2, {R}) is explicitly computed. These first integrals are derived from two linearly independent solutions of a linear second-order ODE, without additional integration. The general solution in parametric form can be obtained by using the computed first integrals. The study includes a parallel analysis of the four inequivalent realizations of sl(2, {R}) , and it is applied to several particular examples. These include the generalized Chazy equation, as well as an example of an equation which admits the most complicated of the four inequivalent realizations.

  8. Pro Android Python with SL4A Writing Android Native Apps Using Python, Lua, and Beanshell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrill, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Pro Android Python with SL4A is for programmers and hobbyists who want to write apps for Android devices without having to learn Java first. Paul Ferrill leads you from installing the Scripting Layer for Android (SL4A) to writing small scripts, to more complicated and interesting projects, and finally to uploading and packaging your programs to an Android device. Android runs scripts in many scripting languages, but Python, Lua, and Beanshell are particularly popular. Most programmers know more than one programming language, so that they have the best tool for whatever task they want to accomp

  9. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  10. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  11. Matrix elements of hyperfine structure operators in the SL and jj representations for the s, pN, and dN configurations and the SL-jj transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Matrix elements of the hyperfine operators corresponding to the magnetic-dipole (A) and electric-quadrupole (B) hyperfine structures constants are given as linear combinations of the appropriate radial integrals for all states of the s, p N , and d N configurations in both the SL and pure jj representations. The associated SL-jj transformations are also given. 13 refs., 10 tabs

  12. A characterization of the desarguesian planes of order q2 by SL(2,q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Foulser

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The main result is that if the translation complement of a translation plane of order q2 contains a group isomorphic to SL(2,q and if the subgroups of order q are elations (shears, then the plane is Desarguesian. This generalizes earlier work of Walker, who assumed that the kernel of the plane contained GF(q.

  13. sl (6,r) as the group of symmetries for non relativistic quantum systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown that the 13 one parameter generators of the Lie group SL(6, R) are the maximal group of symmetries for nonrelativistic quantum systems. The group action on the set of states S Ĥ (H complex Hilbert space) preserves transition probabilities as well as the dynamics of the system. By considering a prolongation of ...

  14. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Kron, K.A.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wood samples of 111 Vaccinieae specimens (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.) representing 98 species and 26 genera are investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Vaccinieae delivers taxonomically important characters that can be used to define some

  15. An 8-year experience with routine SL mix patch testing supplemented with Compositae mix in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hausen, B M

    2001-01-01

    Routine patch testing with sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix, supplemented with Compositae mix (CM) and other Compositae extracts and allergens where appropriate, was evaluated over an 8-year period. 190 of 4386 patients tested (4.3%) were Compositae-sensitive, 143 females (mean age 51.5 years) and ...

  16. Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces stronger plant immunity than Salmonella enterica Typhimurium SL1344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debanjana; Panchal, Shweta; Rosa, Bruce A; Melotto, Maeli

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of fresh produce contaminated with bacterial human pathogens has resulted in various, sometimes deadly, disease outbreaks. In this study, we assessed plant defense responses induced by the fully pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in both Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Unlike SL1344, O157:H7 induced strong plant immunity at both pre-invasion and post-invasion steps of infection. For instance, O157:H7 triggered stomatal closure even under high relative humidity, an environmental condition that generally weakens plant defenses against bacteria in the field and laboratory conditions. SL1344 instead induced a transient stomatal immunity. We also observed that PR1 gene expression was significantly higher in Arabidopsis leaves infected with O157:H7 compared with SL1344. These results suggest that plants may recognize and respond to some human pathogens more effectively than others. Furthermore, stomatal immunity can diminish the penetration of human pathogens through the leaf epidermis, resulting in low bacterial titers in the plant apoplast and suggesting that additional control measures can be employed to prevent food contamination. The understanding of how plant responses can diminish bacterial contamination is paramount in preventing outbreaks and improving the safety of food supplies.

  17. Species relationships in Lactuca S.L. (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) inferred from AFLP fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.; Zevenbergen, M.J.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2001-01-01

    An AFLP data set comprising 95 accessions from 20 species of Lactuca s.l. (sensu lato) and related genera was generated using the primer combinations E35/M48 and E35/M49. In phenetic analyses of a data subset, clustering with UPGMA based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient resulted in the highest

  18. Variatie bij de klimop-ereprijs (Veronica hederifolia L. s.l.) op het eiland Texel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Various vegetative and floral characters of plants from 21 local populations of Veronica hederifolia L. s.l. (9 tetraploid: 2n=36; 12 hexaploid: 2n=54) were employed to separate the tetraploid and hexaploid cytodemes. All populations studied originated from the Wadden Island of Texel. The cytodemes

  19. Taxonomic significance of cypsela morphology for the tribe mutisieae (s.l.) (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, R.; Alam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Cypselas of 5 species distributed in 3 genera of the tribe Mutisieae (s.l.) were examined from Pakistan to assess their taxonomic significance. Micro morphological characters of cypsela including shape, pappus and carpopodium have been proved very rewarding to evaluate the taxonomic decisions both at the generic and specific levels. (author)

  20. Two Members of the Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter Family, SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, are Expressed during Fruit Development, and the Overexpression of SlALMT5 Alters Organic Acid Contents in Seeds in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Nakano, Ryohei; Ushijima, Koichiro; Kubo, Yasutaka; Mori, Izumi C; Higashiizumi, Emi; Galis, Ivan; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2016-11-01

    The aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family of proteins transports malate and/or inorganic anions across plant membranes. To demonstrate the possible role of ALMT genes in tomato fruit development, we focused on SlALMT4 and SlALMT5, the two major genes expressed during fruit development. Predicted proteins were classified into clade 2 of the family, many members of which localize to endomembranes. Tissue-specific gene expression was determined using transgenic tomato expressing the β-glucuronidase reporter gene controlled by their own promoters. Both the genes were expressed in vascular bundles connecting to developing seeds in fruit and in the embryo of mature seeds. Further, SlALMT5 was expressed in embryo in developing seeds in fruit. Subcellular localization of both proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was established by transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein fusions in plant protoplasts. SlALMT5 probably localized to other endomembranes as well. Localization of SlALMT5 to the ER was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The transport function of both SlALMT proteins was investigated electrophysiologically in Xenopus oocytes. SlALMT5 transported malate and inorganic anions such as nitrate and chloride, but not citrate. SlALMT4 also transported malate, but the results were less consistent perhaps because it did not localize strongly to the plasma membrane. To elucidate the physiological role of SlALMT5 further, we overexpressed SlALMT5 in tomato. Compared with the wild type, overexpressors exhibited higher malate and citrate contents in mature seeds, but not in fruit. We conclude that the malate transport function of SlALMT5 expressed in developing fruit influences the organic acid contents in mature seeds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  2. Another Representation for the Maximal Lie Algebra of sl(n+2,ℝ in Terms of Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Feroze

    2009-01-01

    of the special linear group of order (n+2, over the real numbers, sl(n+2,ℝ. In this paper, we provide an alternate representation of the symmetry algebra by simple relabelling of indices. This provides one more proof of the result that the symmetry algebra of (ya″=0 is sl(n+2,ℝ.

  3. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  4. On the relation between the modular double of Uq(sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidaiev, Iurii; Teschner, Joerg

    2013-02-01

    We exhibit direct relations between the modular double of U q (sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory. Explicit representations for the fusion- and braiding operations of the quantum Teichmueller theory are immediate consequences. Our results include a simplified derivation of the Clebsch-Gordan decomposition for the principal series of representation of the modular double of U q (sl(2,R)).

  5. Spinor matter fields in SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonowicz, Marek; Szczyrba, Wiktor

    1985-06-01

    We consider the SL(2,C)-covariant Lagrangian formulation of gravitational theories with the presence of spinor matter fields. The invariance properties of such theories give rise to the conservation laws (the contracted Bianchi identities) having in the presence of matter fields a more complicated form than those known in the literature previously. A general SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravity is cast into an SL(2,C)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation. Breaking the SL(2,C) symmetry of the system to the SU(2) symmetry, by introducing a spacelike slicing of spacetime, we get an SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian picture. The qualitative analysis of SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity in the SU(2)-covariant formulation enables us to define the dynamical symplectic variables and the gauge variables of the theory under consideration as well as to divide the set of field equations into the dynamical equations and the constraints. In the SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation the primary constraints, which are generic for first-order matter Lagrangians (Dirac, Weyl, Fierz-Pauli), can be reduced. The effective matter symplectic variables are given by SU(2)-spinor-valued half-forms on three-dimensional slices of spacetime. The coupled Einstein-Cartan-Dirac (Weyl, Fierz-Pauli) system is analyzed from the (3+1) point of view. This analysis is complete; the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory split into 18 gravitational dynamical equations, 8 dynamical Dirac equations, and 7 first-class constraints. The system has 4+8=12 independent degrees of freedom in the phase space.

  6. Spinor matter fields in SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, M.; Szczyrba, W.

    1985-01-01

    We consider the SL(2,C)-covariant Lagrangian formulation of gravitational theories with the presence of spinor matter fields. The invariance properties of such theories give rise to the conservation laws (the contracted Bianchi identities) having in the presence of matter fields a more complicated form than those known in the literature previously. A general SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravity is cast into an SL(2,C)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation. Breaking the SL(2,C) symmetry of the system to the SU(2) symmetry, by introducing a spacelike slicing of spacetime, we get an SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian picture. The qualitative analysis of SL(2,C) gauge theories of gravity in the SU(2)-covariant formulation enables us to define the dynamical symplectic variables and the gauge variables of the theory under consideration as well as to divide the set of field equations into the dynamical equations and the constraints. In the SU(2)-covariant Hamiltonian formulation the primary constraints, which are generic for first-order matter Lagrangians (Dirac, Weyl, Fierz-Pauli), can be reduced. The effective matter symplectic variables are given by SU(2)-spinor-valued half-forms on three-dimensional slices of spacetime. The coupled Einstein-Cartan-Dirac (Weyl, Fierz-Pauli) system is analyzed from the (3+1) point of view. This analysis is complete; the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory split into 18 gravitational dynamical equations, 8 dynamical Dirac equations, and 7 first-class constraints. The system has 4+8 = 12 independent degrees of freedom in the phase space

  7. Response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants treated with triacontanol and Asahi SL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect of short-term chilling on plants earlier treated with triacontanol (TRIA and Asahi SL was investigated. These plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with far flux density of 220 µmol × m-2 × s-1, with a photoperiod 16/8. At the 4th true leaf stage, the respective experimental series were sprayed with: 1 H2O - control, 2 TRIA 0.01, 3 TRIA 0.1, 4 TRIA 1.0 mg × dm-3, 5 Asahi SL 0.2, 6 Asahi SL 0.3%. After 24 hours one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results have shown that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in chlorophyll a+b content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf area and in the activity of catalase in leaves. The application of TRIA or ASAHI SL on leaves in the pre-stress period reduced the values of the traits which had been increased as a result of chilling and increased those which had reduced. Generally, TRIA was most effective at a concentration of 0.1 mg × dm-3, and Asahi SL at a concentration of 0.3%.

  8. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  9. Effect of growth regulator Kelpak SL on the formation of aboveground biomass of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt. A. Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the cultivation of Festulolium braunii cv. 'Felopa' was carried out using polyurethane rings with a diameter of 36 cm and a height of 40 cm, which were sunk into the ground to a depth of 30 cm and filled with soil material. In this experiment, Kelpak SL was used as a bioregulator. It consists of natural plant hormones such as auxins (11 mg in dm3 and cytokinins (0.03 mg in dm3. The experimental factors were as follows: A1-control; A2 – 20% solution of the growth regulator; A3 – 40% solution; and A4 – 60% solution. The preparation was applied to all three regrowths in the form of spray, at a rate of 3 cm3 ring-1, at the stem elongation stage. The full period of this experiment was in the years 2010–2011. During this time, detailed investigations were carried out on aboveground biomass yield (g DM ring-1, number of shoots (pcs ring-1, leaf blade length (cm, width of the leaf blade base (mm, leaf greenness index (SPAD. The study showed a significant effect of the growth regulator on the formation of Festulolium braunii biomass. However, its highest effectiveness was observed when the 60% solution was applied.

  10. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  11. APLICAÇÃO DO ÍNDICE DE HACK (SL A UM TRECHO DO RIO ZÊZERE, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vieira Souza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Os perfis longitudinais de rios são sensíveis a movimentações tectônicas causando alterações no nível de base. Devido a isto, verifica-se incisão fluvial a montante de compartimentos abatidos e agradação a jusante de compartimentos levantados. Os canais fl uviais são dinâmicos e se modificam através da incisão e da agradação periódicas, o estudo destes processos reveste-se de grande importância na compreensão das alterações do relevo. A formação de vales encaixados com perfis típicos em V, ou o aparecimento de trechos de agradação pode ter origem em causas tectônicas, ou outras. Hack (1973 propôs um índice (stream-gradient index para detectar estas alterações em cursos fluviais, decorrentes de mudanças no substrato geológico, aporte de carga, ou tectonismo. O stream-gradient index, ou simplesmente índice SL, relação declive (slope vs. comprimento do curso (length. O presente trabalho objetiva identificar rupturas de declive, num trecho do rio Zêzere, afluente do rio Tejo. O rio Zêzere corre num vale encaixado no interior da Cordilheira Central Portuguesa. Para identificar as roturas de declive utilizou-se o perfil longitudinal, índice de Hack, SL (slope VS. Lenght. Como resultado foi possível detectar locais onde sofreram abatimentos tectônicos, principalmente entre Pedrógão e Bogas de Baixo, foi possível também observar a influência de processos de erosão diferencial e de soleiras Quartzíticas de Farjão a Sarzedas na regularização dos processos tectônicos a montante daqueles níveis de base locais.

  12. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  13. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  14. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  15. Ecological characterisation of the Colombian entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Torres, M C; Sáenz, A

    2013-05-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.

  16. Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We then consi......Boundary conditions and gluing conditions for open strings and D-branes in the SL(2, R) WZWN model, corresponding to AdS , are discussed. Some boundary conditions and gluing conditions previously considered in the literature are shown to be incompatible with the variation principle. We...... then consider open string boundary conditions corresponding to a certain field-dependent gluing condition. This allows us to consider open strings with constant energy and angular momentum. Classically, these open strings naturally generalize the open strings in flat Minkowski space. For rigidly rotating open...

  17. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  18. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  19. Squares of White Noise, SL(2,C) and Kubo - Martin -Schwinger States

    OpenAIRE

    Prokhorenko, D. V.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the structure of Kubo - Martin - Schwinger (KMS) states on some extension of the universal enveloping algebra of SL(2,C}. We find that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all covariant KMS states on this algebra and the set of all probability measures d\\mu on the real half-line, which decrease faster than any inverse polynomial. This problem is connected to the problem of KMS states on square of white noise algebra.

  20. New link polynomial obtained from octet representation of quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi.

    1989-08-01

    The quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the coproduct 8x8 of the quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra are computed. In the decomposition of the coproduct 8x8, there are two octet representations which are identified by the symmetry in changing the order of the factor octet representations. The corresponding R q matrix, and a new link polynomial are obtained. (author). 14 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Variatie bij de klimop-ereprijs (Veronica hederifolia L. s.l.) op het eiland Texel

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Various vegetative and floral characters of plants from 21 local populations of Veronica hederifolia L. s.l. (9 tetraploid: 2n=36; 12 hexaploid: 2n=54) were employed to separate the tetraploid and hexaploid cytodemes. All populations studied originated from the Wadden Island of Texel. The cytodemes differ in a number of well correlated characters. There is a clear cause for giving these taxa specific rather than subspecific rank and the tetraploid Veronica sublobata Fisch. is recognized next ...

  2. Magnetic properties of S=l/2 antiferromagnetic XXZ model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Tomita, Yusuke; Kawashima, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We study magnetic properties of the S=l/2 Ising-like XXZ model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattices considering the effect of long range interactions. By performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we find that magnetization plateau phases appear at one-half and one-third of the saturation magnetization. We also study the finite temperature transition to the magnetic plateau phases and discuss the universality class of the transition.

  3. The universal R-matrix and its associated quantum algebra as functionals of the classical r-matrix: the sl2 case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, L.; Maillet, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Using a geometrical approach to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) and its universal quantum R-matrix are explicitly constructed as functionals of the associated classical r-matrix. In this framework, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) is naturally imbedded in the universal enveloping algebra of the sl 2 current algebra. (author) 13 refs

  4. Extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters, or modular properties of a simple non-rational conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, D.; Pakman, A.; Troost, J.

    2004-01-01

    We define extended SL(2,R)/U(1) characters which include a sum over winding sectors. By embedding these characters into similarly extended characters of N=2 algebras, we show that they have nice modular transformation properties. We calculate the modular matrices of this simple but non-trivial non-rational conformal field theory explicitly. As a result, we show that discrete SL(2,R) representations mix with continuous SL(2,R) representations under modular transformations in the coset conformal field theory. We comment upon the significance of our results for a general theory of non-rational conformal field theories. (author)

  5. BFV-BRST analysis of the classical and quantum q-deformations of the sl(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, O.F.

    1993-01-01

    BFV-BRST charge for q-deformed algebras is not unique. Different constructions of it in the classical as well as in the quantum phase space for the q-deformed algebra sl q (2) are discussed. Moreover, deformation of the phase space without deforming the generators of sl(2) is considered. h -q-deformation of the phase space is shown to yield the Witten's second deformation. To study the BFV-BRST cohomology problem when both the quantum phase space and the group are deformed, a two parameter deformation of sl(2) is proposed, and its BFV-BRST charge is given. (author). 21 refs

  6. Jacobson generators, Fock representations and statistics of sl(n + 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2000-10-01

    The properties of A-statistics, related to the class of simple Lie algebras sl(n + 1), n is an element of Z + (Palev, T.D.: Preprint JINR E17-10550 (1977); hep-th/9705032), are further investigated. The description of each sl(n + 1) is carried out via generators and their relations (see eq. (2.5)), first introduced by Jacobson. The related Fock spaces W p , p is an element of N, are finite-dimensional irreducible sl(n + 1)-modules. The Pauli principle of the underlying statistics is formulated. In addition the paper contains the following new results: (a) the A-statistics are interpreted as exclusion statistics; (b) within each W p operators B(p) 1 ± ,...,B(p) n ± , proportional to the Jacobson generators, are introduced. It is proved that in an appropriate topology (Definition 2) lim p→∞ B(p) i ± = B i ± , where B i ± are Bose creation and annihilation operators; (c) it is shown that the local statistics of the degenerated hard-core Bose models and of the related Heisenberg spin models is p = I A-statistics. (author)

  7. Silencing of the SlNAP7 gene influences plastid development and lycopene accumulation in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.

  8. Stationary low power reactor No. 1 (SL-1) accident site decontamination ampersand dismantlement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Army Reactor Area (ARA) II was constructed in the late 1950s as a test site for the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1). The SL-1 was a prototype power and heat source developed for use at remote military bases using a direct cycle, boiling water, natural circulation reactor designed to operate at a thermal power of 3,000 kW. The ARA II compound encompassed 3 acres and was comprised of (a) the SL-1 Reactor Building, (b) eight support facilities, (c) 50,000-gallon raw water storage tank, (d) electrical substation, (e) aboveground 1,400-gallon heating oil tank, (f) underground 1,000-gallon hazardous waste storage tank, and (g) belowground power, sewer, and water systems. The reactor building was a cylindrical, aboveground facility, 39 ft in diameter and 48 ft high. The lower portion of the building contained the reactor pressure vessel surrounded by gravel shielding. Above the pressure vessel, in the center portion of the building, was a turbine generator and plant support equipment. The upper section of the building contained an air cooled condenser and its circulation fan. The major support facilities included a 2,500 ft 2 two story, cinder block administrative building; two 4,000 ft 2 single story, steel frame office buildings; a 850 ft 2 steel framed, metal sided PL condenser building, and a 550 ft 2 steel framed decontamination and laydown building

  9. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Tingting; Guo Yuanru; Pan Qingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  10. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  11. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  12. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of Philips SL-20 linear accelerator used for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Harold; Ganesh, T.; Joshi, R.C.; Julka, P.K.; Rath, G.K.; Chander, Subhash; Pant, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning of a stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) facility on a modified linear accelerator requires validation of mechanical parameters and establishment of parameters, such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), relative output factors (OF), and off axis ratios (OAR). The mechanical and beam characteristics of Philips SL-20 linear accelerator modified for SRS/SRT were evaluated and presented. The SRS/SRT procedure carried on Philips SL-20 linear accelerator with Brown-Robert-Wells (BRW) and relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) head frames along with the Radionics planning system was evaluated. The tertiary collimator consists of the actual treatment cones and their sizes vary from 12.5 mm to 40 mm diameter. The alignment of the auxillary collimator axis with mechanical axes and stability of the isocenter of Philips SL-20 machine was evaluated using Iso-Align device and mechanical isocenter standard (MIS). All the mechanical errors of the linear accelerator were within 1 mm, except the stability of the isocenter while rotating the couch. Alignment of auxiliary collimator axis with the central axis, gantry and couch axes were achieved. The TMR, OF and OAR for 6 MV x-rays from Philips SL-20 linear accelerator for different cone sizes were deduced using a Multidata water phantom with 0.015 cc ion chamber. The difference between 50% width of profiles in two major axes (x and y) were within ± 0.4 mm. The cone dimensions were accurate up to 0.7 mm. The penumbra width for different cones varies from 3.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Dose linearity of the monitoring system was ≤ 1% above 5 MU. The mechanical and beam characteristics including dose linearity of the SL-20 machine are presented. The beam characteristics of this machine are comparable with the other modified linear accelerators for SRS/SRT. The shift of isocenter during rotation of couch can be nullified by fine adjusting laser target localizing frame to the laser position using micrometer screws

  15. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  16. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  17. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Li

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3 in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  18. Methyl valerenate, a new sesquiterpenoid in the essential oil from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. sl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Woerdenbag, HJ; Hendriks, H; Kruizinga, WH; Herrema, JK; Scheffer, J.J C

    1997-01-01

    A new valerenane sesquiterpenoid, methyl valerenate (1), was found in the essential oil from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. Spectral data of methyl valerenate, which was synthesized from valerenic acid (2), are given in this paper.

  19. Circadian regulation of myocardial sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, telethonin: identification of cardiac clock-controlled genes using open access bioinformatics data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Podobed

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and are regulated at the molecular level by a circadian clock mechanism. We and others previously demonstrated that 9-13% of the cardiac transcriptome is rhythmic over 24 h daily cycles; the heart is genetically a different organ day versus night. However, which rhythmic mRNAs are regulated by the circadian mechanism is not known. Here, we used open access bioinformatics databases to identify 94 transcripts with expression profiles characteristic of CLOCK and BMAL1 targeted genes, using the CircaDB website and JTK_Cycle. Moreover, 22 were highly expressed in the heart as determined by the BioGPS website. Furthermore, 5 heart-enriched genes had human/mouse conserved CLOCK:BMAL1 promoter binding sites (E-boxes, as determined by UCSC table browser, circadian mammalian promoter/enhancer database PEDB, and the European Bioinformatics Institute alignment tool (EMBOSS. Lastly, we validated findings by demonstrating that Titin cap (Tcap, telethonin was targeted by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 by showing 1 Tcap mRNA and TCAP protein had a diurnal rhythm in murine heart; 2 cardiac Tcap mRNA was rhythmic in animals kept in constant darkness; 3 Tcap and control Per2 mRNA expression and cyclic amplitude were blunted in Clock(Δ19/Δ19 hearts; 4 BMAL1 bound to the Tcap promoter by ChIP assay; 5 BMAL1 bound to Tcap promoter E-boxes by biotinylated oligonucleotide assay; and 6 CLOCK and BMAL1 induced tcap expression by luciferase reporter assay. Thus this study identifies circadian regulated genes in silico, with validation of Tcap, a critical regulator of cardiac Z-disc sarcomeric structure and function.

  20. Analysis of the ACTN3 heterozygous genotype suggests that α-actinin-3 controls sarcomeric composition and muscle function in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Marshall W; Garton, Fleur C; Houweling, Peter J; Tukiainen, Taru; Lek, Monkol; Macarthur, Daniel G; Seto, Jane T; Quinlan, Kate G R; Yang, Nan; Head, Stewart I; North, Kathryn N

    2016-03-01

    A common null polymorphism (R577X) in ACTN3 causes α-actinin-3 deficiency in ∼ 18% of the global population. There is no associated disease phenotype, but α-actinin-3 deficiency is detrimental to sprint and power performance in both elite athletes and the general population. However, despite considerable investigation to date, the functional consequences of heterozygosity for ACTN3 are unclear. A subset of studies have shown an intermediate phenotype in 577RX individuals, suggesting dose-dependency of α-actinin-3, while others have shown no difference between 577RR and RX genotypes. Here, we investigate the effects of α-actinin-3 expression level by comparing the muscle phenotypes of Actn3(+/-) (HET) mice to Actn3(+/+) [wild-type (WT)] and Actn3(-/-) [knockout (KO)] littermates. We show reduction in α-actinin-3 mRNA and protein in HET muscle compared with WT, which is associated with dose-dependent up-regulation of α-actinin-2, z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif and myotilin at the Z-line, and an incremental shift towards oxidative metabolism. While there is no difference in force generation, HET mice have an intermediate endurance capacity compared with WT and KO. The R577X polymorphism is associated with changes in ACTN3 expression consistent with an additive model in the human genotype-tissue expression cohort, but does not influence any other muscle transcripts, including ACTN2. Overall, ACTN3 influences sarcomeric composition in a dose-dependent fashion in mouse skeletal muscle, which translates directly to function. Variance in fibre type between biopsies likely masks this phenomenon in human skeletal muscle, but we suggest that an additive model is the most appropriate for use in testing ACTN3 genotype associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The elliptic quantum algebra U{sub q,p}(sl-hat{sub N}) and its vertex operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Wenjing [School of Mathematical Science, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Ding Xiangmao [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: wjchang@amss.ac.cn, E-mail: xmding@amss.ac.cn

    2009-10-23

    We construct a realization of the elliptic quantum algebra U{sub q,p}(sl-hat{sub N}) for any given level k in terms of free boson fields and their twisted partners. It can be considered as the elliptic deformation of the Wakimoto realization of the quantum affine algebra U{sub q}(sl-hat{sub N}). We also construct a family of screening currents, which commute with the currents of U{sub q,p}(sl-hat{sub N}) up to total q-differences. And we give explicit twisted expressions for the type I and type II vertex operators of U{sub q,p}(sl-hat{sub N}) by twisting the known results of the type I vertex operators of the quantum affine algebra U{sub q}(sl-hat{sub N}) and the new results of the type II vertex operators of U{sub q}(sl-hat{sub N}) we obtained in this paper.

  2. Reduced Drought Tolerance by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated SlMAPK3 Mutagenesis in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu; Chen, Lin; Li, Rui; Zhao, Ruirui; Yang, Meijing; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2017-10-04

    Drought stress is one of the most destructive environmental factors that affect tomato plants adversely. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signaling molecules that respond to drought stress. In this study, SlMAPK3 was induced by drought stress, and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system was utilized to generate slmapk3 mutants. Two independent T1 transgenic lines and wild-type (WT) tomato plants were used for analysis of drought tolerance. Compared with WT plants, slmapk3 mutants exhibited more severe wilting symptom, higher hydrogen peroxide content, lower antioxidant enzymes activities, and suffered more membrane damage under drought stress. Furthermore, knockout of SlMAPK3 led to up- or down-regulated expressions of drought stress-responsive genes including SlLOX, SlGST, and SlDREB. The results suggest that SlMAPK3 is involved in drought response in tomato plants by protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage and modulating transcription of stress-related genes.

  3. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  4. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  5. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  6. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  7. Evaluating chemical toxicity of surface disposal of LILW-SL in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E.; Cool, W.

    2008-01-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS is developing and evaluating a surface disposal concept for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL) at Dessel (Belgium)). In support of ONDRAF/NIRAS's assignment, SCK/CEN carried out long-term performance assessment calculations for the inorganic non-radioactive components that are present in LILW-SL. This paper summarizes the results obtained from calculations that were done for a heavily engineered surface disposal facility at the nuclear zone of Mol/Dessel. The calculations address the migration of chemo-toxic elements from the disposed waste to groundwater. Screening calculations were performed first to decide which non-radioactive components could potentially increase concentrations in groundwater to levels above the groundwater standards. On the basis of very conservative calculations, only 6 out of 41 chemical elements could not be classified as having a negligible impact on man and environment. For each of these six elements (B, Be, Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn), the source term was characterized in terms of its chemical form (i.e., metal, oxide, or salt), and a macroscopic transport model built that would capture the small-scale dissolution processes relevant to element release from a cementitious waste container. Furthermore, reliable transport parameters in support of the convection dispersion-retardation (CDR) transport calculations were determined. This included derivation of (1) solubility for a cementitious near field environment based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with The Geo-chemist's Workbench, and (2) distribution coefficients based on a compilation of literature values. Scoping calculations illustrated the effects of transport parameter uncertainty on the rates at which inorganic components in LILW-SL leach to groundwater. (authors)

  8. Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn [Find My Family - On biology, identity and kinship on television] Sporløs – Om biologi, identitet og slægten som fjernsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Frello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Danish public service television station (DR has launched several documentary serials that focus on kinship and genealogy. Genealogy makes ‘good TV’ because it enables an immediate identification with the protagonist of the programme. Furthermore, the protagonist’s personal story can function as a vehicle for telling other stories. However, the way kinship is depicted in the serials presupposes that a person’s knowledge about her biological kin equals knowledge about her personal identity. The article analyses the serial Find my Family (Danish: Sporløs, discussing the naturalisation of biological kin and the possible consequences of the conceptualisation of kinship that is taken for granted in the serial.DR har i de senere år lanceret flere programserier, som har slægt og slægtsforskning som fokus. Slægtsprogrammer er ’godt fjernsyn’ i den forstand, at de giver mulighed for en umiddelbar identifikation med hovedpersonen, samtidig med at dennes historie kan bruges som løftestang for andre historier. Imidlertid anlægger programmerne en vinkel på slægten, som forudsætter, at et øget kendskab til den biologiske slægt automatisk medfører et øget kendskab til den personlige identitet. Denne selvfølgeliggørelse af den biologiske slægts betydning problematiseres i artiklen, og med udgangspunkt i Sporløs diskuteres mulige implikationer og konsekvenser af den forståelse af slægten, som programmerne tager udgangspunkt i og tager for givet.

  9. Relationship between harmonic analysis on SU(2) and on SL(2,C)/SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, D.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A topic of interest in harmonic analysis is the comparison of Fourier transforms on compact and noncompact spaces. The Poisson summation formula provides a classical example of this idea by providing an explicit relationship between harmonic analysis on the real line R and on the circle S 1 . This dissertation provides a new geometric proof of this formula, and then generalizes this approach to obtain a relationship between Fourier transforms on Upsilon, the space of positive matrices in SL(2,C), and Fourier transforms on SU(2)

  10. Twisting gravitational waves and eigenvector fields for SL(2,C on an infinite jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Finley III

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A system of coupled vector-field-valued partial differential equations is presented, the solutions to which would determine two coupled, infinite-dimensional vector-field realizations of the group SL(2,C. While the general solution is (partially presented, the complicated nature of that solution is deplored, and the hope expressed that someone can replace it by something much more natural. The physical origins of the problem are briefly described. The problem arises out of searches for Backlund transforms of a system of PDE's that describe twisting, Petrov type N solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity of wall ultrastructure in the green alga Pediastrum s.l. (Chlorophyta, Sphaeropleales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarczyk Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined wall ultrastructure variability in the microscopic green alga Pediastrum s.l. Its value as a diagnostic character is discussed. Field and cultured material of 21 taxa were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine ultrastructural elements occurring on the surface of Pediastrum are documented with LM and SEM micrographs. The highest number of taxa showed reticulate ornamentation composed of a trigonal mesh and granules situated on its corners. The paper considers the use of wall ultrastructure to reconcile traditional and modern taxonomical systems with regard to Pediastrum varieties, and addresses the phylogenetic relationships between strains representing different varieties.

  12. R-matrix and q-covariant oscillators for Uq(sl(n|m))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Wallet, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    An R-matrix formalism is used to construct covariant quantum oscillator algebras for U q (sl(n|m)). It is shown that the complete structure of the twisted oscillator algebras can be obtained from the properties of the intertwining matrix obeying a Hecke type relation, combined with covariance of the oscillators at the deformed level and associativity. The resulting twisted algebras, involving q-bosons and q-fermions, are invariant under natural q-transformations of the oscillators induced by the coproduct. (author) 11 refs

  13. Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Prenylated Indole Derivatives from Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. NH-SL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2017-03-22

    Two prenylated indole alkaloids were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of a marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. NH-SL and one of them exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells. In order to detect other bioactive analogs, we used liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the mass spectrometric characteristics of the isolated compounds as well as the crude extracts. As a result, three other analogs were detected, and their structures were deduced according to the similar fragmentation patterns. This is the first systematic report on the mass spectrometric characteristics of prenylated indole derivatives.

  14. Meson and baryon families as vibronic states in sl(2) quantum universal enveloping algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, Syurei; Ono, Yasuji

    1990-01-01

    A mass formula of the q-deformed modified harmonic oscillator type in the sl(2) quantum universal enveloping algebra is proposed for the meson and baryon families, by taking into account the known theories as a guide. Specifying the vibronic quantum number, the deformation parameter and associated ones of the theory are determined from available data for the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector meson and baryon families. The parameters determined from totally ten families not only predict many unobserved states, but also give restrictions on the observable number of states. The method may admit taking into account non-perturbative effects. (author)

  15. Plan de prevenci??n de riesgos laborales para la empresa Plasdur S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Palencia, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    El Plan de prevenci??n de riesgos laborales de la empresa PLASDUR S.L. se refleja en el presente documento que se conservar?? a disposici??n de la autoridad laboral, de las autoridades sanitarias y de los representantes de los trabajadores, e incluye, con la amplitud adecuada a la dimensi??n y caracter??sticas de la empresa, seg??n el Reglamento de los servicios de prevenci??n (R.D. 39/1997), los siguientes elementos: o La identificaci??n de la empresa, de su actividad productiva, el n??mero ...

  16. Joint-2D-SL0 Algorithm for Joint Sparse Matrix Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse matrix reconstruction has a wide application such as DOA estimation and STAP. However, its performance is usually restricted by the grid mismatch problem. In this paper, we revise the sparse matrix reconstruction model and propose the joint sparse matrix reconstruction model based on one-order Taylor expansion. And it can overcome the grid mismatch problem. Then, we put forward the Joint-2D-SL0 algorithm which can solve the joint sparse matrix reconstruction problem efficiently. Compared with the Kronecker compressive sensing method, our proposed method has a higher computational efficiency and acceptable reconstruction accuracy. Finally, simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed method.

  17. Implantación del Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 en VECOPOL S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    González, Berta

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo trataré de desarrollar e implantar el Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 en la empresa VECOPOL S.L. El objetivo que me planteo es desarrollar parte de la documentación del Sistema de Calidad ISO 9001 e iniciar su implantación de forma que se empiece a trabajar en un entorno de calidad, con el propósito fundamental de satisfacer al cliente. En un futuro, si la empresa lo considera conveniente, se podrá certificar el Sistema de Gestión de Calidad.

  18. Clostridium scatologenes strain SL1 isolated as an acetogenic bacterium from acidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, K; Dorsch, T; Acker, G; Stackebrandt, E; Drake, H L

    2000-03-01

    A strictly anaerobic, H2-utilizing bacterium, strain SL1, was isolated from the sediment of an acidic coal mine pond. Cells of strain SL1 were sporulating, motile, long rods with a multilayer cell wall. Growth was observed at 5-35 degrees C and pH 3.9-7.0. Acetate was the sole end product of H2 utilization and was produced in stoichiometries indicative of an acetyl-CoA-pathway-dependent metabolism. Growth and substrate utilization also occurred with CO/CO2, vanillate, syringate, ferulate, ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, glycerine, cellobiose, glucose, fructose, mannose, xylose, formate, lactate, pyruvate and gluconate. With most substrates, acetate was the main or sole product formed. Growth in the presence of H2/CO2 or CO/CO2 was difficult to maintain in laboratory cultures. Methoxyl, carboxyl and acrylate groups of various aromatic compounds were O-demethylated, decarboxylated and reduced, respectively. Small amounts of butyrate were produced during the fermentation of sugars. The acrylate group of ferulate was reduced. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, dimethylsulfoxide and Fe(III) were not utilized as electron acceptors. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SL1 demonstrated that it is closely related to Clostridium scatologenes (99.6% sequence similarity), an organism characterized as a fermentative anaerobe but not previously shown to be capable of acetogenic growth. Comparative experiments with C. scatologenes DSM 757T demonstrated that it utilized H2/CO2 (negligible growth), CO/CO2 (negligible growth), formate, ethanol and aromatic compounds according to stoichiometries indicative of the acetyl-CoA pathway. CO dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities were present in both strain SL1 and C. scatologenes DSM 757T. These results indicate that (i) sediments of acidic coal mine ponds harbour acetogens and (ii) C. scatologenes is an acetogen that tends to lose its capacity to grow acetogenically under H2/CO2 or CO/CO2 after prolonged

  19. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H 2 O 2 and O 2 ·- were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  20. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues, Rbohs are the enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of each of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. The SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and attenuated expression of defense genes after infection of B. cinerea than the nonsilenced plants. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI and drought tolerance in tomato.

  1. Drift data of the sea-gravity meter (SL-2) installed on the R/V Hakurei-maru; `Hakureimaru` senjo jurokei (SL-2) no drift ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a rapid change in the drift of a sea-gravity meter SL-2 after 1987 and after its modification in 1993. In order to confirm the accuracy of the sea-gravity meter of the Hakurei-maru, changes in the lapse of time were summarized on the relative gravity value at the Funabashi base and on the drift rate in each voyage. The drift rates in the case of departing from and returning to Funabashi base were all less than 0.1mgal/day except the first year of 1987, which was presumably due to the growing stability of the gravimeter. The drift value of 1992 was 0.05mgal/day, producing an error of only 2mgal without drift compensation at the end of a 40 day voyage. The gravimeter after the total renewal of the control part in 1993 produced a large drift in the direction opposite to the conventional drift. The cause of these phenomena was supposed to be some kind of change in the spring property during the gap of one year; this large drift seemed to be settling down after the elapse of approximately one year. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. SL15: A seminal plasma-derived lectin from the sperm of llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Renato; Sequeira, Sabrina; Argañaraz, Martin E; Apichela, Silvana A

    2017-07-01

    The oviductal sperm reservoir of South American camelids is formed when sperm bind to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on the surface of oviductal epithelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the GalNAc-binding proteins on llama sperm, and to establish their origin. Sperm-adsorbed proteins were extracted with 0.5 M KCl in Hepes-balanced salts. Sperm-adsorbed and seminal plasma proteins were then subjected to ligand blotting for their GalNAc affinity, and the labeled bands were identified by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were identified in seminal plasma versus only one in the sperm-adsorbed population; SL15, a seminal lectin, was common to both. SL15 is a homologue of Zymogen granule protein 16, homolog B-like, which belongs to the Jacalin-related lectin family. This lectin is likely presented to sperm via seminal plasma since epididymal sperm are not capable of binding GalNAc, whereas ejaculated sperm does, and its transcript was enriched predominantly in the prostate and bulbourethral glands. This is the first report of a seminal lectin in South American camelids that originates in the male reproductive tract, and is probably involved in sperm reservoir formation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Control trial of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in the Island of Margarita, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M Dora; Mazzarri, Milena B; Blas, Sonia San; Zerpa, Olga

    2003-12-01

    The incidence of the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the Island of Margarita, a major tourist centre in Venezuela, has been increasing between 1998 and 2001. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the recognized vector, which was found naturally infected with Leishmania spp, indistinguishable from the parasites recovered from dogs and children. In 1999-2000, we conducted a control trial in Santa Ana del Valle and Las Cabreras, which have similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. The trial was based on intradomestic residual spraying of lambda-cyhalothrin, E.C., 25 mg/m2 and spatial fogging of fenitrothion around the houses at 30 g/ha. Sandfly abundance was recorded using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps indoors and outdoors. We found significantly reduced sandfly populations in the target locality. Wall bioassays showed that the residual effect of the insecticide lasts for about 3 months. We believe that indoor spraying with lambda-cyhalothrin three times a year, at a dose slightly greater than 25 mg/m2, might reduce the L. longipalpis s.l. population to a level low enough for achieving a significant reduction of the indoor transmission, thus protecting small children from the disease.

  4. Continuum limit of the integrable sl(2/1)3-3-bar superspin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essler, Fabian H.L.; Frahm, Holger; Saleur, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we analyze the continuum limit of the integrable 3 x 3-bar x 3 x 3-bar ...sl(2/1) superspin chain. We discover profoundly new features, including a continuous spectrum of conformal weights, whose numerical evidence is infinite degeneracies of the scaled gaps in the thermodynamic limit. This indicates that the corresponding conformal field theory has a non compact target space (even though our lattice model involves only finite-dimensional representations). We argue that our results are compatible with this theory being the level k=1, 'SU(2/1) WZW model' (whose precise definition requires some care). In doing so, we establish several new results for this model. With regard to potential applications to the spin quantum Hall effect, we conclude that the continuum limit of the 3 x 3-bar x 3 x 3-bar ...sl(2/1) integrable superspin chain is not the same as (and is in fact very different from) the continuum limit of the corresponding chain with two-superspin interactions only, which is known to be a model for the spin quantum Hall effect. The study of possible RG flows between the two theories is left for further study

  5. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  6. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY-SODICITY AND GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS – AVANS PREMIUM 360 SL ON PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN SANDY LOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the influence of NaCl and glyphosate-based herbicide Avans Premium 360 SL on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy loam. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions on sandy loam with Corg content 10.90 g/kg. Soil was divided into half kilogram samples and adjusted to 60% of maximum water holding capacity. In the experiment dependent variables were: I – dosages of Avans Premium 360 SL (0, a recommended field dosage – FD, a tenfold higher dosage – 10 FD and hundredfold higher dosage – 100 FD, II – amount of NaCl (0, 3% and 6%, III – day of experiment (1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. On days of experiment the activity of alkaline and acid phosphomonoesterase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. The obtained result showed that the application of Avans Premium 360 SL decreased in acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity in clay soil. Significant interaction effect between the dosage of Avans Premium 360 SL, NaCl amount and day of experiment was reported in the experiment. The inhibitory effect of Avans Premium 360 SL was the highest in soil with NaCl at the amount of 6%.

  7. Manipulation of flowering time and branching by overexpression of the tomato transcription factor SlZFP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Bai, Xiaodong; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xiao, Han

    2016-12-01

    Flowering of higher plants is orchestrated by complex regulatory networks through integration of various environmental signals such as photoperiod, temperature, light quality and developmental cues. In Arabidopsis, transcription of the flowering integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) that several flowering pathways converge to is directly regulated by more than ten transcription factors. However, very little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the FT homolog SINGLE FLOWER TRUESS (SFT) in the day-neutral plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Previously, we showed that the zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 plays important roles in regulation of seed germination and fruit ripening in tomato and also found that overexpression of SlZFP2 impacted flowering and branching. Here, we characterized in detail the early flowering and high branching phenotypes by overexpression of this transcription factor. Our data showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 accelerated flowering in an SFT-dependent manner as demonstrated by elevated SFT expression in the leaves and the transcription factor's binding ability to SFT promoter in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of the SlZFP2 gene in the sft plants failed to rescue the mutant's late flowering. Through analysis of grafting phenotype, growth response of branches to auxin application and transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing, we also showed that overexpression of SlZFP2 affected shoot apical dominance through multiple regulatory pathways. Our results suggest that the transcription factor SlZFP2 has potential applications in genetic modification of plant architecture and flowering time for tomato production and other crops as well. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Strigolactone deficiency confers resistance in tomato line SL-ORT1 to the parasitic weeds Phelipanche and Orobanche spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Evgenia; Yoneyama, Koichi; Wininger, Smadar; Kapulnik, Yoram; Yoneyama, Kaori; Koltai, Hinanit; Xie, Xiaonan; Hershenhorn, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The parasitic flowering plants of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche (broomrape species) are obligatory chlorophyll-lacking root-parasitic weeds that infect dicotyledonous plants and cause heavy economic losses in a wide variety of plant species in warm-temperate and subtropical regions. One of the most effective strategies for broomrape control is crop breeding for broomrape resistance. Previous efforts to find natural broomrape-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genotypes were unsuccessful, and no broomrape resistance was found in any wild tomato species. Recently, however, the fast-neutron-mutagenized tomato mutant SL-ORT1 was found to be highly resistant to various Phelipanche and Orobanche spp. Nevertheless, SL-ORT1 plants were parasitized by Phelipanche aegyptiaca if grown in pots together with the susceptible tomato cv. M-82. In the present study, no toxic activity or inhibition of Phelipanche seed germination could be detected in the SL-ORT1 root extracts. SL-ORT1 roots did not induce Phelipanche seed germination in pots but they were parasitized, at the same level as M-82, after application of the synthetic germination stimulant GR24 to the rhizosphere. Whereas liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of root exudates of M-82 revealed the presence of the strigolactones orobanchol, solanacol, and didehydro-orobanchol isomer, these compounds were not found in the exudates of SL-ORT1. It can be concluded that SL-ORT1 resistance results from its inability to produce and secrete natural germination stimulants to the rhizosphere.

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the sl1p pipeline for 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Fiona J; Surette, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses. The short-read library 16S rRNA gene sequencing pipeline (sl1p, pronounced "slip") was designed with the purpose of mitigating this lack of reproducibility by combining pre-existing tools into a computational pipeline. This pipeline automates the processing of raw 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to create human-readable tables, graphs, and figures to make the collected data more readily accessible. Data generated from mock communities were compared using eight OTU clustering algorithms, two taxon assignment approaches, and three 16S rRNA gene reference databases. While all of these algorithms and options are available to sl1p users, through testing with human-associated mock communities, AbundantOTU+, the RDP Classifier, and the Greengenes 2011 reference database were chosen as sl1p's defaults based on their ability to best represent the known input communities. sl1p promotes reproducible research by providing a comprehensive log file, and reduces the computational knowledge needed by the user to process next-generation sequencing data. sl1p is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/fwhelan/sl1p .

  10. Serum concentrations of soluble (s)L- and (s)P-selectins in women with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak-Baczmańska, Dominika B; Głowacka, Ewa; Wilczyński, Miłosz; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare serum concentration of soluble L- and P-selectins in women with ovarian cancer (OC) and healthy controls, and to investigate sL- and sP-selectin levels with regard to clinical and pathological parameters. Correlation analysis was used to measure the following: sL- and sP-selectin concentration and Ca125; sP-selectin and platelet concentrations; and sL-selectin and serum leukocyte levels in women with OC. The study included 29 patients with OC and 23 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of sL- and sP-selectins were measured in all subjects. Routine diagnostic tests: CBC and USG (both groups) and Ca125 (study group) were performed. Significantly higher serum concentrations of sL- and sP-selectins were found in the study group as compared to controls. Lower levels of serum sL-selectin were observed in women with poorly-differentiated OC (G3) and advanced stages of the disease (FIGO III, IV), but the results were statistically insignificant. No statistically significant relationship was detected between sP-selectin serum concentration in women with OC and tumour differentiation, histological type, and stage of the disease. No significant correlation was found between sL- and sP-selectins and Ca125 levels. A weak correlation was found between serum concentration of sP-selectin in women with OC and platelet count. No statistically significant correlation was observed between sL-selectin concentration and serum leukocyte levels in women with OC. The analysis of sL- and sP-selectin concentrations may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of OC. The levels of sL-selectin decrease with disease progression.

  11. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  12. Super-light SL-Deck elements with fixed end connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Super-light structures combining light and strong concrete are invented by the author at the Technical University of Denmark and commercialized by the spin-out company Abeo Ltd. The first product is the SL-Deck element that represents a number of strong improvements to the building industry among...... to low weight and due to possibilities of continuous elements and fixed end connections. A new machine is constructed producing the elements and BIM software is developed optimizing the structures, the production, and the logistics and running the machine. New production lines are established...... building projects leading to considerable savings of time and costs and opening up new possibilities for architects and users. Furthermore, the paper describes full-scale test results with new fixed end connections between decks and walls and between decks and columns in facades giving more possibilities...

  13. Report on the intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in Lake Sediment (SL-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations including those of the rare-earths in geological samples has gained much importance during the past decade. Knowledge of the concentrations of specific elements and of their ratios have proved essential for the understanding of the development of geological strata. With increasing use of instruments in analysis, reference samples have become essential for their calibration and various international organizations have issued reference materials to monitor precision and accuracy in chemical determinations. The IAEA has in the past organized several intercomparisons and prepared reference samples of geochemical materials. The present report deals with a recent intercomparison on the determination of trace elements in Lake Sediment (Sl-1) carried out in 1977-1978 and involving the participation of 43 institutes who returned a total of 2535 individual results on 43 elements.

  14. A Directory Service for the CERN PS/SL Java Programming Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperus, J.; Charrue, P.; DiMaio, F.; Kostro, K.; Watson, W.

    1999-01-01

    The CERN PS and SL accelerator control groups developed a common application programming interface (API) in Java [1]. Part of this API is a directory service that provide information about the underlying hardware and software. With this information, it is possible to write generic programs that do general actions on lists of devices without hard coding of device names. And, starting from a device name, full details about related devices, the device itself and its class and properties, can be obtained, including the meaning of bits and bit-patterns in status words. The interface definition is independent of any implementation but a reference implementation is provided using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) against a set of tables in a relational database. Data from very different systems can be brought together and presented in a uniform way to the user. The full potential of the directory service is reached when it is used in software components (Java Beans)

  15. Improvement of Fructanohydrolase Production in Aspergillus niger SL-09 by Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Ge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and the addition of sucrose ester on fructanohydrolase production was investigated. The enzyme production varied depending on the carbon source. Apart from that, it was found that the enzyme activities formed by Aspergillus niger SL-09 were enhanced dramatically by the addition of sucrose ester S-770 to the medium. The effect of sucrose ester on enzyme production was also studied on molecular level, and it was confirmed that the transcription was activated by the addition of sucrose ester to the medium. The response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the composition for the production of fructanohydrolase, and the enzyme activities were enhanced more than 7-fold than those obtained in the basal medium.

  16. Nonlinear integral equations for thermodynamics of the sl(r + 1) Uimin-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Zengo

    2003-01-01

    We derive traditional thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations for the sl(r+1) Uimin-Sutherland model from the T-system of the quantum transfer matrix. These TBA equations are identical to the those from the string hypothesis. Next we derive a new family of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs). In particular, a subset of these NLIEs forms a system of NLIEs which contains only a finite number of unknown functions. For r=1, this subset of NLIEs reduces to Takahashi's NLIE for the XXX spin chain. A relation between the traditional TBA equations and our new NLIEs is clarified. Based on our new NLIEs, we also calculate the high-temperature expansion of the free energy

  17. On schizosymmetric superfields and sl(2/1, C){sub R} supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P.D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Fienberg, K.S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2001-05-11

    Superfield expansions over four-dimensional graded spacetime (x{sup {mu}}, {theta}{sup {nu}}), with Minkowski coordinates x extended by vector Grassmann variables {theta}, are investigated. By appropriate identification of the physical Lorentz algebra in the even and odd parts of the superfield, a typology of 'schizofields' containing both integer and half-integer spin fields is established. For two of these types, identified as 'gauge potential'-like and 'field strength'-like schizofields, an sl(2/1, C){sub R} supersymmetry at the component field level is demonstrated. Prospects for a schizofield calculus, and application of these types of field to the particle spectrum, are adumbrated. (author)

  18. Extraction of minority carrier diffusion length of MWIR Type-II superlattice nBp detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Zahra; Kazemi, Alireza; Myers, Stephen; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Mathews, Sen; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.; Morath, Christian; Cowan, Vincent M.; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Scheihing, John; Krishna, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    We present a model for the spectral external quantum efficiency (EQE) to extract the minority carrier diffusion length (Ln) of a unipolar nBp InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector. The detector consists of a 4 μm thick p-doped 10ML InAs/10ML GaSb SL absorber with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 5 μm at 80 K and zero bias. The n-type doped InAs/AlSb SL barrier in the structure was included to reduce the GR dark current. By fitting the experimentally measured EQE data to the theoretically calculated QE based on the solution of the drift-diffusion equation, the p-type absorber was found the have Ln = 10 +/- 0.5 μm at 80K, and Ln = 12 +/- 0.5 μm at 120K and 150K. We performed the absorption coefficient measurement at different temperatures of interest. Also, we estimated the reduced background concentration and the built-in potential by utilizing a capacitance-voltage measurement technique. We used time-resolved-photoluminescence (TRPL) to determine the lifetime at 80K. With the result of the model and the lifetime measurement, we calculated the diffusion coefficient and the mobility in the T2SL detector at various temperatures. Also, we studied the behavior of different dark current mechanisms by fitting the experimentally measured and simulated dark current density under different operating temperatures and biases.

  19. Modular transformations and invariants in the context of fractional level sl-circumflex(2 vertical bar 1;C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Gavin

    2000-01-01

    The modular transformation properties of admissible characters of the affine superalgebra sl-circumflex(2 vertical bar 1;C) at fractional level k=1/u-1, u is a subset of N/1 are presented. All modular invariants for u=2 and u=3 are calculated explicitly and an A-series and D-series of modular invariants emerge

  20. Noncommutative Schur polynomials and the crystal limit of the U_{q} \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}}(2)-vertex model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Starting from the Verma module of U_{q}\\mathfrak {sl}(2) we consider the evaluation module for affine U_{q}\\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}}(2) and discuss its crystal limit (q → 0). There exists an associated integrable statistical mechanics model on a square lattice defined in terms of vertex configurations. Its transfer matrix is the generating function for noncommutative complete symmetric polynomials in the generators of the affine plactic algebra, an extension of the finite plactic algebra first discussed by Lascoux and Schützenberger. The corresponding noncommutative elementary symmetric polynomials were recently shown to be generated by the transfer matrix of the so-called phase model discussed by Bogoliubov, Izergin and Kitanine. Here we establish that both generating functions satisfy Baxter's TQ-equation in the crystal limit by tying them to special U_{q}\\widehat{ \\mathfrak {sl}}(2) solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation. The TQ-equation amounts to the well-known Jacobi-Trudi formula leading naturally to the definition of noncommutative Schur polynomials. The latter can be employed to define a ring which has applications in conformal field theory and enumerative geometry: it is isomorphic to the fusion ring of the \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}}(n)_{k} Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model whose structure constants are the dimensions of spaces of generalized θ-functions over the Riemann sphere with three punctures.

  1. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an

  2. Exact solutions of sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l + 2) transitional region

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Xin

    2002-01-01

    Exact eigen-energies and the corresponding wavefunctions of the interacting sl-boson system in U(2l + 1) reversible O(2l +2) transitional region are obtained by using an algebraic Bethe Ansatz with the infinite dimensional Lie algebraic technique. Numerical algorithm for solving the Bethe Ansatz equations by using mathematical package is also outlined

  3. Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifei Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, is tick transmitted and has a wide range of mammalian reservoirs in nature, including both wild and domestic animals. To understand the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants will add value to the risk analysis of Lyme disease. The current study was intended to map the potential endemic regions of Lyme disease by large-scale investigation of sera from sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 2,758 serum samples from sheep and goats in 21 provinces located in 40 different districts of China were tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of this survey indicated that the overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection ranges from 5.3 to 63.5 % (mean: 26.3%, and the infection was found in all provinces investigated. Generally, the positive rate declined from the south (34.7% in south and 32.4% in southwest towards the north of China (18.4% in north, 16.5% in northeast and 17.2% in northwest. A significant difference was also observed in the infection rate between south and north (33.2% versus 17.4%, PB. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

  4. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The wood anatomical structure of 11 out of 13 genera from four tribes of the Vaccinioideae, namely Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Ericaceae s.l.), is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Several features of the secondary xylem support the tribal

  5. Tensor products of Uq′sl-caret(2)-modules and the big q2-Jacobi function transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gade, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Four tensor products of evaluation modules of the quantum affine algebra U q ′ sl-caret(2) obtained from the negative and positive series, the complementary and the strange series representations are investigated. Linear operators R(z) satisfying the intertwining property on finite linear combinations of the canonical basis elements of the tensor products are described in terms of two sets of infinite sums {τ (r,t) } r,t∈Z ≥0 and {τ (r,t) } r,t∈Z ≥0 involving big q 2 -Jacobi functions or related nonterminating basic hypergeometric series. Inhomogeneous recurrence relations can be derived for both sets. Evaluations of the simplest sums provide the corresponding initial conditions. For the first set of sums the relations entail a big q 2 -Jacobi function transform pair. An integral decomposition is obtained for the sum τ (r,t) . A partial description of the relation between the decompositions of the tensor products with respect to U q sl(2) or with respect to its complement in U q ′ sl-caret(2) can be formulated in terms of Askey-Wilson function transforms. For a particular combination of two tensor products, the occurrence of proper U q ′ sl-caret(2)-submodules is discussed.

  6. Secondary metabolite comparison of the species within the Heterobasidion annosum s.l. complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, David; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Olson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The metabolite production of the five members of the fungal species complex Heterobasidion annosum s.l., i.e. H. annosum s.s., H. abietinum, H. parviporum, H. occidentale and H. irregulare, was analyzed by LC–HRMS. The five members are described to have differences in host preferences: H. annosum...

  7. Biogeographical patterns of Myrcia s.l. (Myrtaceae) and their correlation with geological and climatic history in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Matheus Fortes; Lucas, Eve; Sano, Paulo Takeo; Buerki, Sven; Staggemeier, Vanessa Graziele; Forest, Félix

    2017-03-01

    Many recent studies discuss the influence of climatic and geological events in the evolution of Neotropical biota by correlating these events with dated phylogenetic hypotheses. Myrtaceae is one of the most diverse Neotropical groups and it therefore a good proxy of plant diversity in the region. However, biogeographic studies on Neotropical Myrtaceae are still very limited. Myrcia s.l. is an informal group comprising three accepted genera (Calyptranthes, Marlierea and Myrcia) making up the second largest Neotropical group of Myrtaceae, totalling about 700 species distributed in nine subgroups. Exclusively Neotropical, the group occurs along the whole of the Neotropics with diversity centres in the Caribbean, the Guiana Highlands and the central-eastern Brazil. This study aims to identify the time and place of divergence of Myrcia s.l. lineages, to examine the correlation in light of geological and climatic events in the Neotropics, and to explore relationships among Neotropical biogeographic areas. A dated phylogenetic hypothesis was produced using BEAST and calibrated by placing Paleomyrtinaea princetonensis (56Ma) at the root of the tree; biogeographic analysis used the DEC model with dispersal probabilities between areas based on distance and floristic affinities. Myrcia s.l. originated in the Montane Atlantic Forest between the end of Eocene and early Miocene and this region acted as a secondary cradle for several lineages during the evolution of this group. The Caribbean region was important in the diversification of the Calyptranthes clade while the Guayana shield appears as ancestral area for an older subgroup of Myrcia s.l. The Amazon Forest has relatively low diversity of Myrcia s.l. species but appears to have been important in the initial biogeographic history of old lineages. Lowland Atlantic Forest has high species diversity but species rich lineages did not originate in the area. Diversification of most subgroups of Myrcia s.l. occurred throughout

  8. Overexpression of the class D MADS-box gene Sl-AGL11 impacts fleshy tissue differentiation and structure in tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expressio...

  9. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  10. On the SL(2,R) symmetry in Yang-Mills theories in the Landau, Curci-Ferrari and maximal abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudal, David; Verschelde, Henri; Rodino Lemes, Vitor Emanuel; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Sorella, Silvio Paolo; Picariello, Marco

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a SL(2;R) symmetry is discussed in SU(N) Yang-Mills in the maximal abelian gauge. This symmetry, also present in the Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauge, ensures the absence of tachyons in the maximal abelian gauge. In all these gauges, SL(2;R) turns out to be dynamically broken by ghost condensates. (author)

  11. The symplectic fermion ribbon quasi-Hopf algebra and the SL(2,Z)-action on its centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsad, Vanda

    2017-06-14

    This thesis is concerned with ''N pairs of symplectic fermions'' which are examples of logarithmic conformal field theories in two dimensions. The mathematical language of two-dimensional conformal field theories (on Riemannian surfaces of genus zero) are vertex operator algebras. The representation category of the even part of the symplectic fermion vertex operator super-algebra Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally a factorisable finite ribbon tensor category. This determines an isomorphism of projective representations between two SL(2,Z)-actions associated to V{sub ev}. The first action is obtained by modular transformations on the space of so-called pseudo-trace functions of a vertex operator algebra. For V{sub ev} this was developed by A.M.Gaberdiel and I. Runkel. For the action one uses that Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally a factorisable finite ribbon tensor category and thus carries a projective SL(2,Z)-action on a certain Hom-space [Ly1,Ly2,KL]. To do so we calculate the SL(2,Z)-action on the representation category of a general factorisable quasi-Hopf algebras. Then we show that Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally ribbon equivalent to Rep Q, for Q a factorisable quasi-Hopf algebra, and calculate the SL(2,Z)-action explicitly on Rep Q. The result is that the two SL(2,Z)-action indeed agree. This poses the first example of such comparison for logarithmic conformal field theories.

  12. On the τ(2)-model in the chiral Potts model and cyclic representation of the quantum group Uq(sl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roan Shishyr

    2009-01-01

    We identify the precise relationship between the five-parameter τ (2) -family in the N-state chiral Potts model and XXZ chains with U q (sl 2 )-cyclic representation. By studying the Yang-Baxter relation of the six-vertex model, we discover a one-parameter family of L-operators in terms of the quantum group U q (sl 2 ). When N is odd, the N-state τ (2) -model can be regarded as the XXZ chain of U q (sl 2 ) cyclic representations with q N =1. The symmetry algebra of the τ (2) -model is described by the quantum affine algebra U q (sl 2 -hat) via the canonical representation. In general, for an arbitrary N, we show that the XXZ chain with a U q (sl 2 )-cyclic representation for q 2N = 1 is equivalent to two copies of the same N-state τ (2) -model. (fast track communication)

  13. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Chouaїbou, Mouhamadou; Toto, Jean Claude; Koffi, Alphonsine; Mimpfoundi, Rémy; Simard, Frédéric

    2013-02-22

    Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates>98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in

  14. Ultra-structural time-course study in the C. elegans model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy highlights a crucial role for sarcomere-anchoring structures and sarcolemma integrity in the earliest steps of the muscle degeneration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouilly, Nicolas; Lecroisey, Claire; Martin, Edwige; Pierson, Laura; Mariol, Marie-Christine; Qadota, Hiroshi; Labouesse, Michel; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Mounier, Nicole; Gieseler, Kathrin

    2015-11-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. In spite of great advances in the design of curative treatments, most patients currently receive palliative therapies with steroid molecules such as prednisone or deflazacort thought to act through their immunosuppressive properties. These molecules only slightly slow down the progression of the disease and lead to severe side effects. Fundamental research is still needed to reveal the mechanisms involved in the disease that could be exploited as therapeutic targets. By studying a Caenorhabditis elegans model for DMD, we show here that dystrophin-dependent muscle degeneration is likely to be cell autonomous and affects the muscle cells the most involved in locomotion. We demonstrate that muscle degeneration is dependent on exercise and force production. Exhaustive studies by electron microscopy allowed establishing for the first time the chronology of subcellular events occurring during the entire process of muscle degeneration. This chronology highlighted the crucial role for dystrophin in stabilizing sarcomeric anchoring structures and the sarcolemma. Our results suggest that the disruption of sarcomeric anchoring structures and sarcolemma integrity, observed at the onset of the muscle degeneration process, triggers subcellular consequences that lead to muscle cell death. An ultra-structural analysis of muscle biopsies from DMD patients suggested that the chronology of subcellular events established in C. elegans models the pathogenesis in human. Finally, we found that the loss of sarcolemma integrity was greatly reduced after prednisone treatment suggesting a role for this molecule in plasma membrane stabilization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Aspects of the affine superalgebra sl(2-vertical bar-1) at fractional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Gavin Balfour

    2001-04-01

    In this thesis we study the affine superalgebra s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) at fractional levels of the form k = 1/u - 1, u is an element of N-back slash {1}. It is for these levels that admissible representations exist, which transform into each other under modular transformations. In the second chapter we review background material on conformal field theory, particularly the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the connection with modular transformations. The superalgebra sl(2-vertical bar-1; C) is introduced, as is its affine version. The next chapter studies the modular transformation properties of s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) characters. We derive formulae for these transformations for all levels of the form k = 1/u - 1, u is an element of N-back slash {1}. We also investigate some modular invariant combinations of characters and find two series of modular invariants, analogous to the A- and D-series of the classification of s-tilde-l(2) modular invariants. In chapter 4 we turn to the study of fusion rules. We concentrate on the case k = -1/2. By considering the decoupling of singular vectors, we are able to find consistent fusion rules for this particular level. These fusion rules correspond to a modular invariant found in chapter 3. This study suggests that one may consistently define a conformal field theory based on s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) at fractional level. (author)

  16. Competitiveness of endophytic Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata strains in Norway spruce roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroheker, Sophie; Dubach, Vivanne; Sieber, Thomas N

    2018-05-01

    Dark septate endophytes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are presumed to be the most abundant root colonizing endophytes of conifers across the Northern hemisphere. To test the competitiveness of different PAC strains, PAC-free Picea abies saplings were inoculated with five different PAC strains by planting them in pre-colonized substrates. Saplings were left to grow for six weeks and then transplanted crosswise into a substrate colonized by one of the other four strains for a further two weeks. PAC were isolated and genotyped using microsatellite markers. The power of colonization, i.e. the ability of colonizing roots already colonized by another PAC strain, and the power of retention, i.e. the ability of a resident strain of not being suppressed by an invading PAC strain, were calculated for each strain in every combination. The experiment was run twice under two different climatic conditions. Our results show that PAC strains differ (1) in their ability to colonize PAC-free, non-sterile roots, (2) in resistance against being suppressed by another PAC strain and (3) in their ability to invade roots already colonized by another PAC strain. In addition, both the PAC-PAC and the PAC-host interactions depend on the climatic conditions. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polynomial realization of the Uq (sl(3)) Gel'fand-(Weyl)-Zetlin basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.; Truini, P.

    1996-01-01

    We give an explicit realization of the U ≡ U q (sl(3)) Gel'fand-(Weyl)-Zetlin (GWZ) basis as polynomial functions in three variables. This realization is obtained in two complementary ways. First we establish a 1-to-1 correspondence between the abstract GWZ basis and explicit polynomials in the quantum subgroup U + of the raising generators. We then use an explicit construction of arbitrary lowest weight (holomorphic) representations of U in terms of three variables on which the generators of U are realized as q-difference operators. Applying the GWZ corresponding polynomials in this realization to the lowest weight vector (the function 1) produces one realization of our GWZ basis. Another realization of the GWZ polynomial basis is found by the explicit diagonalization of the operators of isospin I-circumflex 2 , third component of isospin I-circumflex z , and hypercharge Y-circumflex, in the same realization as q-difference operators. The result is that the eigenvectors can be written in terms of q-hypergeometric polynomials in our three variables. Finally we construct an explicit scalar product (adapting the Shapovalov form to our setting). Using it we prove the orthogonality of our GWZ polynomials for which we use both realizations. This provides a polynomial construction for the orthonormal GWZ basis. We work for generic q, leaving the root of unity case for a following paper. It seems that our results are new also in the classical situation (q=1). (author). 20 refs

  18. Searching for new physics in $b\\rightarrow sl^+l^-$ transitions at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pescatore, Luca; Lazzaroni, Cristina

    Flavour Changing Neutral Currents are transitions between different quarks with the same charge such as b $\\rightarrow$ s processes. These are forbidden at tree level in the Standard Model (SM) but can happen through loop diagrams, which causes the branching ratio of this type of decays to be small, typically $\\sim10^{-6}$ or less. Particles beyond the SM can contribute in the loops enhancing the branching fractions of these decays, which are therefore very sensitive new physics. In this work two analysis of semileptonic $b\\rightarrow sl^+l^-$ decays are presented. In the first, $\\Lambda^0_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\mu^+mu^-$ decays are analysed to measure their branching fraction as a function of the square of the dimuon invariant mass, \\q$^2$. An angular analysis of these decays is also performed for the first time. Secondly, $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{\\star 0} l^+l^-$ decays are analysed measuring the $R_{K\\star 0}$ ratio between the muon, $B^0 \\rightarrow K^{\\star 0} e^+e^-$, channels, which is interesting as it is...

  19. Chronic apocynin treatment attenuates beta amyloid plaque size and microglial number in hAPP(751(SL mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda E Lull

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL.Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months.Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival.Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin may have additional

  20. [Experimental study of restiffening of the rigor mortis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, M; Liao, Z G; Yi, X F; Peng, X M

    2001-11-01

    To observe changes of the length of sarcomere of rat when restiffening. We measured the length of sarcomere of quadriceps in 40 rats in different condition by scanning electron microscope. The length of sarcomere of rigor mortis without destroy is obviously shorter than that of restiffening. The length of sarcomere is negatively correlative to the intensity of rigor mortis. Measuring the length of sarcomere can determine the intensity of rigor mortis and provide evidence for estimation of time since death.

  1. Studies of Anopheles gambiae s.l (Diptera: Culicidae) exhibiting different vectorial capacities in lymphatic filariasis transmission in the Gomoa district, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuzu, Hilaria; Wilson, Michael D; Boakye, Daniel A

    2010-09-14

    Two lymphatic filariasis endemic communities Mampong and Hwida in Ghana have been regularly monitored for impact on transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin. After six MDAs even though the ABR for Mampong was 55883/person/year and that of Hwida was 2494/person/year, they both had ATPs of 15.21 infective larvae/person/year. Interestingly the human microfilaraemia levels had reduced significantly from 14% to 0% at Mampong and 12% to 3% at Hwida. In an attempt to understand this anomaly, we collected mosquitoes over a 5-month period using human landing catches to determine the species composition, the number of cibarial teeth, the lengths and widths of the cibarium and the cibarial dome of the vector populations. Out of 2553 mosquitoes caught at Mampong, 42.6% were An. gambiae s.l. All 280 identified further by PCR were An. gambiae s.s (275 M and 5 S molecular forms). At Hwida, 112 mosquitoes were obtained; 67 (59.8%) were An. gambiae s.l, comprised of 40 (59.7%) An. melas, 24 (35.8%) An. gambiae s.s (17 and 5 M and S molecular forms respectively) and 3 (4.5%) unidentified. The mean number of teeth for An. melas was 14.1 (median = 14, range = 12-15), An. gambiae s.s., 15.7 (median = 15, range = 13-19) M form 15.5 (median = 15 range = 13-19) and S form 16 (median = 16, range 15-17). The observed differences in teeth numbers were significantly different between An. melas and An. gambiae s.s (p = 0.004), and the M form (p = 0.032) and the S form (p = 0.002). In this study, An. gambiae s.s was the main vector at Mampong and was found to possess significantly more cibarial teeth than An. melas, the principal vector at Hwida. We postulate that the different impact observed after 6 MDAs may be due to An. gambiae s.s exhibiting 'facilitation' at Mampong and at Hwida An. melas the main vector exhibits 'limitation'. Thus it may be necessary to compliment MDA with vector control to achieve interruption of transmission in areas

  2. A Kiss Lajos-díj 2014. évi nyertese: dr. Slíz Mariann [The 2014 winner of Lajos Kiss Prize: Dr Mariann Slíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann, István

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lajos Kiss Prize, awarded every two or three years since 2006, is considered to be a highly prestigious award for young onomasticians. The 2014 winner of the prize is Dr Mariann Slíz, senior lecturer at the Department of Hungarian Linguistics and Finno-Ugric Studies of Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. She earned this award for her contribution to Hungarian Onomastics, especially in research on personal names.

  3. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  4. SL(2, Z) invariant rotating (m, n) strings in AdS_3 x S"3 with mixed flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, M.S.P.; Panigrahi, Kamal L.; Khouchen, Malak; Kluson, Josef

    2017-01-01

    We study rigidly rotating and pulsating (m, n) strings in AdS_3 x S"3 with mixed three form flux. The AdS_3 x S"3 background with mixed three form flux is obtained in the near horizon limit of SL(2, Z)-transformed solution, corresponding to the bound state of NS5-branes and fundamental strings. We study the probe (m, n)-string in this background by solving the manifest SL(2, Z)-covariant form of the action. We find the dyonic giant magnon and single spike solutions corresponding to the equations of motion of a probe string in this background and find various relationships among the conserved charges. We further study a class of pulsating (m, n) string in AdS_3 with mixed three form flux. (orig.)

  5. Molecular analysis of an odorant-binding protein gene in two sympatric species of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Kerche Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and occurs as a species complex. DNA samples from two Brazilian sympatric species that differ in pheromone and courtship song production were used to analyse molecular polymorphisms in an odorant-binding protein ( obp29 gene. OBPs are proteins related to olfaction and are involved in activities fundamental to survival, such as foraging, mating and choice of oviposition site. In this study, the marker obp29 was found to be highly polymorphic in Lu. longipalpis s.l. , with no fixed differences observed between the two species. A pairwise fixation index test indicated a moderate level of genetic differentiation between the samples analysed.

  6. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti; Dileep Nag Vinnakota; Srinivas Rao Pottem; Mahesh Pulagam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled t...

  7. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale Wigg. S.L. Is A Convenient Object For Genetic Monitoring Of Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V Reutova

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l. for testing of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants. This widespread species is convenient for genetic monitoring. It is sensitive to various types of pollutants (heavy metals, products of combustion and processing of oil. T. officinale appeared to be a convenient, simple in using and inexpensive object for genetic monitoring of environmental pollution. anaphase-telophase method is recomended for this purpose.

  8. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Zhaoguo; Chi Renqing; Niu Xuejun

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  9. Dual African origins of global Aedes aegypti s.l. populations revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated.ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades.Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa.

  10. Discrete space structure of the sl(1 vertical bar 3) Wigner quantum oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.C.; Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2002-09-01

    The properties of a noncanonical 3D Wigner quantum oscillator, whose position and momentum operators generate the Lie superalgebra sl(1 vertical bar 3), are further investigated. Within each state space W(p), p=1,2,..., the energy E q , q=0,1,2,3, takes no more than 4 different values. If the oscillator is in a stationary state ψ q is an element of W(p) then measurements of the non-commuting Cartesian coordinates of the particle are such that their allowed values are consistent with it being found at a finite number of sites, called 'nests'. These lie on a sphere centered on the origin of fixed, finite radius p q . The nests themselves are at the vertices of a rectangular parallelepiped. In the typical cases (p>2) the number of nests is 8 for q=0 and 3, and varies from 8 to 24, depending on the state, for q=1 and 2. The number of nests is less in the atypical cases (p=1,2), but it is never less than two. In certain states in W(2) (resp. in W(1)) the oscillator is 'polarized' so that all the nests lie on a plane (resp. on a line). The particle cannot be localized in any one of the available nests alone since the coordinates do not commute. The probabilities of measuring particular values of the coordinates are discussed. The mean trajectories and the standard deviations of the coordinates and momenta are computed, and conclusions are drawn about uncertainty relations. The rotational invariance of the system is also discussed. (author)

  11. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  12. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  13. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  14. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  15. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  16. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  17. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  18. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  19. Short rest interval lengths between sets optimally enhance body composition and performance with 8 weeks of strength resistance training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Matthew G; Lane, Christianne Joy; Schroeder, E Todd

    2015-02-01

    To determine if 8 weeks of periodized strength resistance training (RT) utilizing relatively short rest interval lengths (RI) in between sets (SS) would induce greater improvements in body composition and muscular performance, compared to the same RT program utilizing extended RI (SL). 22 male volunteers (SS: n = 11, 65.6 ± 3.4 years; SL: n = 11, 70.3 ± 4.9 years) were assigned to one of two strength RT groups, following 4 weeks of periodized hypertrophic RT (PHRT): strength RT with 60-s RI (SS) or strength RT with 4-min RI (SL). Prior to randomization, all 22 study participants trained 3 days/week, for 4 weeks, targeting hypertrophy; from week 4 to week 12, SS and SL followed the same periodized strength RT program for 8 weeks, with RI the only difference in their RT prescription. Following PHRT, all study participants experienced increases in lean body mass (LBM) (p body strength (p body fat (p high-intensity strength RT with shortened RI induces significantly greater enhancements in body composition, muscular performance, and functional performance, compared to the same RT prescription with extended RI, in older men. Applied professionals may optimize certain RT-induced adaptations, by incorporating shortened RI.

  20. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  2. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  3. Imaging cardiomyocytes in intact tissue with a remote focusing microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. D.; Burton, R. A. B.; Bub, G.; Wilson, T.

    2015-03-01

    In cardiac imaging, the spacing between sub-cellular sarcomere structures is of great importance to physiologists in understanding muscle design and performance. Making accurate measurements of the sarcomere length (SL) presents a significant imaging challenge owing to the size of the SL (~2μm) and its naturally low variability (pathological models of chronic hypertension. As well as improving measurement precision, the distribution of α across the field of view provides additional structural information which can be related to disease morphology. To validate this new imaging protocol, the value ofα calculated from the oblique planes provided the input to a rigid model cell which was used to predict the appearance of the cell in the conventional focal plane. The comparison of the model to the image data provided a confidence metric for our measurements. Finally, by considering the optical transfer function, the range of cell orientations for which the method is valid could be calculated.

  4. Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of Vaccinioideae (Ericaceae s.l.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Luteyn, J.L.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The ecological wood anatomy of 128 vaccinioid wood samples (including 115 species, 35 genera), collected between 39°S and 60°N latitude and 10 m to 3400 m altitude is studied. Several wood anatomical features within the subfamily, viz. tangential vessel diameter, average length of tracheary

  5. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  6. Development of a gravid trap for collecting live malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Dugassa

    Full Text Available Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps.Experiments were implemented in an 80 m(2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap's sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated.Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.6-1.2; p = 0.284, whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5; p < 0.001. The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6-0.7; p < 0.001. This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2-2.2; p = 0.001 with the new OviART trap.Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles.

  7. Modelling approach to LILW-SL repository safety evaluation for different waste packing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Janez; Mallants, Dirk; Volckaert, Geert; Towler, George; Egan, Mike; Virsek, Sandi; Hertl, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    The key objective of the work described here was to support the identification of a preferred disposal concept and packaging option for low and short-lived intermediate level waste (LILW-SL). The emphasis of the assessment, conducted on behalf of the Slovenian radioactive waste management agency (ARAO), was the consideration of several waste treatment and packaging options in an attempt to identify optimised containment characteristics that would result in safe disposal, taking into account the cost-benefit of alternative safety measures. Waste streams for which alternative treatment and packaging solutions were developed and evaluated include decommissioning waste and NPP operational wastes, including drums with unconditioned ion exchange resins in over-packed tube type containers (TTCs). For decommissioning wastes, the disposal options under consideration were either direct disposal of loose pieces grouted into a vault or use of high integrity containers (HIC). In relation to operational wastes, three main options were foreseen. The first is over-packing of resin containing TTCs grouted into high integrity containers, the second option is complete treatment with hydration, neutralization, and cementation of the dry resins into drums grouted into high integrity containers and the third is direct disposal of TTCs into high integrity containers without additional treatment. The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories is usually demonstrated with the support of a safety assessment. This normally includes modelling of radionuclide release from a multi-barrier near-surface or deep repository to the geosphere and biosphere. For the current work, performance assessment models were developed for each combination of siting option, repository design and waste packaging option. Modelling of releases from the engineered containment system (the 'near-field') was undertaken using the AMBER code. Detailed unsaturated water flow modelling was undertaken using the

  8. Light microscopy and image analysis of thin filament lengths utilizing dual probes on beef, chicken, and rabbit myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringkob, T P; Swartz, D R; Greaser, M L

    2004-05-01

    Image analysis procedures for immunofluorescence microscopy were developed to measure muscle thin filament lengths of beef, rabbit, and chicken myofibrils. Strips of beef cutaneous trunci, rectus abdominis, psoas, and masseter; chicken pectoralis; and rabbit psoas muscles were excised 5 to 30 min postmortem. Fluorescein phalloidin and rhodamine myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were used to probe the myofibril structure. Digital images were recorded with a cooled charge-coupled device controlled with IPLab Spectrum software (Signal Analytics Corp.) on a Macintosh operating system. The camera was attached to an inverted microscope, using both the phase-contrast and fluorescence illumination modes. Unfixed myofibrils incubated with fluorescein phalloidin showed fluorescence primarily at the Z-line and the tips of the thin filaments in the overlap region. Images were processed using IPLab and the National Institutes of Health's Image software. A region of interest was selected and scaled by a factor of 18.18, which enlarged the image from 11 pixels/microm to approximately 200 pixels/microm. An X-Y plot was exported to Spectrum 1.1 (Academic Software Development Group), where the signal was processed with a second derivative routine, so a cursor function could be used to measure length. Fixation before phalloidin incubation resulted in greatest intensity at the Z lines but a more-uniform staining over the remainder of the thin filament zone. High-resolution image capture and processing showed that thin filament lengths were significantly different (P < 0.01) among beef, rabbit, and chicken, with lengths of 1.28 to 1.32 microm, 1.16 microm, and 1.05 microm, respectively. Measurements using the S1 signal confirmed the phalloidin results. Fluorescent probes may be useful to study sarcomere structure and help explain species and muscle differences in meat texture.

  9. Genome-Wide Study of the Tomato SlMLO Gene Family and Its Functional Characterization in Response to the Powdery Mildew Fungus Oidium neolycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Appiano, Michela; Pavan, Stefano; Bracuto, Valentina; Ricciardi, Luigi; Visser, Richard G F; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Bai, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    The MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family encodes plant-specific proteins containing seven transmembrane domains and likely acting in signal transduction in a calcium and calmodulin dependent manner. Some members of the MLO family are susceptibility factors toward fungi causing the powdery mildew disease. In tomato, for example, the loss-of-function of the MLO gene SlMLO1 leads to a particular form of powdery mildew resistance, called ol-2, which arrests almost completely fungal penetration. This type of penetration resistance is characterized by the apposition of papillae at the sites of plant-pathogen interaction. Other MLO homologs in Arabidopsis regulate root response to mechanical stimuli (AtMLO4 and AtMLO11) and pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte (AtMLO7). However, the role of most MLO genes remains unknown. In this work, we provide a genome-wide study of the tomato SlMLO gene family. Besides SlMLO1, other 15 SlMLO homologs were identified and characterized with respect to their structure, genomic organization, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. In addition, by analysis of transgenic plants, we demonstrated that simultaneous silencing of SlMLO1 and two of its closely related homologs, SlMLO5 and SlMLO8, confer higher level of resistance than the one associated with the ol-2 mutation. The outcome of this study provides evidence for functional redundancy among tomato homolog genes involved in powdery mildew susceptibility. Moreover, we developed a series of transgenic lines silenced for individual SlMLO homologs, which lay the foundation for further investigations aimed at assigning new biological functions to the MLO gene family.

  10. On the relation between the modular double of U{sub q}(sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidaiev, Iurii; Teschner, Joerg

    2013-02-15

    We exhibit direct relations between the modular double of U{sub q}(sl(2,R)) and the quantum Teichmueller theory. Explicit representations for the fusion- and braiding operations of the quantum Teichmueller theory are immediate consequences. Our results include a simplified derivation of the Clebsch-Gordan decomposition for the principal series of representation of the modular double of U{sub q}(sl(2,R)).

  11. Metal artefact suppression at 3 T MRI: comparison of MAVRIC-SL with conventional fast spin echo sequences in patients with Hip joint arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Martin; Nardo, Lorenzo; Han, Misung M.; Heilmeier, Ursula; Sam, Craig; Joseph, Gabby B.; Krug, Roland; Link, Thomas M.; Koch, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and diagnostic value of a new MRI metal artefact reduction pulse sequence called MAVRIC-SL in a 3 T MRI environment. Two MAVRIC-SL sequences obtained in 61 patients with symptomatic total hip replacement were compared with standard FSE-STIR sequences optimized for imaging around metal. Artefact size was measured on the slice of greatest extent. Image quality, fat saturation, image distortion, visibility of anatomical structures, and detectability of joint abnormalities were visually assessed and graded on qualitative scales. Differences between MAVRIC-SL and FSE sequences were tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MAVRIC-SL sequences at 3 T showed significantly smaller metal artefacts compared to FSE-STIR sequences (p < 0.0001). The general image quality of MAVRIC-SL sequences was reduced with regard to spatial resolution, noise and contrast (p = 0.001), and fat saturation (p < 0.0001). The reduction of artefact size and image distortion significantly improved visualization of joint anatomy (p < 0.0001) and diagnostic confidence regarding implant-associated abnormalities (p = 0.0075 to <0.0001). Although the image quality of MAVRIC-SL sequences is limited at 3 T, its clinical application is feasible and provides important additional diagnostic information for the workup of patients with symptomatic hip replacement through substantially reduced metal artefacts. (orig.)

  12. Metal artefact suppression at 3 T MRI: comparison of MAVRIC-SL with conventional fast spin echo sequences in patients with Hip joint arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, Martin; Nardo, Lorenzo; Han, Misung M.; Heilmeier, Ursula; Sam, Craig; Joseph, Gabby B.; Krug, Roland; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Koch, Kevin M. [Medical Collage of Wisconsin, Departments of Biophysics and Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and diagnostic value of a new MRI metal artefact reduction pulse sequence called MAVRIC-SL in a 3 T MRI environment. Two MAVRIC-SL sequences obtained in 61 patients with symptomatic total hip replacement were compared with standard FSE-STIR sequences optimized for imaging around metal. Artefact size was measured on the slice of greatest extent. Image quality, fat saturation, image distortion, visibility of anatomical structures, and detectability of joint abnormalities were visually assessed and graded on qualitative scales. Differences between MAVRIC-SL and FSE sequences were tested with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MAVRIC-SL sequences at 3 T showed significantly smaller metal artefacts compared to FSE-STIR sequences (p < 0.0001). The general image quality of MAVRIC-SL sequences was reduced with regard to spatial resolution, noise and contrast (p = 0.001), and fat saturation (p < 0.0001). The reduction of artefact size and image distortion significantly improved visualization of joint anatomy (p < 0.0001) and diagnostic confidence regarding implant-associated abnormalities (p = 0.0075 to <0.0001). Although the image quality of MAVRIC-SL sequences is limited at 3 T, its clinical application is feasible and provides important additional diagnostic information for the workup of patients with symptomatic hip replacement through substantially reduced metal artefacts. (orig.)

  13. Lower extremity joint loads in habitual rearfoot and mid/forefoot strike runners with normal and shortened stride lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare joint loads between habitual rearfoot (hRF) and habitual mid/forefoot strikers (hFF), rearfoot (RFS) and mid/forefoot strike (FFS) patterns, and shorter stride lengths (SLs). Thirty-eight hRF and hFF ran at their normal SL, 5% and 10% shorter, as well as with the opposite foot strike. Three-dimensional ankle, knee, patellofemoral (PF) and hip contact forces were calculated. Nearly all contact forces decreased with a shorter SL (1.2-14.9% relative to preferred SL). In general, hRF had higher PF (hRF-RFS: 10.8 ± 1.4, hFF-FFS: 9.9 ± 2.0 BWs) and hip loads (axial hRF-RFS: -9.9 ± 0.9, hFF-FFS: -9.6 ± 1.0 BWs) than hFF. Many loads were similar between foot strike styles for the two groups, including axial and lateral hip, PF, posterior knee and shear ankle contact forces. Lateral knee and posterior hip contact forces were greater for RFS, and axial ankle and knee contact forces were greater for FFS. The tibia may be under greater loading with a FFS because of these greater axial forces. Summarising, a particular foot strike style does not universally decrease joint contact forces. However, shortening one's SL 10% decreased nearly all lower extremity contact forces, so it may hold potential to decrease overuse injuries associated with excessive joint loads.

  14. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  15. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  16. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  17. The characterization of six auxin-induced tomato GH3 genes uncovers a member, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dehua; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Aiqun; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jianjian; Liu, Junli; Gu, Mian; Sun, Shubin; Xu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    In plants, the GH3 gene family is widely considered to be involved in a broad range of plant physiological processes, through modulation of hormonal homeostasis. Multiple GH3 genes have been functionally characterized in several plant species; however, to date, limited works to study the GH3 genes in tomato have been reported. Here, we characterize the expression and regulatory profiles of six tomato GH3 genes, SlGH3.2, SlGH3.3, SlGH3.4, SlGH3.7, SlGH3.9 and SlGH3.15, in response to different phytohormone applications and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization. All six GH3 genes showed inducible responses to external IAA, and three members were significantly up-regulated in response to AM symbiosis. In particular, SlGH3.4, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal growth conditions, was strongly activated in the IAA-treated and AM fungal-colonized roots. A comparison of the SlGH3.4 expression in wild-type plants and M161, a mutant with a defect in AM symbiosis, confirmed that SlGH3.4 expression is highly correlated to mycorrhizal colonization. Histochemical staining demonstrated that a 2,258 bp SlGH3.4 promoter fragment could drive β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression strongly in root tips, steles and cortical cells of IAA-treated roots, but predominantly in the fungal-colonized cells of mycorrhizal roots. A truncated 654 bp promoter failed to direct GUS expression in IAA-treated roots, but maintained the symbiosis-induced activity in mycorrhizal roots. In summary, our results suggest that a mycorrhizal signaling pathway that is at least partially independent of the auxin signaling pathway has evolved for the co-regulation of the auxin- and mycorrhiza-activated GH3 genes in plants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Self-dual continuous series of representations for Uq(sl(2)) and Uq(osp(1 vertical stroke 2))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Schomerus, Volker

    2013-05-01

    We determine the Clebsch-Gordan and Racah-Wigner coefficients for continuous series of representations of the quantum deformed algebras U q (sl(2)) and U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). While our results for the former algebra reproduce formulas by Ponsot and Teschner, the expressions for the orthosymplectic algebra are new. Up to some normalization factors, the associated Racah-Wigner coefficients are shown to agree with the fusing matrix in the Neveu-Schwarz sector of N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory.

  19. PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA LA CREACIÓN DE UNA AGENCIA DE VIAJES DE NUEVA CREACIÓN: ANROCA SL

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHER CALBO, ÁNGELA

    2015-01-01

    [ES] La idea de trabajo de final de carrera que voy a desarrollar es un plan de empresa basado en la apertura de una nueva agencia de viajes, denominada ANROCA, SL. La empresa se especializará en viajes para negocios ya que tiene una menor estacionalidad, pero siempre tendrá recursos para satisfacer viajes de ocio. Para describir y desarrollar esta oportunidad de negocio realizaré un Plan de empresa, que va a tratar de examinar la viabilidad técnica, económica y financiera, y explicaré ...

  20. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hichri, I.; Muhovski, Y.; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre; Gharbi, E.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Clippe, A.; Errachid, A.; Motyka, Václav; Lutts, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUL 31 (2017), č. článku 1343. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : agrobacterium-mediated transformation * transgenic arabidopsis plants * dna-binding * salinity tolerance * defense responses * drought tolerance * abiotic stresses * water-stress * genes * tobacco * Solanum lycopersicum * SlWRKY3 * transcription factor * salinity tolerance * plant physiology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  1. Characterization of muscle contraction with second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prent, Nicole

    Muscle cells have the ability to change length and generate force due to orchestrated action of myosin nanomotors that cause sliding of actin filaments along myosin filaments in the sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units, of myocytes. The correlated action of hundreds of sarcomeres is needed to produce the myocyte contractions. This study probes the molecular structure of the myofilaments and investigates the movement correlations between sarcomeres during contraction. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed for imaging striated myocytes. Myosin filaments in striated myocytes inherently have a nonzero second-order susceptibility, [special characters omitted] and therefore generate efficient SHG. Employing polarization-in polarization-out (PIPO) SHG microscopy allows for the accurate determination of the characteristic ratio, [special characters omitted] in birefringent myocytes, which describes the structure of the myosin filament. Analysis shows that the b value at the centre of the myosin filament, where the nonlinear dipoles are better aligned, is slightly lower than the value at the edges of the filament, where there is more disorder in orientation of the nonlinear dipoles from the myosin heads. Forced stretching of myocytes resulted in an SHG intensity increase with the elongation of the sarcomere. SHG microscopy captured individual sarcomeres during contraction, allowing for the measurement of sarcomere length (SL) and SHG intensity (SI) fluctuations. The fluctuations also revealed higher SHG intensity in elongated sarcomeres. The sarcomere synchronization model (SSM) for contracting and quiescent myocytes was developed, and experimentally verified for three cases (isolated cardiomyocyte, embryonic chicken cardiomyocyte, and larva myocyte). During contraction, the action of SLs and SIs between neighbouring sarcomeres partially correlated, whereas in quiescent myocytes the SLs show an anti-correlation and the SIs have no

  2. Object-Based Image Analysis for Detection of Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa (Polygonaceae in Wales (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa are amongst the most aggressive vascular plant Invasive Alien Species (IAS in the world. These taxa form dense, suppressive monocultures and are persistent, pervasive invaders throughout the more economically developed countries (MEDCs of the world. The current paper utilises the Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach of Definiens Imaging Developer software, in combination with very high spatial resolution (VHSR colour infra-red (CIR and visible‑band (RGB aerial photography in order to detect Japanese Knotweed s.l. taxa in Wales (UK. An algorithm was created using Definiens in order to detect these taxa, using variables found to effectively distinguish them from landscape and vegetation features. The results of the detection algorithm were accurate, as confirmed by field validation and desk‑based studies. Further, these results may be incorporated into Geographical Information Systems (GIS research as they are readily transferable as vector polygons (shapefiles. The successful detection results developed within the Definiens software should enable greater management and control efficacy. Further to this, the basic principles of the detection process could enable detection of these taxa worldwide, given the (relatively limited technical requirements necessary to conduct further analyses.

  3. Combining strong lensing and dynamics in galaxy clusters: integrating MAMPOSSt within LENSTOOL. I. Application on SL2S J02140-0535

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, T.; Limousin, M.; Motta, V.; Mamon, G. A.; Foëx, G.; Gastaldello, F.; Jullo, E.; Biviano, A.; Rojas, K.; Muñoz, R. P.; Cabanac, R.; Magaña, J.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Adame, L.; De Leo, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The mass distribution in galaxy clusters and groups is an important cosmological probe. It has become clear in recent years that mass profiles are best recovered when combining complementary probes of the gravitational potential. Strong lensing (SL) is very accurate in the inner regions, but other probes are required to constrain the mass distribution in the outer regions, such as weak lensing or studies of dynamics. Aims: We constrain the mass distribution of a cluster showing gravitational arcs by combining a strong lensing method with a dynamical method using the velocities of its 24 member galaxies. Methods: We present a new framework in which we simultaneously fit SL and dynamical data. The SL analysis is based on the LENSTOOL software and the dynamical analysis uses the MAMPOSSt code, which we integrated into LENSTOOL. After describing the implementation of this new tool, we applied it to the galaxy group SL2S J02140-0535 (zspec = 0.44), which we had previously studied. We used new VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy of multiple images and group members, as well as shallow X-ray data from XMM. Results: We confirm that the observed lensing features in SL2S J02140-0535 belong to different background sources. One of these sources is located at zspec = 1.017 ± 0.001, whereas the other source is located at zspec = 1.628 ± 0.001. With the analysis of our new and our previously reported spectroscopic data, we find 24 secure members for SL2S J02140-0535. Both data sets are well reproduced by a single NFW mass profile; the dark matter halo coincides with the peak of the light distribution, with scale radius, concentration, and mass equal to rs = 82+44-17 kpc, c200 = 10.0+1.7-2.5, and M200 = 1.0+0.5-0.2 × 1014 M⊙ respectively. These parameters are better constrained when we fit SL and dynamical information simultaneously. The mass contours of our best model agrees with the direction defined by the luminosity contours and the X-ray emission of SL2S J02140-0535. The

  4. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  5. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of Levo 2.4 Sl against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored cowpea grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osekre, E. A.; Abrahamani, J.; Abudu, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and non-target organisms have necessitated the exploration of other safer and equally effective pesticides for the management of pests. The efficacy of Levo 2.4 SL (Oxymatrine 2.4 SL; Prosular oxamatrine a. i.), a botanical, against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infestation on stored cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) (Walp.) was investigated in the insectary of the Entomology Section of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The effects of Levo on the adult mortality, ovipoistion and F1 progeny of the insect were evaluated. Thus 200 g of cowpea grains were treated with three dosages; 0.01 ml, 0.02 ml and 0.03 ml of Levo 2.4 SL. Betallic Supper 2.5 EC (Primophos methyl and Permethrin a. i.) was used as a check and a control (untreated grains) was also maintained. The mean number of eggs laid and the number of F1 adults that emerged were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the Levo treated grains than the control. The higher dosages of Levo 2.4 SL were more effective against C. maculatus infestation and damage. At the end of four months of storage, Levo at all the dosages offered complete protection to the cowpea grains. Levo 2.4 SL at a dosage of 0.02 ml is considered the right dosage that can give optimum protection to cowpea grains against C. maculatus. (au)

  7. Characterization of a Novel Subgroup of Extracellular Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerases from Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Prieto, María Auxiliadora; de la Mata, Isabel; Llama, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen medium-chain-length (mcl) poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-degrading microorganisms were isolated from natural sources. From them, seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were identified. The ability of these microorganisms to hydrolyze other biodegradable plastics, such as short-chain-length (scl) PHA, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), and poly(l-lactide) (PLA), has been studied. On the basis of the great ability to degrade different polyesters, Streptomyces roseolus SL3 was selected, and its extracellular depolymerase was biochemically characterized. The enzyme consisted of one polypeptide chain of 28 kDa with a pI value of 5.2. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.5 with chromogenic substrates. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed mcl PHA and PCL but not scl PHA, PES, and PLA. Moreover, the mcl PHA depolymerase can hydrolyze various substrates for esterases, such as tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-alkanoates, with its maximum activity being measured with pNP-octanoate. Interestingly, when poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [11%]) was used as the substrate, the main hydrolysis product was the monomer (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate. In addition, the genes of several Actinobacteria strains, including S. roseolus SL3, were identified on the basis of the peptide de novo sequencing of the Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 mcl PHA depolymerase by tandem mass spectrometry. These enzymes did not show significant similarity to mcl PHA depolymerases characterized previously. Our results suggest that these distinct enzymes might represent a new subgroup of mcl PHA depolymerases. PMID:22865072

  8. On the fusion in SL(2)-WZNW models and 6j symbols of U{sub q}sl(2) x U{sub q'}osp(1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Jens

    2010-06-15

    We introduce a novel method to determine 6j-symbols of quantum groups. This method is inspired by the methods used in the determination of fusing matrices of WZNW models. With this method we determine the 6j-symbols of the quantum group U{sub q}sl(2) and the super quantum group U{sub q}osp(1 vertical stroke 2). We present the 6j-symbols as a recurrence relation and its initial values. The 6j-symbols transform between the s-channel and the u-channel decomposition of the invariants of the four-fold tensor product of modules of a quantum group. These invariants fulfil certain difference equations. We set one of the representations in the invariant to the fundamental representation, and deduce a system of linear equations for the initial values of the recurrence relation determining the 6j-symbols. (orig.)

  9. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  10. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein) Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Laura; Thoonen, Anneleen; Slenders, Eli; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arnauts, Natascha; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Kohler, Annegret; Ruytinx, Joske; Colpaert, Jan V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus , a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein) family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus . Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  11. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace 3 H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary 3 H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting 3 H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit 3 H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  13. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  14. Effect of SL25 on radiogenic xerostomia in the radiotherapy of tumors in the region of neck and face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenstein, E.; Mueller, R.; Reinhard, H.J.; Kali-Chemie A.G., Hannover; Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover

    1978-01-01

    The radiogenic xerostomia often poses problems to the radiotherapeutist because this symptom can become so severe that treatment has to be interrupted or in some cases even stopped. The therapeutic success can become uncertain because of such deviations from the irradiation scheme. Because of promising observations reported in literature, we have examined the stimulating effect on the salivation produced by the test preparation SL25 from Kali-Chemie Pharma GmbH in Hannover. A double blindfold test was made. Only three out of fourteen patients (22%) in the active substance group declared to feel a relief of the xerostomia, whereas in the control group five out of twenty patients (25%) felt this relief. (orig.) [de

  15. Fast and slow neutrons in an 18-MV photon beam from a Philips SL/75-20 linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Rosen, J.C.; Bukovitz, A.G.; Gill, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast- and slow-neutron contamination in an 18-MV photon beam from a Philips SL/75-20 linear accelerator has been measured. Aluminum and indium foils were activated to determine fast- and slow-neutron fluence, which were largely independent of field sizes. Measured fast-neutron fluences were typically 13.9 x 10 4 and 4.4 x 10 4 neutrons/cm 2 /rad of x ray inside and 5 cm outside the field, respectively. Slow-neutron fluences, 1.3 x 10 4 neutrons/cm 2 /rad of x ray, remained relatively constant inside and outside the field. The reported results are about three times higher than neutron fluences recently reported with a betatron operated at the same energy

  16. Monte-Carlo simulation of the SL-ELEKTA-20 medical linear accelerator. Dosimetric study of a water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, Ch. O.

    2003-06-01

    In radiotherapy, it is essential to have a precise knowledge of the dose delivered in the target volume and the neighbouring critical organs. To be usable clinically, the models of calculation must take into account the exact characteristics of the beams used and the densities of fabrics. Today we can use sophisticated irradiation techniques and get a more precise assessment of the dose and with a better knowledge of its distribution. Thus in this report, will be detailed a simulation of the head of irradiation of accelerator SL-ELEKTA-20 in electrons mode and a dosimetric study of a water phantom. This study is carried out with the code of simulation Monte Carlo GATE adapted for applications of medical physics; the results are compared with the data obtained by the anticancer center 'Jean Perrin' on a similar accelerator. (author)

  17. A Study of Subseasonal Predictability of the Atmospheric Circulation Low-frequency Modes based on SL-AV forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, Ekaterina; Kulikova, Irina; Khan, Valentina; Tischenko, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The subseasonal predictability of low-frequency modes and the atmospheric circulation regimes is investigated based on the using of outputs from global Semi-Lagrangian (SL-AV) model of the Hydrometcentre of Russia and Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russian Academy of Science. Teleconnection indices (AO, WA, EA, NAO, EU, WP, PNA) are used as the quantitative characteristics of low-frequency variability to identify zonal and meridional flow regimes with focus on control distribution of high impact weather patterns in the Northern Eurasia. The predictability of weekly and monthly averaged indices is estimated by the methods of diagnostic verification of forecast and reanalysis data covering the hindcast period, and also with the use of the recommended WMO quantitative criteria. Characteristics of the low frequency variability have been discussed. Particularly, it is revealed that the meridional flow regimes are reproduced by SL-AV for summer season better comparing to winter period. It is shown that the model's deterministic forecast (ensemble mean) skill at week 1 (days 1-7) is noticeably better than that of climatic forecasts. The decrease of skill scores at week 2 (days 8-14) and week 3( days 15-21) is explained by deficiencies in the modeling system and inaccurate initial conditions. It was noticed the slightly improvement of the skill of model at week 4 (days 22-28), when the condition of atmosphere is more determined by the flow of energy from the outside. The reliability of forecasts of monthly (days 1-30) averaged indices is comparable to that at week 1 (days 1-7). Numerical experiments demonstrated that the forecast accuracy can be improved (thus the limit of practical predictability can be extended) through the using of probabilistic approach based on ensemble forecasts. It is shown that the quality of forecasts of the regimes of circulation like blocking is higher, than that of zonal flow.

  18. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  19. Manipulating the stride length/stride velocity relationship of walking using a treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing in non-disabled older individuals. A short-term feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikema, D J A; Forrester, L W; Whitall, J

    2014-09-01

    One target for rehabilitating locomotor disorders in older adults is to increase mobility by improving walking velocity. Combining rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) and treadmill training permits the study of the stride length/stride velocity ratio (SL/SV), often reduced in those with mobility deficits. We investigated the use of RAC to increase velocity by manipulating the SL/SV ratio in older adults. Nine participants (6 female; age: 61.1 ± 8.8 years) walked overground on a gait mat at preferred and fast speeds. After acclimatization to comfortable speed on a treadmill, participants adjusted their cadence to match the cue for 3 min at 115% of preferred speed by either (a) increasing stride length only or (b) increasing stride frequency only. Following training, participants walked across the gait mat at preferred velocity without, and then with, RAC. Group analysis determined no immediate overground velocity increase, but reintroducing RAC did produce an increase in velocity after both conditions. Group and single subject analysis determined that the SL/SV ratio changed in the intended direction only in the stride length condition. We conclude that RAC is a powerful organizer of gait parameters, evidenced by its induced after-effects following short duration training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams (ECLOUD'02) organized by the SL Accelerator Physics Group at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the SL Accelerator Physics group at CERN from 15 to 18 April 2002. More than 60 participants from 17 institutes reflect the great worldwide interest in the electron-cloud phenomenon, which presently limits the performance of several storage rings and has become a concern for the LHC.

  1. Progress on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) infrared photodetector : from MWIR to VLWIR spectral domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christol, P.; Rodriguez, J.-B.

    2017-11-01

    Infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material has been given a lot of attention this past decade, in particular by U.S. laboratories. Among the advantages of this material system, one can cite the possibility to span a large Infrared (IR) range (3μm to 30 μm) by tailoring the band-gap independently from the lattice constant, allowing addressing many applications by the same fabrication process and the realization of multi-color IR sensors for high performance imaging systems. Recently, the maturity of the growth of the quantum structure by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and progress on the processing resulted in the demonstration of high-performance mega-pixel focal plane arrays (FPA) in both the mid-wavelength (MWIR) and the long-wavelength (LWIR) infrared spectral bands [1]. Consequently, InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetector can be now considered as a new infrared technology which can be complementary to InSb, MCT or QWIPs technologies. After some reminders on InAs/GaSb T2SL quantum structure properties, we present in this communication the results obtained by the IES laboratory, from Montpellier University, France, for photodiodes operating in the MWIR spectral domains. We then complete the paper by the main results reached by others laboratories for T2SL detectors operating from MWIR to VLWIR spectral ranges.

  2. RESPON MASYARAKAT DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DARI PROGRAM SL-PTT PADI NON HIBRIDA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI SELATAN PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Normanita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the productivity of rice through the approach of Sekolah Lapang Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (SL-PTT is one of the strategies that is expected to provide a greater contribution to the national rice production. Based on the results of research, the public response to the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice in Hulu Sungai Selatan was in the high category (85.71%. Factors affecting the public response to the program were the information, the field guides, the assistance component whereas those having no effects to the public response were the education, the practice, and the application of PTT. The environmental impact of the program of SLPTT Non Hybrid Rice was positive in the economic aspect, which could create welfare for farmers implementing the program. The Social aspect giving a positve impact was  through the transmission of technology adoption that could be applied to non-rice farmers who lived around the area of SL-PTT. The negative impact was the social jealousy among the people who could all not get involved in the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice.

  3. New Genome Sequence of an Echinaceapurpurea Endophyte, Arthrobacter sp. Strain EpSL27, Able To Inhibit Human-Opportunistic Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Elisangela; Presta, Luana; Maggini, Valentina; Fondi, Marco; Bosi, Emanuele; Chiellini, Carolina; Fagorzi, Camilla; Bogani, Patrizia; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Perrin, Elena; Fani, Renato

    2017-06-22

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. strain EpSL27, isolated from the stem and leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea and able to inhibit human-pathogenic bacterial strains. The genome sequencing of this strain may lead to the identification of genes involved in the production of antimicrobial molecules. Copyright © 2017 Miceli et al.

  4. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Welke soort rood zwenkgras (Festuca rubra s.l.) komt voor in de jonge kustduinen van Voorne en die van overig Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heeres, Els

    1972-01-01

    By common consent two taxa of Festuca rubra s.l. occur in sandy outer dunes along the N.W. European coasts. Festuca juncifolia St. Amans is considered to be a typical grass of Ammophiladunes. Festuca rubra subsp. arenaria (Osb.) Richt. could be found on almost fixed dunes. The only usable character

  6. The spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain, the quantum algebra Uq[sl(2)], and duality transformations for minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Uwe; Schuetz, Gunter

    1992-09-01

    The finite-size spectra of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain with toroidal boundary conditions and an even number of sites provide a projection mechanism yielding the spectra of models with central charge c q [sl(2)] quantum algebra transformations. (author)

  7. Insecticide resistance status of three malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis, from the south, central and east coasts of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoson, Jean-Desire; Fornadel, Christen M; Belemvire, Allison; Norris, Laura C; George, Kristen; Caranci, Angela; Lucas, Bradford; Dengela, Dereje

    2017-08-23

    Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) also was assessed. Molecular analyses were done to identify species and determine the presence of knock-down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase resistance (ace-1 R ) gene mutations. Anopheles funestus and An. mascarensis were fully susceptible to permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was fully susceptible to bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Among the 17 An. gambiae (s.l.) populations tested for deltamethrin, no confirmed resistance was recorded, but suspected resistance was observed in two sites. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was resistant to permethrin in four out of 18 sites (mortality 68-89%) and to alpha-cypermethrin (89% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (80% and 85%) in one of 17 sites, using one or both assay methods. Pre-exposure to PBO restored full susceptibility to all pyrethroids tested except in one site where only partial restoration to permethrin was observed. DEF

  8. Does the Early Adopter of Drugs Exist? A Population Based Study of General Practitioners’ Prescribing of New Drugs.20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Søndergaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158......20 th International Conference on Pharmacoepiemiology and Risk Management. Bordeaux, France. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2004;13:Sl 1:158...

  9. The Actual Stage of Potential Development Regarding the Tourism in Slănic Moldova Resort, Bacău County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ovidiu Cristian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the concept of tourism potential, which includes all natural and human tourism resources which generate various forms of tourism. Slănic Moldova town is in a great development, being sustained by the glorious oldtime image: ”Moldova‟s Pearl”. The recent accomplishments, the implementation projects and the short and medium time investment programs aim not only to affirm the resort at a regional level, but to transform it in to an authentic “Romanian tourism pearl”. Developing Slănic Moldova town will aim to develop its natural resources. For the years to come, it is willing to sustain a long-lasting economy especially based on touristic services at a European level, but also on diversifying the local economic activities, in respect for the nature and permanent environment preoccupation. In order to reach certain values the contribution of all factors that can determine the town‟s socio-economic development are needed: the local community and the local‟s support, keeping the environment intact and not the least increasing the number of tourists. Slănic Moldova will be one of the main touristic balneoclimatheric mountain destinations in Romania having a diverse and attractive touristic offer during the entire year, high quality touristic services, in an exceptional, pollution free, natural environment. Slănic Moldova will pass through an essential stage of its development, in which the national and external touristic context will be redefined. Being guided by the reputation of „Moldova‟s Pearl”, Slănic Moldova will develop its mineral waters and great natural environment extraordinary potential, thus becoming the great „pearl of Romanian tourism”.

  10. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  11. A comparative study of mutation screening of sarcomeric genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TNNT2 using single gene approach versus targeted gene panel next generation sequencing in a cohort of HCM patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: NGS enables simultaneous sequencing of large numbers of associated genes in genetic heterogeneous disorders, in a more rapid and cost-effective manner than traditional technologies. However there have been limited direct comparisons between NGS and more established technologies to assess the sensitivity and false negative rates of this new approach. The scope of the present manuscript is to compare variants detected in MYBPC3, MYH7 and TNNT2 genes using the stepwise dHPLC/Sanger versus targeted NGS. Methods: In this study, we have analysed a group of 150 samples of patients from the Bibliotheca Alexandrina-Aswan Heart Centre National HCM program. The genetic testing was simultaneously undertaken by high throughput denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC followed by Sanger based sequencing and targeted next generation deep sequencing using panel of inherited cardiac genes (ICC. The panel included over 100 genes including the 3 sarcomeric genes. Analysis of the sequencing data of the 3 genes was undertaken in a double blinded strategy. Results: NGS analysis detected all pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants identified by dHPLC (50 in total, some samples had double hits. There was a 0% false negative rate for NGS based analysis. Nineteen variants were missed by dHPLC and detected by NGS, thus increasing the diagnostic yield in this co- analysed cohort from 22.0% (33/150 to 31.3% (47/150.Of interest to note that the mutation spectrum in this Egyptian HCM population revealed a high rate of homozygosity in MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes in comparison to other population studies (6/150, 4%. None of the homozygous samples were detected by dHPLC analysis. Conclusion: NGS provides a useful and rapid tool to allow panoramic screening of several genes simultaneously with a high sensitivity rate amongst genes of known etiologic role allowing high throughput analysis of HCM patients and relevant control series in a less characterised

  12. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  13. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  14. Thermal degradation of a synthetic lube oil API SL/CF SAE 5W 40; Degradacao termica do oleo lubrificante sintetico API SL/CF SAE 5W 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Eddy H. de O.; Carvalho, Laura H. de; Silva, Everson de L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the thermal degradation to 210 deg C of lubricating oil synthetic API SL/CF SAE 5W 40 as received and on the presence of metallic particles, from engine parts (head and crankshaft). Samples were collected at various intervals of time. The metallic particles were spent in mesh sieve no. 200 (0.074 mm) and used both in the trials of characterization (EDX and SEM) as the thermal degradation of the oil. Changes in rheology, viscosity, density, color and FTIR were monitored over time of heat exposure. The results indicate that thermal exposure caused by thermal oxidation of synthetic oil and that the presence of metallic particles (10 ppm) accelerated this process, so it is suggested that during the exchange of oil are taken care to remove them from to prevent the premature deterioration of the new oil. The behaviour Newtonian was maintained throughout the period degradation and viscosity of the oil has not changed significantly even after long periods (1148 hours) of thermal exposure. Despite the density of oil also has not changed significantly with time of exposure, changes in color indicate that chemical changes occurred, which was detected by FTIR. (author)

  15. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  16. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  17. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  18. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  19. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  20. Black hole physics from two-dimensional dilaton gravity based on the SL(2,R)/U(1) coset model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, S.; Oda, I.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the quantum two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, which is described by the SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten model deformed by a (1,1) operator. We show that the curvature singularity does not appear when the central charge c matter of the matter fields is given by 22 matter matter matter ∝δ(x + -x 0 + ), create a kind of wormholes, i.e., causally disconnected regions. Most of the quantum information in past null infinity is lost in future null infinity but the lost information would be carried by the wormholes. We also discuss the problem of defining the mass of quantum black holes. On the basis of the argument by Regge and Teitelboim, we show that the ADM mass measured by the observer who lives in one of the asymptotically flat regions is finite and does not vanish in general. On the other hand, the Bondi mass is ill defined in this model. Instead of the Bondi mass, we consider the mass measured by observers who live in an asymptotically flat region at first. A class of observers finds the mass of the black hole created by a shock wave changes as the observers' proper time goes by, i.e., they observe Hawking radiation. The measured mass vanishes after the infinite proper time and the black hole evaporates completely. Therefore the total Hawking radiation is positive even when N<24

  1. The sl (2 n|2 n) (1) super-Toda lattices and the heavenly equations as continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Popowicz, Ziemowit; Toppan, Francesco.

    2005-04-01

    The n → ∞ continuum limit of super-Toda models associated with the affine sl (2 n|2 n) (1) (super)algebra series produces (2 + 1)-dimensional integrable equations in the S 1 versus R 2 spacetimes. The equations of motion of the (super)Toda hierarchies depend not only on the chosen (super)algebras but also on the specific presentation of their Cartan matrices. Four distinct series of integrable hierarchies in relation with symmetric-versus-antisymmetric, null-versus-non null presentations of the corresponding Cartan matrices are investigated. In the continuum limit we derive four classes of integrable equations of heavenly type, generalizing the results previously obtained in the literature. The systems are manifestly N = 1 supersymmetric and, for specific choices of the Cartan matrix preserving the complex structure, admit a hidden N = 2 supersymmetry. The coset reduction of the (super)-heavenly equation to the I versus R (2) (S 1 /Z 2 ) versus R 2 spacetime (with I a line segment) is illustrated. Finally, integrable N = 2,4 super symmetrically extended models in (1 + 1) dimensions are constructed through dimensional reduction of the previous systems. (author)

  2. Familial placement and relations of Rehmannia and Triaenophora (Scrophulariaceae s.l.) inferred from five gene regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Wang, Yin-Zheng; Smith, James F

    2009-02-01

    Accurate classification systems based on evolution are imperative for biological investigations. The recent explosion of molecular phylogenetics has resulted in a much improved classification of angiosperms. More than five phylogenetic lineages have been recognized from Scrophulariaceae sensu lato since the family was determined to be polyphyletic; however, questions remain about the genera that have not been assigned to one of the segregate families of Scrophulariaceae s.l. Rehmannia Liboschitz and Triaenophora Solereder are such genera with uncertain familial placement. There also is debate whether Triaenophora should be segregated from Rehmannia. To evaluate the phylogenetic relations between Rehmannia and Triaenophora, to find their closest relatives, and to verify their familial placement, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of one nuclear DNA (ITS) region and four chloroplast DNA gene regions (trnL-F, rps16, rbcL, and rps2) individually and combined. The analyses showed that Rehmannia and Triaenophora are each strongly supported as monophyletic and together are sister to Orobanchaceae. This relation was corroborated by phytochemical and morphological data. Based on these data, we suggest that Rehmannia and Triaenophora represent the second nonparasitic branch sister to the remainder of Orobanchaceae (including Lindenbergia).

  3. Acid phosphatase patterns in microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. from the Upper Orinoco Basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzàbal, L; Petralanda, I; Arango, M; Lobo, L; Botto, C

    1983-06-01

    The patterns of acid phosphatase in strains of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. which parasitize an Amerindian population (Yanomami) in Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin were examined by using the naphthol AS-TR phosphate method. The study sample consisted of 40 Yanomami inhabiting a savannah area at 950 m above sea level and 21 Yanomami residents of a tropical rainforest area at an altitude of 250 m. Stained intrauterine microfilariae, still within the egg case, exhibited a diffuse distribution of the enzyme in the early stages of embryonic development and a negative reaction at a more developed stage. Four of the five enzyme staining patterns described by Omar (1978) were found in the 3157 microfilariae examined from skin snips. Their distribution was: Type I--17.2%, Type III--0.5%, Type IV--75.6% and Type V--6.6%. No examples of Type II were observed. The results indicate that acid phosphatase patterns of the Upper Orinoco Onchocerca strain most resemble those of strains from Guatemala and Yemen, and are different from the African strains found in Upper Volta and Liberia. The relative frequency of acid phosphatase patterns was modified by cryopreservation of microfilariae.

  4. [Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Morphometric analysis of the anterior chamber segment with SL-OCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birner, B; Tourtas, T; Wessel, J M; Jünemann, A G; Mardin, C Y; Kruse, F E; Laemmer, R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze if anterior chamber parameters are risk factors for the development of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and/or for the conversion to pigmentary glaucoma (PG). This study included a total of 63 eyes from 35 patients with PDS and PG and 65 eyes from 49 unaffected volunteers as the control group. The following parameters were measured by slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT): anterior chamber volume (ACV) and depth (ACD), angle opening distance (AOD) and the trabecular iris space area (TISA) at 500 µm and 750 μm from the scleral spur. Comparisons between the following groups were performed: between the PDS/PG and the control group, between PDS and PG and between male and female patients. The results of ACV, ACD, AOD and TISA were significantly higher in PDS/PG patients when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between PDS and PG. The gender-specific comparison also showed no significant differences. Significantly higher anterior chamber parameters are a possible risk factor for development of PDS; however, a higher risk of conversion to PG does not seem to correlate with increased anterior chamber parameters. The parameters of the anterior chamber are apparently not associated with the male predominance of PDS and PG.

  5. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  6. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  7. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  8. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  9. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  10. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  11. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  12. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  13. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  14. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  15. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  16. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  17. Measurement of the flavour-specific $CP$-violating asymmetry $a_{\\rm sl}^s$ in $B_s^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating asymmetry $a_{sl}^s$ is studied using semileptonic decays of $B_s^0$ and anti-$B_s^0$ mesons produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC, exploiting a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0fb$^-1$. The reconstructed final states are $D_s^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$, with the $D_s^{\\pm}$ particle decaying in the $\\phi\\pi^{\\pm}$ mode. The $D_s^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ yields are summed over anti-$B_s^0$ and $B_s^0$ initial states, and integrated with respect to decay time. Data-driven methods are used to measure efficiency ratios. We obtain $a_{sl}^s$ = (-0.06 $\\pm$ 0.50 $\\pm$ 0.36)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  18. Clinical significance of determination of serum L-2, SL-2R and TNF-α levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum L-2, SL-2R and TNF-α were significantly higher -α levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis. Methods: Serum L-2, TNF 2R (with ELISA) levels in 42 patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis were measured, and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of SL-2R and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis than those in controls (P < 0.01), but serum L-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic-2 nephrosis and monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful to the management of the diseases. (authors)

  19. SL(2, Z) invariant rotating (m, n) strings in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} with mixed flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, M.S.P.; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Physics, Kharagpur (India); Khouchen, Malak; Kluson, Josef [Masaryk University, Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    We study rigidly rotating and pulsating (m, n) strings in AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} with mixed three form flux. The AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background with mixed three form flux is obtained in the near horizon limit of SL(2, Z)-transformed solution, corresponding to the bound state of NS5-branes and fundamental strings. We study the probe (m, n)-string in this background by solving the manifest SL(2, Z)-covariant form of the action. We find the dyonic giant magnon and single spike solutions corresponding to the equations of motion of a probe string in this background and find various relationships among the conserved charges. We further study a class of pulsating (m, n) string in AdS{sub 3} with mixed three form flux. (orig.)

  20. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  1. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  2. SlLAX1 is Required for Normal Leaf Development Mediated by Balanced Adaxial and Abaxial Pavement Cell Growth in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, Sri Imriani; Yano, Ryoichi; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ichino, Takuji; Kojima, Mikiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Leaves are the major plant organs with a primary function for photosynthesis. Auxin controls various aspects of plant growth and development, including leaf initiation, expansion and differentiation. Unique and intriguing auxin features include its polar transport, which is mainly controlled by the AUX1/LAX and PIN gene families as influx and efflux carriers, respectively. The role of AUX1/LAX genes in root development is well documented, but the role of these genes in leaf morphogenesis remains unclear. Moreover, most studies have been conducted in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, while studies in tomato are still scarce. In this study, we isolated six lines of the allelic curly leaf phenotype 'curl' mutants from a γ-ray and EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenized population. Using a map-based cloning strategy combined with exome sequencing, we observed that a mutation occurred in the SlLAX1 gene (Solyc09g014380), which is homologous to an Arabidopsis auxin influx carrier gene, AUX1 (AtAUX1). Characterization of six alleles of single curl mutants revealed the pivotal role of SlLAX1 in controlling tomato leaf flatness by balancing adaxial and abaxial pavement cell growth, which has not been reported in tomato. Using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genome) technology, we isolated an additional mutant allele of the SlLAX1 gene and this mutant showed a curled leaf phenotype similar to other curl mutants, suggesting that Solyc09g014380 is responsible for the curl phenotype. These results showed that SlLAX1 is required for normal leaf development mediated by balanced adaxial and abaxial pavement cell growth in tomato.

  3. Non-Abelian string and particle braiding in topological order: Modular SL (3 ,Z ) representation and (3 +1 ) -dimensional twisted gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-01-01

    String and particle braiding statistics are examined in a class of topological orders described by discrete gauge theories with a gauge group G and a 4-cocycle twist ω4 of G 's cohomology group H4(G ,R /Z ) in three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time (3 +1 D ) . We establish the topological spin and the spin-statistics relation for the closed strings and their multistring braiding statistics. The 3 +1 D twisted gauge theory can be characterized by a representation of a modular transformation group, SL (3 ,Z ) . We express the SL (3 ,Z ) generators Sx y z and Tx y in terms of the gauge group G and the 4-cocycle ω4. As we compactify one of the spatial directions z into a compact circle with a gauge flux b inserted, we can use the generators Sx y and Tx y of an SL (2 ,Z ) subgroup to study the dimensional reduction of the 3D topological order C3 D to a direct sum of degenerate states of 2D topological orders Cb2 D in different flux b sectors: C3 D=⊕bCb2 D . The 2D topological orders Cb2 D are described by 2D gauge theories of the group G twisted by the 3-cocycle ω3 (b ), dimensionally reduced from the 4-cocycle ω4. We show that the SL (2 ,Z ) generators, Sx y and Tx y, fully encode a particular type of three-string braiding statistics with a pattern that is the connected sum of two Hopf links. With certain 4-cocycle twists, we discover that, by threading a third string through two-string unlink into a three-string Hopf-link configuration, Abelian two-string braiding statistics is promoted to non-Abelian three-string braiding statistics.

  4. (NS5-brane, D5-brane, D3-brane) bound state, open D3-brane, open D5-brane limits, and SL(2,Z) duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indranil; Roy, Shibaji

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the nonthreshold bound state in type IIB supergravity of the form (NS5-brane, D5-brane, D3-brane) constructed by the present authors [J. High Energy Phys. 02, 026 (2001)] to a nonzero asymptotic value of the axion (χ 0 ). We identify the decoupling limits corresponding to both the open D3-brane theory and open D5-brane theory for this supergravity solution as expected. However, we do not find any noncommutative Yang-Mills theory (NCYM) limit for this solution in the presence of NS5-branes. We then study the SL(2,Z) duality symmetry of type IIB theory for both open D3-brane (OD3) limit and open D5-brane (OD5) limit. We find that for OD3 theory, a generic SL(2,Z) duality always gives another OD3 theory irrespective of the value of χ 0 being rational or not. This indicates that OD3 theory is self-dual. But, under a special set of SL(2,Z) transformations for which χ 0 is rational, OD3 theory goes over to a (5+1)-dimensional NCYM theory and these two theories in this case are related to each other by strong-weak duality symmetry. On the other hand, for OD5 theory, a generic SL(2,Z) duality gives another OD5 theory if χ 0 is irrational, but when χ 0 is rational it gives the little string theory limit indicating that OD5 theory is S dual to the type IIB little string theory

  5. "Toore puuga kütmine on raiskamine ..." = "Att elda med sur ved är slöseri ..." : [luuletused] / Gunnar D. Hansson ; tlk. Mati Sirkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hansson, Gunnar D.

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Toore puuga kütmine on raiskamine ..." = "Att elda med sur ved är slöseri ..."; "Esimest päeva rändab tuul ..." = "Första dagen vandrar vinden ..."; "Päike tuli lähemale ..." = "Solen kom närmare ..."; "Nagu oleks kõik möödas ..." = "Som om allt vore över ..."

  6. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) compared to supportive listening (SL) for adjustment to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosweu, I; Moss-Morris, R; Dennison, L; Chalder, T; McCrone, P

    2017-10-10

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) reduces distress in multiple sclerosis, and helps manage adjustment, but cost-effectiveness evidence is lacking. An economic evaluation was conducted within a multi-centre trial. 94 patients were randomised to either eight sessions of nurse-led CBT or supportive listening (SL). Costs were calculated from the health, social and indirect care perspectives, and combined with additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) or improvement on the GHQ-12 score, to explore cost-effectiveness at 12 months. CBT had higher mean health costs (£1610, 95% CI, -£187 to 3771) and slightly better QALYs (0.0053, 95% CI, -0.059 to 0.103) compared to SL but these differences were not statistically significant. This yielded £301,509 per QALY improvement, indicating that CBT is not cost-effective according to established UK NHS thresholds. The extra cost per patient improvement on the GHQ-12 scale was £821 from the same perspective. Using a £20,000, threshold, CBT in this format has a 9% probability of being cost effective. Although subgroup analysis of patients with clinical levels of distress at baseline showed an improvement in the position of CBT compared to SL, CBT was still not cost-effective. Nurse delivered CBT is more effective in reducing distress among MS patients compared to SL, but is highly unlikely to be cost-effective using a preference-based measure of health (EQ-5D). Results from a disease-specific measure (GHQ-12) produced comparatively lower Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios, but there is currently no acceptable willingness-to-pay threshold for this measure to guide decision-making.

  7. Determination of thermal properties of Cs2Cr2O7(s,l) by high temperature Calvet calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Agarwal, R.; Roy, K.N.; Iyer, V.S.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Enthalpy increments have been determined for caesium dichromate in the temperature range 335 to 826 K using a high temperature Calvet micro calorimeter. A solid-solid transition has been observed at (620.5±1.5 K) and the melting temperature was found to be (657.0±1.0) K. The corresponding enthalpy values are 15.6±0.2) kJ/mol and 17.0±0.22) kJ/mol. The results thus obtained are utilised for the evaluation of molar heat capacities, standard entropies and free energy functions for Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s,l). The enthalpy increment values were fitted to a polynomial and can be presented by eqs. (1) to (3), respectivley: (1) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,s) (J/mol)=-6.410x10 4 +1.939x10 2 T(K)+7.441x10 -2 T(K) 2 (335 to 620.5 K), (2) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,s) (J/mol)=1.313x10 6 -4.137x10 3 T(K)+3.517T(K) 2 (620.5 to 656 K), (3) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,l) (J/mol)=-1.218x10 5 +3.890x10 2 T(K) (657 to 826 K). (orig.)

  8. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN MOLECULAR CLOUD CORE DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) IN CORONA AUSTRALIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardegree-Ullman, E.; Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Harju, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500, Piikkioe (Finland); Juvela, M.; Sipilae, O. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hotzel, S., E-mail: hardee@rpi.edu [Observatory, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-01-20

    Chemical reactions in starless molecular clouds are heavily dependent on interactions between gas phase material and solid phase dust and ices. We have observed the abundance and distribution of molecular gases in the cold, starless core DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) in Corona Australis using data from the Swedish ESO Submillimeter Telescope. We present column density maps determined from measurements of C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1, 1-0) and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0) emission features. Herschel data of the same region allow a direct comparison to the dust component of the cloud core and provide evidence for gas phase depletion of CO at the highest extinctions. The dust color temperature in the core calculated from Herschel maps ranges from roughly 10.7 to 14.0 K. This range agrees with the previous determinations from Infrared Space Observatory and Planck observations. The column density profile of the core can be fitted with a Plummer-like density distribution approaching n(r) {approx} r {sup -2} at large distances. The core structure deviates clearly from a critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere. Instead, the core appears to be gravitationally bound and to lack thermal and turbulent support against the pressure of the surrounding low-density material: it may therefore be in the process of slow contraction. We test two chemical models and find that a steady-state depletion model agrees with the observed C{sup 18}O column density profile and the observed N(C{sup 18}O) versus A{sub V} relationship.

  9. Modelling approach to evaluate safety of LILW-SL disposal in slovenia considering different waste packaging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.; Mallants, D.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories is usually demonstrated by means of a safety assessment which normally includes modelling of radionuclide release from a multi-barrier surface or deep repository to the geosphere and biosphere. The present quantitative evaluation performed emphasizes on contrasting disposal options under consideration in Slovenia and concerns siting, disposal concept (deep versus surface), and waste packaging. The assessment has identified a number of conditions that would lead to acceptable waste disposal solutions, while at the same time results also revealed options that would result in exceeding the radiological criteria. Results presented are the output of a collective effort of a Quintessa-led Consortium with SCK-CEN and Belgatom, in the framework of a recent PHARE project. The key objective of this work was to identify the preferred disposal concept and packaging option from a number of alternatives being considered by the Slovenian radioactive waste management agency (ARAO) for low and intermediate level short-lived waste (LILW-SL). The emphasis of the assessment was the consideration of several waste treatment and packaging options in an attempt to identify the minimum required containment characteristics which would result in safe disposal and the cost-benefit of additional safety measures. Waste streams for which alternative treatment and packaging solutions were developed and evaluated include decommissioning waste and NPP operational wastes containing drums with unconditioned ion exchange resins in overpacked tube type containers (TTCs). For the former the disposal options under consideration were either direct disposal of loose pieces grouted into a vault or use of high integrity containers. For the latter three options were foreseen. The first is overpacking of resin containing TTCs grouted into high integrity containers, the second option is complete treatment with hydration, neutralisation, and cementation of

  10. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  11. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  12. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  13. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  14. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  15. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  16. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  17. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  18. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  19. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  1. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  2. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  3. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Krishna Chaitanya; Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Pottem, Srinivas Rao; Pulagam, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled to form 8 simulations. After discretization, the contact stresses developed for 150 N vertical and 100 N oblique load applications were analyzed, using ABAQUS. By assessing damage initiation and shortest fatigue load on screw threads, the SL for 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cyclic loads were estimated, using fe-safe program. The obtained values were compared for influence of connection design, abutment angulation, and screw length. In straight abutment models, conical connection showed more damage (14.3%-72.3%) when compared to trilobe (10.1%-65.73%) at 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cycles for both vertical and oblique loads, whereas in angulated abutments, trilobe (16.1%-76.9%) demonstrated more damage compared to conical (13.5%-70%). Irrespective of the connection type and abutment angulation, short screws showed more percentage of damage compared to long screws. The present study suggests selecting appropriate implant-abutment connection based on the abutment angulation, as well as preferring long screws with more number of threads for effective preload retention by the screws.

  4. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  5. Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial - protocol for an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Filip M; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Płatek, Anna E; Górko, Dariusz; Ostrowski, Tomasz; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Łęgosz, Paweł; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Celejewski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is in fact a group of disease entities with different symptoms and course but a common underlying cause, i.e. atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is known to be aggravated by several cardiovascular risk factors, including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Following paper is a protocol for the Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial, which aims to describe the prevalence of OSA in PAD patients scheduled for revascularisation, and to determine the effect of OSA on the procedure outcomes. The PARADISE study is an observational cohort trial. It plans to include 200 consecutive patients hospitalised for revascularisation due to PAD. In every patient an overnight sleep study will be performed to diagnose sleep disorders. Accord¬ing to the results of the test, patients will be divided into two groups: group A - patients with OSA, and group B - patients without OSA (control group). All patients will also be screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors. In some of the patients, during surgery, a fragment of atherosclerotic plaque will be collected for further testing. Patients will be followed for one year for adverse events and end-points. Primary end-point of the study will be the failure of revascularisa¬tion defined as recurrence or new onset of the symptoms of ischaemia from the treated region, a need for re-operation or procedure revision, or recurrence of ischaemia signs on the imaging tests. The data obtained will help determine the incidence of OSA in the population of patients with PAD. The au¬thors expect to show that, as with other cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis, also in patients with PAD the incidence of undiagnosed OSA is high and its presence is associated with elevated cholesterol, inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and poor control of other cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, due to

  6. Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework

  7. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  8. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  9. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  10. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  12. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  13. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  14. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  15. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  16. Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R

    2007-01-01

    Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait

  17. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  19. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  20. Contribution in support of a Global Heritage Stone designation for the Leitha Limestone s.l. of eastern Austria because of its use in Roman times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Beatrix; Rohatsch, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Leitha Limestone s.l., which has been proposed for Global Heritage Stone listing, comprises the red algae dominated sediments of shallow water carbonate platforms distributed around the Leitha Mountains, the Ruster Hills and other parts of the Vienna Basin. In our sense it comprehends the Leithakalk faciostratotype of the Badenian regional stage along with its lateral equivalents of near shore calcareous sandstones, breccias and conglomerates. It also includes the so called detrital Leithakalk, an informal name for calcareous algae sandstones of the Sarmatian regional stage that is perhaps comparable with the Skalica Formation and finally it covers the algae strata known from the Pannonian regional stage. Thus the Leitha Limestone s.l. belongs to the middle and upper part of the Miocene, i.e. ranging from about 16 to 10 my BP. The geoscientific focus of this multidisciplinary research is on deciphering the petrological types and carbonate facies of stone monuments and building stones and on comparing them with the successions of the strata outcropping in abandoned quarries. We are recording distinguishing lithological features and collecting appropriate field samples for microscopic, petrophysical, and geochemical analysis. The results of these analyses will be used to characterise the different varieties of Leitha Limestone s.l. of the investigated stone objects, with a view to setting up a catalogue based on lithological types that could be of considerable value for restoration and conservation too. Carnuntum was the regional metropolis of the Roman province Pannonia Superior and one of the legionary camps along the Danube Limes from about 40 AD to the end of the 5th century. It is situated about 40 km east of Vienna city centre, in the present-day market-town of Petronell-Carnuntum. Most of the stone objects from Carnuntum are made of the local quarried Leitha Limestone s.l. from the Hainburg Mountains and from ancient quarries in the Leitha Mountains

  1. Length-weight relationships of fishes from South African estuaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, TD

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available .987 J. Appl. Ichthyol. 17 (2001), 46?48 #2001 Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin ISSN 0175?8659 Family Species n Size (mm SL) Min Max a b r2 Engraulidae Engraulis japonicus 8 20 46 8.156 10?7 3.680 0.968 Stolephorus holodon 62 19 79 4.196 10?6 3... represented in FishBase 99 (Froese and Pauly 1999) Family Species n Size (mm SL) Min Max a b r2 Ambassidae Ambassis gymnocephalus 96 19 56 2.613 10?5 2.987 0.979 Ambassis natalensis 99 12 72 2.837 10?5 2.964 0.984 Ambassis productus 82 27 154 2.771 10?5 3...

  2. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  3. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  4. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  5. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  6. Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.

  7. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  8. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  9. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  10. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  11. Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene

  12. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  13. The effect of the method of application and concentration of asahi sl on the response of cucumber plants to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments conducted on cucumber cv. Śremski F1, the effect was studied of short-term chilling stress on plants which had grown from seeds germinating in the solution of Asahi SL or treated with this biostimulator during the early growth period. The plants were grown in a phytotron at an air temperature of 27/22°C (day/night, using fluorescent light with FAR flux density of 220 μmol x m-2 x s-1 and with a photoperiod of 16/8. The biostimulator was applied using the following methods: a germination of seeds in 0.01% and 0.05% solution, b watering of plants twice with 0.01% or 0.05% solution, c spraying leaves with 0.3% or 0.5% solution. Plants sprayed with distilled water were the control. After 24 hours from foliar or root application of Asahi SL, one half of the plants from each experimental series was treated for a period of 3 days at a temperature of 12/6°C, with all the other growth conditions unchanged. The obtained results show that short-term chilling stress caused a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, free proline content and in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in leaves, but a decrease in the content of chlorophyll, its maximum fluorescence (Fm and quantum yield (Fv/Fm, carotenoid content, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, leaf biomass and in the activity of catalase in leaves. Foliar or root application of Asahi SL in the pre-stress period decreased the values of the traits which increased as a result of chilling or increased those which decreased. Higher concentrations of the biostimulator solutions, applied using this method, were more effective. The application of the biostimulator during seed germination did not result in significant changes in the response of plants to chilling stress.

  14. A comparison of a traditional endotracheal tube versus ETView SL in endotracheal intubation during different emergency conditions: A randomized, crossover cadaver trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszewski, Zenon; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Smereka, Jacek; Frass, Michael; Robak, Oliver; Nguyen, Bianka; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2016-11-01

    Airway management is a crucial skill essential to paramedics and personnel working in Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments: Lack of practice, a difficult airway, or a trauma situation may limit the ability of paramedics to perform direct laryngoscopy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Videoscope devices are alternatives for airway management in these situations. The ETView VivaSight SL (ETView; ETView Ltd., Misgav, Israel) is a new, single-lumen airway tube with an integrated high-resolution imaging camera. To assess if the ETView VivaSight SL can be a superior alternative to a standard endotracheal tube for intubation in an adult cadaver model, both during and without simulated CPR. ETView VivaSight SL tube was investigated via an interventional, randomized, crossover, cadaver study. A total of 52 paramedics participated in the intubation of human cadavers in three different scenarios: a normal airway at rest without concomitant chest compression (CC) (scenario A), a normal airway with uninterrupted CC (scenario B) and manual in-line stabilization (scenario C). Time and rate of success for intubation, the glottic view scale, and ease-of-use of ETView vs. sETT intubation were assessed for each emergency scenario. The median time to intubation using ETView vs. sETT was compared for each of the aforementioned scenarios. For scenario A, time to first ventilation was achieved fastest for ETView, 19.5 [IQR, 16.5-22] sec, when compared to that of sETT at 21.5 [IQR, 20-25] sec (p = .013). In scenario B, the time for intubation using ETView was 21 [IQR, 18.5-24.5] sec (p cadavers and the time to ventilation were improved with the ETView. The time to glottis view, tube insertion, and cuff block were all found to be shorter with the ETView. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02733536.

  15. Characterization of a New Pink-Fruited Tomato Mutant Results in the Identification of a Null Allele of the SlMYB12 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Investigación del mercado del vino en Guadalajara (México) para la exportación de productos de la empresa Corla S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Callejo García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: Como hemos podido ver en el título, este proyecto consiste en la realización de una investigación del mercado del vino, en especial del vino español, en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, en el estado de Jalisco. El proyecto es realizado para la empresa CORLA S.L., la cual se dedica a la distribución de vinos, licores y otros productos típicos españoles, y ahora, ya bien posicionada en la zona norte de España, pretende expandir sus fronteras y comenzar a exportar sus productos ...

  17. HUBUNGAN PENGETAHUAN TENTANG ALAT PELINDUNG TELINGA (EAR PLUG DENGAN KEPATUHAN PENGGUNAANNYA PADA PEKERJA BAGIAN TENUN DEPARTEMEN WEAVING SL PT. DAYA MANUNGGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianka Beladina Fitriyani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pada pertemuan konsultasi WHO-SEARO Intercountry Meeting, di Indonesia  bising  merupakan penyebab gangguan pendengaran ketiga terbanyak. Diperkirakan sedikitnya satu juta karyawan  terancam  bising  dan  akan  terus  meningkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan dengan kepatuhan penggunaan Alat Pelindung Telinga (Ear Plug pada Pekerja Bagian Tenun Departemen Weaving SL PT. Daya Manunggal Salatiga. Jenis penelitian ini adalah studi cross sectional. Jumlah sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 73 responden. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan sampling random sistematis. Instrumen dalam penelitian ini adalah kuesioner dan lembar observasi. Analisis data menggunakan uji chi square dengan derajat kemaknaan =0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara pengetahuan dengan kepatuhan penggunaan Alat Pelindung Telinga (ear plug pada Pekerja Bagian Tenun Departemen Weaving SL PT. Daya Manunggal Salatiga (p=0,026. Saran yang dapat direkomendasikan dari hasil penelitian adalah perusahaan untuk lebih meningkatkan kedisiplinan pada pekerja dengan memberi sanksi yang tegas pada pekerja yang tidak menggunakan alat pelindung telinga (ear plug serta lebih sering mengadakan pelatihan tentang alat pelindung diri khususnya ear plug. At the WHO-SEARO Intercountry Meeting, in Indonesia noise is the third highest cause of hearing lost. A million employees estimated threatened by noisy and will continue increase. The purpose of this study was to know the relationship between knowledge and obedience to used an ear protective equipment (ear plug for woven workers of  Weaving SL Departement in Daya Manunggal Corp Salatiga. This research was a cross sectional study. The number of samples in this study were 73 respondents. Sampling used systematic random sampling. Instruments were questionnaire and observe sheet. Data analysis using chi square test with significance level = 0.05. The results showed that there was a

  18. Self-dual continuous series of representations for U{sub q}(sl(2)) and U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2013-05-15

    We determine the Clebsch-Gordan and Racah-Wigner coefficients for continuous series of representations of the quantum deformed algebras U{sub q}(sl(2)) and U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). While our results for the former algebra reproduce formulas by Ponsot and Teschner, the expressions for the orthosymplectic algebra are new. Up to some normalization factors, the associated Racah-Wigner coefficients are shown to agree with the fusing matrix in the Neveu-Schwarz sector of N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory.

  19. A new tomato NAC (NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2) transcription factor, SlNAC4, functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Zhou, Shuang; Tu, Yun; Wang, Yi; Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a complicated development process affected by both endogenous hormonal and genetic regulators and external signals. Although the role of NOR, a member of the NAC domain family, in mediating tomato fruit ripening has been established, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore further the role of NAC transcription factors in fruit ripening, we characterized a new tomato NAC domain protein, named SlNAC4, which shows high accumulation in sepal and at the onset of fruit ripening. Various stress treatments including wounding, NaCl, dehydration and low temperature significantly increased the expression of SlNAC4. Reduced expression of SlNAC4 by RNA interference (RNAi) in tomato resulted in delayed fruit ripening, suppressed Chl breakdown and decreased ethylene synthesis mediated mainly through reduced expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes of system-2, and reduced carotenoids by alteration of the carotenoid pathway flux. Transgenic tomato fruits also displayed significant down-regulation of multiple ripening-associated genes, indicating that SlNAC4 functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening by affecting ethylene synthesis and carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, we also noted that SlNAC4 could not be induced by ethylene and may function upstream of the ripening regulator RIN and positively regulate its expression. Yeast two-hybrid assay further revealed that SlNAC4 could interact with both RIN and NOR protein. These results suggested that ethylene-dependent and -independent processes are regulated by SlNAC4 in the fruit ripening regulatory network.

  20. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...

  1. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  2. Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.

  3. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W

    2017-01-01

    Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  4. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  5. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  6. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  7. Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  8. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  9. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  10. FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S

    2017-09-01

    This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.

  11. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  12. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  13. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  14. Measurement of the flavour-specific CP-violating asymmetry a{sub sl}{sup s} in B{sub s}{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Adrover, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Albrecht, J. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Alessio, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Alexander, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ali, S. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina (Russian Federation); Alvarez Cartelle, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves, A.A. [Sezione INFN di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Amato, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amerio, S. [Sezione INFN di Padova, Padova (Italy); Amhis, Y. [LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Anderlini, L. [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Anderson, J. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Andreassen, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andrews, J.E. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    The CP-violating asymmetry a{sub sl}{sup s} is studied using semileptonic decays of B{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC, exploiting a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup −1}. The reconstructed final states are D{sub s}{sup ±}μ{sup ∓}, with the D{sub s}{sup ±} particle decaying in the ϕπ{sup ±} mode. The D{sub s}{sup ±}μ{sup ∓} yields are summed over B{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} initial states, and integrated with respect to decay time. Data-driven methods are used to measure efficiency ratios. We obtain a{sub sl}{sup s}=(−0.06±0.50±0.36)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinehart, Simon K., E-mail: simon.dinehart@okstate.ed [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haukos, David A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2125, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC{sub 50}; 48-h LC{sub 1}) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 1}) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  16. The genome sequence of Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T reveals its genetic basis for crude oil degradation and adaptation to the saline soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Nie

    Full Text Available Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T is the type strain of a novel species in the recently published novel genus Polymorphum isolated from saline soil contaminated with crude oil. It is capable of using crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source and can adapt to saline soil at a temperature of 45°C. The Polymorphum gilvum genome provides a genetic basis for understanding how the strain could degrade crude oil and adapt to a saline environment. Genome analysis revealed the versatility of the strain for emulsifying crude oil, metabolizing aromatic compounds (a characteristic specific to the Polymorphum gilvum genome in comparison with other known genomes of oil-degrading bacteria, as well as possibly metabolizing n-alkanes through the LadA pathway. In addition, COG analysis revealed Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T has significantly higher abundances of the proteins responsible for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism than the average levels found in all other genomes sequenced thus far, but lower abundances of the proteins responsible for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, defense mechanisms, and translation than the average levels. These traits support the adaptability of Polymorphum gilvum to a crude oil-contaminated saline environment. The Polymorphum gilvum genome could serve as a platform for further study of oil-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation and microbial-enhanced oil recovery in harsh saline environments.

  17. A Third-Order p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Solved by an SL(3,ℝ Lie-Group Shooting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer problem for power-law fluid can be recast to a third-order p-Laplacian boundary value problem (BVP. In this paper, we transform the third-order p-Laplacian into a new system which exhibits a Lie-symmetry SL(3,ℝ. Then, the closure property of the Lie-group is used to derive a linear transformation between the boundary values at two ends of a spatial interval. Hence, we can iteratively solve the missing left boundary conditions, which are determined by matching the right boundary conditions through a finer tuning of r∈[0,1]. The present SL(3,ℝ Lie-group shooting method is easily implemented and is efficient to tackle the multiple solutions of the third-order p-Laplacian. When the missing left boundary values can be determined accurately, we can apply the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 method to obtain a quite accurate numerical solution of the p-Laplacian.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, Simon K.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Smith, Philip N.; Anderson, Todd A.; Haukos, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC 50 ; 48-h LC 1 ) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC 50 and LC 1 ) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. - Roundup WeatherMAX may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.

  19. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  20. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  1. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation

  2. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  3. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  4. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  5. Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors

  6. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  7. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  8. Turbulence closure for mixing length theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.

  9. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  10. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  11. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  12. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  13. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  14. Geology of the Pitkäslähde spring, western Finland, and the enrichment of elements from groundwater to peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pitkäslähde spring is located in the south of Pattijoki municipality, western Finland (64°26'N, 24°47'E - basic map No. 2432 12. A peat hillock about 4 m high and 150 m in diameter has developed around the spring. The flow route of groundwater in the peat deposit has been established with redox (Eh measurements. In the course of thousands of years a large number of elements - Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, La, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y and Zn - have precipitated from groundwater and become enriched in the peat deposit adjacent to the spring; B, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sb and Sr, in contrast, have not been enriched in the peat.

  15. More on ghost condensation in Yang-Mills theory: BCS versus Overhauser effect and the breakdown of the Nakanishi-Ojima annex SL(2,R) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudal, David; Verschelde, Henri; Lemes, Vitor E.R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Sorella, Silvio P.; Picariello, Marco; Vicini, Alessandro; Gracey, John A.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the ghost condensates abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-barbc c > in Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. By combining the local composite operator formalism with the algebraic renormalization technique, we are able to give a simultaneous discussion of abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-bar b c c >, which can be seen as playing the role of the BCS, respectively Overhauser effect in ordinary superconductivity. The Curci-Ferrari gauge exhibits a global continuous symmetry generated by the Nakanishi-Ojima (NO) algebra. This algebra includes, next to the {(anti-)BRST} transformation, a SL(2,R) subalgebra. We discuss the dynamical symmetry breaking of the NO algebra through these ghost condensates. Particular attention is paid to the Landau gauge, a special case of the Curci-Ferrari gauge. (author)

  16. Using GIS techniques for surface runoff potential analysis in the Subcarpathian area between Buzãu and Slãnic rivers, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA FONTANINE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Subcarpathian area between Buzău and Slănic rivers, located in the south-eastern part of Romania, is one of the most affected areas by the torrential related phenomena. This occurs due to physical-geographical and economical-geographical factors, such as: slope, curvature profile, lithology, soil texture and land use. In order to calculate and spatially model the surface runoff potential index, these factors were integrated and worked in GIS enviroment. Each characteristic of the factors was given a bonitation score, according to the way that it influences surface runoff. By applying the methodology mainly taken after Smith (2003 [1], the Flash-Flood Potential Index was obtained, with values between 19.4 - 44.5. The highest values of the index correspond to deforestated slopes, which exceed 15º, located in Bălăneasa and Sărățel river basins.

  17. Design optimization for 25 Gbit/s DML InGaAlAs/InGaAsP/InP SL-MQW laser diode incorporating temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Cheng; Li, Xun; Xi, Yanping; Yu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a detailed carrier dynamics model for quantum well lasers is used to study the modulation bandwidth of the directly modulated strained-layer multiple quantum well (SL-MQW) laser. The active region of the directly modulated laser (DML) is optimized in terms of the number of QWs and barrier height. To compromise the device dynamic performance at different operating temperatures, we present an overall optimized design for a 25 Gbps DML under an ambient temperature ranging from 25 to 85°C. To further enhance the modulation bandwidth, we have also proposed a mixed QWs design that increases the 3 dB bandwidth by almost 44% compared to the one without undergoing optimization. The experimental results show that the 3 dB bandwidth of the optimized DML can reach 19 GHz. A clear eye diagram with a bit rate of 25 Gbps was observed at 25°C.

  18. Influence of ultraviolet ray irradiation on length of egg hatchability and on length of incubation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)

  19. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. II. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DARK AND LUMINOUS MASS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, Andrea J.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Gavazzi, Raphael; Brault, Florence

    2011-01-01

    We present a joint gravitational lensing and stellar-dynamical analysis of 11 early-type galaxies (median deflector redshift z d = 0.5) from Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey (SL2S). Using newly measured redshifts and stellar velocity dispersions from Keck spectroscopy with lens models from Paper I, we derive the total mass-density slope inside the Einstein radius for each of the 11 lenses. The average total density slope is found to be (γ') = 2.16 +0.09 -0.09 (ρ tot ∝r -γ ' ), with an intrinsic scatter of 0.25 +0.10 -0.07 . We also determine the dark matter fraction for each lens within half the effective radius, R eff /2, and find the average-projected dark matter mass fraction to be 0.42 +0.08 -0.08 with a scatter of 0.20 +0.09 -0.07 for a Salpeter initial mass function. By combining the SL2S results with those from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (median z d = 0.2) and the Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey (median z d = 0.8), we investigate cosmic evolution of γ' and find a mild trend ∂(γ')/∂z d = -0.25 +0.10 -0.12 . This suggests that the total density profile of massive galaxies has become slightly steeper over cosmic time. If this result is confirmed by larger samples, it would indicate that dissipative processes played some role in the growth of massive galaxies since z ∼ 1.

  20. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  1. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs

  2. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.

    1988-01-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained

  3. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  4. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  5. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  6. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  7. Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.

  8. Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Concept of formation length in radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The features of electromagnetic processes are considered which connected with finite size of space region in which final particles (photon, electron-positron pair) are formed. The longitudinal dimension of the region is known as the formation length. If some external agent is acting on an electron while traveling this distance the emission process can be disrupted. There are different agents: multiple scattering of projectile, polarization of a medium, action of external fields, etc. The theory of radiation under influence of the multiple scattering, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect, is presented. The probability of radiation is calculated with an accuracy up to 'next to leading logarithm' and with the Coulomb corrections taken into account. The integral characteristics of bremsstrahlung are given, it is shown that the effective radiation length increases due to the LPM effect at high energy. The LPM effect for pair creation is also presented. The multiple scattering influences also on radiative corrections in a medium (and an external field too) including the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron and the polarization tensor as well as coherent scattering of a photon in a Coulomb field. The polarization of a medium alters the radiation probability in soft part of spectrum. Specific features of radiation from a target of finite thickness include: the boundary photon emission, interference effects for thin target, multi-photon radiation. The theory predictions are compared with experimental data obtained at SLAC and CERN SPS. For electron-positron colliding beams following items are discussed: the separation of coherent and incoherent mechanisms of radiation, the beam-size effect in bremsstrahlung, coherent radiation and mechanisms of electron-positron creation

  10. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  11. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  12. Intraspecific variability of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l. in respect of developmental and chemical traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant, number of shoots per m2 (64–243 and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm. Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1, while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1, while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.

  13. Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed

  14. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  15. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkl, W.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic

  17. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  18. Telomere length maintenance--an ALTernative mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, N J; Foxon, J; Jeyapalan, J N; Mendez-Bermudez, A; Novo, C L; Williams, J; Cotton, V E

    2008-01-01

    The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanism is utilised by approximately 10% of human tumours and a higher proportion of some types of sarcomas. ALT+ cell lines and tumours show heterogeneous telomere length, extra-chromosomal circular and linear telomeric DNA, ALT associated promyelocytic bodies (APBs), a high frequency of post-replication exchanges in telomeres (designated as telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, T-SCE) and high instability at a GC-rich minisatellite, MS32 (D1S8). It is clear that there is a link between the minisatellite instability and the mechanism that underpins ALT, however currently the nature of this relationship is uncertain. Single molecule analysis of telomeric DNA from ALT+ cell lines and tumours has revealed complex telomere mutations that have not been seen in cell lines or tumours that express telomerase. These complex telomere mutations cannot be explained by T-SCE but must arise by another inter-molecular process. The break-induced replication (BIR) model that may explain the observed high frequency of T-SCE and the presence of complex telomere mutations is reviewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  20. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.